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2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013359, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, at least one million children become ill with tuberculosis and around 200,000 children die. Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra are World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended rapid molecular tests that simultaneously detect tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults and children with signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, at lower health system levels. To inform updated WHO guidelines on molecular assays, we performed a systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in children presumed to have active tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for (a) pulmonary tuberculosis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; (b) tuberculous meningitis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; (c) lymph node tuberculosis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; and (d) rifampicin resistance in children presumed to have tuberculosis - For tuberculosis detection, index tests were used as the initial test, replacing standard practice (i.e. smear microscopy or culture) - For detection of rifampicin resistance, index tests replaced culture-based drug susceptibility testing as the initial test Secondary objectives • To compare the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for each of the four target conditions • To investigate potential sources of heterogeneity in accuracy estimates - For tuberculosis detection, we considered age, disease severity, smear-test status, HIV status, clinical setting, specimen type, high tuberculosis burden, and high tuberculosis/HIV burden - For detection of rifampicin resistance, we considered multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis burden • To compare multiple Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra results (repeated testing) with the initial Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra result SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) Registry up to 29 April 2019, without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials, cross-sectional trials, and cohort studies evaluating Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children younger than 15 years. Reference standards comprised culture or a composite reference standard for tuberculosis and drug susceptibility testing or MTBDRplus (molecular assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance) for rifampicin resistance. We included studies evaluating sputum, gastric aspirate, stool, nasopharyngeal or bronchial lavage specimens (pulmonary tuberculosis), cerebrospinal fluid (tuberculous meningitis), fine needle aspirates, or surgical biopsy tissue (lymph node tuberculosis). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy - Revised (QUADAS-2). For each target condition, we used the bivariate model to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We stratified all analyses by type of reference standard. We assessed certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: For pulmonary tuberculosis, 299 data sets (68,544 participants) were available for analysis; for tuberculous meningitis, 10 data sets (423 participants) were available; for lymph node tuberculosis, 10 data sets (318 participants) were available; and for rifampicin resistance, 14 data sets (326 participants) were available. Thirty-nine studies (80%) took place in countries with high tuberculosis burden. Risk of bias was low except for the reference standard domain, for which risk of bias was unclear because many studies collected only one specimen for culture. Detection of pulmonary tuberculosis For sputum specimens, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) verified by culture were 64.6% (55.3% to 72.9%) (23 studies, 493 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and 99.0% (98.1% to 99.5%) (23 studies, 6119 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). For other specimen types (nasopharyngeal aspirate, 4 studies; gastric aspirate, 14 studies; stool, 11 studies), Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity ranged between 45.7% and 73.0%, and pooled specificity ranged between 98.1% and 99.6%. For sputum specimens, Xpert Ultra pooled sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) verified by culture were 72.8% (64.7% to 79.6%) (3 studies, 136 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 97.5% (95.8% to 98.5%) (3 studies, 551 participants; high-certainty evidence). For nasopharyngeal specimens, Xpert Ultra sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) were 45.7% (28.9% to 63.3%) and 97.5% (93.7% to 99.3%) (1 study, 195 participants). For all specimen types, Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra sensitivity were lower against a composite reference standard than against culture. Detection of tuberculous meningitis For cerebrospinal fluid, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity, verified by culture, were 54.0% (95% CI 27.8% to 78.2%) (6 studies, 28 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 93.8% (95% CI 84.5% to 97.6%) (6 studies, 213 participants; low-certainty evidence). Detection of lymph node tuberculosis For lymph node aspirates or biopsies, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity, verified by culture, were 90.4% (95% CI 55.7% to 98.6%) (6 studies, 68 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 89.8% (95% CI 71.5% to 96.8%) (6 studies, 142 participants; low-certainty evidence). Detection of rifampicin resistance Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (67.6% to 97.5%) (6 studies, 20 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 98.3% (87.7% to 99.8%) (6 studies, 203 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity to vary by specimen type, with gastric aspirate specimens having the highest sensitivity followed by sputum and stool, and nasopharyngeal specimens the lowest; specificity in all specimens was > 98%. Compared with Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra sensitivity in sputum was higher and specificity slightly lower. Xpert MTB/RIF was accurate for detection of rifampicin resistance. Xpert MTB/RIF was sensitive for diagnosing lymph node tuberculosis. For children with presumed tuberculous meningitis, treatment decisions should be based on the entirety of clinical information and treatment should not be withheld based solely on an Xpert MTB/RIF result. The small numbers of studies and participants, particularly for Xpert Ultra, limits our confidence in the precision of these estimates.


Assuntos
Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Viés , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/normas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Meníngea/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Meníngea/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
3.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 78(11): 1981-1985, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) of the head and neck has been a dilemma for clinicians, because the clinical and pathologic features tend to mimic different pathologies. Our study aimed to identify the demographic, clinical, and pathologic features of head and neck TB to help healthcare providers in the early detection of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the medical archives at the pathology laboratory. Twenty-one patients with a clinical and pathologic diagnosis of head and neck TB were identified from 2010 to 2019. RESULTS: The age distribution was broad, with 28.5% of the patients younger than 15 years old. Seven patients had oral TB, with the most common sites affected the labial vestibule (3 cases) and buccal vestibule (3 cases), followed by 1 case in the tongue. The predominant clinical presentation was ulceration, and the most common entity in the clinical differential diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. The most common histopathologic pattern of oral TB was a noncaseating granuloma. Most of the tuberculous lymphadenitis was located in the submandibular and submental areas. CONCLUSIONS: TB of the head and neck region is not, as previously thought, a rare condition. Head and neck TB, in general, and oral TB, in particular, are great mimickers of different pathologic entities. In particular, the absence of the typical histopathologic pattern of TB granuloma has made the diagnosis more complicated. Healthcare providers must be vigilant and consider all the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic features to detect the disease earlier, because an early diagnosis can result in better outcomes.


Assuntos
Pescoço , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cabeça , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 366-371, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLA) is the most common extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) in Denmark. However, the clinical features of patients with TBLA have never been systematically studied in this setting. METHODS: Patients treated for TBLA in Central Region Denmark from 2007 to 2016 were identified using the national TB surveillance register and The Danish Hospital Patient Registry. Data of clinical characteristics and treatment were extracted from hospital records. RESULTS: Eighty-three TBLA patients were identified. The median age was 32 years (IQR 23-42); 71 (85.5%) were migrants; 58 (69.9%) presented with cervical lymphadenopathy; and 45 (54.2%) had one or more systemic TB symptom such as fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss. Sixty-five patients had no comorbidities (78.3%). HIV co-infection was seen in five (7.2%) of the 69 who were tested for HIV. Abscesses and/or draining sinuses were noted in 13 (15.7%) patients and 15 (18.1%) had concurrent pulmonary infection. The median time from first hospital contact to treatment initiation was 42 days (IQR 16-82) and admitted patients were hospitalised for a median of 7 days (IQR 3-13.5). For 24 patients (28.9%), lymph node material was not sent for mycobacterial culture and 52 (62.7%) had microbiologically confirmed TB. Treatment outcome was successful for 70 patients (84.3%). CONCLUSION: In Denmark, TBLA is mainly seen among young and previously healthy migrants presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy and sparse systemic symptoms. The diagnosis is often considerably delayed and not microbiologically verified, implying diagnostic difficulties. Treatment outcome needs to be improved.


Assuntos
Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 88(1): 22-26, ene.- jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128537

RESUMO

En 2015, la tasa global de incidencia de tuberculosis por 100,000 habitantes fue 43 en Honduras y 29 en el Municipio del Distrito Central. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente los casos de tuberculosis infantil, Región Sanitaria Metropolitana del Distrito Central (RSMDC), 2016. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Se revisaron las Fichas de Notificación de Casos de Tuberculosis en pacientes menor o igual a18 años, registrados durante 2016. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. Se diseñó una base de datos en EpiInfo 7.2.1. Se obtuvo autorización institucional. La información personal de los casos se manejó confidencialmente. Resultados: Del total de 400 fichas registradas, 13 (3.2%) contenían información completa. La caracterización se realizó a partir de estos 13 casos, 53.8% eran niñas, 46.2% entre 15 y 18 años. En 67% el diagnóstico fue clínico, 27% tenía tuberculosis pulmonar y 16.7% extrapulmonar. El método de diagnóstico más utilizado fue baciloscopía (38.5%). Todosrecibieron tratamiento básico primario, sin comorbilidades, no vivían en condición de riesgo o pertenecían a grupo de riesgo; no presentaron recaídas ni co-infección VIH. Discusión: El sistema de notificación de casos en RSMDC denota un déficit extraordinario e inaceptable en el registro de la información. Aunque la caracterización realizada puede estar sesgada por el número reducido de casos, sus características son similares a lo descrito para la tuberculosis infantil. Es imperativo fortalecer la vigilancia epidemiológica de la tuberculosis en Honduras con énfasis en la tuberculosis infantil y la detección y tratamiento de los contactos...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar
6.
J UOEH ; 42(2): 223-227, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507846

RESUMO

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been reported to be useful not only for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of lung cancer but also for benign diseases. We retrospectively analyzed the results of patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis (TL) who had undergone EBUS-TBNA between November 2010 and January 2016. EBUS-TBNA was performed in 427 cases during that period. Six cases were finally diagnosed as TL. The punctured lymph node was 8 lesions. Pathological findings consistent with TL were obtained in all 6 cases (100%), and the tissue specimens were positive in Ziehl-Neelsen staining in 3 of the 6 cases (50%). In all 6 cases, the acid-fast bacteria (AFB) smear test of the needle rinse fluid was negative, 2 cases were positive for AFB culture (33.3%), and 2 cases were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-PCR test (33.3%). In this study, the positive rate of mycobacterial culture and the MTB-PCR test of the needle rinse fluid was low, though the concordance rate of pathological findings with TL was high (100%). The results suggest that EBUS-TBNA should be carefully evaluated in patients with TL, considering the low positive rate of mycobacterial culture and MTB-PCR test in the needle rinse fluid.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is characterized by elevated levels of acute phase proteins (APPs), but their association with tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL) is poorly studied. METHODS: We examined the systemic levels of APPs (alpha-2-macroglobulin [⍺-2MG], serum amyloid A [SAA], C-reactive protein [CRP] and haptoglobin [Hp]) in TBL, PTB, latent tuberculosis (LTB) and healthy controls (HC) at baseline and in TBL after the completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT). We have also examined the association of these proteins with lymph node (LN) size, culture grade and multiple versus single LN involvement. RESULTS: TBL individuals exhibited increased systemic levels of ⍺-2MG, SAA, CRP and Hp in comparison to HCs and increased CRP levels in comparison to LTB individuals. TBL individuals also exhibited decreased systemic levels of Hp compared to PTB individuals. APPs were not significantly associated with LN size, LN involvement and culture grade, indicating a lack of association with disease severity. Following ATT, post-treatment levels of ⍺-2MG, CRP and Hp were significantly diminished compared to pre-treatment levels. CONCLUSION: TBL disease is characterized by altered levels of APPs at baseline and modulated following treatment, indicating the presence of systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/sangue , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Carga Bacteriana , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , alfa 2-Macroglobulinas Associadas à Gravidez/metabolismo , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is fifth among high burden countries for tuberculosis. A steady increase is seen in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which now accounts for 20% of all notified TB cases. There is very limited information on the epidemiology of EPTB. This study was performed with the aim to describe the demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of EPTB patients in Pakistan. METHOD: We performed descriptive analysis on routinely collected data for cohorts of TB patients registered nationwide in 2016 at health facilities selected using stratified convenient sampling. FINDINGS: Altogether 54092 TB including 15790 (29.2%) EPTB cases were registered in 2016 at 50 study sites. The median age was 24 years for EPTB and 30 years for PTB patients. The crude prevalence of EPTB in females was 30.5% (95%CI; 29.9-31.0) compared to 27.9% (95%CI; 27.3-28.4) in males. The likelihood of having EPTB (OR), was 1.1 times greater for females, 2.0 times for children, and 3.3 times for residents of provinces in the North-West. The most common forms of EPTB were pleural (29.6%), lymphatic (22.7%) and abdominal TB (21.0%). Pleural TB was the most common clinical manifestation in adults (34.2%) and abdominal TB in children (38.4%). An increase in the prevalence of pleural and osteoarticular and decline in lymphatic and abdominal TB was observed with advancing age. Diversity in demography and clinical manifestations were noted between provinces. The treatment success rate for all type EPTB was significantly high compared to bacteriology confirmed PTB with the exception of EPTB affecting CNS with a high mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides an insight into demography, clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of EPTB. Further studies are needed to explain significant diversities observed between provinces, specific risk factors and challenges concerning EPTB management.


Assuntos
Peritonite Tuberculosa/epidemiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pleural/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 105, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urogenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare in children and usually develops due to reactivation of the foci in the genitourinary tract after the latency period following initial infection. Urogenital TB in children has no pathognomonic clinical features that can result in overlooking or misdiagnosing this clinical entity. Here, we report important findings regarding the pathogenesis and transmission of TB by using genotyping and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in a study of renal TB case in a child. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital because of high fever, severe dry cough, flank pain and painful urination. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT revealed an 8 mm calculus in the kidney, and clinical findings were initially interpreted as nephrolithiasis. Nevertheless, due to the atypical clinical presentation of kidney stone disease, additional investigations for possible TB were performed. The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus test was positive, and the Mantoux test resulted in 15 mm of induration, confirming infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Chest X-ray was normal. Chest CT revealed calcified intrathoracic lymph nodes. The urine sample tested positive for acid-fast bacilli, and Mtb cultures were obtained from urine and bronchial aspirate samples, resulting in a final diagnosis of intrathoracic lymph node and renal TB. Contact investigation revealed that the child's father was diagnosed with TB when the child was 1 year old. Genotyping and WGS analysis of Mtb isolates of the child and his father confirmed the epidemiological link and pointed to the latency of infection in the child. CONCLUSIONS: This case report confirmed the development of active TB from calcified lesions in adolescent after 12 years of exposure, demonstrated the absence of microevolutionary changes in the Mtb genome during the period of latency, and proved the importance of appropriate evaluation and management to prevent the progression of TB infection to active TB disease. The use of WGS provided the ultimate resolution for the detection of TB transmission and reactivation events.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Nefrolitíase/diagnóstico , Nefrolitíase/microbiologia , Tuberculose Renal/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Pai , Genótipo , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Renal/tratamento farmacológico
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 33, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO recently recommended the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay (Ultra) instead of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay because Ultra has improved sensitivity. We report the diagnostic accuracy of Ultra for tuberculous adenitis in a tuberculosis and HIV endemic setting. METHODS: We obtained fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and lymph node tissue by core-needle biopsy in adult patients with peripheral lymphadenopathy of >20 mm. Ultra and mycobacterial culture were performed on FNA and tissue specimens, with histological examination of tissue specimens. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Ultra against a composite reference standard of 'definite tuberculosis' (microbiological criteria) or 'probable tuberculosis' (histological and clinical criteria). RESULTS: We prospectively evaluated 99 participants of whom 50 were HIV positive: 21 had 'definite tuberculosis', 15 'probable tuberculosis' and 63 did not have tuberculosis (of whom 38% had lymphoma and 19% disseminated malignancy). Using the composite reference standard the Ultra sensitivity on FNA was 70% (95% CI 51-85; 21 of 30), and on tissue was 67% (45-84; 16/24) these were far superior to the detection of acid-fast bacilli on an FNA (26%; 7/27); AFB on tissue (33%; 8/24); or tissue culture (39%; 9/23). The detection of granulomas on histology had high senstivity (83%) but the lowest specficity. When compared with culture the Ultra on FNA had a sensitvity of 78% (40-97; 7/9) and tissue 90% (55-100; 9/10). CONCLUSIONS: Ultra performed on FNA or tissue of a lymph node had good sensitivity and high specificity. Ultra had a higher yield than culture and has the advantage of being a rapid test. Ultra on FNA would be an appropriate initial investigation for lymphadenopathy in tuberculosis endemic areas followed by a core biopsy for histopathology with a repeat Ultra on tissue if granulomas are present.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/normas , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Feminino , HIV/imunologia , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112835, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499428

RESUMO

Tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes is called scrofula in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Clinical manifestation is that unilateral or bilateral neck can have multiple enlarged lymph nodes of different sizes. Current therapeutic drugs include Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim. tablets and compound of Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim., which have a significant effect on tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes. This compound is composed of three herbs, Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim., Prunella vulgaris L. and Artemisia argyi Levl.et Vant. A selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated in rat plasma for the first time. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Wonda Cract ODS-2 C18 Column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase contained 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection was performed in negative electrospray ionization mode and the precursor/product ion transitions of six components and internal standard (IS) sulfamethoxazole were quantified in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using QTRAP-3200 MS/MS. The method fulfilled US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, matrix effect, extraction recovery, dilution integrity, and stability. This proposed method was then successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 10 mL/kg compound extracts in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters and plasma concentration-time profiles would prove valuable in pre-clinical and clinical investigations on the disposition of compound medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Lamiales/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Administração Oral , Animais , Ácidos Cafeicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Cafeicos/sangue , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Flavonas/sangue , Flavonas/farmacocinética , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/sangue , Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Fenilpropionatos/sangue , Fenilpropionatos/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Comprimidos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18008, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804308

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rare cases of reactive arthritis induced by active extra-articular tuberculosis (Poncet disease) have been reported. Complete response to antitubercular treatment and evidence of active extra-articular tuberculosis are the most important clinical features of Poncet disease. We report the case of successfully treated a patient with reactive arthritis induced by active extra-articular tuberculosis with a TNF inhibitor after sufficient antitubercular treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our department with polyarthralgia, low back pain, and high fever. The results of rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibody, human leukocyte antigen B27, and the assays for the detection of infections (with an exception of T-SPOT.TB) were all negative. Fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed moderate uptake in the right cervical, right supraclavicular, mediastinal, and abdominal lymph nodes. As magnetic resonance imaging and power Doppler ultrasonography showed peripheral inflammation (tendinitis, tenosynovitis, ligamentitis, and enthesitis in the limbs). DIAGNOSIS: A diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis was eventually established on the basis of lymph node biopsy results. There was no evidence of a bacterial infection including acid-fast bacteria in his joints, and the symptoms of polyarthralgia and low back pain were improved but not completely resolved with NSAID therapy; in addition, a diagnosis of reactive arthritis induced by active extraarticular tuberculosis was made. INTERVENTIONS: The patient experienced persistent peripheral inflammation despite antitubercular treatment for more than nine months and was then successfully treated with a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (adalimumab 40 mg every 2 weeks). OUTCOMES: Finally, the patient responded to the treatment and has been in remission for over 4 months as of this writing. LESSONS: In patients who present with symptoms associated with spondyloarthritis, it is important to distinguish between classic reactive arthritis and reactive arthritis induced by extra-articular tuberculosis infection. Introduction of biological agents should be carefully considered in settings where reactive arthritis induced by active extra-articular tuberculosis shows progression to chronicity despite sufficient antitubercular treatment.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reativa/etiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/complicações , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18288, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804372

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The patient in this case report has been diagnosed with multidrug resistant lymph node fistula tracheobronchial tuberculosis (TBTB). The PubMed was searched using the keywords "Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant", "Tuberculosis", and "Bronchial Fistula", and the results yielded no similar case reports. Therefore, this report helps us to explore more on the causes of multidrug resistance and formation of lymph node fistula, as well as associated treatment strategies. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 15-year old Tibetan girl who was previously treated in the local Hospital for Infectious Diseases for repeated TBTB demonstrated poor treatment outcomes, and so was further diagnosed in our hospital. After standard treatments, the cough and expectoration of the girl showed improvement, and mycobacterium culture showed negative results. Thoracic CT showed local compression of the right bronchus, and disappearance of stenosis. Bronchoscopy showed that the fistula was closed and healed. DIAGNOSES: Multidrug resistant lymph node fistula TBTB. INTERVENTIONS: Antituberculosis drugs such as pyrazinamide (0.75 g/time, twice per day), moxifloxacin (0.4 g per day), protionamide enteric-coated tablets (0.2 g/time, 3 times per day), pasiniazide tablets (0.3 g/time, 3 times per day), and capreomycin (0.75 g per day) were orally administered. The treatment included an 8-month intensive treatment phase and a 12-month consolidation phase. Bronchoscopic local injection combined with cryotherapy was also conducted. OUTCOMES: Bronchoscopy showed that the fistula was closed and healed, mycobacterium culture showed negative results, and thoracic CT showed local compression of the right bronchus, disappearance of stenosis after treatment. LESSONS: (1) This girl had a history of long-term oral intake of antituberculosis drugs, but the treatment effectiveness remained poor. Therefore, resistance to tuberculosis can be considered, and also mycobacterium culture and drug sensitivity tests should be considered. After these, the treatment strategies should be adjusted accordingly.(2) TBTB should be further classified by analyzing under the bronchoscope to decide the best treatment strategy accordingly.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Broncopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fístula/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Traqueia/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Broncopatias/microbiologia , Broncoscopia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fístula/microbiologia , Humanos , Tibet , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Doenças da Traqueia/microbiologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 867, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic response of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis (CTBL) may be delayed or paradoxical, with the frequent development of residual lymph nodes (LNs) during and after antituberculous treatment. We investigated the incidence of residual LNs and the clinical, radiological, microbiological, and pathologic responses of patients with CTBL after 6 months of antituberculous therapy. METHODS: The medical records of HIV-negative adult patients with CTBL diagnosed between July 2009 and December 2017 were analyzed. After 6 months of first-line antituberculous treatment, computed tomography (CT) scans were conducted to evaluate for residual LNs. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was carried out if a patient presented with residual LNs > 10 mm in diameter with central necrosis, peripheral rim enhancement, or perinodal inflammation on CT scan. RESULTS: Residual LNs were detected in 35 of 157 patients who underwent follow-up CT scans and were more commonly observed in younger patients who completed the treatment (mean years ± standard deviation [SD]: 33 ± 13 vs. 44 ± 16, p < 0.001). The recurrence rate was approximately 5%, which was not significantly different in both groups. Among the 15 patients who underwent FNAB, 3 (30%) presented with granuloma, and 2 of 15 and 10 of 14 patients had positive AFB and TB PCR results, respectively. The TB culture results of 15 patients were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Residual LNs may still be observed after 6 months of antituberculous treatment. Although the radiologic and pathologic findings after treatment are still indicative of TB, not all residual LNs indicate recurrence or treatment failure. A six-month therapy may be sufficient for cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , HIV/imunologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Progressão da Doença , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultados Negativos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Testes Sorológicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 854-861, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599251

RESUMO

Lymph node enlargement is a common presenting complaint in outpatient and inpatient department. The present observational cross sectional study was conducted in department of Internal Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from December 2014 to May 2016 to evaluate etiologies of significant lymphadenopathy by clinical, histopathological and microbiological assessment. Biopsy/FNA materials of 177 patients of 18-75 years age range with significant lymphadenopathy were sent for histopathology/cytology, Gram stain & culture, AFB stain & culture and Gene Xpert. Among them, 102(57.62%) were granulomatous lymphadenitis, 52(29.38%) were lymphoma, 12(6.78%) reactive lymphadenitis, 7(3.95%) metastatic malignancy, 2(1.13%) atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, 1(0.57%) myeloid sarcoma and 1(0.57%) chronic sialadenitis. Growth of MTB was on 23(22.55%) cases; among 102 granulomatous lymphadenitis and Gene Xpert was positive in 73(71.56%) cases with 100% Rif. sensitive. Gene Xpert is an important tool for diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Time of symptoms to diagnosis of most of the TBL patients was within 2-8 months.


Assuntos
Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Linfadenopatia/microbiologia , Neoplasias , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos
18.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 276, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a disease that was declared eliminated in 2010 from Nepal; however, new cases are diagnosed every year. The difficulty arises when the presentation of the patient is unusual. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report we present a case of a 22-year-old Tamang man, from the Terai region of Nepal, with a clinical presentation of fever, malaise, and arthralgia for the past 2 weeks with hepatosplenomegaly and bilateral cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Features of chronic inflammation with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 90 mm/hour and liver enzymes were noted. With no specific investigative findings, a diagnosis of Still's disease was made and he was given prednisolone. On tapering the medication, after 2 weeks, the lymphadenopathy and fever reappeared. On biopsy of a lymph node, diagnosis of possible tuberculosis was made. On that basis anti-tuberculosis treatment category I was started. During his hospital stay, our patient developed nodular skin rashes on his shoulder, back, and face. The biopsy of a skin lesion showed erythema nodosum leprosum and he was diagnosed as having lepromatous leprosy with erythema nodosum leprosum; he was treated with anti-leprosy medication. CONCLUSION: An unusual presentations of leprosy may delay its prompt diagnosis and treatment; thus, increasing morbidity and mortality. Although leprosy has been declared eliminated, it should not be forgotten and physicians should have it in mind to make it a differential diagnosis whenever relevant.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222078, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479485

RESUMO

Mycobacterium canettii is a smooth bacillus related to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. It causes lymph nodes and pulmonary tuberculosis in patients living in countries of the Horn of Africa, including Djibouti. The environmental reservoirs of M. canettii are still unknown. We aimed to further decrypt these potential reservoirs by using an original approach of High-Throughput Carbon and Azote Substrate Profiling. The Biolog Phenotype profiling was performed on six clinical strains of M. canettii and one M. tuberculosis strain was used as a positive control. The experiments were duplicated and authenticated by negative controls. While M. tuberculosis metabolized 22/190 (11%) carbon substrates and 3/95 (3%) nitrogen substrates, 17/190 (8.9%) carbon substrates and three nitrogen substrates were metabolized by the six M. canettii strains forming the so-called corebiologome. A total at 16 carbon substrates and three nitrogen substrates were metabolized in common by M. tuberculosis and the six M. canettii strains. Moreover, at least one M. canettii strain metabolized 36/190 (19%) carbon substrates and 3/95 (3%) nitrogen substrates for a total of 39/285 (13%) substrates. Classifying these carbon and nitrogen substrates into ten potential environmental sources (plants, fruits and vegetables, bacteria, algae, fungi, nematodes, mollusks, mammals, insects and inanimate environment) significantly associated carbon and nitrogen substrates metabolized by at least one M. canettii strain with plants (p = 0.006). These results suggest that some plants endemic in the Horn of Africa may serve as ecological niches for M. canettii. Further ethnobotanical studies will indicate plant usages by local populations, then guiding field microbiological investigations in order to prove the definite environmental reservoirs of this opportunistic tuberculous pathogen.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia , África Oriental , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Djibuti , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/classificação , Fenótipo , Plantas/microbiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
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