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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e2354352, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306100

RESUMO

Importance: The risks and benefits of thromboprophylaxis therapy after cancer surgery are debated. Studies that determine thrombosis risk after cancer surgery with high accuracy are needed. Objectives: To evaluate 1-year risk of venous thromboembolic events after major cancer surgery and how these events vary over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This register-based retrospective observational matched cohort study included data on the full population of Sweden between 1998 and 2016. All patients who underwent major surgery for cancer of the bladder, breast, colon or rectum, gynecologic organs, kidney and upper urothelial tract, lung, prostate, or gastroesophageal tract were matched in a 1:10 ratio with cancer-free members of the general population on year of birth, sex, and county of residence. Data were analyzed from February 13 to December 5, 2023. Exposure: Major surgery for cancer. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was incidence of venous thromboembolic events within 1 year after the surgery. Crude absolute risks and risk differences of events within 1 year and adjusted time-dependent cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of postdischarge events were calculated. Results: A total of 432 218 patients with cancer (median age, 67 years [IQR, 58-75 years]; 68.7% women) and 4 009 343 cancer-free comparators (median age, 66 years [IQR, 57-74 years]; 69.3% women) were included in the study. The crude 1-year cumulative risk of pulmonary embolism was higher among the cancer surgery population for all cancers, with the following absolute risk differences: for bladder cancer, 2.69 percentage points (95% CI, 2.33-3.05 percentage points); for breast cancer, 0.59 percentage points (95% CI 0.55-0.63 percentage points); for colorectal cancer, 1.57 percentage points (95% CI, 1.50-1.65 percentage points); for gynecologic organ cancer, 1.32 percentage points (95% CI, 1.22-1.41 percentage points); for kidney and upper urinary tract cancer, 1.38 percentage points (95% CI, 1.21-1.55 percentage points); for lung cancer, 2.61 percentage points (95% CI, 2.34-2.89 percentage points); for gastroesophageal cancer, 2.13 percentage points (95% CI, 1.89-2.38 percentage points); and for prostate cancer, 0.57 percentage points (95% CI, 0.49-0.66 percentage points). The cause-specific HR of pulmonary embolism comparing patients who underwent cancer surgery with matched comparators peaked just after discharge and generally plateaued 60 to 90 days later. At 30 days after surgery, the HR was 10 to 30 times higher than in the comparison cohort for all cancers except breast cancer (colorectal cancer: HR, 9.18 [95% CI, 8.03-10.50]; lung cancer: HR, 25.66 [95% CI, 17.41-37.84]; breast cancer: HR, 5.18 [95% CI, 4.45-6.05]). The hazards subsided but never reached the level of the comparison cohort except for prostate cancer. Similar results were observed for deep vein thrombosis. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found an increased rate of venous thromboembolism associated with cancer surgery. The risk persisted for about 2 to 4 months postoperatively but varied between cancer types. The increased rate is likely explained by the underlying cancer disease and adjuvant treatments. The results highlight the need for individualized venous thromboembolism risk evaluation and prophylaxis regimens for patients undergoing different surgery for different cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias da Próstata , Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência ao Convalescente , Anticoagulantes , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Alta do Paciente , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Anticancer Res ; 44(2): 695-701, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-recognized complication that leads to morbidity and mortality. Lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) for rectal cancer is thought to potentially increase the risk of VTE due to its technical complexity. However, the relationship between LLND and VTE remains inadequately understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of LLND on the incidence of postoperative VTE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent rectal cancer resection between 2010 and 2018 to identify the risk factors associated with postoperative VTE. Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent surgery with LLND (LLND+ group) and those who underwent surgery without LLND (LLND- group). RESULTS: A total of 543 patients were enrolled in this study, and 113 patients underwent surgery for rectal cancer with LLND. VTE developed in 8 patients (1.47%), with the incidence rates being 4.42% in the LLND+ group and 0.69% in the LLND- group, respectively (p=0.012). Three of 8 patients had developed severe postoperative complications, and the other two patients needed intraoperative repair of the iliac vein during LLND procedure. Multivariate analysis identified the incidence of postoperative complications and LLND as the independent risk factors of VTE. CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery with LLND should be closely monitored for signs of VTE.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Excisão de Linfonodo/efeitos adversos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia
4.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 91(2): 109-117, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307604

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health burden in patients with cancer, causing morbidity, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and death. Treatment is challenging, as it is necessary to balance the risk of recurrent thrombosis and bleeding associated with anticoagulants. Treatment paradigms are shifting from low-molecular-weight heparin monotherapy. Multiple recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants in this setting. Current studies are evaluating factor XI inhibitors as potential treatments for cancer-associated VTE.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/complicações
6.
Microsurgery ; 44(2): e31146, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary hypercoagulable disorders pose a significant challenge to microsurgeons and have traditionally been regarded as a relative contraindication to free tissue transfer. Since free flaps offer numerous advantages in breast reconstruction, there is an effort to expand the population to whom these operations can be safely offered. The purpose of this study is to describe our chemoprophylaxis regimen in cases of primary hypercoagulability, as well as to compare flap outcomes and complications between women with and without hypercoagulability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single institution retrospective review identified 15 patients (25 flaps) with known primary hypercoagulability who underwent microsurgical breast reconstruction from 2010 through 2020. There were 785 patients (1268 flaps) without primary hypercoagulability who underwent microsurgical breast reconstruction, including 40 patients (73 flaps) with a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE), evaluated for comparison. Patient characteristics, thromboprophylaxis regimen, and surgical outcomes were collected. In carrying out this cohort study, we have adhered to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with primary hypercoagulability were identified, including heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation (n = 12), protein S deficiency (n = 1), prothrombin mutation (n = 1), and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (n = 1). Thirteen of these (87%) were discharged with an extended LMWH course. There was no postoperative VTE or mortality in this cohort, and no significant difference in hematoma or transfusion compared with the control group (p = .31, p = .87, respectively). The flap loss rate was 4% in the hypercoagulable group compared with 0.92% in the control group (p = .15). The salvage for arterial or venous compromise in the hypercoagulable group was poor (0% vs. 52%, p = .3). CONCLUSION: Microsurgical breast reconstruction in women with primary hypercoagulability disorders is feasible with acceptable risk of flap loss but poor salvage potential. Postoperative thromboprophylaxis with extended prophylactic LMWH in this population appears to be a safe regimen.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Mamoplastia , Trombofilia , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Feminino , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0293821, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232065

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the perioperative and postoperative incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and validate the effectiveness of our own preventive treatment protocol for venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurrence in lower extremity arthroplasty patients. The subjects were 1,054 patients (mean age: 74.3 years) who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our institutions between April 2014 and March 2017. We examined the frequencies of pre- and post-operative DVT by lower extremity Doppler images, and the incidence rate at proximal or distal regions as well as that according to preoperative DVT status were evaluated. Preoperative DVT was detected in 6.5% (69 cases) of our cohort and those were located 1.4% (15 cases) at proximal and 5.1% (54 cases) at distal regions. A significantly higher rate of postoperative DVT development was observed in preoperative DVT+ THA patients (P = 0.0075), but not in TKA patients only with a higher tendency (P = 0.56). The overall incidence of DVT up to 2 weeks after surgeries was 27.3% (288 cases); however, the rate in proximal femur regions was suppressed to 2.8% (30 cases), and there was no symptomatic pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) case. The results demonstrated the importance of regular Doppler examination for early detection of postoperative DVT occurrence and the following immediate treatment initiation. Our own VTE preventive treatment protocol could reduce the development of proximal DVT, and the periodic monitoring as well as prompt treatment might prevent the fatal PTE. osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA).


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Incidência , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (1): 119-126, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258698

RESUMO

Despite notable progress in the prevention of venous thromboembolic complications (VTE) and its widespread use in recent decades, mortality in cancer patients from VTE is still second only to the main disease. Some features and limitations in cancer patients, such as a decrease in kidney function and platelet count, an increased risk of bleeding, and the difficulty of monitoring the adequacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis, as well as the use of aggressive chemotherapy, determine the need for more effective and safer ways to solve the problem of VTE. Also, in the case of surgical interventions in such patients, the need for preoperative thromboprophylaxis raises new challenges for doctors. The article presents a review of the issue using a clinical case.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Insuficiência Renal , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Veias , Rim , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/cirurgia
9.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 30: 10760296231222477, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38173275

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism in multiple myeloma is still poorly understood because multiple factors are involved. In particular, the increase in whole blood viscosity has a key role and, therefore, we performed an evaluation of some hemorheological determinants in multiple myeloma patients, putting them in relation to the thrombotic risk, with the aim to evaluate if an alteration of the hemorheological pattern was associated with a higher thrombotic risk. We performed an observational retrospective cohort study with data collected from January 2017 to September 2022. In a group of 190 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, we have examined the trend of calculated blood viscosity according to the Merrill formula, and we stratified the patients for the thrombotic risk in accordance with the IMWG/NCCN guidelines and with IMPEDE VTE score. Using the thrombotic risk stratification proposed by IMWG/NCCN any variation in calculated blood viscosity is evident, while, with the IMPEDE VTE score, we observed an increase in calculated blood viscosity in patients with "intermediate + high" risk. The calculated blood viscosity is higher in subjects presenting an "intermediate + high" thrombotic risk according to the IMPEDE VTE score. This association could therefore lay the groundwork for further research with the aim to confirm the role of hemorheological pattern in MM-related thrombotic risk.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Trombose , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Viscosidade Sanguínea , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
10.
J Orthop Traumatol ; 25(1): 1, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several clinical investigations have compared different pharmacologic agents for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, no consensus has been reached. The present investigation compared enoxaparin, fondaparinux, aspirin and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) commonly used as prophylaxis following total hip arthroplasty (THA). A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed, setting as outcomes of interest the rate of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and major and minor haemorrhages. METHODS: This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension statement for reporting systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses of healthcare interventions. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing two or more drugs used for the prophylaxis of VTE following THA were accessed. PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were accessed in March 2023 with no time constraint. RESULTS: Data from 31,705 patients were extracted. Of these, 62% (19,824) were women, with age, sex ratio, and body mass index (BMI) being comparable at baseline. Apixaban 5 mg, fondaparinux, and rivaroxaban 60 mg were the most effective in reducing the rate of DVT. Dabigatran 220 mg, apixaban 5 mg, and aspirin 100 mg were the most effective in reducing the rate of PE. Apixaban 5 mg, ximelagatran 2 mg and aspirin 100 mg were associated with the lowest rate of major haemorrhages, while rivaroxaban 2.5 mg, apixaban 5 mg and enoxaparin 40 mg were associated with the lowest rate of minor haemorrhages. CONCLUSION: Administration of apixaban 5 mg demonstrated the best balance between VTE prevention and haemorrhage control following THA. Level of evidence Level I, network meta-analysis of RCTs.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Tromboembolia Venosa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana , Enoxaparina , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fondaparinux , Metanálise em Rede , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e079363, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) and central venous catheters (CVC) are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Minimal data exist regarding the use of anticoagulation as thromboprophylaxis of VTE in this demographic, and as a result, clinical equipoise exists. Prophylactic dose rivaroxaban, a direct oral anticoagulant, is efficacious and safe as thromboprophylaxis in other demographics, and may be an optimal agent in SCD with CVC. Prior to conducting a full clinical trial to assess rivaroxaban as thromboprophylaxis in SCD with CVC, a pilot study is needed to gauge its feasibility. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: THromboprophylaxis In Sickle Cell Disease pilot trial is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing if it is feasible and safe to conduct an adequately powered RCT comparing rivaroxaban to matching placebo as thromboprophylaxis in those with SCD and CVC. Fifty adult patients with SCD and CVC will be randomised to receive either rivaroxaban 10 mg daily or matching placebo for the duration of the CVC in situ for up to 1 year. After randomisation, follow-up visits will occur every 3 months. The primary outcomes pertain to the feasibility of a full trial and include numbers of eligible and recruited participants. Exploratory outcomes include overall incidence of VTE and bleeding complications, as well as quality of life. If the full trial is feasible, blinding will be maintained and patients in the pilot study will be included in the full trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was initially approved by the University Health Network Research Ethics Board (REB) in Toronto, Canada. All sites will obtain approval from their respective REB prior to commencement of study activities. Study results will be disseminated through presentations at medical conferences and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05033314.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Tromboembolia Venosa , Adulto , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Thorac Cancer ; 15(4): 277-285, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) increases the risk of death or adverse outcomes in patients with lung cancer. Therefore, early identification and treatment of high-risk groups of VTE have been the research focus. In this systematic review, the risk assessment tools of VTE in patients with lung cancer were systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a reference for VTE management. METHODS: Relevant studies were retrieved from major English databases (The Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Medline) and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI] and WanFang Data) until July 2023 and extracted by two researchers. This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (no. CRD42023409748). RESULTS: Finally, two prospective cohort studies and four retrospective cohort studies were included from 2019. There was a high risk of bias in all included studies according to the Prediction Model Risk of Bias Assessment tool (PROBAST). In the included studies, Cox and logistic regression were used to construct models. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the model ranged from 0.670 to 0.904, and the number of predictors ranged from 4 to 11. The D-dimer index was included in five studies, but significant differences existed in optimal cutoff values from 0.0005 mg/L to 2.06 mg/L. Then, three studies validated the model externally, two studies only validated the model internally, and only one study validated the model using a combination of internal and external validation. CONCLUSION: VTE risk prediction models for patients with lung cancer have received attention for no more than 5 years. The included model shows a good predictive effect and may help identify the risk population of VTE at an early stage. In the future, it is necessary to improve data modeling and statistical analysis methods, develop predictive models with good performance and low risk of bias, and focus on external validation and recalibration of models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 49(3): 102377, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184126

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a known chronic condition that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop PH due to thromboembolic disease are catalogued as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Anticoagulation remains a topic of interest in these patients. PUBMED, EMBASE and COCHRANE databases were searched by two investigators until December 2023. Information was analyzed for all-cause mortality, venous thromboembolism and major bleeding. We included a total of 10 studies in this meta-analysis. Our pooled analysis demonstrated that DOACs were non-inferior in all-cause mortality [OR 0.88, 95 % CI (0.48, 1.61)], venous thromboembolism [OR 1.00, 95 % CI (0.50, 1.98)] and major bleeding [OR 0.78, 95 % CI (0.43, 1.40)] when compared to VKAs. In conclusion, our meta-analysis supports the use of DOACs in patients with CTEPH. Further randomized trials are still needed to confirm our results in terms of safety and mortality.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Vitamina K , Administração Oral
14.
Thromb Res ; 234: 86-93, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on real-world management strategies and clinical outcomes of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) era. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the status of cancer-associated VTE in the DOAC era. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study among 31 centers in Japan between 2015 and 2020 enrolled 5197 consecutive patients with acute symptomatic VTE, who were divided into 1507 patients (29 %) with active cancer and 3690 patients (71 %) without. RESULTS: The cumulative 3-year rate of anticoagulation discontinuation was significantly higher in patients with active cancer than in those without (62.7 % vs. 59.1 %, P < 0.001). The cumulative 5-year incidence of recurrent VTE was higher in patients with active cancer than in those without (10.1 % vs. 9.1 %, P = 0.01), however, after adjusting for the confounders and competing risk of mortality, the excess risk of the active cancer group relative to the no active cancer group was no longer significant (HR: 0.95, 95 % CI: 0.73-1.24). The cumulative 5-year incidence of major bleeding was much higher in the active cancer group (20.4 % vs. 11.6 %, P < 0.001). Even after adjusting for the confounders and competing risk of mortality, the risk of the active cancer group relative to the no active cancer group remained significant (HR: 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.11-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: The current large real-world registry revealed that the risk of major bleeding was still higher in patients with active cancer than in those without, leading to the frequent anticoagulation discontinuation, which has been still a huge challenge to overcome in the DOAC era.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 71(3): e30843, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38173090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate a clinical decision support (CDS) module to improve guideline concordant venous thromboembolism (VTE) pharmacoprophylaxis prescribing for pediatric inpatients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proportion of patients who met our institutional clinical practice guideline's (CPG) criteria for VTE prophylaxis was compared to those who triggered a CDS alert, indicating the patient needed VTE prophylaxis, and to those who were prescribed prophylaxis pre and post the launch of a new VTE CDS module to support VTE pharmacoprophylaxis prescribing. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, F1-score and accuracy of the tool were calculated for the pre- and post-intervention periods using the CPG recommendation as the gold standard. Accuracy was defined as the sum of the true positives and true negatives over the sum of the true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with correct thromboprophylaxis prescribing. RESULTS: A significant increase in the proportion of patients triggering a CDS alert occurred in the post-intervention period (44.3% vs. 6.9%, p < .001); however, no reciprocal increase in VTE prophylaxis prescribing was achieved (36.6% vs. 40.9%, p = .53). The updated CDS module had an improved sensitivity (55.0% vs. 13.3%), NPV (44.9% vs. 36.3%), F1-score (66.7% vs. 23.5%), and accuracy (62.5% vs. 42.0%), but an inferior specificity (78.6% vs. 100%) and PPV (84.6% vs. 100%). DISCUSSION: The updated CDS model had an improved accuracy and overall performance in correctly identifying patients requiring VTE prophylaxis. Despite an increase in correct patient identification by the CDS module, the proportion of patients receiving appropriate pharmacologic prophylaxis did not change. CONCLUSION: CDS tools to support correct VTE prophylaxis prescribing need ongoing refinement and validation to maximize clinical utility.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Criança , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Pacientes Internados , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 30(2): 110-116, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the trauma setting, and both prediction and prevention of VTE have long been a concern for healthcare providers in orthopedic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of novel statistical analysis and machine-learning in predicting the risk of VTE and the usefulness of prophylaxis following ankle fractures. METHODS: The medical profiles of 16,421 patients with ankle fractures were screened retrospectively for symptomatic VTE. In total, 238 patients sustaining either surgical or nonsurgical treatment for ankle fracture with subsequently confirmed VTE within 180 days following the injury were placed in the case group. Alternatively, 937 patients who sustained ankle fractures managed similarly but had no documented evidence of VTE were randomly chosen as the control group. Individuals from both the case and control populations were also divided into those who had received VTE prophylaxis and those who had not. Over 110 variables were included. Conventional statistics and machine learning methods were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Patients who had a motor vehicle accident, surgical treatment, increased hospital stay, and were on warfarin were shown to have a higher incidence of VTE, whereas patients who were on statins had a lower incidence of VTE. The highest Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves (AUROC) showing the performance of our machine learning approach was 0.88 with 0.94 sensitivity and 0.36 specificity. The most balanced performance was seen in a model that was trained using selected variables with 0.86 AUROC, 0.75 sensitivity, and 0.85 specificity. CONCLUSION: By using machine learning, this study successfully pinpointed several predictive factors linked to the occurrence or absence of VTE in patients who experienced an ankle fracture. Training these algorithms using larger, more granular, and multicentric data will further increase their validity and reliability and should be considered the standard for the development of such algorithms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case-Control study - 3.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Tornozelo/complicações , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico
18.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 49(1 Pt A): 102017, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37544618

RESUMO

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have emerged as a new therapy for patients who need and can tolerate oral anticoagulation. DOACs were initially approved for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and treatment for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Ease of administration, no requirement of bridging with other anticoagulants, and less frequent dosing have made DOACs preferable choice for anticoagulation. Studies are showing promising results regarding use of DOACs beyond the common indications. Studies have been done to show the potential benefit of DOACs in valvular atrial fibrillation, heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Data have shown safety as well as comparable bleeding incidences with DOACs compared to vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants. Naturally interest is growing to see the use of DOACs apart from the NVAF, DVT, or PE. Authors have highlighted various study results to show the potential beneficial role of DOACs in the above-mentioned situations.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Embolia Pulmonar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral
19.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 49(1 Pt A): 102018, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37544620

RESUMO

Altitude-related venous thrombosis (ARVT) is a condition of growing concern among individuals engaged in high-altitude travel and activities. This updated review explores the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical presentations, and management of ARVT based on a thematic analysis and synthesis of the existing literature. ARVT's multifactorial etiology involves the interplay of hypobaric hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction, creating a procoagulant state and increasing the risk of thrombosis. Common clinical manifestations include pain, swelling, and redness in the extremities, necessitating accurate and timely diagnosis, particularly in remote settings. Thromboprophylaxis during high-altitude travel and activities plays a crucial role in reducing the risk of ARVT, while anticoagulation remains the mainstay of management. Further research is needed to optimize preventive and treatment strategies, enhancing patient outcomes and safety in high-altitude environments.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Altitude , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 190(1): 75-85, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38146835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients included in the European Registry on Cushing's syndrome (ERCUSYN), compare their clinical characteristics with those who did not develop VTE and identify risk factors for VTE. DESIGN: A retrospective observational cohort study. METHODS: Data extraction from the registry was taken on February, 7, 2022. At the time there were 2174 patients diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and 95 VTEs were reported in the database. RESULTS: Of 95 VTE events 70 (74%) were in pituitary-dependent CS patients, 12 (12.5%) in adrenal-dependant CS, 10 (10.5%) in ectopic CS, and 3 (3%) in CS due to other causes. Sex, 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) value at diagnosis, as well as the number of operations remained statistically significant predictors of VTE. Of patients who were treated with at least one surgery, 12 (13%) VTE occurred before and 80 (87%) after the surgery. Nearly half of these VTEs occurred within six months since the operation (36; 45%). Over half of the centers that reported VTE did not routinely anticoagulate CS patients. Anticoagulation schemes varied widely. CONCLUSION: Patients with CS have an elevated risk of developing VTE for an extended period of time. From ERCUSYN cohort patients have higher risk for VTE if they need multiple surgeries to treat CS, are males and have high UFC values at the diagnosis of CS. Since there is no agreement on thromboprohpylaxis, a protocol for VTE prevention that is widely adopted appears to be necessary for patients with CS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH , Trombose , Tromboembolia Venosa , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/complicações , Hidrocortisona
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