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1.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 318-325, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468583

RESUMO

Reports of infection and/or disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are becoming increasingly frequent. This scope review describes the epidemiological and clinical trend of infection/disease caused by NTM in Latin America. OVID MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS databases were explored for relevant articles. After filtering, we included 44 articles, representing an overall population of 2,826 subjects diagnosed with NTM infection and disease; the majority of the publications included subjects from Brazil and Colombia (75%), cross-sectional studies were the most common (36.6%), most subjects were male (61.3%) and the median age of subjects was 40.1 years. Disease by NTM was reported in 37 publications, extrapulmonary presentation was the most frequent (54%), main comorbidities were other pulmonary diseases, HIV, cystic fibrosis, diabetes and malnutrition, as reported in 13 studies; tuberculosis diagnosis previous to NTM disease was reported in 15 articles. Aesthetic procedures were reported in 12 articles while clinical procedures were reported in 3 articles. Several NTM species were reported, being Mycobacterium avium (52%), M. abscessus (34%), M. chelonae (18%), M. fortuitum (16%) and M. kansasii (9.1%) the most frequent. Culture and molecular testing were the main methods for diagnosis and identification. Scientific literature on NTM from Latin American countries is scarce. There is an urgent need to conduct studies on the frequency and clinical impact of NTM infections, in order to accurately identify the current morbidity and mortality associated with NTM in Latin American. It is also important to strengthen the local diagnostic capacity and the existing networks focused on studying NTM.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Tuberculose , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(3): 406-410, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide are attributable to smoking, and it is associated with an increased risk of latent and active TB, recurrence, and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the smoking prevalence and the effects on treatment outcomes in TB patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients with a recent TB diagnosis. The smoking status was defined, in addition to the patients' knowledge and attitudes toward smoking. The patients were followed up until the end of the treatment, and the treatment result was recorded. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included in this study. The prevalence of active smoking was 31.5%. Active smokers had less chance for cure (62.1% versus 82.5%; p=0.032) and more treatment dropout (31.0% versus 12.7%; p=0.035) than non-active smokers. Patients demonstrated positive attitudes and good knowledge about smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Active smokers had less chance for cure and more abandonment than non-active smokers. These results can be useful for the proper planning of actions that impact TB control, especially in the treatment results, such as cognitive-behavioral approaches to smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Fumar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(8): 11-12, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between socio-psychological factors and TB patients as well as to determine whether the association differs from treated and untreated persons. METHODS: This was a prospective study in a municipal corporation hospital in Pune district. A total 104 patient sample were selected from the population; criteria covered age group of 25 to 60 years along with their education and economic background. Trained study nurses then collected baseline information from consenting participants using a questionnaire. RESULTS: After being cured from the disease, patients share clothes or utensils with their family members. For a few patients psychological improvements were observed after some period of treatment whereas as in majority of patients psychological support by their family and friends was not received. This caused increase in emotional stress despite patients got cured off the TB infection. CONCLUSION: The important point noticed about the cured patients was augmented fighting spirit against this deadly disease. Recovered patients want to live more with the same joy and happiness after treatment.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 281-285, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479275

RESUMO

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) contributes to 15% of total cases, representing a great diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Pericardial involvement is present in 1 to 2% of TB patients and is considered an unusual presentation form of TB. We report a 67-year-old male presenting with fever and progressive dyspnea. A chest CAT scan showed a bilateral pleural effusion and an extensive pericardial effusion. An echocardiogram showed signs of tamponade. Therefore, an emergency pericardiectomy was performed. The pathological report of pericardial tissue showed caseating necrosis and its Koch culture was positive. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous drugs with a favorable evolution.


Assuntos
Derrame Pericárdico , Pericardite Tuberculosa , Tuberculose , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Derrame Pericárdico/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pericárdico/etiologia , Pericardiectomia , Pericardite Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Pericardite Tuberculosa/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479881

RESUMO

We report a case of a woman from Thailand, living in Malta, who was diagnosed with concomitant tuberculosis (TB) and HIV with depleted CD4 count. Her case was further complicated by the formation of a fistula between the mediastinal lymph nodes and the oesophagus, an unusual finding but for which she had many risk factors. The diagnosis was suspected on CT scan of the thorax and confirmed via upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Following the commencement of both anti-TB and antiretroviral therapy, she suffered a lapse of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome but with aggressive medical management eventually made a full recovery without the need for surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Fístula , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune , Tuberculose , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Fístula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Urologiia ; (4): 93-96, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486281

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Late diagnosis of renal tuberculosis leads to complications that cannot be eliminated by treatment. CLINICAL CASE: A clinical observation of patient Ch., born in 1976, who was admitted to TB Research Institute of Ministry of Health of Russia on 17.02.2020. A diagnosis was cavernous renal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the ureter. MBT (-). Right ureteral stricture (obliteration), complicated by ipsilateral hydronephrosis. Right nephrostomy tube (2018). Clinical cure of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. He underwent planned laparoscopic bowel substitution of the right ureter on 10.03.2020. In the postoperative period, pyelonephritis developed, which was resolved by drug therapy. CONCLUSION: In this case, there is the correct tactics of outpatient urologists. When hydronephrosis was diagnosed, a nephrostomy tube was put, which allowed to preserve the kidney, Then the patient was immediately referred to a phthisiatrician to exclude urogenital tuberculosis. In the local TB dispensary, the patient did not have the opportunity to receive necessary treatment, and he was transferred to the TB Research Institute of Ministry of Health of Russia, where a reconstructive laparoscopic procedure was performed.


Assuntos
Hidronefrose , Tuberculose Renal , Tuberculose , Ureter , Obstrução Ureteral , Humanos , Hidronefrose/etiologia , Hidronefrose/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose Renal/complicações , Tuberculose Renal/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27125, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477155

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the genetic and demographic differences and interactions between areas where observed genomic variations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) were distributed uniformly in cold and hot spots.The cold and hot spot areas were identified using the reported incidence of TB over the previous 5 years. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 291 M. tb isolates between January and June 2018. Analysis of molecular variance and a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) model was applied to test gene-gene-environment interactions. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to test the extent to which genetic mutation affects the TB epidemic using a multivariate logistic regression model.The percentage of the Beijing family strain in hot spots was significantly higher than that in cold spots (64.63% vs 50.69%, P = .022), among the elderly, people with a low BMI, and those having a history of contact with a TB patient (all P < .05). Individuals from cold spot areas had a higher frequency of out-of-town traveling (P < .05). The mutation of Rv1186c, Rv3900c, Rv1508c, Rv0210, and an Intergenic Region (SNP site: 3847237) showed a significant difference between cold and hot spots. (P < .001). The MDR model displayed a clear negative interaction effect of age groups with BMI (interaction entropy: -3.55%) and mutation of Rv0210 (interaction entropy: -2.39%). Through the mutations of Rv0210 and BMI had a low independent effect (interaction entropy: -1.46%).Our data suggests a statistically significant role of age, BMI and the polymorphisms of Rv0210 genes in the transmission and development of M. tb. The results provide clues for the study of susceptibility genes of M. tb in different populations. The characteristic strains showed a local epidemic. Strengthening genotype monitoring of strains in various regions can be used as an early warning signal of epidemic spillover.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-09-07.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54802

RESUMO

Se estima que unos 10 millones de personas contrajeron tuberculosis (TB) en el 2019 y que a unos 3 millones de ellas no se les diagnosticó ni se les notificó la enfermedad. Con el propósito de poner fin a la epidemia mundial de la tuberculosis para el 2030, sigue siendo necesario ampliar la capacidad para analizar un gran número de muestras. En el 2020, la OMS encargó una revisión sistemática de los datos publicados e inéditos sobre tres clases de pruebas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos que no había examinado hasta el momento. Del 7 al 18 de diciembre del 2020, la OMS reunió a un grupo de elaboración de directrices para abordar los resultados de la revisión sistemática y formular recomendaciones sobre esas tres clases de tecnologías. La presente comunicación rápida tiene por objeto informar a los programas nacionales contra la TB y a otros interesados directos acerca de los resultados y las consideraciones principales sobre el uso de algunos análisis moleculares como pruebas diagnósticas para detección de la TB y la TB farmacorresistente, después de evaluar la nueva evidencia. Las recomendaciones detalladas se presentarán en la actualización del 2021 de las directrices unificadas de la OMS sobre la tuberculosis, en su módulo 3.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos , Tuberculose , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , HIV , Doenças Transmissíveis
9.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 254-260, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of adult patients with tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Peru, and to explore the association of DM and mortality in people with TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a secondary analysis of the database of the Management Information System of Tuberculosis of the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Directorate of the Ministry of Health of Peru. Adult patients who started treatment with the scheme for drug-sensitive TB in 2016, 2017 and 2018 were included. We carried out a descriptive analysis of patients with TB and DM, and an exploratory analysis to assess the association of DM with mortality using a Poisson regression to determine the relative risk (RR). RESULTS: We registered 67,524 adults with drug-sensitive TB, of which 6,529 (9.7%) people were reported as having TB and DM; and 4,048 (6.0%) had HIV infection. Of the patients reported with TB and DM, most were men (60.2%) with a median age of 53 years. Regarding mortality, people with TB and DM had a higher frequency of death compared to those with TB without DM (7.2% vs 5.4%). In the exploratory analysis of factors associated with mortality, DM had a crude RR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.20-1.50); however, this association varied in the adjusted model with a RR of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.84-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: DM is the most frequent comorbidity in patients with TB in Peru, although no association with higher mortality was found.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Adulto , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15523, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471144

RESUMO

Chest radiography (CXR) is the most widely-used thoracic clinical imaging modality and is crucial for guiding the management of cardiothoracic conditions. The detection of specific CXR findings has been the main focus of several artificial intelligence (AI) systems. However, the wide range of possible CXR abnormalities makes it impractical to detect every possible condition by building multiple separate systems, each of which detects one or more pre-specified conditions. In this work, we developed and evaluated an AI system to classify CXRs as normal or abnormal. For training and tuning the system, we used a de-identified dataset of 248,445 patients from a multi-city hospital network in India. To assess generalizability, we evaluated our system using 6 international datasets from India, China, and the United States. Of these datasets, 4 focused on diseases that the AI was not trained to detect: 2 datasets with tuberculosis and 2 datasets with coronavirus disease 2019. Our results suggest that the AI system trained using a large dataset containing a diverse array of CXR abnormalities generalizes to new patient populations and unseen diseases. In a simulated workflow where the AI system prioritized abnormal cases, the turnaround time for abnormal cases reduced by 7-28%. These results represent an important step towards evaluating whether AI can be safely used to flag cases in a general setting where previously unseen abnormalities exist. Lastly, to facilitate the continued development of AI models for CXR, we release our collected labels for the publicly available dataset.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Torácica , Estados Unidos
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 731, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require lifelong effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The goal of ART in HIV-infected persons is sustained viral suppression. There is limited information on virological non-suppression or failure and its associated factors in children in resource limited countries, particularly Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 250 children aged 8 months to 15 years who had been on ART for at least 6 months attending the Paediatric HIV clinic at Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Ghana was performed. Socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory and ART Adherence related data were collected using questionnaires as well as medical records review. Blood samples were obtained for viral load and CD4+ count determination. Viral load levels > 1000 copies/ml on ART was considered virological non-suppression. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of the study participants was 11.4 ± 2.4 years and the proportion of males was 53.2%. Of the 250 study participants, 96 (38.4%) had virological non-suppression. After adjustment for significant variables, the factors associated with non-suppressed viral load were female gender (AOR 2.51 [95% CI 1.04-6.07], p = 0.041), having a previous history of treatment of tuberculosis (AOR 4.95 [95% CI 1.58-15.5], p = 0.006), severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment (AOR 24.93 [95% CI 4.92-126.31], p < 0.001) and being on a nevirapine (NVP) based regimen (AOR 7.93 [95% CI 1.58-1.15], p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The prevelance of virological non-suppression was high. Virological non-suppression was associated with a previous history of TB treatment, female gender, severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment and being on a NVP based regimen. Early initiation of ART and phasing out NVP-based regimen might improve viral load suppression in children. In addition, children with a history of TB may need focused measures to maximize virological suppression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Carga Viral
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 706651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368069

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), an airborne infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), remains a global health problem. West Africa has a unique epidemiology of TB that is characterized by medium- to high-prevalence. Moreover, the geographical restriction of M. africanum to the sub-region makes West Africa have an extra burden to deal with a two-in-one pathogen. The region is also burdened with low case detection, late reporting, poor treatment adherence leading to development of drug resistance and relapse. Sporadic studies conducted within the subregion report higher burden of drug resistant TB (DRTB) than previously thought. The need for more sensitive and robust tools for routine surveillance as well as to understand the mechanisms of DRTB and transmission dynamics for the design of effective control tools, cannot be overemphasized. The advancement in molecular biology tools including traditional fingerprinting and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer reliable tools for genomic epidemiology. Genomic epidemiology provides in-depth insight of the nature of pathogens, circulating strains and their spread as well as prompt detection of the emergence of new strains. It also offers the opportunity to monitor treatment and evaluate interventions. Furthermore, genomic epidemiology can be used to understand potential emergence and spread of drug resistant strains and resistance mechanisms allowing the design of simple but rapid tools. In this review, we will describe the local epidemiology of MTBC, highlight past and current investigations toward understanding their biology and spread as well as discuss the relevance of genomic epidemiology studies to TB control in West Africa.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047641, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The burden of post-tuberculosis (TB) lung disease (PTBLD) is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, causing disability among TB survivors. Without effective medicines, the mainstay of PTBLD treatment evolves around disease prevention and supportive treatment. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), a low-cost, non-pharmacological intervention has shown effectiveness in a group of PTBLD individuals but has not been tested in a clinical trial. This study aims to assess the impact of a 6-week PR programme on maximal exercise capacity and other outcomes among adults in Uganda living with PTBLD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised waiting-list controlled trial with blinded outcome measures, comparing PR versus usual care for patients with PTBLD. A total of 114 participants will be randomised (1:1) to receive either usual care (on the waiting list) or PR, with follow-up assessments at 6 weeks and 12 weeks postintervention. The primary outcome is change in walking distance measured by the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test from baseline to the end of 6 weeks of PR. All secondary outcomes will be compared between the PR and usual care arms from baseline to 6-week and 12-week follow-ups. Secondary outcomes include self-reported respiratory symptoms, physical activity, psychological well-being, health-related quality of life and cost-benefit analysis. All randomised participants will be included in the intention-to-treat analysis population. The primary efficacy analysis will be based on both per-protocol and modified intention-to-treat populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has received ethical clearance from the Mulago Hospital Research and Ethics Committee (MHREC 1478), Kampala, Uganda as well as the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (SS 5105). Ethical approval has been obtained from the University of Leicester, UK research ethics committee (Ref No. 22349). Study findings will be published in appropriate peer-reviewed journals and disseminated at appropriate local, regional and international scientific meetings and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN18256843. PROTOCOL VERSION: Version 1.0 July 2019.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Tuberculose , Adulto , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Uganda
16.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 37(8): 793-796, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420280

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a rat tuberculous wound model established by injecting Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Methods: The experimental research was conducted. According to the random number table, fifteen 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control group and infection group, with 3 rats in normal control group and 12 rats in infection group. Rats in infection group were injected with Freund's complete adjuvant, 3 weeks later, they were injected subcutaneously with BCG bacterial solution to establish a model of tuberculous wounds in rats; rats in normal control group did not receive any treatment. On the 8th, 15th, 32nd, and 43rd day of infection, the skin condition at the injection sites of the rats in infection group was observed roughly. Skin tissue at the injection sites of 3 rats in infection group at each corresponding time point stated above and skin tissue at the corresponding sites of the rats in normal control group were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe the cell arrangement, necrosis and inflammation. On 43rd day of infection, acid-fast staining was performed on the skin tissue at the injection sites of the rats in infection group to observe the distribution of bacteria. Results: On the 8th, 15th, 32nd, and 43rd day of infection, tuberculous wound lesions were gradually developed at the skin tissues at the injection sites of the rats in infection group. The cells of the diseased tissue of the rats in infection group arranged disorderly or concentrically, and the number of granulomas and necrotic cells gradually increased, while the skin tissue cells in the corresponding parts of the rats in normal control group arranged regularly with no inflammatory cell infiltration. On the 43rd day of infection, a large number of rod-shaped bacteria were observed in the skin tissue at the injection sites of the rats in infection group. Conclusions: The rat tuberculous wound model established using BCG is stable and reliable, which can meet the experimental requirements.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Tuberculose , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele
17.
Vaccine ; 39(37): 5233-5239, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366145

RESUMO

Modern vaccinology has experienced major conceptual and technological advances over the past 30 years. These include atomic-level structures driving immunogen design, new vaccine delivery methods, powerful adjuvants, and novel animal models. In addition, utilizing advanced assays to learn how the immune system senses a pathogen and orchestrates protective immunity has been critical in the design of effective vaccines and therapeutics. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop in September 2020 focused on next generation assays for vaccine development (Table 1). The workshop focused on four critical pathogens: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-which have no licensed vaccines-and tuberculosis (TB) and influenza-both of which are in critical need of improved vaccines. The goal was to share progress and lessons learned, and to identify any commonalities that can be leveraged to design vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tuberculose , Animais , Humanos , Laboratórios , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Vacinologia
19.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(4): 82-89, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of the medicine Ophtalmoferon (eye drops) in the treatment of conjunctivitis of mixed aetiology in patients with first-time tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who have been treated at the Clinical Anti-tuberculosis Hospital No. 4. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 60 patients (42 men and 18 women with mean age of 41.48±1.34 years), who had consulted the ophthalmologist for conjunctivitis. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group - main one (n=32) - received complex local therapy with the medicine Ophtalmoferon; the second group (n=28) - control one - did not receive Ophtalmoferon as a part of complex local treatment. The treatment involved assessment of the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of the examined medicine. RESULTS: Patient examinations were conducted on the first visit, then on the third, fifth and seventh day of treatment. On the third day of treatment as compared to the baseline the burning sensation and pain in the eyes were less severe; in the main group that received the medicine Ophtalmoferon (group 1) the number of patients describing these symptoms as mild (1 point) were 15.6% (pain) and 18.8% (burning), respectively (W=2.15; p=0.03). Severe lacrimation (3 points) remained in 5 (15.6%) patients. On the fifth day there were no main group patients with severe (3 points) or moderate (2 points) lacrimation. On the seventh day complete resolution of subjective symptoms was noted in 71.9% (group 1) and 42.9% (group 2) of patients (χ2=1.39; p=0.238), respectively. There was no lacrimation in 71.9% (group 1) and 35.7% (group 2) of patients (χ2=2.36; p=0.125), no eye redness was noted in 78.1% (group 1) and 28.6% (group 2) of patients (χ2=4.51; p=0.034), respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of the combined medicine Ophtalmoferon in the complex local treatment of conjunctivitis of mixed aetiology in patients with tuberculosis and HIV infection helps to achieve a rapid relief of subjective and objective symptoms with good tolerability of the medicine.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Alérgica , Conjuntivite , Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Soluções Oftálmicas , Resultado do Tratamento
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