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2.
Indian J Tuberc ; 71(2): 137-146, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has been increasingly reported in Bhutan, rising from 26% in 2001 to 39% in 2010. In 2016, almost half (49%) of all reported TB cases were classified as EPTB. Thus, this study was conducted to understand the epidemiology and identify risk factors contributing to increasing notification of EPTB in Bhutan. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted by recruiting all 110 cases of nationally notified EPTB (Extrapulmonary bacteriologically confirmed/EPBC) as cases and 235 Pulmonary TB (Pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed/PBC) as controls. Data were collected on socio-demography, clinical and diagnostic, behavioral and lifestyle and environmental exposures using a structured questionnaire between April and September, 2018. RESULTS: The median age of the cases was 25 years, ranged 9-79 years. Lymphatic TB was predominant (n = 78; 70.91%) followed by genitourinary TB (n = 4 (3.64%). The likelihood of EPTB decreased with increase in age (p = 0.023). The odds of EPTB in females was 1.65 times higher than the males (p = 0.038). Increase in Body Mass Index (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.052-1.200) and urban residency were (AOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.016-2.805) were found to have higher odds of developing EPTB. CONCLUSION: Females, urban residents, and those with higher BMI are at increased risk of developing EPTB. These at-risk groups can be used to target limited public health resources to control EPTB in Bhutan.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Extrapulmonar , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Saúde Pública , Butão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Demografia
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310049, abr. 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537747

RESUMO

La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa cuya forma de presentación más frecuente es la pulmonar; la afectación abdominal es poco frecuente, por lo que su diagnóstico continúa siendo un desafío. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la tuberculosis abdominal así como sus hallazgos en el examen físico suelen ser inespecíficos y, en muchas ocasiones, similares a los de otras patologías, por lo que es fundamental considerarla entre los diagnósticos diferenciales. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 15 años de edad, hospitalizado por un síndrome febril prolongado asociado a dolor abdominal, diarrea, sudoración nocturna y pérdida de peso


Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which most commonly compromises the respiratory system, whereas abdominal involvement is rare, thus its diagnosis is a challenge. The clinical manifestations of abdominal tuberculosis as well as its physical examination findings are usually non-specific and, frequently, similar to those of other diseases, so it is critical to consider abdominal tuberculosis among the differential diagnoses. Here we report the clinical case of a 15-year-old male patient hospitalized for a prolonged febrile syndrome associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, night sweats, and weight loss.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Abdome , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarreia
4.
Med Hist ; 68(1): 1-21, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486500

RESUMO

This essay argues that scrofula was one of several disorders, including gout, rickets, and venereal disease, that were 'rebranded' as hereditary in response to broader cultural changes that took place during the Restoration and eighteenth century in England. While the purposes of scrofula's recategorisation were more political than medical, they resulted in this heretofore relatively obscure childhood ailment assuming a new prominence within both medical and popular discourses of the period. Scrofula became both emblem and proof of the links between sexual promiscuity, financial profligacy, and physiological degeneration, its symbolic status reinforced by the legal and moral language used to model processes of hereditary transmission. By likening the inheritance of scrofula to the inheritance of original sin-or, more commonly, to the inheritance of a 'docked entail' or damaged estate-eighteenth-century writers and artists not only made this non-inherited ailment into a sign of catastrophic hereditary decline; they also paved the way for scrofula to be identified as a disease of aristocratic vice, even though its association with crowded, unsanitary living conditions likely made it more common among the poor. By the same token, financial models of disease inheritance facilitated a bias toward paternal transmission, with scrofula often portrayed as passing, like a title or an estate, from father to son rather than from mother to daughter.


Assuntos
Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Humanos , Criança , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/história , Inglaterra
6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 69, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy is an issue of debate. Lymph nodes may be enlarged due to a variety of inflammatory, infectious, or malignant reasons. Therefore, obtaining samples from the affected nodes is crucial for the diagnosis. Usually, these patients are subjected to TBNA (EBUS or conventional) or mediastinoscopy if TBNA is not conclusive. This study evaluated the safety and feasibility of this new technique of transbronchial forceps biopsy for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. METHODS: The study included 18 patients with confirmed mediastinal lymphadenopathy who were admitted in Chest Department, Cairo University in the period from December 2019 to December 2020. All patients were subjected to flexible bronchoscopy with conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) and transbronchial forceps biopsy (LN-TBFB) from the enlarged mediastinal lymph node in the same procedure. RESULTS: we found the technique of LN-TBFB safe with no serious complications. We were able to reach a diagnosis in 7/7 (100%) cases of sarcoidosis, 6/7 (85.7%) cases of malignant lymph nodes. We had three cases where the histopathology showed hyperactive follicular hyperplasia, and a single case of tuberculous lymphadenitis. C-TBNA was diagnostic in 71.4% of sarcoidosis cases, 42.9% of malignant cases, but failed to diagnose the one patient with tuberculous lymphadenitis. CONCLUSION: Lymph node transbronchial forceps biopsy (LN-TBFB) was found to be safe and effective in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We strongly advocate the use of this minimally invasive technique for diagnosing pathologically enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, as a last step before mediastinoscopy.


Assuntos
Linfadenopatia , Doenças do Mediastino , Sarcoidose , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Mediastino/patologia , Doenças do Mediastino/diagnóstico , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Broncoscopia/métodos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Sarcoidose/patologia , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(7): e36954, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal nontuberculous mycobacteriosis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria infection has clinical manifestations similar to intestinal tuberculosis and inflammatory bowel disease, causing difficulties in clinical diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old male patient was admitted to the Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital of Jilin University in June 2021 for diarrhea and intermittent hematochezia since April 2021. He was diagnosed with inflammatory intestinal disease by colonoscopy and midtransverse colon biopsy. However, the symptoms did not relieve after 2 months of mesalazine treatment. In August 2021, the patient was admitted to the outpatient department for suspected "intestinal tuberculosis." A diagnosis of intestinal nontuberculous mycobacteriosis was confirmed based on pathology and nucleotide-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). After 2 weeks of antimycobacterial therapy, the patient's diarrhea was relieved, and hematochezia no longer appeared. In November 2021, recolonoscopy revealed scattered erosions and ulcers in ileocecal valve and ascending colon, while both nucleotide-based MALDI-TOF MS and next-generation sequencing could still detect Mycobacterium intracellulare. CONCLUSION: This study reported a patient with an intestinal nontuberculous mycobacteriosis diagnosed by colonoscopy biopsy and nucleotide-based MALDI-TOF MS, and symptoms were relieved after antimycobacterial treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Diarreia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Nucleotídeos
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 27(1): 68-73, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lymphadenopathy is usually due to benign or malignant conditions. It can also be local or systemic in distribution and can involve peripheral or deep-seated lymph nodes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lymphoma and the distribution pattern of lymph node pathologies among adult patients who presented with lymphadenopathy and its relationship with age and sex. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted, and a record of all cases of lymphadenopathy with histological diagnosis over 5-year period (January 2017 to December 2021) was extracted from Departments of Anatomical Pathology of Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. The data generated were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 26. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety results were extracted with an age range of 18 to 94 years and a mean age of 41 ± 16 years. They were made up of 75 (39.5%) males and 115 (60.5%) females, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.5. The prevalence of lymphoma was 50.0% (95/190). Thirty-five (18.4%) were Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), while 60 (31.6%) were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Other pathologies manifested by cases of lymphadenopathy include metastatic tumor deposits (38 (20%)), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (29 (15.3%)), and tuberculous lymphadenitis (18 (9.5%)). Others include sinus histiocytosis (4 (2.1%)), dermatopathic lymphadenitis (5 (2.6%)), and Castleman's disease (1 (0.5%)). CONCLUSION: About half of all patients who presented with lymphadenopathy were lymphoma with a high prevalence of 50%, and the majority were NHL. Other major causes of lymphadenopathy were metastatic tumor deposits, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and tuberculous lymphadenitis. Any case of lymphadenopathy should be properly investigated early for effective management.


Assuntos
Linfadenopatia , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Neoplasias , Pseudolinfoma , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pseudolinfoma/patologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Extensão Extranodal/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenopatia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia
9.
Br J Radiol ; 97(1155): 492-504, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288505

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially curable disease that is a leading cause of death globally. While it typically affects the lungs, this disease may involve many extra-pulmonary sites, particularly in patients with risk factors. Extra-pulmonary TB often mimics a variety of different diseases, posing a diagnostic dilemma. Imaging aids in early diagnosis of TB, especially in patients with non-specific or atypical symptoms found at extra-pulmonary infra-thoracic locations. Imaging also helps guide appropriate laboratory investigation, monitor disease progress, and response to treatment. This review aims to highlight the imaging spectrum of TB affecting the infra-thoracic region, that is, gastrointestinal tract, abdominal lymph nodes, peritoneal cavity, intra-abdominal solid organs, and urogenital system.


Assuntos
Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Abdome/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 152: e28, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287476

RESUMO

Lymph node tuberculosis is particularly common in regions with a high tuberculosis burden, and it has a great risk of rupture. This study aims to investigate the utility of ultrasound multimodal imaging in predicting the rupture of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis (CTL). 128 patients with unruptured CTL confirmed by pathology or laboratory tests were included. Various ultrasonic image features, including long-to-short-axis ratio (L/S), margin, internal echotexture, coarse calcification, Color Doppler Flow Imaging (CDFI), perinodal echogenicity, elastography score, and non-enhanced area proportion in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), were analyzed to determine their predictive value for CTL rupture within a one-year follow-up period. As a result, L/S (P < 0.001), margin (P < 0.001), internal echotexture (P < 0.001), coarse calcification (P < 0.001), perinodal echogenicity (P < 0.001), and the area of non-enhancement in CEUS (P < 0.001) were identified as significant imaging features for predicting CTL rupture. The prognostic prediction showed a sensitivity of 89.29%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 95.31%, respectively. Imaging findings such as L/S < 2, unclear margin, heterogeneous internal echotexture, perinodal echogenicity changed, and non-enhancement area in CEUS > 1/2, are indicative of CTL rupture, while coarse calcification in the lymph nodes is associated with a favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Pescoço , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Humanos , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Pescoço/patologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Imagem Multimodal
11.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 69: 152260, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171232

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used to prevent tuberculosis and/or its severe complications for long. BCG lymphadenitis is a common complication of the vaccine, which is sometimes subjected to cytological examination. The aim of the study is to describe the cytological findings of BCG lymphadenitis. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in the western part of India from January 2021 to December 2022. DESIGN: The study was performed on archived material of all patients who were referred to the fine needle aspiration clinic for cytology examination. Clinical and pathological data of cases were retrieved, and cases of BCG lymphadenitis were selected in the study based on these data. Slides of cases were retrieved, and cytological findings were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Papanicolaou, Giemsa, and Hematoxylin & eosin-stained smears, as well as Ziehl-Neelson stain (Z.N. stain) smears of all BCG lymphadenitis cases, were retrieved. Cases were reviewed for individual cytological features and overall cytological diagnostic categories. Z.N. stain smears were evaluated for acid-fast bacilli. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic categories observed in BCG lymphadenitis include suppurative lymphadenitis/abscess (15 %), necrotizing lymphadenitis (23 %), necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis (46 %), suppurative granulomatous lymphadenitis (8 %), non-necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis (8 %). Acid-fast bacilli were detected by Z.N. stain in 8 cases (62 %). The cytological findings of BCG lymphadenitis closely overlap with those of tuberculous lymphadenitis. So, clinical context is very important while reporting isolated axillary lymphadenopathy, specifically in recently vaccinated infants, to avoid misdiagnosis as tuberculous lymphadenitis.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Linfadenite , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Humanos , Lactente , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Citodiagnóstico , Granuloma , Linfadenite/etiologia , Linfadenite/patologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/complicações , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia
12.
Indian J Tuberc ; 71(1): 27-29, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38296386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck lesions of tuberculosis, though not uncommon are often difficult to diagnose and require a unique management protocol. These lesions are often misdiagnosed as bacterial infections, malignancies or other granulomatous diseases. Hence in our study we endeavor to gain a better understanding of the diagnostic and management protocols of tuberculosis in otorhinolaryngology. METHODS: We have performed an observational study at our institute, the patient's details were obtained from patient record forms and noted in a standard proforma. Results were calculated as percentage and Chi square analysis was performed. RESULTS: We found cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis to be the most common manifestation 76.97%, with a significant association with pulmonary tuberculosis. Neck swelling was the most common presenting complaint, 65.35%. 26-50 years of age was the most commonly involved age group. CONCLUSION: FNAC, PCR and histopathology are the modalities for bacteriological diagnosis for tuberculosis of Head and Neck. Anti-tuberculous therapy is uniformly found to be useful in all the patients, with surgical intervention used as and when required.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Pescoço/patologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
13.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 122(2): e202310049, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37725752

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which most commonly compromises the respiratory system, whereas abdominal involvement is rare, thus its diagnosis is a challenge. The clinical manifestations of abdominal tuberculosis as well as its physical examination findings are usually non-specific and, frequently, similar to those of other diseases, so it is critical to consider abdominal tuberculosis among the differential diagnoses. Here we report the clinical case of a 15-year-old male patient hospitalized for a prolonged febrile syndrome associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, night sweats, and weight loss.


La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa cuya forma de presentación más frecuente es la pulmonar; la afectación abdominal es poco frecuente, por lo que su diagnóstico continúa siendo un desafío. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la tuberculosis abdominal así como sus hallazgos en el examen físico suelen ser inespecíficos y, en muchas ocasiones, similares a los de otras patologías, por lo que es fundamental considerarla entre los diagnósticos diferenciales. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 15 años de edad, hospitalizado por un síndrome febril prolongado asociado a dolor abdominal, diarrea, sudoración nocturna y pérdida de peso.


Assuntos
Abdome , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Masculino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Diarreia , Diagnóstico Diferencial
15.
Pediatr Radiol ; 54(4): 596-605, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38099930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ideally, suspected airway compression in symptomatic children with lymphobronchial tuberculosis (TB) would be diagnosed using modern computed tomography (CT) assisted by coronal minimum intensity projection (MinIP) reconstructions. However, in TB-endemic regions with limited resources, practitioners rely on conventional radiography for diagnosing TB and its complications. Furthermore, airway compression detected on conventional radiographs would upgrade a patient into the severe category according to the new World Health Organization guidelines, precluding the patient from shorter treatment protocols. The accuracy of conventional radiographs in the context of detecting airway compression in children with TB has not been specifically evaluated against an imaging gold standard. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare frontal chest radiographs against thick-slab angled coronal CT MinIP in identifying airway stenosis at ten specific sites and to determine observer agreement between the modalities regarding the degree of stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study compared chest radiographs with standardized angled coronal CT MinIP in children with symptomatic lymphobronchial TB at ten predetermined airway locations. Chest radiographs were evaluated by one pediatric radiologist and CT MinIP reconstructions were independently interpreted by three readers. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using CT MinIP as the gold standard. Stenosis was graded as 1 for mild (1-50%), 2 for moderate (51-75%), 3a for severe (76-99%), and 3b for total occlusion (100%). Agreement between the two modalities regarding severity of stenosis was calculated using the kappa coefficient for each affected site. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients were included in the study. The median age of patients was 14.3 months (interquartile range 8.0-23.2). Three hundred and seventy individual bronchi (10 from each of the 37 patients) were evaluated for stenosis. Chest radiographs showed that 31 out of 37 (84%) patients had stenosis in at least one of ten evaluated sites, most commonly the left main bronchus and bronchus intermedius, and this was confirmed via CT MinIP. The gold standard (CT MinIP) demonstrated stenosis in at least one of ten sites in all 37 patients (100%). Left main bronchus stenosis was detected by chest radiography with a 92.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Sensitivity and specificity for bronchus intermedius stenosis were 80% and 75%, respectively. There was substantial agreement for grade of stenosis between chest radiographs and CT (kappa=0.67) for the left main bronchus and moderate agreement (kappa=0.58) for the bronchus intermedius. Severe stenosis was found in 78 bronchi on CT compared to 32 bronchi (Grade 3a: 9, Grade 3b: 23) on chest radiographs. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of pulmonary TB in children continues to rely heavily on imaging, and we have shown that in young children, chest radiographs had a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting airway stenosis at certain anatomical sites, when adequately visualized, resulting from tuberculous lymph node compression at left main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. For most sites, the interobserver agreement was poor. Stenosis of the left main bronchus and bronchus intermedius should be the focus of chest radiograph interpretation and can assist both diagnosis and classification of patients for treatment.


Assuntos
Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Constrição Patológica , Estudos Transversais , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Radiografia
16.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 45(1): 104030, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37659223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis (NTMCL) is an uncommon condition detected in young immunocompetent children who typically present with a nontender neck mass. Various tests have been proposed to assist in the work-up of suspected NTMCL, with varying diagnostic utility. This systematic review investigates the sensitivity of the various diagnostic methods used in the work-up of pediatric NTMCL. METHODS: A systematic review in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was performed using the Pubmed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. Searches were filtered for English language studies published prior to 05/10/22. Studies meeting criteria included studies featuring 15+ pediatric patients with confirmed or suspected NTMCL. Studies with any reported diagnostic methodology used in the workup of NTMCL were included. RESULTS: Of 836 abstracts/articles reviewed, 21 studies met inclusion criteria. Diagnostic methods included culture(n = 11 studies), PPD-Tb(Tuberculin)(n = 12), PPD-Scrofulaceum, -Avium, or -Kansasii(n = 6), staining techniques(n = 4), IGRA(n = 3), and ultrasound(n = 2). All studies had an overall low risk of bias. Among patients confirmed to have NTMCL based on PCR and/or culture, the most sensitive tests were PPD-A(0.94, 95 % CI 0.91 to 0.97; n = 210 patients) and PPD-S(0.75, 95 % CI 0.68 to 0.81; n = 171). Auramine and Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques had moderately high sensitivity(0.85 and 0.60 respectively), though were limited by low patient numbers(n = 20). PPD-Tb(0.45, 95 % CI 0.39 to 0.50; n = 300) and IGRA(0.02; 95 % CI 0 to 0.06; n = 48) demonstrated poor sensitivity. Among patients suspected to have NTM lymphadenitis based on global assessment, the most sensitive tests included combined PPD-S + A + K(0.92, 95 % CI 0.86 to 0.98; n = 85), PCR(0.82, 95 % CI 0.75 to 0.88; n = 136), and PPD-A(0.72, 95 % CI 0.62 to 0.81; n = 84). Culture showed a sensitivity of 0.54(95 % CI 0.50 to 0.58; n = 494). PPD-K, PPD-S, IGRA, and staining techniques demonstrated lower sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review is the largest study investigating the sensitivity of the various diagnostic methods used in the work-up of pediatric NTMCL. Patients with clinical suspicion for NTMCL and a positive PPD-Tb should first have tuberculous lymphadenitis ruled out with IGRA. Patients with a positive PPD-Tb and negative IGRA and high clinical suspicion for NTMCL can undergo presumptive surgical intervention. Patients with a negative PPD-Tb can undergo NTM antigen skin testing if available, or if high clinical suspicion exists, surgical intervention to reduce tissue burden and elicit additional tissue data.


Assuntos
Linfadenite , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Criança , Humanos , Tuberculina , Linfadenite/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Testes Cutâneos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/cirurgia
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(12)2023 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081731

RESUMO

A woman in her 20s with a recent diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) affecting the ileocaecal valve was started on adalimumab, after routine tuberculosis (TB) tests were negative. Her abdominal symptoms got worse and she started presenting respiratory distress and fever. Tomography revealed a left pleural effusion, pneumonia and peritonitis with pelvic abscess. The diagnosis of disseminated TB with digestive involvement was suggested and sputum cultures were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Treatment for TB was started and immunosuppressants discontinued, leading to respiratory improvement. Abdominal imaging was repeated, showing worsening signs of multisegmental ileal wall thickening, ileocaecal valve obstruction and a persistent pelvic abscess. She was then submitted to a laparoscopic ileocaecal resection for suspicion of worsening CD. Histopathology showed chronic ileocolitis compatible with CD and ganglionic tuberculosis, revealing the diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis superimposed in CD. Recovery was uneventful.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Enterite , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Peritonite Tuberculosa , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Feminino , Humanos , Abscesso , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/complicações , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(47): e348, 2023 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38050909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paradoxical responses (PR) occur more frequently in lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) than in pulmonary tuberculosis and present difficulties in differential diagnosis of drug resistance, new infection, poor patient compliance, and adverse drug reactions. Although diagnosis of mediastinal LNTB has become much easier with the development of endosonography, limited information is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical course of mediastinal LNTB and the risk factors associated with PR. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with mediastinal LNTB via endosonography were evaluated retrospectively between October 2009 and December 2019. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to evaluate the risk factors associated with PR. RESULTS: Of 9,052 patients who underwent endosonography during the study period, 158 were diagnosed with mediastinal LNTB. Of these, 55 (35%) and 41 (26%) concurrently had pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis other than mediastinal LNTB, respectively. Of 125 patients who completed anti-tuberculosis treatment, 21 (17%) developed PR at a median of 4.4 months after initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The median duration of anti-tuberculosis treatment was 6.3 and 10.4 months in patients without and with PR, respectively. Development of PR was independently associated with age < 55 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-18.14; P = 0.003), lymphocyte count < 800/µL (aOR, 8.59; 95% CI, 1.60-46.20; P = 0.012), and short axis diameter of the largest lymph node (LN) ≥ 16 mm (aOR, 5.22; 95% CI, 1.70-16.00; P = 0.004) at the time of diagnosis of mediastinal LNTB. CONCLUSION: As PR occurred in one of six patients with mediastinal LNTB during anti-tuberculosis treatment, physicians should pay attention to patients with risk factors (younger age, lymphocytopenia, and larger LN) at the time of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença
19.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 12(4): 505-507, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149551

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered a common infection in developing countries and is caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium TB. TB remains to be one of the most important health threats. TB can have varied clinical presentations; Pulmonary TB affects the lungs and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) can affect any part of the body. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis (CTL), cervical lymphadenitis, which is also referred to as scrofula is a case of EPTB that most frequently involves the cervical lymph nodes. In our report, a case of a young patient with CTL has been reported. This case's physical examination, evolution, diagnosis, and treatment have been discussed. Our case exemplifies the potential manifestations of an extrapulmonary tubercular lesion of the posterior pharyngeal wall, demonstrating that mycobacteria can infect practically any human organ. A high index of suspicion is critically required for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis as mimics a number of pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Linfadenite , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfadenite/diagnóstico , Linfadenite/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(6): e0163823, 2023 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37909771

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis (CTL), the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis, is currently a major health problem in Tunisia and in several regions around the world. CTL diagnosis is challenging mainly due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the potential misdiagnosis as cervical non-tuberculous lymphadenitis. This study demonstrates the added value of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin-interferon-gamma release assay as an immunoassay in the context of CTL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tunísia
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