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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445648

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most extensively cultivated and used staple crops in human nutrition, while wheat bread is annually consumed in more than nine billion kilograms over the world. Consumers' purchase decisions on wheat bread are largely influenced by its nutritional and sensorial characteristics. In the last decades, metabolomics is considered an effective tool for elucidating the information on metabolites; however, the deep investigations on metabolites still remain a difficult and longtime action. This review gives emphasis on the achievements in wheat bread metabolomics by highlighting targeted and untargeted analyses used in this field. The metabolomics approaches are discussed in terms of quality, processing and safety of wheat and bread, while the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensorial and nutritional characteristics of wheat bread are pointed out. These aspects are of crucial importance in the context of new consumers' demands on healthy bakery products rich in bioactive compounds but, equally, with good sensorial acceptance. Moreover, metabolomics is a potential tool for assessing the changes in nutrient composition from breeding to processing, while monitoring and understanding the transformations of metabolites with bioactive properties, as well as the formation of compounds like toxins during wheat storage.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Metaboloma , Valor Nutritivo , Controle de Qualidade , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 380, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (C2H2-ZFPs) are one of major classes of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. Limit information about the C2H2-ZF genes hinders the molecular breeding in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). RESULTS: In this study, 457 C2H2-ZFP proteins (including 253 splice variants), which contain four types of conserved domain (named Q, M, Z, and D), could be further classified into ten subsets. They were identified to be distributed in 21 chromosomes in T. aestivum. Subset-specific motifs, like NPL-, SFP1-, DL- (EAR-like-motif), R-, PL-, L- and EK-, might make C2H2-ZFP diverse multifunction. Interestingly, NPL- and SFP1-box were firstly found to be located in C2H2-ZFP proteins. Synteny analyses showed that only 4 pairs of C2H2 family genes in T. aestivum, 65 genes in B. distachyon, 66 genes in A. tauschii, 68 genes in rice, 9 genes in Arabidopsis, were syntenic relationships respectively. It indicated that TaZFPs were closely related to genes in Poaceae. From the published transcriptome data, totally 198 of 204 TaC2H2-ZF genes have expression data. Among them, 25 TaC2H2-ZF genes were certificated to be significantly differentially expressed in 5 different organs and 15 different development stages by quantitative RT-PCR. The 18 TaC2H2-ZF genes were verified in response to heat, drought, and heat & drought stresses. According to expression pattern analysis, several TaZFPs, like Traes_5BL_D53A846BE.1, were not only highly expressed in L2DAAs, RTLS, RMS, but also endowed tolerance to drought and heat stresses, making them good candidates for molecular breeding. CONCLUSIONS: This study systematically characterized the TaC2H2-ZFPs and their potential roles in T. aestivum. Our findings provide new insights into the C2H2-ZF genes in T. aestivum as well as a foundation for further studies on the roles of TaC2H2-ZF genes in T. aestivum molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445571

RESUMO

Photosynthesis is a universal process for plant survival, and immune defense is also a key process in adapting to the growth environment. Various studies have indicated that these two processes are interconnected in a complex network. Photosynthesis can influence signaling pathways and provide both materials and energy for immune defense, while the immune defense process can also have feedback effects on photosynthesis. Pathogen infection inevitably leads to changes in photosynthesis parameters, including Pn, Gs, and Ci; biochemical materials such as SOD and CAT; signaling molecules such as H2O2 and hormones; and the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Some researchers have found that changes in photosynthesis activity are related to the resistance level of the host, the duration after infection, and the infection position (photosynthetic source or sink). Interactions between wheat and the main fungal pathogens, such as Puccinia striiformis, Blumeria graminis, and Fusarium graminearum, constitute an ideal study system to elucidate the relationship between changes in host photosynthesis and resistance levels, based on the accessibility of methods for artificially controlling infection and detecting changes in photosynthesis, the presence of multiple pathogens infecting different positions, and the abundance of host materials with various resistance levels. This review is written only from the perspective of plant pathologists, and after providing an overview of the available data, we generally found that changes in photosynthesis in the early stage of pathogen infection could be a causal factor influencing acquired resistance, while those in the late stage could be the result of resistance formation.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fotossíntese , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Triticum/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 381, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphate (Pi) deficiency severely affects crop growth and productivity, including wheat, therefore it is necessary to develop cultivars with enhanced Pi-deficiency tolerance. However, the underlying mechanism of Pi-deficiency tolerance in wheat is still elusive. Two contrasting wheat cultivars, low-Pi tolerant Kenong199 (KN199) and low-Pi sensitive Chinese Spring (CS) were used to reveal adaptations in response to Pi deficiency at the morphological, physiological, metabolic, and molecular levels. RESULTS: KN199 was more tolerant to Pi deficiency than CS with significantly increased root biomass and R/S ratio. Root traits, the total root length, total root surface area, and total root volume, were remarkably enhanced by Pi deficiency in KN199. The shoot total P and soluble Pi concentrations of KN199 were significantly higher than those of CS, but not in roots. In KN199, high Pi level in shoots is a higher priority than that in roots under Pi deficiency. It was probably due to differentially regulation in the miR399-mediated signaling network between the shoots of the two cultivars. The Pi deficiency-induced root architecture adaptation in KN199 was attributed to the regulation of the hormone-mediated signaling (ethylene, gibberellin, and jasmonates). The expression of genes associated with root development and Pi uptake was enhanced in KN199. Some primary metabolites (amino acids and organic acids) were significantly accumulated in roots of KN199 under Pi deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The low-Pi tolerant wheat cultivar KN199 possessed greater morphological and primary metabolic adaptations in roots than CS under Pi deficiency. The adaption and the underlying molecular mechanisms in wheat provide a better understanding of the Pi-deficiency tolerance and the strategies for improving Pi efficiency in wheat.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Fosfatos/deficiência , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plântula/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299468

RESUMO

Inoculation of sourdough allows the fermentation medium to be dominated by desired microorganisms, which enables determining the kinetics of the conversion of chemical compounds by individual microorganisms. This knowledge may allow the design of functional food products with health features dedicated to consumers with special needs. The aim of the study was to assess the dynamics of transformations of fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) compounds from wheat flour as well as their antioxidant activity during inoculated and spontaneous sourdough fermentation. The FODMAP content in grain products was determined by the fructan content with negligible amounts of sugars and polyols. To produce a low-FODMAP cereal product, the fermentation time is essential. The 72 h fermentation time of L. plantarum-inoculated sourdough reduced the FODMAP content by 91%. The sourdough fermentation time of at least 72 h also positively influenced the content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, regardless of the type of fermentation. The inoculation of both L. plantarum and L. casei contributed to a similar degree to the reduction in FODMAP in sourdough compared to spontaneous fermentation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Carboidratos/química , Fermentação , Lactobacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia
6.
J Plant Physiol ; 263: 153469, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252704

RESUMO

The major effect of nitrogen (N) deficiency is the inhibition on CO2 assimilation regulated by light energy absorption, transport and conversion, as well as N allocation. In this study, a yellow-green wheat mutant (Jimai5265yg) and its wild type (Jimai5265, WT) were compared between 0 mM N (N0) and 14 mM N (N14) treatments using hydroponic experiments. The mutant exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (An) than WT despite low chlorophyll (Chl) content in non-stressed conditions. The photosynthetic advantages of the mutant were maintained under N deficient condition. The quantitative analysis of limitations to photosynthesis revealed that CO2 diffusion associated with mesophyll conductance (gm) was the dominant limitation. Relative easiness to gain CO2 in the chloroplast contributed to the higher An of Jimai5265yg. N deficiency induced the photoinhibition of PSII, but the cyclic electron transport and photochemical activity of PSI was higher in Jimai5265yg compared to Jimai5265, which was a protective mechanism to avoid photodamage. Because of the sharp drop of An, N deficient seedlings had much lower photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). However, N deficiency increased the relative content of photosynthetic N (Npsn) and decreased the relative content of storage N (Nstore). The range of change in N partitioning induced by N deficiency was smaller for Jimai5265yg compared to WT. The less insensitive to N deficiency for the mutant in terms of photosynthetic property and N partitioning suggested that gm, cyclic electron transport around PSI and more optimal N partitioning pattern is necessary to sustain photosynthesis under N deficient condition.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Células do Mesofilo/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação , Fotossíntese/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101275, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273648

RESUMO

Feed costs represent a significant portion of the cost of poultry production. This study, in 3 experiments, was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a heat-stable xylanase (XYL) as a dietary supplement and its effect on digesta viscosity, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), and live performance in broiler chicks. Experiment 1: the objective was to determine the effects of the amount and type of enzyme supplementation on digesta viscosity, AMEn, and bird performance using 7 diets. The dietary treatments were: no supplementation (C), 5 levels of XYL (1 to 16 ppm), or supplementation with a carbohydrase cocktail (CC). Experiment 2: the objective was to determine the interaction of the dietary XYL and the energy content of the feed. There were 2 levels of XYL (0 and 20 ppm) and 3 dietary energy levels (2,770, 2,920, and 3,070 kcal/kg ME). Experiment 3: the objective was to determine the interaction of the dietary XYL and feed form. The treatments were: 5 levels of XYL (0 to 40 ppm) and 2 feed forms (mash and crumble). Broiler chicks were reared in battery cages to 21 d. Statistical analysis of the data was completed using Proc GLM of SAS (9.2) (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). In experiment 1, increasing XYL (0 to 16 ppm) resulted in a decrease in digesta viscosity and an increase in AMEn. The XYL included as low as 1 ppm resulted in a significant increase in AMEn which reached 5% with 16 ppm XYL. In contrast, increase in BWG (4%) above values with the basal diet was greatest with 1 ppm XYL. In experiment 2, the caloric content of the diet influenced the increase in AMEn with inclusion of XYL, 8% and 6% increases with 2,920 kcal/kg and 3,070 kcal/kg diets, respectively. Without addition of XYL, BWG was significantly lower when fed the diet with the highest energy content. In experiment 3, feed form x XYL influenced the effect of XYL on BWG. The BWG was greater when birds were fed the crumble diet with XYL vs when they were fed the mash feed with XYL. The xylanase proved effective for broilers to 21 d when fed the diets used herein with changes in digesta viscosity, increased dietary AMEn, and improved bird performance represented by either BW gain or FCR.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Temperatura Alta , Triticum/metabolismo , Viscosidade
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206953

RESUMO

Quercetin, classified as a flavonoid, is a strong antioxidant that plays a significant role in the regulation of physiological processes in plants, which is particularly important in the case of biotic and abiotic stresses. The study investigated the effect of the use of potassium quercetin solutions in various concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%) on the physiological and biochemical properties of wheat seedlings. A pot experiment was carried out in order to determine the most beneficial dose of this flavonoid acting as a bio-stimulant for wheat plants. Spraying with quercetin derivative solutions was performed twice, and physiological measurements (chlorophyll content and fluorescence as well as gas exchange) were carried out on the first and seventh days after each application. The total phenolic compounds content and the total antioxidant capacity were also determined. It was shown that the concentrations of potassium quercetin applied have a stimulating effect on the course of physiological processes. In the case of most of the tested physiological parameters (chlorophyll content and fluorescence and gas exchange) and the total antioxidant capacity, no significant differences were observed in their increase as a result of application with concentrations of 3.0 and 5.0%. Therefore, the beneficial effect of quercetin on the analysed parameters is already observed when spraying with a concentration of 3.0%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 570, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Formin, a highly conserved multi-domain protein, interacts with microfilaments and microtubules. Although specifically expressed formin genes in anthers are potentially significant in research on male sterility and hybrid wheat breeding, similar reports in wheat, especially in thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) wheat, remain elusive. RESULTS: Herein, we systematically characterized the formin genes in TGMS wheat line BS366 named TaFormins (TaFHs) and predicted their functions in inducing stress response. In total, 25 TaFH genes were uncovered, majorly localized in 2A, 2B, and 2D chromosomes. According to the neighbor-joining (NJ) method, all TaFH proteins from wheat and other plants clustered in 6 sub-groups (A-F). The modeled 3D structures of TaFH1-A/B, TaFH2-A/B, TaFH3-A/B and TaFH3-B/D were validated. And different numbers of stress and hormone-responsive regulatory elements in their 1500 base pair promoter regions were contained in the TaFH genes copies. TaFHs had specific temporal and spatial expression characteristics, whereby TaFH1, TaFH4, and TaFH5 were expressed highly in the stamen of BS366. Besides, the accumulation of TaFHs was remarkably lower in a low-temperature sterile condition (Nanyang) than fertile condition (Beijing), particularly at the early stamen development stage. The pollen cytoskeleton of BS366 was abnormal in the three stages under sterile and fertile environments. Furthermore, under different stress levels, TaFHs expression could be induced by drought, salt, abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and low temperature. Some miRNAs, including miR167, miR1120, and miR172, interacts with TaFH genes; thus, we constructed an interaction network between microRNAs, TaFHs, phytohormone responses, and distribution of cytoskeleton to reveal the regulatory association between upstream genes of TaFH family members and sterile. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this comprehensive analysis provides novel insights into TaFHs and miRNA resources for wheat breeding. These findings are, therefore, valuable in understanding the mechanism of TGMS fertility conversion in wheat.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Fertilidade/genética , Forminas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299292

RESUMO

Dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) plays an important role in response to osmotic stress. In this study, DREB2, DREB6 and Wdreb2 are isolated from wheat AK58, yet they belong to different types of DREB transcription factors. Under osmotic stress, the transcript expression of DREB2, DREB6 and Wdreb2 has tissue specificity and is generally higher in leaves, but their expression trends are different along with the increase of osmotic stress. Furthermore, some elements related to stresses are found in their promoters, promoters of DREB2 and Wdreb2 are slightly methylated, but DREB6's promoter is moderately methylated. Compared with the control, the level of promoter methylation in Wdreb2 is significantly lower under osmotic stress and is also lower at CG site in DREB2, yet is significantly higher at CHG and CHH sites in DREB2, which is also found at a CHG site in DREB6. The status of promoter methylation in DREB2, DREB6 and Wdreb2 also undergoes significant changes under osmotic stress; further analysis showed that promoter methylation of Wdreb2 is negatively correlated with their expression. Therefore, the results of this research suggest the different functions of DREB2, DREB6 and Wdreb2 in response to osmotic stress and demonstrate the effects of promoter methylation on the expression regulation of Wdreb2.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112469, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198190

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and plays a crucial role in copper (Cu) detoxification. Nonetheless, its regulatory mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, we identified a Cu-induced glutathione S-transferase 1 (TaGST1) gene in wheat. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) screened out TaWRKY74, which was one member from the WRKY transcription factor family. The bindings between TaGST1 promoter and TaWRKY74 were further verified by using another Y1H and luciferase assays. Expression of TaWRKY74 was induced more than 30-folds by Cu stress. Functions of TaWRKY74 were tested by using transiently silence methods. In transiently TaWRKY74-silenced wheat plants, TaWRKY74 and TaGST1 expression, GST activity, and GSH content was significantly inhibited by 25.68%, 19.88%, 27.66%, and 12.68% in shoots, and 53.81%, 52.11%, 23.47%, and 17.11% in roots, respectively. However, contents of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, or Cu were significantly increased by 2.58%, 12.45%, or 37.74% in shoots, and 25.24%, 53.84%, and 103.99% in roots, respectively. Notably, exogenous application of GSH reversed the adverse effects of transiently TaWRKY74-silenced wheat plants during Cu stress. Taken together, our results suggesting that TaWRKY74 regulated TaGST1 expression and affected GSH accumulation under Cu stress, and could be useful to ameliorate Cu toxicity for crop food safety.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Leveduras/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299329

RESUMO

The low-molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour has important effects on end-use quality. However, assessing the contributions of each LMW-GS to flour quality remains challenging because of the complex LMW-GS composition and allelic variation among wheat cultivars. Therefore, accurate and reliable determination of LMW-GS alleles in germplasm remains an important challenge for wheat breeding. In this study, we used an optimized reversed-phase HPLC method and proteomics approach comprising 2-D gels coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to discriminate individual LMW-GSs corresponding to alleles encoded by the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci in the 'Aroona' cultivar and 12 'Aroona' near-isogenic lines (ARILs), which contain unique LMW-GS alleles in the same genetic background. The LMW-GS separation patterns for 'Aroona' and ARILs on chromatograms and 2-D gels were consistent with those from a set of 10 standard wheat cultivars for Glu-3. Furthermore, 12 previously uncharacterized spots in 'Aroona' and ARILs were excised from 2-D gels, digested with chymotrypsin, and subjected to MS/MS. We identified their gene haplotypes and created a 2-D gel map of LMW-GS alleles in the germplasm for breeding and screening for desirable LMW-GS alleles for wheat quality improvement.


Assuntos
Glutens/análise , Glutens/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Haplótipos , Peso Molecular , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201354

RESUMO

In coming decades, drought is expected to expand globally owing to increased evaporation and reduced rainfall. Understanding, predicting, and controlling crop plants' rhizosphere has the potential to manipulate its responses to environmental stress. Our plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are isolated from a natural laboratory, 'The Evolution Canyon', Israel, (EC), from the wild progenitors of cereals, where they have been co-habituating with their hosts for long periods of time. The study revealed that commercial TM50 silica particles (SN) triggered the PGPR production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) containing D-glucuronate (D-GA). The increased EPS content increased the PGPR water-holding capacity (WHC) and osmotic pressure of the biofilm matrix, which led to enhanced plant biomass in drought-stressed growth environments. Light- and cryo-electron- microscopic studies showed that, in the presence of silica (SN) particles, bacterial morphology is changed, indicating that SNs are associated with significant reprogramming in bacteria. The findings encourage the development of large-scale methods for isolate formulation with natural silicas that ensure higher WHC and hyperosmolarity under field conditions. Osmotic pressure involvement of holobiont cohabitation is also discussed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Secas , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203321

RESUMO

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is less adaptable to high temperatures than other major cereals. Previous studies of the effects of high temperature on wheat focused on the reproductive stage. There are few reports on yield after high temperatures at other growth stages. Understanding growth-stage-specific responses to heat stress will contribute to the development of tolerant lines suited to high temperatures at various stages. We exposed wheat cultivar "Norin 61" to high temperature at three growth stages: seedling-tillering (GS1), tillering-flowering (GS2), and flowering-maturity (GS3). We compared each condition based on agronomical traits, seed maturity, and photosynthesis results. Heat at GS2 reduced plant height and number of grains, and heat at GS3 reduced the grain formation period and grain weight. However, heat at GS1 reduced senescence and prolonged grain formation, increasing grain weight without reducing yield. These data provide fundamental insights into the biochemical and molecular adaptations of bread wheat to high-temperature stresses and have implications for the development of wheat lines that can respond to high temperatures at various times of the year.


Assuntos
Triticum/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/genética
15.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110973, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315591

RESUMO

TaLHY is an MYB transcription factor (TF) that is upregulated by salicylic acid induction and shows circadian rhythms. However, the study of the upstream regulatory factors is still unclear. In this study, we cloned the promoter sequence of the TaLHY homologous genes, verified the activity of the promoters, and identified important regions that affect promoter activity. Furthermore, we explored a possible upstream regulator of TaLHY, named TaWRKY10, which played a key role in the expression of TaLHY. We found that the three promoters pTaLHYa, pTaLHYb, and pTaLHYd had transcriptional activity in wheat protoplasts. All three promoters have W-Box, which can bind to WRKY TFs. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), after silencing TaWRKY10, the resistance of ChuanNong 19 (CN19) to stripe rust pathogen strain CYR32 was lost, and the expression level of the TaLHY homologous gene decreased. At the same time, in wheat protoplasts, the transcriptional activity of TaLHY homologous promoters improved after TaWRKY10 overexpression. This indicates that TaWRKY10 is a key gene for wheat immune response to stripe rust, and this gene may bind to TaLHYa, TaLHYb, and TaLHYd promoters to regulate the expression of TaLHY.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética
16.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110982, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315598

RESUMO

The spotted leaf lesion mimic trait simulates cell death in a plant responding to pathogen infection. Some spotted leaf genes are recessive, while others are dominant. A small number of plants with a lesion mimic phenotype appeared in a segregating population obtained by crossing two normal green wheat strains, XN509 and N07216. Here, we clarified the genetic model and its breeding value. Phenotyping of the consecutive progeny populations over six cropping seasons showed that the spotted leaf lesion mimic phenotype was controlled by a dominant gene designated TaSpl1, which was inhibited by two other dominant genes, designated TaSpl1-I1 and TaSpl1-I2. Using bulked segregant analysis RNA-seq (BSR-Seq) and newly developed KASP-PCR markers, the TaSpl1 and TaSpl1-I1 loci in N07216 were mapped to the end of chromosomes 3DS and 3BS, respectively. Plants with the spotted phenotype showed lower levels of stripe rust and powdery mildew than those with the normal green phenotype. Compared with normal leaves, the differentially expressed genes in spotted leaves were significantly enriched in plant-pathogen interaction and endocytosis pathways. There were no differences in the yield parameters of the F5 and F6 sister lines, N13039S with TaSpl1 and N13039 N without TaSpl1. These results provide a greater understanding of spotted leaf phenotyping and the breeding value of the lesion mimic allele in developing disease-resistance varieties.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Morte Celular/genética , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Endocitose/fisiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298963

RESUMO

Cadmium is a heavy metal that can be easily accumulated in durum wheat kernels and enter the human food chain. Two near-isogenic lines (NILs) with contrasting cadmium accumulation in grains, High-Cd or Low-Cd (H-Cd NIL and L-Cd NIL, respectively), were used to understand the Cd accumulation and transport mechanisms in durum wheat roots. Plants were cultivated in hydroponic solution, and cadmium concentrations in roots, shoots and grains were quantified. To evaluate the molecular mechanism activated in the two NILs, the transcriptomes of roots were analyzed. The observed response is complex and involves many genes and molecular mechanisms. We found that the gene sequences of two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (bHLH29 and bHLH38) differ between the two genotypes. In addition, the transporter Heavy Metal Tolerance 1 (HMT-1) is expressed only in the low-Cd genotype and many peroxidase genes are up-regulated only in the L-Cd NIL, suggesting ROS scavenging and root lignification as active responses to cadmium presence. Finally, we hypothesize that some aquaporins could enhance the Cd translocation from roots to shoots. The response to cadmium in durum wheat is therefore extremely complex and involves transcription factors, chelators, heavy metal transporters, peroxidases and aquaporins. All these new findings could help to elucidate the cadmium tolerance in wheat and address future breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Triticum/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299014

RESUMO

PIN-FORMED (PIN) genes play a crucial role in regulating polar auxin distribution in diverse developmental processes, including tropic responses, embryogenesis, tissue differentiation, and organogenesis. However, the role of PIN-mediated auxin transport in various plant species is poorly understood. Currently, no information is available about this gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, we identified the PIN gene family in wheat to understand the evolution of PIN-mediated auxin transport and its role in various developmental processes and under different biotic and abiotic stress conditions. In this study, we performed genome-wide analysis of the PIN gene family in common wheat and identified 44 TaPIN genes through a homology search, further characterizing them to understand their structure, function, and distribution across various tissues. Phylogenetic analyses led to the classification of TaPIN genes into seven different groups, providing evidence of an evolutionary relationship with Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. A gene exon/intron structure analysis showed a distinct evolutionary path and predicted the possible gene duplication events. Further, the physical and biochemical properties, conserved motifs, chromosomal, subcellular localization, transmembrane domains, and three-dimensional (3D) structure were also examined using various computational approaches. Cis-elements analysis of TaPIN genes showed that TaPIN promoters consist of phytohormone, plant growth and development, and stress-related cis-elements. In addition, expression profile analysis also revealed that the expression patterns of the TaPIN genes were different in different tissues and developmental stages. Several members of the TaPIN family were induced during biotic and abiotic stress. Moreover, the expression patterns of TaPIN genes were verified by qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results also show a similar expression with slight variation. Therefore, the outcome of this study provides basic genomic information on the expression of the TaPIN gene family and will pave the way for dissecting the precise role of TaPINs in plant developmental processes and different stress conditions.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Evolução Molecular , Éxons , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Íntrons , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Domínios Proteicos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117575, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130116

RESUMO

High cadmium (Cd) concentration in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains poses potential health risks. Several management strategies have been used to reduce grain Cd concentration. However, limited information is available on the use of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) as a strategy to manage Cd concentration in wheat grains. In this study, NH4+-N addition at the seedling stage unchanged the grain Cd concentration in the high-Cd accumulator, Zhoumai 18 (ZM18), but dramatically increased that in the low-Cd accumulator, Yunmai 51 (YM51). Further analysis revealed that the effects of NH4+-N addition on whole-plant Cd absorption, root-to-shoot Cd translocation, and shoot-to-grain Cd remobilization were different between the two wheat cultivars. In ZM18, NH4+-N addition did not change whole-plant Cd absorption, but inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation and Cd remobilization from lower internodes, lower leaves, node 1, and internode 1 to grains via the down-regulation of yellow stripe-like transporters (YSL), zinc transporters (ZIP5, ZIP7, and ZIP10), and heavy-metal transporting ATPases (HMA2). This inhibition decreased the grain Cd content by 29.62%, which was consistent with the decrease of the grain dry weight by 23.26%, leading to unchanged grain Cd concentration in ZM18. However, in YM51, NH4+-N addition promoted continuous Cd absorption during grain filling, root-to-shoot Cd translocation and whole-plant Cd absorption. The absorbed Cd was directly transported to internode 1 via the xylem and then re-transported to grains via the phloem by up-regulated YSL, ZIP5, and copper transporters (COPT4). This promotion increased the grain Cd content by 245.35%, which was higher than the increased grain dry weight by 132.89%, leading to increased grain Cd concentration in YM51. Our findings concluded that the addition of NH4+-N fertilizer at the seedling stage is not suitable for reducing grain Cd concentration in common wheat cultivars.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
20.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072122

RESUMO

At present, little information is available in the scientific literature related to the durability (weathering resistance) of fire-retarded wood and natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastics. In this work, thermoplastic profiles for façade applications based on high-density polyethylene, wheat straw particles, and fire-retardants were extruded and their reaction-to-fire performance before and after artificial weathering evaluated. Profile geometries were either solid or hollow-core profiles, and fire-retardants (FR) were added either in the co-extruded layer or in the bulk. Various FR for inclusion in the co-extruded layer were screened based on UL-94 tests. For profile extrusion, two types of FR were chosen: a coated intumescent combination based on ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an APP coated with melamine and without formaldehyde. Before weathering, the peak heat release rate (pHRR) and the total heat release (THR), which were determined using cone calorimeter measurements, were reduced by up to 64% and 67% due to the FR. However, even before weathering, pHRR of the profiles was relatively high, with best (lowest) values between 230 and 250 kW/m2 under the test conditions. After 28 days of artificial weathering, changes in reaction-to-fire performance and color were evaluated. Use of the APP in the co-extruded layer worsened color change compared to the formulation without APP but the pHRR was not significantly changed. The influence of weathering on the fire behavior was small compared to the difference between fire-retarded and non-fire-retarded materials. Results from the cone calorimeter were analyzed with regard to ETAG 028, which provides requirements related to the durability of fire performance of building products. In many formulations, increase in THR was less than 20% compared to before weathering, which would place some of the profiles in class C or better (EN 13501-1). However, due to the high pHRR, at best, class D was obtained under the conditions of this study. In addition to cone calorimeter measurements, results from the single flame source test, limiting oxygen index determination and thermogravimetric analysis, are shown and discussed. Strength properties, water uptake and swelling of the profiles, thermal conductivity, and energy dispersive X-ray data are also presented.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Fosfatos/química , Polietileno/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/química , Calorimetria/métodos , Celulose/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Cor , Temperatura Alta , Lignina/química , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula , Polifosfatos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício/química , Temperatura , Condutividade Térmica , Água
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