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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 2, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on plant growth and development, especially under biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the mechanisms of SiNPs-mediated plant growth strengthening are still unclear, especially under field condition. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SiNPs on the growth and sugar and hormone metabolisms of wheat in the field. RESULTS: SiNPs increased tillers and elongated internodes by 66.7% and 27.4%, respectively, resulting in a larger biomass. SiNPs can increase the net photosynthetic rate by increasing total chlorophyll contents. We speculated that SiNPs can regulate the growth of leaves and stems, partly by regulating the metabolisms of plant hormones and soluble sugar. Specifically, SiNPs can increase auxin (IAA) and fructose contents, which can promote wheat growth directly or indirectly. Furthermore, SiNPs increased the expression levels of key pathway genes related to soluble sugars (SPS, SUS, and α-glucosidase), chlorophyll (CHLH, CAO, and POR), IAA (TIR1), and abscisic acid (ABA) (PYR/PYL, PP2C, SnRK2, and ABF), whereas the expression levels of genes related to CTKs (IPT) was decreased after SiNPs treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that SiNPs can promote wheat growth and provides a theoretical foundation for the application of SiNPs in field conditions.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício , Clorofila , Açúcares , Hormônios
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 116, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596823

RESUMO

The salinity of soil is a relevant environmental problem around the world, with climate change raising its relevance, particularly in arid and semiarid areas. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) positively affect plant growth and health by mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses, including salt stress. The mechanisms through which these benefits manifest are, however, still unclear. This work aimed to identify key genes involved in the response to salt stress induced by AMF using RNA-Seq analysis on durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum Desf. Husn.). Five hundred sixty-three differentially expressed genes (DEGs), many of which involved in pathways related to plant stress responses, were identified. The expression of genes involved in trehalose metabolism, RNA processing, vesicle trafficking, cell wall organization, and signal transduction was significantly enhanced by the AMF symbiosis. A downregulation of genes involved in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress responses as well as amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates metabolisms was also detected, suggesting a lower oxidative stress condition in the AMF inoculated plants. Interestingly, many transcription factor families, including WRKY, NAC, and MYB, already known for their key role in plant abiotic stress response, were found differentially expressed between treatments. This study provides valuable insights on AMF-induced gene expression modulation and the beneficial effects of plant-AMF interaction in durum wheat under salt stress.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Transcriptoma , Triticum/metabolismo , Simbiose/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Micorrizas/fisiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 108, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596834

RESUMO

Plant pathogens deliver effector proteins to reprogramme a host plants circuitry, supporting their own growth and development, whilst thwarting defence responses. A subset of these effectors are termed avirulence factors (Avr) and can be recognised by corresponding host resistance (R) proteins, creating a strong evolutionary pressure on pathogen Avr effectors that favours their modification/deletion to evade the immune response. Hence, identifying Avr effectors and tracking their allele frequencies in a population is critical for understanding the loss of host recognition. However, the current systems available to confirm Avr effector function, particularly for obligate biotrophic fungi, remain limited and challenging. Here, we explored the utility of the genetically tractable wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum (MoT) as a suitable heterologous expression system in wheat. Using the recently confirmed wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccina graminis f. sp. tritici) avirulence effector AvrSr50 as a proof-of-concept, we found that delivery of AvrSr50 via MoT could elicit a visible Sr50-dependant cell death phenotype. However, activation of Sr50-mediated cell death correlated with a high transgene copy number and transcript abundance in MoT transformants. This illustrates that MoT can act as an effective heterologous delivery system for fungal effectors from distantly related fungal species, but only when enough transgene copies and/or transcript abundance is achieved.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Magnaporthe , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 99, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596824

RESUMO

Fermentation of dietary fiber by gut microbes produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), but fermentation outcomes are affected by dietary fiber source and microbiota composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two different fecal microbial compositions on in vitro fermentation of a standardized amount of oat, rye, and wheat breads. Two human fecal donors with different microbial community composition were recruited. Bread samples were digested enzymatically. An in vitro fermentation model was used to study SCFA production, dietary fiber degradation, pH, and changes in microbiota. Feces from donor I had high relative abundance of Bacteroides and Escherichia/Shigella, whereas feces from donor II were high in Prevotella and Subdoligranulum. Shifts in microbiota composition were observed during fermentation. SCFA levels were low in the samples with fecal microbiota from donor I after 8 h of fermentation, but after 24 h acetate and propionate levels were similar in the samples from the different donors. Butyrate levels were higher in the fermentation samples from donor II, especially with rye substrate, where high abundance of Subdoligranulum was observed. Dietary fiber degradation was also higher in the fermentation samples from donor II. In conclusion, fermentation capacity and substrate utilization differed between the two different microbiota compositions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Triticum , Humanos , Triticum/metabolismo , Pão , Secale/metabolismo , Avena/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614202

RESUMO

Leaves are an essential and unique organ of plants, and many studies have proved that auxin has significant impacts on the architecture of leaves, thus the manipulation of the three-dimensional structure of a leaf could provide potential strategies for crop yields. In this study, 32 basic leucine zipper transcription factors (bZIP TFs) which responded to 50 µM of indole-acetic acid (IAA) were identified in wheat leaves by transcriptome analysis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 32 auxin-responsive TabZIPs were classified into eight groups with possible different functions. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that knocking out the homologous gene of the most down-regulated auxin-responsive TabZIP6D_20 in Arabidopsis (AtHY5) decreased its sensitivity to 1 and 50 µM IAA, while the TabZIP6D_20/hy5 complementary lines recovered its sensitivity to auxin as a wild type (Wassilewskija), suggesting that the down-regulated TabZIP6D_20 was a negative factor in the auxin-signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that the auxin-responsive TabZIP genes might have various and vital functions in the architecture of a wheat leaf under auxin response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 446, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624114

RESUMO

Application of cost-effective pretreatment of wheat straw is an important stage for massive bioethanol production. A new approach is aimed to enhance the pretreatment of wheat straw by using low-cost ionic liquid [TEA][HSO4] coupled with ultrasound irradiation. The pretreatment was conducted both at room temperature and at 130 °C with a high biomass loading rate of 20% and 20% wt water assisted by ultrasound at 100 W-24 kHz for 15 and 30 min. Wheat straw pretreated at 130 °C for 15 and 30 min had high delignification rates of 67.8% and 74.9%, respectively, and hemicellulose removal rates of 47.0% and 52.2%. Moreover, this pretreatment resulted in producing total reducing sugars of 24.5 and 32.1 mg/mL in enzymatic saccharification, respectively, which corresponds to saccharification yields of 67.7% and 79.8% with commercial cellulase enzyme CelluMax for 72 h. The ethanol generation rates of 38.9 and 42.0 g/L were attained for pretreated samples for 15 and 30 min, equivalent to the yields of 76.1% and 82.2% of the maximum theoretical yield following 48 h of fermentation. This demonstration provided a cheap and promising pretreatment technology in terms of efficiency and shortening the pretreatment time based on applying low-cost ionic liquid and efficient ultrasound pretreatment techniques, which facilitated the feasibility of this approach and could further develop the future of biorefinery.


Assuntos
Celulase , Líquidos Iônicos , Triticum/metabolismo , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Celulase/metabolismo
7.
Theor Appl Genet ; 136(1): 1-15, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658294

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A new functional Pm21 haplotype, Pm21(8#), was cloned from the new wheat-H. villosa translocation line T6VS(8#)·6DL, which confers the same strong resistance to powdery mildew through a different resistance mechanism. Broad-spectrum disease resistance genes are desirable in crop breeding for conferring stable, durable resistance in field production. Pm21(4#) is a gene introduced from wild Haynaldia villosa into wheat that confers broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew and has been widely used in wheat production for approximately 30 years. The discovery and transfer of new functional haplotypes of Pm21 into wheat will expand its genetic diversity in production and avoid the breakdown of resistance conferred by a single gene on a large scale. Pm21(4#) previously found from T6VS(4#)·6AL has been cloned. In this study, a new wheat-H. villosa translocation, T6VS(8#)·6DL, was identified. A new functional Pm21 haplotype, designated Pm21(8#), was cloned and characterized. The genomic structures and the splicing patterns of Pm21(4#) and Pm21(8#) were different, and widespread sequence diversity was observed in the gene coding region and the promoter region. In the field, Pm21(8#) conferred resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), similar to Pm21(4#), indicating that Pm21(8#) was also a resistance gene. However, Bgt development during the infection stage was obviously different between Pm21(4#)- and Pm21(8#)-containing materials under the microscopic observation. Pm21(4#) inhibited the formation of haustoria and the development of hyphae in the initial infection stage, while Pm21(8#) limited the growth of hyphae and inhibited the formation of conidiophores in the late infection stage. Therefore, Pm21(8#) is a new functional Pm21 haplotype that provides a new gene resource for wheat breeding.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Haplótipos , Poaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674529

RESUMO

High temperature has severely affected plant growth and development, resulting in reduced production of crops worldwide, especially wheat. Alternative splicing (AS), a crucial post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, is involved in the growth and development of eukaryotes and the adaptation to environmental changes. Previous transcriptome data suggested that heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) TaHsfA2-7 may form different transcripts by AS. However, it remains unclear whether this post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of TaHsfA2-7 is related to thermotolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Here, we identified a novel splice variant, TaHsfA2-7-AS, which was induced by high temperature and played a positive role in thermotolerance regulation in wheat. Moreover, TaHsfA2-7-AS is predicted to encode a small truncated TaHsfA2-7 isoform, retaining only part of the DNA-binding domain (DBD). TaHsfA2-7-AS is constitutively expressed in various tissues of wheat. Notably, the expression level of TaHsfA2-7-AS is significantly up-regulated by heat shock (HS) during flowering and grain-filling stages in wheat. Further studies showed that TaHsfA2-7-AS was localized in the nucleus but lacked transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of TaHsfA2-7-AS in yeast exhibited improved thermotolerance. Compared to non-transgenic plants, overexpression of TaHsfA2-7-AS in Arabidopsis results in enhanced tolerance to heat stress. Simultaneously, we also found that TaHsfA1 is directly involved in the transcriptional regulation of TaHsfA2-7 and TaHsfA2-7-AS. In summary, our findings demonstrate the function of TaHsfA2-7-AS splicing variant in response to heat stress and establish a link between regulatory mechanisms of AS and the improvement of thermotolerance in wheat.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Termotolerância , Termotolerância/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Alta
9.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112147, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596099

RESUMO

In this study an in vitro static digestion method mimicking the elderly gastrointestinal conditions was designed by adapting the physiological parameters described in the INFOGEST standardized static in vitro digestion protocol, i.e., pH, digestive phase duration, concentrations of enzymes and bile salts, to the aged GI transit. The digestibility of proteins from different sources (pea, rice, wheat, and milk whey) was then assessed. Protein digestive behaviour was monitored after gastric and intestinal phases by BCA assay and SDS-PAGE to assess protein hydrolysis both from a quantitative and a qualitative point of view. Digested samples were also analysed for physical characteristics in terms of particle size and zeta potential. Data acquired under elderly gastrointestinal conditions were compared to those obtained by using the INFOGEST protocol designed to study adult digestion. Results clearly showed that the elderly gastrointestinal conditions deeply affected proteolysis leading to a general reduction of protein digestibility in comparison to the adult model. The proteolysis extent depended on the protein source with whey and rice proteins showing about 20% reduction using the model mimicking the elderly gut, followed by pea (about 10% reduction) and wheat (about 4% reduction) proteins. The knowledge of protein digestibility under elderly gastrointestinal conditions generated in this study could be useful in the attempt to develop age-tailored products.


Assuntos
Oryza , Ervilhas , Humanos , Idoso , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280890, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701410

RESUMO

Co-fermentation of lignite and biomass has been considered as a new approach in achieving clean energy. Moreover, the study of the characteristics of solid phase in the synergistic degradation process is of great significance in revealing their synergistic relationship. Accordingly, in order to produce biogas, lignite, straw, and the mixture of the two were used as the substrates, the solid phase characteristics of which were analyzed before and after fermentation using modern analytical methods. The results revealed that the mixed fermentation of lignite and straw promoted the production of biomethane. Moreover, the ratios of C/O and C/H were found to be complementary in the co-fermentation process. Furthermore, while the relative content of C-C/C-H bonds was observed to be significantly decreased, the aromatics degree of lignite was weakened. Also, while the degree of branching increased, there found to be an increase in the content of cellulose amorphous zone, which, consequently, led to an increase in the crystallinity index of the wheat straw. Hence, the results provide a theoretical guidance for the efficient utilization of straw and lignite.


Assuntos
Celulose , Carvão Mineral , Fermentação , Celulose/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Biomassa
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 195: 47-57, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599275

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient element required for plant growth, and the development of wheat varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is an urgent need for sustainable crop production. However, the molecular mechanism of NUE between diverse wheat varieties in response to N application remains unclear. To reveal the possible molecular mechanisms underlying this complex phenomenon, we investigated the transcriptional and metabolic changes of flag leaves of two wheat near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing in NUE under two N fertilizer treatments. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that the expression levels of the genes responsible for carbon and nitrogen metabolism were significantly higher in high-NUE wheat. The metabolome comparison revealed that the activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was enhanced in high-NUE wheat, while reduced in low-NUE wheat after the N fertilizer application. Additionally, amino acid metabolism increased in both wheat NILs but more increased in high-NUE wheat. In summary, more upregulated transcripts and metabolites were identified in high-NUE wheat, and this study provides valuable new insights for improving NUE in wheat.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
12.
Plant Cell Environ ; 46(3): 747-763, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600451

RESUMO

Salt stress reduces plant water flow during day and night. It is not known to which extent root hydraulic properties change in parallel. To test this idea, hydroponically grown wheat plants were grown at four levels of salt stress (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl) for 5-8d before harvest (d14-18) and subjected to a range of analyses to determine diurnal changes in hydraulic conductivity (Lp) at cell, root and plant level. Cell pressure probe analyses showed that the Lp of cortex cells was differentially affected by salt stress during day and night, and that the response to salt stress differed between the main axis of roots and lateral roots. The Aquaporin (AQP) inhibitor H2 O2 reduced Lp to a common, across treatments, level as observed in salt-stressed plants during the night. Analyses of transpiring plants and exuding root systems provided values of root Lp which were in the same range as values modeled based on cell-Lp. The results can best be explained through a change in root Lp in response to salt stress and day/night, which results from an altered activity of AQPs. qPCR gene expression analyses point to possible candidate AQP isoforms.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Estresse Salino , Aquaporinas/metabolismo
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672943

RESUMO

During the response of plants to water stresses, aquaporin (AQP) plays a prominent role in membrane water transport based on the received upstream signals. Due to the importance of the AQP gene family, studies have been conducted that investigate the function and regulatory system of these genes. However, many of their molecular aspects are still unknown. This study aims to carry out a genome-wide investigation of the AQP gene family in Triticum turgidum using bioinformatics tools and to investigate the expression patterns of some members in response to salt stress. Our results show that there are 80 TtAQP genes in T. turgidum, which are classified into four main groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Several duplications were observed between the members of the TtAQP gene family, and high diversity in response to post-translational modifications was observed between TtAQP family members. The expression pattern of TtAQP genes disclosed that these genes are primarily upregulated in response to salt stress. Additionally, the qPCR data revealed that TtAQPs are more induced in delayed responses to salinity stress. Overall, our findings illustrate that TtAQP members are diverse in terms of their structure, regulatory systems, and expression levels.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Filogenia , Estresse Salino/genética , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
14.
Genome Biol ; 24(1): 7, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant and animal embryogenesis have conserved and distinct features. Cell fate transitions occur during embryogenesis in both plants and animals. The epigenomic processes regulating plant embryogenesis remain largely elusive. RESULTS: Here, we elucidate chromatin and transcriptomic dynamics during embryogenesis of the most cultivated crop, hexaploid wheat. Time-series analysis reveals stage-specific and proximal-distal distinct chromatin accessibility and dynamics concordant with transcriptome changes. Following fertilization, the remodeling kinetics of H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3 differ from that in mammals, highlighting considerable species-specific epigenomic dynamics during zygotic genome activation. Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated H3K27me3 deposition is important for embryo establishment. Later H3K27ac, H3K27me3, and chromatin accessibility undergo dramatic remodeling to establish a permissive chromatin environment facilitating the access of transcription factors to cis-elements for fate patterning. Embryonic maturation is characterized by increasing H3K27me3 and decreasing chromatin accessibility, which likely participates in restricting totipotency while preventing extensive organogenesis. Finally, epigenomic signatures are correlated with biased expression among homeolog triads and divergent expression after polyploidization, revealing an epigenomic contributor to subgenome diversification in an allohexaploid genome. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we present an invaluable resource for comparative and mechanistic analysis of the epigenomic regulation of crop embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Histonas , Animais , Histonas/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Mamíferos/genética
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 25, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transition from vegetative to floral phase is the result of complex crosstalk of exogenous and endogenous floral integrators. This critical physiological event is the response to environmental interaction, which causes biochemical cascades of reactions at different internal tissues, organs, and releases signals that make the plant moves from vegetative status to a reproductive phase. This network controlling flowering time is not deciphered largely in bread wheat. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis at a transition time in combination with genetic mapping was used to identify responsible genes in a stage and tissue-specific manner. For this reason, two winter cultivars that have been bred in Germany showing contrasting and stable heading time in different environments were selected for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 670 and 1075 differentially expressed genes in the shoot apical meristem and leaf tissue, respectively, could be identified in 23 QTL intervals for the heading date. In the transition apex, Histone methylation H3-K36 and regulation of circadian rhythm are both controlled by the same homoeolog genes mapped in QTL TaHd112, TaHd124, and TaHd137. TaAGL14 gene that identifies the floral meristem was mapped in TaHd054 in the double ridge. In the same stage, the homoeolog located on chromosome 7D of FLOWERING TIME LOCUS T mapped on chr 7B, which evolved an antagonist function and acts as a flowering repressor was uncovered. The wheat orthologue of transcription factor ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 1 (AS1) was identified in the late reproductive stage and was mapped in TaHd102, which is strongly associated with heading date. Deletion of eight nucleotides in the AS1 promoter could be identified in the binding site of the SUPPRESSOR OF CONSTANS OVEREXPRESSION 1 (SOC1) gene in the late flowering cultivar. Both proteins AS1 and SOC1 are inducing flowering time in response to gibberellin biosynthesis. CONCLUSION: The global transcriptomic at the transition phase uncovered stage and tissue-specific genes mapped in QTL of heading date in winter wheat. In response to Gibberellin signaling, wheat orthologous transcription factor AS1 is expressed in the late reproductive phase of the floral transition. The locus harboring this gene is the strongest QTL associated with the heading date trait in the German cultivars. Consequently, we conclude that this is another indication of the Gibberellin biosynthesis as the mechanism behind the heading variation in wheat.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 26, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631773

RESUMO

The application of nano materials is one of the current hot spots in agricultural production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different nano fertilizer synergists on nitrogen (N) utilization and related gene expression in wheat. The experiments were carried out in pot and field conditions at the West-Coast Economic New Area experimental base and Greenhouse of Qingdao Agricultural University. Seven treatments were set up: CK (compound fertilizer), T1 (compound fertilizer + 0.3% nano carbon synergist), T2 (compound fertilizer + 0.3% nano calcium carbonate synergist), T3 (compound fertilizer + 0.3% composite nano synergist), T4 (70% compound fertilizer + 0.3% nano carbon synergist), T5 (70% compound fertilizer + 0.3% nano calcium carbonate synergist), T6 (70% compound fertilizer + 0.3% composite nano synergist). The results showed that compared with CK, the N accumulation of T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 increased by 40-50%, 30-40%, 55-65%, 20-30%, 15-20% and 30-40%, respectively; and the N use efficiency increased by 12-19%, 9-18%, 16-22%, 5-17%, 4-16% and 10-20% respectively. And the gene expression levels of TaNRT2.2, TaNRT2.3, TaGS1 and TaGS2 in the treatments with synergistic phosphate fertilizer were significantly higher than those in the CK. The application of nano fertilizer synergist can significantly improve N accumulation, N use efficiency, and promote the expression of genes related to N transport and metabolism.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Carbonatos , Solo
17.
New Phytol ; 237(1): 232-250, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264565

RESUMO

Drought stress limits wheat production and threatens food security world-wide. While ethylene-responsive factors (ERFs) are known to regulate plant response to drought stress, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for a tolerant phenotype remain unclear. Here, we describe the positive regulatory role of TaERF87 in mediating wheat tolerance to drought stress. TaERF87 overexpression (OE) enhances drought tolerance, while silencing leads to drought sensitivity in wheat. RNA sequencing with biochemical assays revealed that TaERF87 activates the expression of the proline biosynthesis genes TaP5CS1 and TaP5CR1 via direct binding to GCC-box elements. Furthermore, proline accumulates to higher levels in TaERF87- and TaP5CS1-OE lines than that in wild-type plants under well-watered and drought stress conditions concomitantly with enhanced drought tolerance in these transgenic lines. Moreover, the interaction between TaERF87 and the bHLH transcription factor TaAKS1 synergistically enhances TaP5CS1 and TaP5CR1 transcriptional activation. TaAKS1 OE also increases wheat drought tolerance by promoting proline accumulation. Additionally, our findings verified that TaERF87 and TaAKS1 are targets of abscisic acid-responsive element binding factor 2 (TaABF2). Together, our study elucidates the mechanisms underlying a positive response to drought stress mediated by the TaABF2-TaERF87/TaAKS1-TaP5CS1/TaP5CR1 module, and identifies candidate genes for the development of elite drought-tolerant wheat varieties.


Assuntos
Secas , Triticum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 227: 285-296, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549029

RESUMO

Flowering time is a critical agronomic trait that has strong effects on crop yields. Auxin signaling pathway plays an important role in various development processes, such as flowering, grain development. However, no Aux/IAA gene had been reported to have functions involving in wheat flowering time. Here, we systematically performed genome-wide identification, classification, domain distribution, exon-intron structure, chromosome locations and global expression pattern of Aux/IAA gene family in 14 plant genomes (including Triticum aestivum). A phylogenetic model was proposed to infer the Aux/IAA evolutionary history involving in a central exon-intron structure "2121" during evolution. Overexpression of TaIAA15-1A caused an early flowering time in Brachypodium. RNA-seq analysis showed that TaIAA15-1A overexpression alters various pathways including phytohormone signaling pathway, flowering-related pathway, and polyamine biosynthesis pathway. Screening of auxin response factor (ARF) genes identified BdARF16 that interacted with TaIAA15-1A. Exogenous polyamine (spermidine and spermine) treatments promoted early flowering and (putrescine and DCHA) delayed flowering time of WT plants. Our finding will provide insights on mechanisms of Aux/IAAs gene family and TaIAA15-1A, illustrating the potential during crop improvement programs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos , Triticum , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
19.
J Food Sci ; 88(1): 503-512, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510376

RESUMO

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a global health concern affecting one-third of the world's population, particularly those dominated by plant-based food. Fortifying staple foods with iron has been an effective strategy for preventing IDA. Pneumatophorus japonicus is an essential economic fish in China. Pneumatophorus japonicus dark meat is usually underutilized as a byproduct, though it contains bounteous nutrients, including heme iron (10.50 mg/100 g). This study aimed to investigate the iron bioavailability of P. japonicus dark meat and to evaluate its potential as an iron fortifier for whole-wheat flour, a typical staple food, using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture system. Our results suggested the excellent iron bioavailability of P. japonicus dark meat in comparison with beef (a heme dietary iron reference), whole-wheat flour (a non-heme dietary iron reference), and FeSO4 (a conventional iron supplement). The addition of P. japonicus dark meat notably enhanced iron solubility, bioavailability, and protein digestibility of whole-wheat flour. The flour-dark meat mixture yielded 1.96 times the iron bioavailability compared to beef per gram. The iron bioavailability was further improved by adding vitamin C, a commonly used dietary factor, at the Vc/iron mass ratio of 2:100-5:100. Our findings reveal the promise of P. japonicus dark meat as a significant source of bioavailable iron, providing a basis for developing fish byproducts as alternatives for iron supplementation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study investigated the iron bioavailability of Pneumatophorus japonicus meat using in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture system. These results could be used to improve the utilization of Pneumatophorus japonicus byproduct (dark meat) and develop the potential of the byproduct as an iron fortifier for whole-wheat flour.


Assuntos
Deficiências de Ferro , Ferro , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Ferro/metabolismo , Farinha , Ferro na Dieta , Células CACO-2 , Triticum/metabolismo , Carne , Disponibilidade Biológica , Alimentos Fortificados
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 127: 577-588, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522087

RESUMO

Soil salinity is known to improve cadmium (Cd) mobility, especially in arid soils. However, the mechanisms involved in how salt stress-associated metabolic profiles participate in mediating Cd transport in the soil-plant system remain poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of salinity-induced changes in soil metabolites on Cd bioavailability. Sodium salts in different combinations according to molar ratio (NaCl:Na2SO4=1:1; NaCl:Na2SO4:NaHCO3=1:2:1; NaCl:Na2SO4:NaHCO3:Na2CO3=1:9:9:1; NaCl:Na2SO4:NaHCO3:Na2CO3=1:1:1:1) were applied to the Cd-contaminated soils, which increased soil Cd availability by 22.36% and the Cd content in wheat grains by 36.61%, compared to the control. Salt stress resulted in soil metabolic reprogramming, which might explain the decreased growth of wheat plants and increased Cd transport from the soil into wheat tissues. For example, down-regulation of starch and sucrose metabolism reduced the production of sugars, which adversely affected growth; up-regulation of fatty acid metabolism allowed wheat plants to maintain a normal intracellular environment under saline conditions; up-regulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was triggered, causing an increase in organic acid synthesis and the accumulation of organic acids, which facilitated the migration of soil Cd into wheat tissues. In summary, salt stress can facilitate Cd transport into wheat tissues by the direct effect of salt-based ions and the combined effect of altered soil physicochemical properties and soil metabolic profiles in Cd-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Solo/química , Cádmio/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cloreto de Sódio , Estresse Salino
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