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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 154: 103074, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911455

RESUMO

Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) have been considered for treating cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE), but safety issues have been raised. We performed a systematic review and pairwise meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of NOACs versus low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in this setting. Four randomized controlled trials were included, providing data on 2894 patients. Compared to LMWH, NOACs were associated with a significantly lower risk of VTE recurrence and were not associated with an increased risk of major bleedings (MB). NOACs were non inferior to LMWH for a composite outcome of VTE recurrence and MB, pulmonary embolism recurrence and all-cause mortality; however, NOACs were associated with an increased risk of clinically relevant nonmajor bleedings (CRNMB) and gastrointestinal MB. In conclusion, in patients with cancer-related VTE, NOACs are effective and safe in reducing VTE recurrence compared to LMWH. An increased risk of CNRMB and GI MB should nonetheless be considered.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos
2.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620945398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883088

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism, occlusion of dialysis catheters, circuit thrombosis in ECMO devices, all in the face of prophylactic and sometimes even therapeutic anti-coagulation, are frequent features of COVID-19 coagulopathy. The trials available to guide clinicians are methodologically limited. There are several unresolved controversies including 1) Should all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receive prophylactic anti-coagulation? 2) Which patients should have their dosage escalated to intermediate dose? 3) Which patients should be considered for full-dose anti-coagulation even without a measurable thromboembolic event and how should that anti-coagulation be monitored? 4) Should patients receive post-discharge anti-coagulation? 5) What thrombotic issues are related to the various medications being used to treat this coagulopathy? 6) Is anti-phospholipid anti-body part of this syndrome? 7) How do the different treatments for this disease impact the coagulation issues? The aims of this article are to explore these questions and interpret the available data based on the current evidence.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
3.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e746-e755, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Study-level meta-analyses provide high-certainty evidence that heparin reduces the risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolism for patients with cancer; however, whether the benefits and harms associated with heparin differ by cancer type is unclear. This individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials examines the effect of heparin on survival, venous thromboembolism, and bleeding in patients with cancer in general and by type. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials comparing parenteral anticoagulants with placebo or standard care in ambulatory patients with solid tumours and no indication for anticoagulation published from the inception of each database to January 14, 2017, and updated it on May 14, 2020, without language restrictions. We calculated the effect of parenteral anticoagulant administration on all-cause mortality, venous thromboembolism occurrence, and bleeding related outcomes through multivariable hierarchical models with patient-level variables as fixed effects and a categorical trial variable as a random effect, adjusting for age, cancer type, and metastatic status. Interaction terms were tested to investigate effects in predefined subgroups. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42013003526. FINDINGS: We obtained individual participant data from 14 of 20 eligible randomised controlled trials (8278 [79%] of 10 431 participants; 4139 included in the low-molecular-weight heparin group and 4139 in the control group). Meta-analysis showed an adjusted relative risk (RR) of mortality at 1 year of 0·99 (95% CI 0·93-1·06) and a hazard ratio of 1·01 (95% CI 0·96-1·07). The number of patients with venous thromboembolic events was 158 (4·0%) of 3958 with available data in the low-molecular-weight heparin group compared with 279 (7·1%) of 3957 in the control group. Major bleeding events occurred in 71 (1·7%) of 4139 patients in the control population and 88 (2·1%) in the low-molecular-weight heparin group, and minor bleeding events in 478 (12·1%) of 3945 patients with available data in the control group and 652 (16·6%) of 3937 patients in the low-molecular-weight heparin group. The adjusted RR was 0·58 (95% CI 0·47-0·71) for venous thromboembolism, 1·27 (0·92-1·74) for major bleeding, and 1·34 (1·19-1·51) for minor bleeding. Prespecified subgroup analysis of venous thromboembolism occurrence by cancer type identified the most certain benefit from heparin treatment in patients with lung cancer (RR 0·59 [95% CI 0·42-0·81]), which dominated the overall reduction in venous thromboembolism. Certainty of the evidence for the outcomes ranged from moderate to high. INTERPRETATION: Low-molecular-weight heparin reduces risk of venous thromboembolism without increasing risk of major bleeding compared with placebo or standard care in patients with solid tumours, but it does not improve survival. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 07 02.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779934

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) seems to be an underdiagnosed complication in COVID-19 patients. We present three male patients, aged 67, 29 and 71 years, who were admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. They all showed deterioration in the course of their disease caused by VTE. In our hospital, VTE was diagnosed in 10% of COVID-19 patients admitted to the general ward (non-ICU patients) despite regular thromboprophylaxis. Deterioration in the course of COVID-19 has differential diagnoses such as progression of the infection itself, secondary bacterial pneumonia, left heart failure and in our experience not infrequently VTE. We therefore recommend to consider VTE in COVID-19 patients with a sudden clinical deterioration such as hypotension, tachycardia, unexplained hypoxaemia or insufficient clinical improvement and to perform CT-angiography if indicated. A high dose of thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 patients may be considered because of increased coagulation activation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
6.
Blood ; 136(11): 1347-1350, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746455

RESUMO

The association of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has resulted in specific guidelines for its prevention and management. The VTE risk appears highest in those with critical care admission. The need for postdischarge thromboprophylaxis remains controversial, which is reflected in conflicting expert guideline recommendations. Our local protocol provides thromboprophylaxis to COVID-19 patients during admission only. We report postdischarge VTE data from an ongoing quality improvement program incorporating root-cause analysis of hospital-associated VTE (HA-VTE). Following 1877 hospital discharges associated with COVID-19, 9 episodes of HA-VTE were diagnosed within 42 days, giving a postdischarge rate of 4.8 per 1000 discharges. Over 2019, following 18 159 discharges associated with a medical admission; there were 56 episodes of HA-VTE within 42 days (3.1 per 1000 discharges). The odds ratio for postdischarge HA-VTE associated with COVID-19 compared with 2019 was 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-3.1). COVID-19 hospitalization does not appear to increase the risk of postdischarge HA-VTE compared with hospitalization with other acute medical illness. Given that the risk-benefit ratio of postdischarge thromboprophylaxis remains uncertain, randomized controlled trials to evaluate the role of continuing thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 patients following hospital discharge are required.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
8.
Blood Adv ; 4(16): 4028, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841342

RESUMO

The high incidence of thromboembolic disease, and in particular venous thromboembolism (VTE), has emerged as an important consideration in hospitalized and critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The coagulopathy of COVID-19 is postulated to result from interactions of the inflammatory and immune systems with the coagulation system, manifesting as a cytokine storm associated with hyperinflammation and coagulation and platelet activation. Unique characteristics of VTE in hospitalized and critically ill patients with COVID-19 include the high incidence of VTE (and especially pulmonary embolism) when compared with historical controls; the finding of in situ pulmonary embolism associated with microthrombi, which suggests a thrombotic microangiopathic process in addition to classic macrovessel disease; and, most important from a clinical perspective, the unusually high rate of VTE that has been reported despite standard thromboprophylaxis. This raises the possibility that intermediate or weight-based heparin dosing may be more effective than fixed dosing for thromboprophylaxis in high-risk subsets of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. There have been several guidance statements focusing on the management of VTE in hospitalized and critically ill patients with COVID-19, including the most recent statement by the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, which includes comprehensive guidance on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of VTE in this patient population. Ongoing randomized trials that address key clinical questions, especially more intense thromboprophylactic strategies and novel antithrombotic approaches, have the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality from VTE in hospitalized and critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Gerenciamento Clínico , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
9.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(5): e178-e182, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is characterised, among other features, by a prothrombotic state with high rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE), D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels. Clinical observations have also highlighted that these patients have elevated von Willebrand factor (vWF) and factor VIIIc. METHODS: 24 consecutive COVID-19 positive patients were selected from the intensive care unit (ICU) or the high acuity ward of Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust. RESULTS: The rate of VTE was 25% and mortality rate was 16.7%. Fibrinogen and D-Dimers were elevated, 7.9 (1.6) g/L and 2.4 (2.02) ug/ml respectively. Factor VIIIc and von vWF antigen levels were both extremely elevated at 279 (148) u/dL and 350 (131) % respectively, which are comparable to levels seen in ICU patients with severe sepsis. vWF levels were significantly higher in patients that died (p=0.017) and showed a positive correlation with age. There was a statistically significant association between COVID-19 disease and non-O blood group (p=0.02); 80% (4/5) of COVID-19 patients with VTE were blood group A. CONCLUSION: Very high levels of vWF and factor VIIIc are common in COVID-19 patients, comparable to levels in severely septic non-COVID ICU patients. This could contribute to the hypercoagulable state and increased VTE rate in COVID-19. Further studies are needed to evaluate the use of vWF for stratifying thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and to determine if elevated vWF is contributing to disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
10.
Crit Care Med ; 48(9): e805-e808, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the defining features of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 infection has been high rates of venous thromboses. The present study aimed to describe the prevalence of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients receiving different regimens of prophylactic anticoagulation. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective review using data from patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 requiring intubation. SETTING: Tertiary-care center in Indianapolis, IN, United States. PATIENTS: Patients hospitalized at international units Health Methodist Hospital with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 requiring intubation between March 23, 2020, and April 8, 2020, who underwent ultrasound evaluation for venous thrombosis. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 45 patients were included. Nineteen of 45 patients (42.2%) were found to have deep venous thrombosis. Patients found to have deep venous thrombosis had no difference in time to intubation (p = 0.97) but underwent ultrasound earlier in their hospital course (p = 0.02). Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were similar between the groups on day of intubation and day of ultrasound (p = 0.44 and p = 0.07, respectively). D-dimers were markedly higher in patients with deep venous thrombosis, both for maximum value and value on day of ultrasound (p < 0.01 for both). Choice of prophylactic regimen was not related to presence of deep venous thrombosis (p = 0.35). Ultrasound evaluation is recommended if D-dimer is greater than 2,000 ng/mL (sensitivity 95%, specificity 46%) and empiric anticoagulation considered if D-dimer is greater than 5,500 ng/mL (sensitivity 53%, specificity 88%). CONCLUSIONS: Deep venous thrombosis is very common in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019. There was no difference in incidence of deep venous thrombosis among different pharmacologic prophylaxis regimens, although our analysis is limited by small sample size. D-dimer values are elevated in the majority of these patients, but there may be thresholds at which screening ultrasound or even empiric systemic anticoagulation is indicated.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
11.
Crit Care Med ; 48(10): e971-e975, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of venous thromboembolism events in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The secondary objective was to compare venous thromboembolism events and coagulation variables in patients requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation according to the pathogen. DESIGN: Retrospective observational analysis at a single center. SETTING: Tertiary referral university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related severe acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy with an injected CT scan performed after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation retrieval. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 patients requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. All of these patients experienced venous thromboembolism: 10 patients (76.9%) had isolated cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis, two patients (15.4%) had isolated pulmonary embolism, and one patient (7.7%) had both cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Eleven patients (84.6%) had cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis. A jugular associated cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis was identified in seven patients (53.8%), a femoral associated cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis was identified in 10 patients (76.9%), and six patients (46.2%) had both femoral and jugular cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis. A pulmonary embolism was found in three patients (23.1%). No patient had central venous catheter-related deep vein thrombosis. One patient had thrombotic occlusion of the centrifugal pump, and one had oxygenator thrombosis requiring circuit replacement. Three patients (23.1%) had significant bleeding. Three patients (23.1%) had laboratory-confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and all of them developed cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis. These three patients had femoral cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis, and two had an oxygenator or pump thrombosis. The mean activated partial thromboplastin time ratio was higher in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 group than in the influenza group and the community-acquired pneumonia group (1.91 vs 1.48 vs 1.53; p = 0.001), which was also found in regard to the percentage of patients with an activated partial thromboplastin time ratio greater than 1.8 (47.8% vs 20% vs 20.9%; p = 0.003) and the mean prothrombin ratio (86.3 vs 61.6 vs 67.1; p = 0.003). There was no difference in baseline characteristics or venous thromboembolism events. CONCLUSIONS: We report a 100% occurrence of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome using CT scan imaging despite a high target and close monitoring of anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , França , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645000

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate the interaction impacts of body mass index (BMI) on the other important risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE), using deep venous thrombosis (DVT) patient data from the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC). We apply eight machine learning techniques, including naive Bayes classifier (NB), support vector machine (SVM), elastic net regression (ENET), logistic regression (LR), lasso regression (LAR), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), boosted regression tree (BRT) and random forest model (RF). The RF method is selected as the best model for classification. Out of 33 features considered in this study, we identify 12 variables as relatively important risk factors for VTE. Finally, we examine the interaction impacts of BMI on these important VTE risk factors. We conclude that the impacts of risk factors on VTE incidence are varying across different BMI groups, and the variations are different for different risk factors. Therefore the interaction impacts of BMI on the other risk factors have to be taken into account in order to better understand the incidence of VTE.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003206, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous clinical trials and institutional studies have demonstrated that surgery for the treatment of obesity (termed bariatric or metabolic surgery) reduces all-cause mortality and the development of obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. The current study analysed large-scale population studies to assess the association of bariatric surgery with long-term mortality and incidence of new-onset obesity-related disease at a national level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic literature search of Medline (via PubMed), Embase, and Web of Science was performed. Articles were included if they were national or regional administrative database cohort studies reporting comparative risk of long-term mortality or incident obesity-related diseases for patients who have undergone any form of bariatric surgery compared with an appropriate control group with a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. Meta-analysis of hazard ratios (HRs) was performed for mortality risk, and pooled odds ratios (PORs) were calculated for discrete variables relating to incident disease. Eighteen studies were identified as suitable for inclusion. There were 1,539,904 patients included in the analysis, with 269,818 receiving bariatric surgery and 1,270,086 control patients. Bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced rate of all-cause mortality (POR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.69, p < 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (POR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.71, p < 0.001). Bariatric surgery was strongly associated with reduced incidence of T2DM (POR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.83, p = 0.010), hypertension (POR 0.36, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.40, p < 0.001), dyslipidaemia (POR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p = 0.010), and ischemic heart disease (POR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.73, p = 0.001). Limitations of the study include that it was not possible to account for unmeasured variables, which may not have been equally distributed between patient groups given the non-randomised design of the studies included. There was also heterogeneity between studies in the nature of the control group utilised, and potential adverse outcomes related to bariatric surgery were not specifically examined due to a lack of available data. CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis suggests that bariatric surgery is associated with reduced long-term all-cause mortality and incidence of obesity-related disease in patients with obesity for the whole operated population. The results suggest that broader access to bariatric surgery for people with obesity may reduce the long-term sequelae of this disease and provide population-level benefits.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/mortalidade , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD010525, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People undergoing major amputation of the lower limb are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE in amputees include advanced age, sedentary lifestyle, longstanding arterial disease and an identifiable hypercoagulable condition. Evidence suggests that pharmacological prophylaxis (e.g. heparin, factor Xa inhibitors, vitamin K antagonists, direct thrombin inhibitors, antiplatelets) is effective in preventing deep vein thrombosis (DVT), but is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Mechanical prophylaxis (e.g. antiembolism stockings, intermittent pneumatic compression and foot impulse devices), on the other hand, is non-invasive and has minimal side effects. However, mechanical prophylaxis is not always appropriate for people with contraindications such as peripheral arterial disease (PAD), arteriosclerosis or bilateral lower limb amputations. It is important to determine the most effective thromboprophylaxis for people undergoing major amputation and whether this is one treatment alone or in combination with another. This is an update of the review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis in preventing VTE in people undergoing major amputation of the lower extremity. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 5 November 2019. We planned to undertake reference checking of identified trials to identify additional studies. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials which allocated people undergoing a major unilateral or bilateral amputation (e.g. hip disarticulation, transfemoral, knee disarticulation and transtibial) of the lower extremity to different types or regimens of thromboprophylaxis (including pharmacological or mechanical prophylaxis) or placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements by discussion. Outcomes of interest were VTE (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE)), mortality, adverse events and bleeding. We used GRADE criteria to assess the certainty of the evidence. The two included studies compared different treatments, so we could not pool the data in a meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We did not identify any eligible new studies for this update. Two studies with a combined total of 288 participants met the inclusion criteria for this review. Unfractionated heparin compared to low molecular weight heparin One study compared unfractionated heparin with low molecular weight heparin and found no evidence of a difference between the treatments in the prevention of DVT (odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28 to 5.35; 75 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No bleeding events occurred in either group. Deaths and adverse events were not reported. This study was open-label and therefore at a high risk of performance bias. Additionally, the study did not report the method of randomisation, so the risk of selection bias was unclear. Heparin compared to placebo In the second study, there was no evidence of a benefit from heparin use in preventing PE when compared to placebo (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.01; 134 participants; low-certainty evidence). Similarly, no evidence of improvement was detected when the level of amputation was considered, with a similar incidence of PE between the two treatment groups: above knee amputation (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.97; 94 participants; low-certainty evidence); and below knee amputation (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.09 to 26.43; 40 participants; low-certainty evidence). Ten participants died during the study; five underwent a post-mortem and three were found to have had a recent PE, all of whom had been on placebo (low-certainty evidence). Bleeding events were reported in less than 10% of participants in both treatment groups, but the study did not present specific data (low-certainty evidence). There were no reports of other adverse events. This study did not report the methods used to conceal allocation of treatment, so it was unclear whether selection bias occurred. However, this study appeared to be free from all other sources of bias. No study looked at mechanical prophylaxis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any eligible new studies for this update. As we only included two studies in this review, each comparing different interventions, there is insufficient evidence to make any conclusions regarding the most effective thromboprophylaxis regimen in people undergoing lower limb amputation. Further large-scale studies of good quality are required.


Assuntos
Amputação/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Amputação/métodos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
16.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620943671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702995

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (COVID-19) is known to induce severe inflammation and activation of the coagulation system, resulting in a prothrombotic state. Although inflammatory conditions and organ-specific diseases have been shown to be strong determinants of morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19, it is unclear whether preexisting differences in coagulation impact the severity of COVID-19. African Americans have higher rates of COVID-19 infection and disease-related morbidity and mortality. Moreover, African Americans are known to be at a higher risk for thrombotic events due to both biological and socioeconomic factors. In this review, we explore whether differences in baseline coagulation status and medical management of coagulation play an important role in COVID-19 disease severity and contribute to racial disparity trends within COVID-19.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Trombofilia/etnologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/etnologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fator VIII/análise , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2332-2337, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to investigate and compare the risks and incidences of venous thromboembolism (VTE) between the 2 groups of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Approach and Results: Medical records of 616 pneumonia patients who were admitted to the Yichang Central People's Hospital in Hubei, China, from January 1 to March 23, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were treated in the dedicated COVID-19 units, and the patients with CAP were admitted to regular hospital campus. Risks of VTE were assessed using the Padua prediction score. All the patients received pharmaceutical or mechanical VTE prophylaxis. VTE was diagnosed using Duplex ultrasound or computed tomography pulmonary angiogram. Differences between COVID-19 and CAP groups were compared statistically. All statistical tests were 2 sided, and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All data managements and analyses were performed by IBM SPSS, version 24, software (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL). Of the 616 patients, 256 had COVID-19 pneumonia and 360 patients had CAP. The overall rate of VTE was 2% in COVID-19 pneumonia group and 3.6% in CAP group, respectively (P=0.229). In these two groups, 15.6% of the COVID-19 pneumonia patients and 10% of the CAP patients were categorized as high risk for VTE (Padua score, >4), which were significantly different (P=0.036). In those high-risk patients, the incidence of VTE was 12.5% in COVID-19 pneumonia group and 16.7% in CAP group (P=0.606). Subgroup analysis of the critically ill patients showed that VTE rate was 6.7% in COVID-19 group versus 13% in CAP group (P=0.484). In-hospital mortality of COVID-19 and CAP was 6.3% and 3.9%, respectively (P=0.180). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that COVID-19 pneumonia was associated with hypercoagulable state. However, the rate of VTE in COVID-19 pneumonia patients was not significantly higher than that in CAP patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620936350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649232
20.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(8): 575-583, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686781

RESUMO

The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, is complex and can present with a multi-organ localization. One of its worst complications is an interstitial pneumonia with acute respiratory failure also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which requires non-invasive or invasive ventilation. A severe coagulopathy with poor prognosis is found in 5-10% of cases. SARS-CoV-2 is manifesting as a multi-dimensional disease and, recently, unique co-existing pathophysiological and clinical aspects are being defined: (i) an increased immune and inflammatory response with the activation of a cytokine storm and consequent coagulopathy, which promote both venous thromboembolic events and in situ thrombosis localized in small arterioles and pulmonary alveolar capillaries; (ii) a high intrapulmonary shunt, which often accounts for the severity of respiratory failure, due to reduced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with pulmonary neo-angiogenetic phenomena. Furthermore, the high incidence of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit and the autoptic findings of in situ micro-thrombosis at the pulmonary vascular level, suggest that in this disease coagulopathy, unlike septic disseminated intravascular coagulation, is driven towards a hyper-thrombogenic state, giving rise to a debate (with ongoing studies) about the preventive use of anticoagulant doses of heparin to reduce mortality. The aim of this position paper from the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) is to highlight the main implications that COVID-19 infection has on the pulmonary circulation from a pathophysiological, clinical and management point of view.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Cardiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Sociedades Médicas , Análise de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia
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