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1.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(2): 65-70, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019448

RESUMO

CME:Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Abstract. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a dangerous, potentially fatal, immunologically mediated side effect of heparin. Typically, five to ten days after heparin exposure there is a decrease in platelet count with a mean of 60 x 109/l. Due to an activation of thrombocytes by HIT antibodies, venous or more rarely arterial thromboses may occur. The diagnosis of HIT includes the calculation of the probability of a HIT using the 4T Score and the laboratory detection of HIT antibodies. The HIT therapy represents the immediate discontinuation of the heparin therapy as well as the beginning of an alternative therapeutic anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Heparina , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Anticorpos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 305-313, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer can be treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) according to guidelines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter prospective observational study was carried out to record anti-thrombotic treatment practice, assess thrombosis recurrence and bleeding, and identify potential risk factors. Adult patients from 18 Oncology Departments throughout Greece were followed-up for 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients with CAT receiving anticoagulant treatment were enrolled (35% incidental); 85% were treated for more than 6 months, 95.8% were treated with tinzaparin and smaller percentages with other agents. Thrombosis recurred in three patients and there was minor bleeding in four patients. Bleeding was associated with high body mass index (>35 kg/m2), trauma history, renal insufficiency and bevacizumab use. CONCLUSION: Incidental thrombosis contributes significantly to CAT burden. Long-term use of LMWH seems to be effective and safe. Several risk factors associated with bleeding should be considered during anti-coagulation therapy planning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18737, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914090

RESUMO

Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) might impair the prognosis of cirrhotic patients. However, formation of de novo PVT after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in cirrhotic patients without preexisting PVT was rarely reported. Moreover, it is not known whether warfarin is efficient in preventing de novo PVT after TIPS. The current study aimed to investigate retrospectively the incidence and location of de novo PVT, and preventive effects of warfarin on de novo PVT after TIPS for cirrhotic patients. Patients who received TIPS placement between March 1, 2015 and March 1, 2016 in our hospital were screened retrospectively. Patients without preexisting PVT before TIPS and those who were followed up for at least 12 months were included. There were 2 groups: 1 group received warfarin (warfarin group) post-TIPS, while another group (control group) did not receive prophylactic drug to prevent PVT. Their baseline characteristics and follow-up data were retrieved. The occurrence of PVT, adverse events due to warfarin, difference in stent patency and clinical complications such as stent dysfunction, hepatic encephalopathy, mortality, liver cancer, variceal bleeding, infection, and liver failure, and results of follow-up biochemical examination were compared. Eighty-three patients without preexisting PVT were included. There were 56 patients in the control group and 27 in the warfarin group. The incidence of PVT in the warfarin group was 14.8% (4/27), whereas the incidence in the control group was 42.9% (24/56, P = .013). The location of de novo PVT was mainly at left portal vein. Adverse events due to warfarin was mostly mild, such as hemorrhinia and gingival hemorrhage. No significant difference regarding to stent patency and clinical complications between the 2 groups was found. At 24-month after-TIPS, for the remaining patients in both groups, the total bilirubin was significantly increased while the red blood cell count was significantly decreased in control group compared with those in warfarin group (P < .05). PVT could commonly occur after TIPS in patients without preexisting PVT. Warfarin could prevent PVT in these patients, and might improve patient's liver function.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 39-45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893392

RESUMO

Outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is worsened by hemorrhagic shock (HS); however, the existing volume expansion approach with resuscitation fluids (RF) is controversial as it does not adequately alleviate impaired microvascular cerebral blood flow (mCBF). We previously reported that resuscitation fluid with drag reducing polymers (DRP-RF) improves CBF by rheological modulation of hemodynamics. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of DRP-RF, compared to lactated Ringers resuscitation fluid (LR-RF), in reducing cerebral microthrombosis and reperfusion mitochondrial oxidative stress after TBI complicated by HS. Fluid percussion TBI (1.5 ATA, 50 ms) was induced in rats and followed by controlled HS to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg. DRP-RF or LR-RF was infused to restore MAP to 60 mmHg for 1 h (pre-hospital period), followed by blood re-infusion to a MAP = 70 mmHg (hospital period). In vivo 2-photon laser scanning microscopy over the parietal cortex was used to monitor microvascular blood flow, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) for tissue oxygen supply and mitochondrial oxidative stress (superoxide by i.v. hydroethidine [HEt], 1 mg/kg) for 4 h after TBI/HS, followed by Dil vascular painting during perfusion-fixation. TBI/HS decreased mCBF resulting in capillary microthrombosis and tissue hypoxia. Microvascular CBF and tissue oxygenation were significantly improved in the DRP-RF compared to the LR-RF treated group (p < 0.05). Reperfusion-induced oxidative stress, reflected by HEt fluorescence, was 32 ± 6% higher in LR-RF vs. DRP-RF (p < 0.05). Post-mortem whole-brain visualization of DiI painted vessels revealed multiple microthromboses in both hemispheres that were 29 ± 3% less in DRP-RF vs. LR-RF group (p < 0.05). Resuscitation after TBI/HS using DRP-RF effectively restores mCBF, reduces hypoxia, microthrombosis formation, and mitochondrial oxidative stress compared to conventional volume expansion with LR-RF.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Estresse Oxidativo , Polímeros , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico , Trombose , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Trombose/prevenção & controle
7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(1): 21-31, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799523

RESUMO

The results of numerous studies have led to the development of supramolecular (assembled) organic substances for use in biomedical imaging as part of comprehensive approaches to the diagnosis of diseases. This review summarizes recent advances that have been made in the design and fabrication of assembled organic dyes for fluorescence and photoacoustic bioimaging.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/síntese química
8.
Life Sci ; 240: 117069, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751582

RESUMO

AIM: Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is presented in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is suggested to promote AAA expansion. D-dimer, a breakdown product in the thrombus remodeling, may have prognostic value for AAA. This study investigated the interrelation between plasma D-dimer level, ILT volume, AAA size and progression. MAIN METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study that involved 181 patients with infra-renal AAA. They were divided into small and large AAA groups according to AAA diameter. 24 of them had repeated abdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan and were divided into slow-growing and fast-growing AAA groups according to the median value of AAA growth rate. Baseline and follow-up plasma D-dimer level, maximum diameter of AAA, total infra-renal aortic volume and ILT volume were analyzed. KEY FINDINGS: Plasma D-dimer level was positively correlated with ILT volume (R = 0.382, P < 0.001) and maximum diameter of AAA (R = 0.442, P < 0.001). Increasing value of plasma D-dimer was positively associated with the accelerated growth rate of AAA (R = 0.720, P < 0.01). ILT volume showed positive correlation with maximum diameter (R = 0.859, P < 0.001) and growth rate of AAA (R = 0.490, P < 0.05). After adjusting the baseline ILT volume, the positive correlations remained to be statistically significant between plasma D-dimer level and AAA size (R = 0.200, P < 0.05), as well as increasing value of plasma D-dimer and growth rate of AAA (R = 0.642, P < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma D-dimer level reflected ILT burden in AAAs. Plasma D-dimer level and ILT volume were positively correlated with AAA size. Increasing value of plasma D-dimer and baseline ILT volume could be predictors of AAA progression.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Trombose/complicações , Trombose/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/sangue , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Trombose/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Angiology ; 71(2): 122-130, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303025

RESUMO

The ability of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) to predict risk beyond plaque is controversial. In 952 participants (critical limb ischemia [CLI] or stroke, n = 473; community, n = 479), we assessed whether relationships with events for IMT complement the impact of plaque in young patients depending on the extent of thrombotic versus atherosclerotic disease. The extent of atherosclerotic versus thrombotic occlusion was determined in 54 patients with CLI requiring amputations. Thrombotic occlusion in CLI was associated with younger age (P < .0001) and less plaque (P = .02). Independent relations between plaque and CLI were noted in older (>50 years; P < .005 to <.0001) but not younger (P > .38) participants, while independent relations between plaque and stroke (P < .005 to <.0001) and between IMT and CLI (P < .0001) were noted in younger participants. Although in performance (area under the receiver operating curve) for event detection, IMT thresholds failed to add to plaque alone in older patients (0.680 ± 0.020 vs 0.664 ± 0.017, P = .27), IMT improved performance for combined stroke and CLI detection when added to plaque in younger patients (0.719 ± 0.023 vs 0.631 ± 0.026, P < .0001). Because in younger participants the high prevalence of thrombotic occlusion in CLI is associated with less plaque, IMT adds information in associations with arterial vascular events.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Isquemia/complicações , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Perna (Membro)/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/complicações , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
13.
Vasa ; 49(1): 17-22, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134852

RESUMO

The outcome of a thrombotic vessel occlusion is related to the resolution of thrombus and restitution of blood flow. Thrombus formation simultaneously activates an enzymatic process that mediates endogenous fibrinolysis to maintain vessel patency. The balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis determines the extent of thrombus formation, its resolution, and clinical outcome. Endogenic fibrinolysis is frequently unable to overcome coagulation and to resolve the thrombus. Therefore, for a complete resolution of thrombus in an acute phase, exogenic fibrinolytic agents are needed. Currently, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is most frequently used for therapeutic thrombolysis. Also, heparins, particularly low-molecular-weight heparins and direct oral anticoagulants which are known as anticoagulant drugs, have some pro-fibrinolytic properties. Besides the extent and age of a clot, different other factors influence the lysis of thrombus. Thrombus structure is one of the most important determinants of thrombus lysis. The concentration of thrombolytic agent (tPA) around and inside of thrombus importantly determines clot lysis velocity. Further, flow-induced mechanical forces which stimulate the transport of thrombolytic agent into the clot influence thrombolysis. Inflammation most probably represents a basic pathogenetic mechanism of activation of coagulation and influences the activity of the fibrinolytic system. Inflammation increases tissue factor release, platelet activity, fibrinogen concentration and inhibits fibrinolysis by increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Therefore, recanalization of a thrombotic vessel occlusion is inversely related to levels of some circulating inflammatory agents. Consequently, inhibition of inflammation with anti-inflammatory drugs may improve the efficacy of prevention of thromboembolic events and stimulate recanalization of thrombotic occlusions of veins.


Assuntos
Trombose , Fibrinólise , Fibrinolíticos , Humanos , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual
14.
Ann Hematol ; 99(1): 49-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853702

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has been reported to be associated with thrombotic events. The incidence of thrombosis in 303 newly diagnosed ITP patients in our institute between 2000 and 2016 was retrospectively reviewed. During a median follow-up of 3.6 years, 16 thrombotic events (12 arterial and four venous) occurred. The median platelet count at thrombotic events was 102 × 109/l. At 10 years, the cumulative thrombosis incidence was 10%. A univariate analysis showed that smoking, hypertension, male gender, a history of thrombosis, and atrial fibrillation (Af) were significantly associated with the occurrence of thrombosis, and a multivariate analysis identified smoking and Af as independent risk factors. The thrombotic risk was not increased by lupus anticoagulant positivity or ITP treatment. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of bleeding and overall survival probability was 5.6% and 92%, respectively. This study demonstrates that smoking and Af were associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. Previously identified risk factors were not confirmed in these Japanese ITP patients.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombose , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/complicações , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/mortalidade
15.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 30(1): 39-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847619

RESUMO

Introduction: Anticoagulation without bleeding is an ideal goal in treating thrombosis, however, this goal has not been achieved. All current anticoagulants are associated with significant bleeding which limits their safe use. Genetic and pharmacological findings indicate that factor XIa is a key player in thrombosis, yet it is a relatively marginal one in hemostasis. Thus, factor XIa and its zymogen offer a unique opportunity to develop anticoagulants with low bleeding risk.Areas covered: A survey of patent literature has retrieved more than 50 patents on the discovery of novel therapeutics targeting factor XI(a) since 2016. Small molecules, monoclonal antibodies, oligonucleotides, and polypeptides have been developed to inhibit factor XI(a). Many inhibitors are in early development and few have been evaluated in clinical trials.Expert opinion: Factor XI(a) is being actively pursued as a drug target for the development of effective and safer anticoagulants. Although many patents claiming factor XI(a) inhibitors were filed prior to 2016, recent literature reveals a moderately declining trend. Nevertheless, more agents have entered different levels of clinical trials. These agents exploit diverse mechanistic strategies for inhibition. Although further development is warranted, reaching one or more of these agents to the clinic will transform the anticoagulation therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Fator XIa/antagonistas & inibidores , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Fator XIa/metabolismo , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , Trombose/patologia
16.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 69-75, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a severe and emergent cerebrovascular disease, the prognosis of which usually very poor. Microthrombi formation highlighted with inflammation occurs early after SAH. As the main cause of DCI, microthrombosis associated with the prognosis of SAH. The aim of this study was to show HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG effect on microthrombosis after SAH in rats. METHODS: Ninety-five SD rats were used for the experiment. For time course study, the rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group and SAH group with different time point (1d, 2d, 3d, 5d). Endovascular perforation method was conducted for SAH model. Neurological score, SAH grade, and mortality were measured after SAH. The samples of the left hemisphere brain were collected. The expression of HSP90 was detected by Western blot. The microthrombosis after SAH in rats' brain was detected by immunohistochemistry. For mechanism study, rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham, SAH + vehicle, and SAH +17-AAG (n = 6/group). 17-AAG was given by intraperitoneal injection (80 mg/kg) 1 h after SAH. Neurological function were measured at 24 h after SAH. The expression of RIP3, NLRP3, ASC, and IL-1ß was measured by Western blot. Microthrombosis was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Our results showed that the HSP90 protein level increased and peaked at 2 days after SAH. Microthrombosis caused by SAH was increased in 1 day and peaked at 2 days after SAH. Administration HSP90 specific inhibitor 17-AAG reduced expression of RIP3, NLRP3, ASC, and IL-1ß, reduced microthrombosis after SAH, and improved neurobehavior when compared to vehicle group. CONCLUSIONS: 17-AAG can ameliorate microthrombosis via HSP90/RIP3/NLRP3 pathway and improve neurobehavior after SAH.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Trombose , Animais , Córtex Cerebral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90 , Inflamação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/metabolismo , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 17(1): 64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467437

Assuntos
Stents , Trombose , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825377

RESUMO

Giant cerebral aneurysms are diagnosed more often in children than in adults. Treatment of giant aneurysms is carried out both by endovascular and microsurgical methods. Literature information on combination of microsurgical and endovascular operations of cerebral aneurysms at children is little. A clinical case of the combined treatment of a giant bicameral fusiform partially thrombosed aneurysm of the right vertebral artery at a 12-year-old patient and a literature review on this topic are presented. The patient underwent several complex neurosurgical interventions during two operations: 1) microsurgery including revascularization of the right posterior lower cerebellar artery, thrombectomy and trapping of the larger chamber of fusiform aneurysm of the right vertebral artery, and 2) endovascular, which consists in the installation of redirecting stent from the left vertebral artery to main artery. The uniqueness of the case which we presented lies in the fact that the tactics of stage combined treatment for a complex aneurysm at child was originally planned and successfully implemented. The treatment allowed to ensure a complete shutdown of aneurysm and to exclude postoperative cerebral complications.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano , Trombose , Angiografia Cerebral , Criança , Humanos , Microcirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Artéria Vertebral
20.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(45): 3587-3591, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826576

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of cardiomyopathy complicated with ventricular thrombosis. Methods: The clinical data of inpatients suffered from cardiomyopathy complicated with ventricular thrombosis in Fuwai Hospital between January 2015 and May 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 125 cases were reviewed, and 24.8% were female. Dilated cardiomyopathy was the most common disease (62.4%), followed by arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) (13.6%) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (11.2%). There were 74.4% thrombosis in left ventricle, 12.8% in right ventricle and 12.8% in biventricle. The proportions of right ventricle thrombosis were higher in ARVC than in other cardiomyopathies (52.9% vs 6.5%, P<0.01). The majority suffered from cardiac function New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class Ⅲ (45.6%) and class Ⅳ (39.2%). The ratio of NYHA Class Ⅳ was higher in female patients than in male ones (25.8% vs 10.6%, P<0.05). In lab detection, positive results of D-Dimer and N terminal-pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) accounted for 72.8% and 97.6%, respectively. There were 2.5% patients died in the hospital or discharged because of the worsening of illness, the chances were higher in female than male patients (9.7% vs 0, P<0.01). Among these patients, one succumbed to massive ischemic stroke caused by ventricular thrombus detachment under standard anticoagulation therapy. Conclusions: Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common cardiomyopathy complicated with ventricular thrombosis. The most common location of thrombosis is left ventricle. Right ventricle thrombosis is more common in ARVC. The majority suffer from moderate or severe cardiac dysfunction. Higer proportion of female patients suffer from anemia, severe condition and poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita , Cardiomiopatias , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Trombose , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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