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1.
Platelets ; 34(1): 2139365, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325627

RESUMO

Activated platelets possess procoagulant activity expressing on their surface phosphatidylserine (PS), a substrate for assembling coagulation complexes. We examined the effects of platelets activated by different agonists on fibrin formation and thrombin generation and compared these effects with each other and with PS expression. Modified plasma recalcification assay was developed to assess platelet effects on fibrin formation. Washed human platelets were left intact or activated by A23187 ionophore, collagen, arachidonic acid, ADP or TRAP (Thrombin Receptor Activating Peptide) and spun down in 96-well plates. Plasma was then added, recalcified, and fibrin formation was monitored by light absorbance. Platelets prepared in the same way were tested for their effect on thrombin generation. PS expression was evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V staining. Platelets significantly accelerated fibrin formation and thrombin generation. They shortened lag phase and increased maximum rate of plasma clotting, and increased peak and maximum rate of thrombin generation. In both tests platelets were presumably activated by endogenous thrombin formed in plasma after triggering coagulation reactions. However, pretreatment with exogenous agonists additionally increased platelet procoagulant activity. It reached the maximum after incubation with A23187, being lower with collagen and arachidonic acid and minimum with ADP and TRAP (the latter might be ineffective due to competition with endogenous thrombin). The effects of platelets activated by different agonists on fibrin formation and thrombin generation correlate with each other and correspond to PS expression on their surface.


Why was the study done? Platelets and blood coagulation system interact with each other in hemostasis and intravascular thrombosis.Direct platelet effects on fibrin formation (plasma clotting), the final stage of blood coagulation cascade, have been insufficiently studied.The work is aimed at developing a method for studying platelet participation in fibrin formation in blood plasma and investigating the influence of platelet agonists on this reaction.What is new? Platelets significantly accelerate fibrin formation and their activation with various agonists (thrombin, collagen, arachidonic acid) enhances these effects.Effects of platelets on fibrin formation correlated with their ability to stimulate thrombin generation in blood plasmaEffects of platelets on fibrin formation and thrombin generation correlated with the level of phosphatidylserine exposure on their surfaceWhat is the impact? This study provides further evidence that platelet procоagulant effects on fibrin formation should be considered in investigations of platelet involvement in hemostatic and thrombotic reactions and in the evaluation of the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Trombina , Humanos , Trombina/farmacologia , Trombina/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fibrina/metabolismo , Calcimicina/metabolismo , Calcimicina/farmacologia , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Colágeno/farmacologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
2.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 95, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) has been recognized as a marker of cancer stem cell in several malignancies. Thrombin is crucial in asthma severity as it can promote IL-8/CXCL8 production in lung epithelial cells, which is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. However, the pathologic role of DCLK1 in asthma and its involvement in thrombin-stimulated IL-8/CXCL8 expression remain unknown. METHODS: IL-8/CXCL8, thrombin, and DCLK1 expression were observed in the lung tissues of severe asthma patients and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model. A549 and BEAS-2B cells were either pretreated with inhibitors or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) before being treated with thrombin. IL-8/CXCL8 expression and the molecules involved in signaling pathway were performed using ELISA, luciferase activity assay, Western blot, or ChIP assay. RESULTS: IL-8/CXCL8, thrombin, and DCLK1 were overexpressed in the lung tissues of severe asthma patients and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model. Our in vitro study found that DCLK siRNA or LRKK2-IN-1 (DCLK1 inhibitor) attenuated IL-8/CXCL8 release after thrombin induction in A549 and BEAS-2B cells. Thrombin activated DCLK1, RhoA, and YAP in a time-dependent manner, in which DCLK1 siRNA inhibited RhoA and YAP activation. YAP was dephosphorylated on the Ser127 site after thrombin stimulation, resulting in YAP translocation to the nucleus from the cytosol. DCLK1, RhoA and YAP activation following thrombin stimulation were inhibited by U0126 (ERK inhibitor). Moreover, DCLK1 and YAP siRNA inhibited κB-luciferase activity. Thrombin stimulated the recruitment of YAP and p65 to the NF-κB site of the IL-8/CXCL8 promoter and was inhibited by DCLK1 siRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombin activates the DCLK1/RhoA signaling pathway, which promotes YAP activation and translocation to the nucleus from the cytosol, resulting in YAP/p65 formation, and binding to the NF-κB site, which enhances IL-8/CXCL8 expression. DCLK1 might be essential in thrombin-stimulated IL-8/CXCL8 expression in asthmatic lungs and indicates a potential therapeutic strategy for severe asthma treatment.


Assuntos
Asma , Interleucina-8 , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-8/genética , Trombina/farmacologia , Trombina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/metabolismo , Quinases Semelhantes a Duplacortina , Fosforilação , Pulmão/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
3.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 33(8): 463-467, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409923

RESUMO

Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder caused by deficiency or low activity of circulating factor VIII characterized by prolonged blood coagulation time and often spontaneous bleeding. Patients with the severe form of the disease may present considerable heterogeneity in the occurrence of bleeding episodes and some of them have a mild hemophilia A phenotype. This study aimed to evaluate the association of biomarkers and coagulation parameters to the differential hemorrhagic profile of severe hemophilia A patients. Polymorphisms in the genes of proteins C and S, factors V and VII and prothrombin were evaluated in a group of severe hemophilia A patients with a broad spectrum of bleeding profile. Plasma levels of coagulation factors and thrombin generation were also analyzed. This study included 59 Brazilian hemophilia A patients who were allocated into low bleeding profile (LBP; n = 33) and high bleeding profile (HBP; n = 26) groups based on their joint and muscle bleeding episodes requiring treatment in the 5 years before inclusion in the study. Results evidenced that endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and plasma factor VII levels were significantly higher in the LBP group. Results indicate a prominent importance of FVII plasma activity and endogenous thrombin potential on the differential bleeding phenotype of hemophilia A patients.


Assuntos
Fator VII , Hemofilia A , Humanos , Hemofilia A/complicações , Trombina/metabolismo , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Hemorragia/etiologia , Variação Biológica da População
4.
eNeuro ; 9(6)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302632

RESUMO

Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS, promote rapid action potential conduction along axons. Changes in the geometry of gaps between myelin segments, known as nodes of Ranvier, affect the conduction speed of neuronal impulses and can ultimately alter neural synchronization and circuit function. In contrast to synaptic plasticity, much less is known about how neural activity may affect node of Ranvier structure. Recently, perinodal astrocytes have been shown to remodel nodes of Ranvier by regulating thrombin proteolysis, but it is not known whether neural activity influences this process. To test this hypothesis, we used transgenic mice with astrocytic expression of a dominant-negative vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 ([gfap]dnVAMP2) to reduce exocytosis of thrombin inhibitors, modulating astrocytic regulation of paranodal loop attachment to induce nodal remodeling, under normal conditions and in adult mice maintained in darkness from postnatal day 40 (P40) to P70. This mechanism of nodal lengthening proceeded normally following binocular visual deprivation (BVD). The effect of BVD on nodal plasticity in animals with unimpaired astrocyte function has not been previously investigated. We find that when exocytosis from astrocytes was unimpaired, nodal gap length was not altered by BVD in adult mice. We conclude that if perinodal astrocytes participate in activity-dependent myelin remodeling through exocytosis, then, as with synaptic plasticity in the visual system, the process must be driven by alterations in neuronal firing other than those produced by BVD.


Assuntos
Nós Neurofibrosos , Trombina , Camundongos , Animais , Nós Neurofibrosos/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo , Nervo Óptico , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Axônios , Camundongos Transgênicos
5.
Elife ; 112022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190110

RESUMO

Background: Notch signaling dictates cell fate decisions in mammalian cells including megakaryocytes. Existence of functional Notch signaling in enucleate platelets remains elusive. Methods: Transcripts/peptides of Notch1 and Delta-like ligand (DLL)-4 were detected in platelets isolated from human blood by RT-qPCR, Western analysis and flow cytometry. Platelet aggregation, granule secretion and platelet-leukocyte interaction were analyzed by lumi-aggregometry and flow cytometry. Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles were documented with Nanoparticle Tracking Analyzer. Platelet thrombus on immobilized collagen was quantified using microfluidics platform. Intracellular calcium was monitored by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Whole blood coagulation was studied by thromboelastography. Ferric chloride-induced mouse mesenteric arteriolar thrombosis was imaged by intravital microscopy. Results: We demonstrate expression of Notch1, its ligand DLL-4 and their respective transcripts in human platelets. Synthesis and surface translocation of Notch1 and DLL-4 were upregulated by thrombin. DLL-4, in turn, instigated neighbouring platelets to switch to 'activated' phenotype through cleavage of Notch receptor and release of its intracellular domain (NICD), which was averted by inhibition of γ-secretase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Inhibition of Notch signaling, too, restrained agonist-induced platelet activation, and significantly impaired arterial thrombosis in mice. Strikingly, prevention of DLL-4-Notch1 interaction by a blocking antibody abolished platelet aggregation and extracellular vesicle shedding induced by thrombin. Conclusions: Our study presents compelling evidence in support of non-canonical juxtacrine Notch signaling within platelet aggregates that synergizes with physiological agonists to generate occlusive intramural thrombi. Thus, Notch pathway can be a potential anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic therapeutic target. Funding: Research was supported by grants received by DD from JC Bose Fellowship (JCB/2017/000029), ICMR (71/4/2018-BMS/CAR), DBT (BT/PR-20645/BRB/10/1541/2016) and SERB (EMR/2015/000583). SNC, ME and VS are recipients of ICMR-Scientist-C, CSIR-SRF and UGC-SRF support, respectively. Funders had no role in design, analysis and reporting of study.


Assuntos
Receptores Notch , Trombose , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ligantes , Ativação Plaquetária , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo
6.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(44): 8931-8939, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315022

RESUMO

A method to computationally and experimentally identify aptamers against short peptides or amino acid clusters is introduced. The method involves the selection of a well-defined protein aptamer complex and the extraction of the peptide sequence participating in the binding of the protein to the aptamer. The subsequent fragmentation of the peptide sequence into short peptides and the in silico docking-guided identification of affinity complexes between the miniaturized peptides and the antiprotein aptamer, followed by experimental validation of the binding features of the short peptides with the antiprotein aptamers, leads to the identification of new short peptide-aptamer complexes. This is exemplified with the identification of the pentapeptide RYERN as the scaffold that binds thrombin to the DNA thrombin aptamer (DNA TA). In silico docking studies followed by microscale thermophoresis (MST) experiments demonstrate that the miniaturized tripeptides RYE, YER, and ERN reveal selective binding affinities toward the DNA TA. In addition, docking and MST experiments show that the ribonucleotide-translated RNA TA shows related binding affinities of YER to the DNA TA. Most importantly, we demonstrate that the separated amino acids Y/E/R assemble as a three amino acid cluster on the DNA TA and RNA TA aptamers in spatial configurations similar to the tripeptide YER on the respective aptamers. The clustering phenomenon is selective for the YER tripeptide system. The method to identify binding affinities of miniaturized peptides to known antiprotein aptamers and the specific clustering of single amino acids on the aptamers is further demonstrated by in silico and experimental identification of the binding of the tripeptide RET and the selective clustering of the separated amino acids R/E/T onto a derivative of the AS1411 aptamer against the nucleolin receptor protein.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Trombina/metabolismo , DNA/química , RNA , Peptídeos
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16746, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202914

RESUMO

Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is highly expressed in murine colonic smooth muscles. Responses to PAR1 activation are complex and result from responses in multiple cell types. We investigated whether PAR1 responses are altered in inflamed colon induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treatment. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Measurements of isometric force, transmembrane potentials from impaled smooth muscle cells, quantitative PCR and Western blots were performed. Thrombin, an activator of PAR1, caused transient hyperpolarization and relaxation of untreated colons, but these responses decreased in DSS-treated colons. Apamin caused depolarization and increased contractions of muscles from untreated mice. This response was decreased in DSS-treated colons. Expression of Kcnn3 and Pdgfra also decreased in DSS-treated muscles. A second phase of thrombin responses is depolarization and increased contractions in untreated muscles. However, thrombin did cause depolarization in DSS-treated colon, yet it increased colonic contractions. The latter effect was associated with enhanced expression of MYPT1 and CPI-17. The propagation velocity and frequency of colonic migrating motor complexes in DSS-treated colon was significantly higher compared to control colons. In summary, DSS treatment causes loss of transient relaxations due to downregulation of SK3 channels in PDGFRα+ cells and may increase contractile responses due to increased Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle cells via PAR1 activation.


Assuntos
Colite , Água Potável , Animais , Apamina/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Baixa/metabolismo , Sulfatos , Trombina/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232674

RESUMO

Platelets are crucial for hemostasis and arterial thrombosis, which may lead to severe cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Thus, therapeutic agents must be developed to prevent pathological platelet activation. Glabridin, a major bioalkaloid extracted from licorice root, improves metabolic abnormalities (i.e., obesity and diabetes) and protects against CVDs and neuronal disorders. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have focused on glabridin's effects on platelet activation. Therefore, we investigated these effects in humans and mice. Glabridin exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and moderate effects on arachidonic-acid-stimulated activation; however, no effects were observed for any other agonists (e.g., thrombin or U46619). Glabridin evidently reduced P-selectin expression, ATP release, and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) mobilization and thromboxane A2 formation; it further reduced the activation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2/protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK3ß), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-κB. In mice, glabridin reduced the mortality rate caused by acute pulmonary thromboembolism without altering bleeding time. Thus, glabridin effectively inhibits the PLCγ2/PKC cascade and prevents the activation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3ß and MAPK pathways; this leads to a reduction in [Ca2+]i mobilization, which eventually inhibits platelet aggregation. Therefore, glabridin may be a promising therapeutic agent for thromboembolic disorders.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza , Selectina-P , Ácido 15-Hidroxi-11 alfa,9 alfa-(epoximetano)prosta-5,13-dienoico/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoflavonas , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Fenóis , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfolipase C gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ativação Plaquetária , Agregação Plaquetária , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo , Tromboxanos/metabolismo
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 977443, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248875

RESUMO

Thrombosis is a major clinical complication of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 patients show changes in coagulation factors that indicate an important role for the coagulation system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, the multifactorial nature of thrombosis complicates the prediction of thrombotic events based on a single hemostatic variable. We developed and validated a neural net for the prediction of COVID-19-related thrombosis. The neural net was developed based on the hemostatic and general (laboratory) variables of 149 confirmed COVID-19 patients from two cohorts: at the time of hospital admission (cohort 1 including 133 patients) and at ICU admission (cohort 2 including 16 patients). Twenty-six patients suffered from thrombosis during their hospital stay: 19 patients in cohort 1 and 7 patients in cohort 2. The neural net predicts COVID-19 related thrombosis based on C-reactive protein (relative importance 14%), sex (10%), thrombin generation (TG) time-to-tail (10%), α2-Macroglobulin (9%), TG curve width (9%), thrombin-α2-Macroglobulin complexes (9%), plasmin generation lag time (8%), serum IgM (8%), TG lag time (7%), TG time-to-peak (7%), thrombin-antithrombin complexes (5%), and age (5%). This neural net can predict COVID-19-thrombosis at the time of hospital admission with a positive predictive value of 98%-100%.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hemostáticos , Trombose , Antitrombinas , Proteína C-Reativa , COVID-19/complicações , Fibrinolisina , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Redes Neurais de Computação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombose/etiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251660

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) induces hyperglycemia, alters hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) deformability and impairs hemorheology. The question remains whether RBC breakdown and intravascular hemolysis (IVH) occur in T2D patients. We characterized RBC-degradation products and vesiculation in a case-control study of 109 T2D patients and 65 control subjects. We quantified heme-related absorbance by spectrophotometry and circulating extracellular vesicles (EV) by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Heme-related absorbance was increased in T2D vs. control plasma (+57%) and further elevated in obese T2D plasma (+27%). However, large CD235a+ EV were not increased in T2D plasma. EV from T2D plasma, or shed by isolated T2D RBC, were notably smaller in diameter (-27%) and carried heme-related absorbance. In T2D plasma, higher heme-related absorbance (+30%) was associated to peripheral sensory neuropathy, and no other vascular complication. In vitro, T2D RBC-derived EV triggered endothelial stress and thrombin activation in a phosphatidylserine- and heme-dependent fashion. We concluded that T2D was associated with low-grade IVH. Plasma absorbance may constitute a novel biomarker of peripheral neuropathy in T2D, while flow cytometry focusing on large EV may be maladapted to characterize RBC EV in T2D. Moreover, therapeutics limiting IVH or neutralizing RBC breakdown products might bolster vasculoprotection in T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Heme/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Hemólise , Humanos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234679

RESUMO

Some fruits and vegetables, rich in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, may inhibit platelet activation pathways and therefore reduce the risk of suffering from CVD when consumed regularly. Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz (Maqui) is a shrub or tree native to Chile with outstanding antioxidant activity, associated with its high content in anthocyanins, polyphenols, and flavonoids. Previous studies reveal different pharmacological properties for this berry, but its cardioprotective potential has been little studied. Despite having an abundant composition, and being rich in bioactive products with an antiplatelet role, there are few studies linking this berry with antiplatelet activity. This review summarizes and discusses relevant information on the cardioprotective potential of Maqui, based on its composition of bioactive compounds, mainly as a nutraceutical antiplatelet agent. Articles published between 2000 and 2022 in the following bibliographic databases were selected: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Our search revealed that Maqui is a promising cardiovascular target since extracts from this berry have direct effects on the reduction in cardiovascular risk factors (glucose index, obesity, diabetes, among others). Although studies on antiplatelet activity in this fruit are recent, its rich chemical composition clearly shows that the presence of chemical compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, among others) with high antiplatelet potential can provide this berry with antiplatelet properties. These bioactive compounds have antiplatelet effects with multiple targets in the platelet, particularly, they have been related to the inhibition of thromboxane, thrombin, ADP, and GPVI receptors, or through the pathways by which these receptors stimulate platelet aggregation. Detailed studies are needed to clarify this gap in the literature, as well as to specifically evaluate the mechanism of action of Maqui extracts, due to the presence of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Elaeocarpaceae , Frutas , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Elaeocarpaceae/química , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Trombina/metabolismo , Tromboxanos/análise , Tromboxanos/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293273

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The in vitro culture of primordial follicles is the only available option for preserving fertility in prepubertal girls with malignant tumors. The cultivation of primordial follicles in scaffolds as artificial ovaries is a promising approach for this. METHODS: Dissociated follicles were placed into an artificial ovarian scaffold composed of fibrinogen and thrombin. The follicles were cultured in a dish dedicated to live cell imaging and observed for growth using immunofluorescence and development via optical microscopy. The morphology of the follicles in the scaffold was three-dimensionally reconstructed using the Imaris software. Growth and development were also quantified. RESULTS: The morphology of artificial ovaries began to degrade over time. Within approximately 7 days, primordial follicles were activated and grew into secondary follicles. A comparison of optical and confocal microscopy results revealed the superior detection of live cells using confocal microscopy. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the confocal microscopy data enabled the automatic enumeration and evaluation of the overall morphology of many follicles. CONCLUSIONS: The novel artificial ovary-enabled primordial follicles to enter the growth cycle after activation and grow into secondary follicles. The use of a fibrin scaffold as a carrier preserves the developmental potential of primordial germ cells and is a potentially effective method for preserving fertility in prepubertal girls.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade , Neoplasias , Humanos , Feminino , Ovário/metabolismo , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Trombina/metabolismo , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Bioengenharia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 933: 175264, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100127

RESUMO

Proteinases released e.g. during inflammatory or allergic responses affect gastrointestinal functions via proteinase-activated receptors such as PAR1 and PAR2. As the gastrointestinal tract exerts pronounced gradients along its longitudinal axis, the present study focuses on the effect of PAR1 and PAR2 agonists on electrogenic ion transport (measured as short-circuit current; Isc), tissue conductance (Gt) and contractility of the longitudinal muscle layer of rats. In Ussing chamber experiments, the PAR1 agonist TFLLR-NH2, which mimics the tethered ligand liberated after cleavage of the receptor, evoked only a modest increase in Isc (<0.5 µEq·h-1·cm-2) in small intestine, but a strong increase (3-4 µEq·h-1·cm-2) in colon. Pretreatment with tetrodotoxin reduced the response of the colonic segments to the level of the small intestine. Thrombin, the natural activator of PAR1, was much less effective suggesting biased activation by this peptidase. A similar gradient along the longitudinal axis of the intestine was observed with trypsin, the endogenous activator of PAR2. Divergent actions of PAR1 activation by enzymatic cleavage or a mimetic peptide were also observed when recording isometric contractions of longitudinal muscle. For example, in the jejunum TFLLR-NH2 concentration-dependently induced a contractile response, whereas thrombin showed only inconsistent effects. The PAR2 activator AC264613 induced a concentration-dependent decrease in muscle tone combined with an inhibition of phasic spontaneous contractions. PCR experiments and immunohistochemical stainings confirmed the expression of PAR1 and PAR2. The data implies that PAR1 and PAR2 functions vary depending on the intestinal segment.


Assuntos
Receptor PAR-1 , Receptor PAR-2 , Animais , Ligantes , Peptídeos , Ratos , Receptores de Trombina/metabolismo , Tetrodotoxina , Trombina/metabolismo , Tripsina/farmacologia
14.
FEBS Lett ; 596(19): 2566-2575, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050806

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is crucial for virus invasion in COVID-19. Here, we showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can trigger S protein aggregation at high doses of LPS and S protein. We demonstrated the formation of S protein aggregates by microscopy analyses, aggregation and gel shift assays. LPS at high levels boosts the formation of S protein aggregates as detected by amytracker and thioflavin T dyes that specifically bind to aggregating proteins. We validated the role of LPS by blocking the formation of aggregates by the endotoxin-scavenging thrombin-derived peptide TCP-25. Aggregation-prone sequences in S protein are predicted to be nearby LPS binding sites, while molecular simulations showed stable formation of S protein-LPS higher-order oligomers. Collectively, our results provide evidence of LPS-induced S protein aggregation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Corantes , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Trombina/metabolismo
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(9): e1010414, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107837

RESUMO

Thrombin is an enzyme produced during blood coagulation that is crucial to the formation of a stable clot. Thrombin cleaves soluble fibrinogen into fibrin, which polymerizes and forms an insoluble, stabilizing gel around the growing clot. A small fraction of circulating fibrinogen is the variant γA/γ', which has been associated with high-affinity thrombin binding and implicated as a risk factor for myocardial infarctions, deep vein thrombosis, and coronary artery disease. Thrombin is also known to be strongly sequestered by polymerized fibrin for extended periods of time in a way that is partially regulated by γA/γ'. However, the role of γA/γ'-thrombin interactions during fibrin polymerization is not fully understood. Here, we present a mathematical model of fibrin polymerization that considered the interactions between thrombin, fibrinogen, and fibrin, including those with γA/γ'. In our model, bivalent thrombin-fibrin binding greatly increased thrombin residency times and allowed for thrombin-trapping during fibrin polymerization. Results from the model showed that early in fibrin polymerization, γ' binding to thrombin served to localize the thrombin to the fibrin(ogen), which effectively enhanced the enzymatic conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. When all the fibrin was fully generated, however, the fibrin-thrombin binding persisted but the effect of fibrin on thrombin switched quickly to serve as a sink, essentially removing all free thrombin from the system. This dual role for γ'-thrombin binding during polymerization led to a paradoxical decrease in trapped thrombin as the amount of γ' was increased. The model highlighted biochemical and biophysical roles for fibrin-thrombin interactions during polymerization and agreed well with experimental observations.


Assuntos
Fibrina , Trombina , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Polimerização , Trombina/metabolismo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 4383-4400, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36164554

RESUMO

Purpose: In the search for new drug delivery platforms for cardiovascular diseases and coating of medical devices, we synthesized eptifibatide-functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-EPI) and examined the pharmacological activity of AgNPs-EPI on platelets and endothelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. Methods: Spherical AgNPs linked to eptifibatide were synthesized and characterized. Cytotoxicity was measured in microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), platelets and red blood cells. Platelet mitochondrial respiration was measured using the Oxygraph-2k, a high-resolution modular respirometry system. The effect of AgNPs-EPI on the aggregation of washed platelets was measured by light aggregometry and the ex vivo occlusion time was determined using a reference laboratory method. The surface amount of platelet receptors such as P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa was measured. The influence of AgNPS-EPI on blood coagulation science was assessed. Finally, the effect of AgNPs-EPI on endothelial cells was measured by the levels of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, tPa, cGMP and vWF. Results: We describe the synthesis of AgNPs using eptifibatide as the stabilizing ligand. The molecules of this drug are directly bonded to the surface of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs-EPI did not affect the viability of platelets, endothelial cells and erythrocytes. Preincubation of platelets with AgNPs-EPI protected by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity. AgNPs-EPI inhibited aggregation-induced P-selectin expression and GPIIb/IIIa conformational changes in platelets. AgNPs-EPI caused prolongation of the occlusion time in the presence of collagen/ADP and collagen/adrenaline. AgNPs-EPI regulated levels of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, tPa, vWf and cGMP produced in thrombin stimulated HMEC-1 cells. Conclusion: AgNPs-EPI show anti-aggregatory activity at concentrations lower than those required by the free drug acting via regulation of platelet aggregation, blood coagulation, and endothelial cell activity. Our results provide proof-of-principle evidence that AgNPs may be used as an effective delivery platform for antiplatelet drugs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Selectina-P , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Plaquetas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Eptifibatida/farmacologia , Ligantes , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo , Prata/farmacologia , Trombina/metabolismo , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
17.
Thromb Res ; 219: 141-149, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-physiological shear stress (NPSS) and thrombin have two distinct mechanisms for activating platelets. NPSS in mechanically assisted circulation (MAC) devices can cause platelet dysfunction, e.g., by shedding its key receptors. In addition, patients with heart failure have increased levels of thrombin generation, which may further affect the NPSS-induced platelet dysfunction, resulting in device-associated complications. This study aimed to assess the combined effect of NPSS and thrombin in platelet activation, expression of adhesion receptors on the platelet surface, and alterations of platelet aggregation. METHODS: Fresh human blood from healthy donors was divided into two groups; one group was treated by adding 0.01 U/mL thrombin, and another group not treated with thrombin served as a control comparison. They were then pumped through a novel blood shearing device which produces similar shear stress conditions to those in the MAC devices. Three levels of NPSS (i.e., 75, 125, and 175 Pa) with a 1.0 s exposure time were selected for the shearing conditions. Expression of platelet activation markers (PAC-1, activated GPIIb/IIIa and CD62P, platelet surface P-selectin) were investigated along with the shedding of platelet receptors (GPIb, GPIIb/IIIa, and GPVI), generation of platelet microparticles, and Phosphatidylserine (PS)-positive platelets detected by flow cytometry. Platelet aggregation (induced by collagen/ristocetin) was measured by Lumi-aggregometry. RESULTS: Platelet receptors were shed after exposure to NPSS showing a positive correlation with the level of shear stress. The generation of platelet microparticles and PS-positive platelets also increased with greater NPSS. Elevated NPSS decreased the platelet aggregation capacity. Platelet activation level increased with greater NPSS. Being treated by thrombin can further exacerbate these characteristics under same level of NPSS, except that platelet activation level drastically dropped after the exposure to 175 Pa NPSS in the thrombin-treated blood. CONCLUSION: After being treated by thrombin, platelets became more susceptible to NPSS, resulting in more receptor shedding, platelet microparticles, and PS-positive platelets, thus limiting platelet aggregation capacity after exposure to NPSS. Platelet activation, in terms of PAC-1 and P-selectin, is an interim status competing between the expression and shedding of these makers/receptors. When platelets have reached a saturation level of activation, exposure to excessive NPSS can potentially impair activation.


Assuntos
Selectina-P , Trombina , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária , Agregação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ristocetina/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo
18.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44 Suppl 1: 89-100, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074709

RESUMO

Platelet procoagulant mechanisms are emerging to be complex and important to achieving haemostasis. The mechanisms include the release of procoagulant molecules from platelet storage granules, and strong agonist-induced expression of procoagulant phospholipids on the outer platelet membrane for tenase and prothrombinase assembly. The release of dense granule polyphosphate is important to platelet procoagulant function as it promotes the activation of factors XII, XI and V, inhibits tissue factor pathway inhibitor and fibrinolysis, and strengthens fibrin clots. Platelet procoagulant function also involves the release of partially activated factor V from platelets. Scott syndrome has provided important insights on the mechanisms that regulate procoagulant phospholipids expression on the external platelet membrane, which require strong agonist stimulation that increase cystolic calcium levels, mitochondrial calcium uptake, the loss of flippase function and activation of the transmembrane scramblase protein anoctamin 6. There have been advances in the methods used to directly and indirectly assess platelet procoagulant function in health and disease. Assessments of thrombin generation with platelet rich plasma samples has provided new insights on how platelet procoagulant function is altered in inherited platelet disorders, and how platelets influence the bleeding phenotype of a number of severe coagulation factor deficiencies. Several therapies, including desmopressin and recombinant factor VIIa, improve thrombin generation by platelets. There is growing interest in targeting platelet procoagulant function for therapeutic benefit. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of platelet-dependent procoagulant mechanisms in health and in bleeding disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Transtornos Hemorrágicos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária , Trombina/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142125

RESUMO

Platelet and coagulation activation are highly reciprocal processes driven by multi-molecular interactions. Activated platelets secrete several coagulation factors and expose phosphatidylserine, which supports the activation of coagulation factor proteins. On the other hand, the coagulation cascade generates known ligands for platelet receptors, such as thrombin and fibrin. Coagulation factor (F)Xa, (F)XIIIa and activated protein C (APC) can also bind to platelets, but the functional consequences are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of the activated (anti)coagulation factors on platelets, other than thrombin. Multicolor flow cytometry and aggregation experiments revealed that the 'supernatant of (hirudin-treated) coagulated plasma' (SCP) enhanced CRP-XL-induced platelet responses, i.e., integrin αIIbß3 activation, P-selectin exposure and aggregate formation. We demonstrated that FXIIIa in combination with APC enhanced platelet activation in solution, and separately immobilized FXIIIa and APC resulted in platelet spreading. Platelet activation by FXIIIa was inhibited by molecular blockade of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) or Syk kinase. In contrast, platelet spreading on immobilized APC was inhibited by PAR1 blockade. Immobilized, but not soluble, FXIIIa and APC also enhanced in vitro adhesion and aggregation under flow. In conclusion, in coagulation, factors other than thrombin or fibrin can induce platelet activation via GPVI and PAR receptors.


Assuntos
Selectina-P , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fator XIIIa/metabolismo , Fibrina/metabolismo , Hirudinas/metabolismo , Hirudinas/farmacologia , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária , Agregação Plaquetária , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Proteína C/metabolismo , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Quinase Syk/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombina/farmacologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142208

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that affects joints, leading to swelling, inflammation, and dysfunction in the joints. Recently, research efforts have been focused on finding novel curative approaches for rheumatoid arthritis, as current therapies are associated with adverse effects. Here, we examined the effectiveness of dabigatran, the antithrombotic agent, in treating complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. Subcutaneous injection of a single 0.3 mL dosage of CFA into the rat's hind leg planter surface resulted in articular surface deformities, reduced cartilage thickness, loss of intercellular matrix, and inflammatory cell infiltration. There were also increased levels of the Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA), oxidative stress, and tissue Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL). Proteins of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) were also elevated. The inhibitory effects of dabigatran on thrombin led to a subsequent inhibition of KKS and reduced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. These effects also decreased RANKL levels and showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, dabigatran could be a novel therapeutic strategy for arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/farmacologia , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Adjuvante de Freund/efeitos adversos , Sistema Calicreína-Cinina , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Ratos , Trombina/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
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