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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 190, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization endorsed Truenat MTB rapid molecular assay in 2020 and recommended additional in-country evaluation studies before uptake. We evaluated the accuracy and operational feasibility of Truenat MTB assay (Truenat) in comparison with GeneXpert Ultra and culture. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 250 presumptive TB patients, participants were requested to provide a sputum sample on the day of their visit to the clinic. The sputum sample was homogenized and a portion was tested using GeneXpert Ultra as per the routine standard procedure and the other portion was tested using Truenat assay at the clinic laboratory. The second sample portion was processed for Concentrated Fluorescent smear Microscopy (CFM), LJ, and MGIT cultures. Truenat sensitivity and specificity were compared to GeneXpert Ultra and culture. Test performance characteristics and operational feasibility assessment data through interview of the study laboratory staff were also collected and summarized as proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Of the 250 participants recruited in the study, the sensitivity and specificity of Truenat was n/N (%, 95%CI); 66/82 (80.5, 70.2-88.4) and 156/159 (98.1, 94.5-99.6) when compared with Ultra, 50/64 (89.3, 66.0-87.4) and 166/180 (92.2, 87.2-95.6) when compared with LJ, 58/71 (81.7,70.7-89.8) and 131/138 (94.9, 89.8-97.9) when compared to MGIT culture and 59/73 (80.8, 69.9-89.1) and 159/169 (94.1,89.3-97.1) when compared to LJ and/or MGIT culture. The sensitivity of Truenat was lower, 14/23 (60.9, 40.6-82.8) among smear-negative compared to 45/50 (90.0, 78.1-96.6) among smear-positive participants but not different by HIV status. There were no special training needs especially among laboratory personnel with previous GeneXpert /molecular test experience, 19/242 (7.8%) error/invalid, and 12 (17,4%) uninterpretable/indeterminate results mainly for rifampicin resistance determination. However, there were 3 (3.5%) of GeneXpert Ultra indeterminate results. CONCLUSION: Among presumptive TB patients in Uganda, the Truenat assay has high sensitivity and specificity. The Truenat assay has acceptable operational feasibility attributes when compared with the GeneXpert Assay.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Rifampina , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Uganda , Estudos Transversais , Escarro , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298397, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) disproportionately affects married women living with HIV (MWLHIV), resulting in undesirable human rights, socio-economic, mental, maternal, and child health consequences. Community Support systems against Violence (CoSaV) are widely available and promising public and voluntary resources for the prevention and mitigation of IPV but are poorly investigated. We set out to identify the predictors for the utilization of the CoSaV among the MWLHIV. METHODS: This was a quantitative cross-sectional study conducted among 424 consecutively sampled MWLHIV attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) clinic at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital in southwestern Uganda in April 2021. Using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, data were collected on the participant's socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to IPV, awareness about the CoSaV, perceptions about the quality, accessibility and challenges in accessing the CoSaV and the utilization. Modified Poisson regression model was used to identify the predictors for the utilization of CoSaV using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. RESULTS: The mean age of the 424 participants in the study was 39.5 ± 10.2 years. More than half of the participants 51.9% (220/424) reported exposure to any IPV. Utilization of any CoSaV was found to be above average at 58.3% among the participants. The formal support (police, local government leaders, health workers and counselors) were more frequently utilized compared to the informal support (family, relatives and friends). Utilization of any CoSaV was higher among the women who were aware of the CoSaV and also those who were exposed to violence. Accessibility was identified as an independent predictor for utilization of any CoSaV. CONCLUSIONS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) was prevalent among MWLHIV in southwestern Uganda. However, the utilization of any CoSaV was suboptimal. The formal CoSaV were more frequently utilized than the informal support systems. Accessibility was an independent predictor for utilization of any CoSaV. There is need to improve access in order to increase the utilization of the CoSaV and contribute to the attainment of sustainable development goal 5.2.1 and end violence against women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Uganda/epidemiologia , Apoio Comunitário , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores de Risco
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077788, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346875

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No whole-school interventions which seek to reduce physical, sexual and emotional violence from peers, intimate partners and teachers have been trialled with adolescents. Here, we report a protocol for a pilot trial of the Good School Toolkit-Secondary Schools intervention, to be tested in Ugandan secondary schools. Our main objectives are to (1) refine the intervention, (2) to understand feasibility of delivery of the intervention and (3) to explore design parameters for a subsequent phase III trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial, with two arms and parallel assignment. Eight schools will be randomly selected from a stratified list of all eligible schools in Kampala and Wakiso Districts. We will conduct a baseline survey and endline survey 18 months after the baseline, with 960 adolescents and 200 teachers. Qualitative data and mixed methods process data collection will be conducted throughout the intervention. Proportion of staff and students reporting acceptability, understanding and implementing with fidelity will be tabulated at endline for intervention schools. Proportions of schools consenting to participation, randomisation and proportions of schools and individual participants completing the baseline and endline surveys will be described in a Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials diagram. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ethical requirements of our project are complex. Full approvals have been received from the Mildmay Ethics Committee (0407-2019), the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (SS 6020) and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (16212). Results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals, and shared with public bodies, policy makers, study participants and the general public in Uganda. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PACTR202009826515511.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência , Adolescente , Humanos , Uganda , Violência/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Docentes/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 114, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with HIV have a higher risk of getting cervical cancer due to induced immunosuppression. Though this burden could be avoided through early identification and appropriate management, there is a paucity of information about the utilization of cervical cancer screening (CCS) services in Lira City, Uganda. This study investigated the level and factors associated with the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among HIV-positive women aged 18 to 49 years at Lira Regional Referral Hospital, Lira City, Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional study employing quantitative techniques. We used consecutive sampling to recruit 297 HIV-positive women at the ART clinic of Lira Regional Referral Hospital. A structured researcher-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were performed to summarize the data. A modified Poisson regression using robust standard errors was performed to ascertain the factors associated with the utilization of cervical cancer screening. Prevalence ratios at 95% confidence intervals were reported. RESULTS: Out of 297 respondents, 175(58.9%) utilized cervical cancer screening in this study. The factors found to be associated with CCS were; having ever heard of CCS (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.49, p < 0.001), knowing where CCS is done (Adjusted PR 1.99, 95% CI 1.42-2.81, p < 0.001), fear of CCS outcomes (Adjusted PR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84,p < 0.001), not knowing whether CCS is beneficial or not (Adjusted PR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.75,p = 0.005) and having friends/relatives who screened for cervical cancer (Adjusted PR 1.31, 95% CI 1.09-1.59, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The level of utilization of cervical cancer screening services among HIV-positive women was suboptimal. Implementation of structured interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening awareness among HIV-positive women is crucial. Additionally, to increase opportunities for screening and knowledge on cervical cancer prevention, screening programs can target HIV-positive women during their routine clinic visits.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Feminino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 417, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptation is a key strategy to extend the reach of evidence-based interventions to prevent violence in new populations, but there is a dearth of practical case examples. The Good School Toolkit was developed by Ugandan NGO Raising Voices for use in primary schools (GST-P). We describe our systematic approach to adapting the GST-P for use in secondary schools in Uganda, and reflect on the utility of the process as well as limitations of existing adaptation frameworks. METHODS: We adapted the GST-P in four phases, which included: I) clarifying the logic model and core intervention components using a streamlined process; II) conducting formative research (cross-sectional survey, focus groups, etc.) to understand the new population; III) selecting and preparing new intervention components and modifying existing intervention components; and IV) pretesting new intervention components with teachers and students in Uganda. RESULTS: We identified core components using a logic model. Formative research showed results largely in line with our apriori hypotheses. Teacher violence remained highly prevalent in secondary versus primary schools (> 65% of secondary students reported past year exposure), while peer violence significantly increased (secondary = 52% vs. primary girls = 40%, P < 0.001; secondary = 54% vs. primary boys = 44%, P = 0.009) in secondary versus primary schools. Significantly more secondary girls (51%) than secondary boys (45%) reported past year dating/intimate partner violence (P = 0.03). Inequitable, gendered educational practices emerged as a salient theme, perceived to heighten female students' vulnerability to violence. In light of these findings, we made several adjustments to the adapted intervention. We strengthened existing teacher and peer violence intervention components. We also developed, pretested and revised new program components to prevent dating violence and promote 'gender fairness in schools'. Finally, original activities were modified to support engagement with school administration and promote increased student agency in secondary schools. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experience, it was difficult to apply mechanistic models to clarify the intervention logic of the GST-P, a complex multicomponent intervention, and simpler methods may be sufficient. Our team had high levels of contextual knowledge before the adaptation, and formative research to understand the new target population provided only limited additional insight. In similar situations, a simplified approach to mapping the core intervention components, qualitative research to understand the new target population, and pre-testing of new intervention components may be the most informative elements of systematic adaptation processes.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Violência/prevenção & controle , Estudantes
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 185, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over time, Uganda has experienced high levels of maternal mortality (435 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2006 to 336 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2016). The persistence of high levels of maternal mortality jeopardizes the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3.1, which calls for reducing maternal mortality to 70 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2030. Conversely, the utilization of postnatal care (PNC) services in Uganda remained very low and has varied across regions. This study examined the individual and community-level factors influencing women's utilization of postnatal care services in Uganda. METHODS: Secondary data from the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) were used in this study. The study population consisted of women aged 15 to 49 who reported giving birth in the five years preceding the 2016 UDHS survey. The factors associated with postnatal care services were identified using multilevel binary logistic regression and spatial analysis. RESULTS: The result shows that the prevalence of postnatal care service utilization in Uganda was low (58.3%) compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) target of 100%. The univariate analysis shows that 13.7% of women were adolescents, 79% were of higher parity, and 70.4% had primary/no formal education, of which 76.6% resided in rural areas. On the other hand, the multilevel analysis results showed that women aged 20-29 years and 30-39 years were also found to be more likely to use PNC services (AOR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.01-1.47). Women who received quality ANC (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.78-2.36) were more likely to use postnatal care services than their counterparts. At the community level, women who lived in media-saturated communities were more likely to use postnatal care services (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.01-1.65). The spatial analysis found that the Central, Eastern, and Northern regions were the areas of hotspots in the utilization of postnatal care services. CONCLUSION: This study found that age, parity, level of education, place of residence, employment status, quality of the content of antenatal care, and community media saturation were the predictors of postnatal care service utilization. The spatial analysis showed that the spatial distributions of postnatal care service utilization were significantly varied across Uganda. The government must expand access to various forms of media throughout the country to increase PNC utilization.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Adolescente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Escolaridade , Análise Multinível , Análise Espacial , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1236, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336944

RESUMO

The mosquito-borne disease, Yellow fever (YF), has been largely controlled via mass delivery of an effective vaccine and mosquito control interventions. However, there are warning signs that YF is re-emerging in both Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Imported from Africa in slave ships, YF was responsible for devastating outbreaks in the Caribbean. In Martinique, the last YF outbreak was reported in 1908 and the mosquito Aedes aegypti was incriminated as the main vector. We evaluated the vector competence of fifteen Ae. aegypti populations for five YFV genotypes (Bolivia, Ghana, Nigeria, Sudan, and Uganda). Here we show that mosquito populations from the Caribbean and the Americas were able to transmit the five YFV genotypes, with YFV strains for Uganda and Bolivia having higher transmission success. We also observed that Ae. aegypti populations from Martinique were more susceptible to YFV infection than other populations from neighboring Caribbean islands, as well as North and South America. Our vector competence data suggest that the threat of re-emergence of YF in Martinique and the subsequent spread to Caribbean nations and beyond is plausible.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre Amarela , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Índias Ocidentais , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Uganda
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 85, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaginal fistula (VF) affects 2-3 million women globally, with the majority in Africa. In Uganda, it's 2%, with western Uganda having the highest prevalence. Major predisposing factors for refugee women include health system breakdowns and sexual violence during conflict. VF has severe consequences for women, relatives, and communities. There's limited information on lived experiences among refugee women with VF, and there's a need for quality prevention, treatment, and social reintegration strategies. This study aimed to understand the physical, psychosocial, and economic impacts of VF on refugee women in Nakivale and Oruchinga settlements and their coping mechanisms. METHODS: Ten refugee women with VF were interviewed using qualitative study design, utilizing Social-Ecological and Transactional Models for data collection, analysis, and discussion. RESULTS: Ten refugee women aged 24-50 years with or who had experienced VF participated in the study. They lived with VF for at least 2-15 years and had multiple stillbirths. Obstetric Fistula (OF) was the leading cause, followed by rape and cancer. Post-fistula, they faced social discrimination, emotional disturbances, survival difficulties, poverty, and lack of support. They struggled with stigma, social isolation, and marital sexual challenges. CONCLUSION: Refugee women experience physical, emotional, financial, social, and sexual trauma due to VF. Discrimination and stigmatization from loved ones and society lead to isolation, depression, and suicidal thoughts. Despite successful repair, their social and emotional healing remains a burden for their lives. There is a need to provide a supportive environment for VF survivors.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Fístula Vaginal , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Uganda , Refugiados/psicologia , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2316730121, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315862

RESUMO

We test whether the classification of households into poverty categories is meaningfully influenced by the poverty measurement approach that is employed. These classification techniques are widely used by governments, non-profit organizations, and development agencies for policy design and implementation. Using primary data collected in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Uganda, we find almost no agreement in how four commonly used approaches rank 16,150 households in terms of poverty status. This result holds for each country, for urban and rural households, and across the entire socio-economic distribution. Households' poverty rankings differ by an entire quartile on average. Conclusions about progress toward poverty alleviation goals may depend in large part on how poverty is measured.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Pobreza , Humanos , População Rural , Etiópia , Uganda
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2730, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302620

RESUMO

In Uganda, the challenge of generating and timely reporting essential antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data has led to overreliance on empirical antibiotic therapy, exacerbating the AMR crisis. To address this issue, this study aimed to adapt a one-step AMR testing protocol alongside an SMS (Short Message Service) result relay system (SRRS), with the potential to reduce the turnaround time for AMR testing and result communication from 4 days or more to 1 day in Ugandan clinical microbiology laboratories. Out of the 377 samples examined, 54 isolates were obtained. Notably, E. coli (61%) and K. pneumoniae (33%) were the most frequently identified, majority testing positive for ESBL. Evaluation of three AMR testing protocols revealed varying sensitivity and specificity, with Protocol A (ChromID ESBL-based) demonstrating high sensitivity (100%) but no calculable specificity, Protocol B (ceftazidime-based) showing high sensitivity (100%) and relatively low specificity (7.1%), and Protocol C (cefotaxime-based) exhibiting high sensitivity (97.8%) but no calculable specificity. ESBL positivity strongly correlated with resistance to specific antibiotics, including cefotaxime, ampicillin, and aztreonam (100%), cefuroxime (96%), ceftriaxone (93%), and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (87%). The potential of integrating an SRRS underscored the crucial role this could have in enabling efficient healthcare communication in AMR management. This study underscores the substantial potential of the tested protocols for accurately detecting ESBL production in clinical samples, potentially, providing a critical foundation for predicting and reporting AMR patterns. Although considerations related to specificity warrant careful assessment before widespread clinical adoption.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Uganda , beta-Lactamases , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Cefotaxima , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
11.
Hum Resour Health ; 22(1): 13, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulation can improve professional practice and patient care, but is often weakly implemented and enforced in health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Taking a de-centred and frontline perspective, we examine national regulatory actors' and health professionals' views and experiences of health professional regulation in Kenya and Uganda and discuss how it might be improved in LMICs more generally. METHODS: We conducted large-scale research on professional regulation for doctors and nurses (including midwives) in Uganda and Kenya during 2019-2021. We interviewed 29 national regulatory stakeholders and 47 subnational regulatory actors, doctors, and nurses. We then ran a national survey of Kenyan and Ugandan doctors and nurses, which received 3466 responses. We thematically analysed qualitative data, conducted an exploratory factor analysis of survey data, and validated findings in four focus group discussions. RESULTS: Kenyan and Ugandan regulators were generally perceived as resource-constrained, remote, and out of touch with health professionals. This resulted in weak regulation that did little to prevent malpractice and inadequate professional education and training. However, interviewees were positive about online licencing and regulation where they had relationships with accessible regulators. Building on these positive findings, we propose an ambidextrous approach to improving regulation in LMIC health systems, which we term deconcentrating regulation. This involves developing online licencing and streamlining regulatory administration to make efficiency savings, freeing regulatory resources. These resources should then be used to develop connected subnational regulatory offices, enhance relations between regulators and health professionals, and address problems at local level. CONCLUSION: Professional regulation for doctors and nurses in Kenya and Uganda is generally perceived as weak. Yet these professionals are more positive about online licencing and regulation where they have relationships with regulators. Building on these positive findings, we propose deconcentrating regulation as a solution to regulatory problems in LMICs. However, we note resource, cultural and political barriers to its effective implementation.


Assuntos
Médicos , Humanos , Quênia , Uganda , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Grupos Focais
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 98, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302920

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The trends of increasing use of cesarean section (CS) with a decrease in assisted vaginal birth (vacuum extraction or forceps) is a major concern in health care systems all over the world, particularly in low-resource settings. Studies show that a first birth by CS is associated with an increased risk of repeat CS in subsequent births. In addition, CS compared to assisted vaginal birth (AVB), attracts higher health service costs. Resource-constrained countries have low rates of AVB compared to high-income countries. The aim of this study was to compare mode of birth in the subsequent pregnancy among women who previously gave birth by vacuum extraction or second stage CS in their first pregnancy at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that involved interviews of 81 mothers who had a vacuum extraction or second stage CS in their first pregnancy at Mulago hospital between November 2014 to July 2015. Mode of birth in the subsequent pregnancy was compared using Chi-2 square test and a Fisher's exact test with a 0.05 level of statistical significance. RESULTS: Higher rates of vaginal birth were achieved among women who had a vacuum extraction (78.4%) compared to those who had a second stage CS in their first pregnancy (38.6%), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Vacuum extraction increases a woman's chance of having a subsequent spontaneous vaginal birth compared to second stage CS. Health professionals need to continue to offer choice of vacuum extraction in the second stage of labor among laboring women that fulfill its indication. This will help curb the up-surging rates of CS.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Vácuo-Extração/efeitos adversos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ordem de Nascimento , Uganda
13.
Int Breastfeed J ; 19(1): 9, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends the use of donated human milk (HM) as the second-best option for mothers who are temporarily unable to provide sufficient breast milk to meet the needs of their infants. However, HM donation is yet to become an accepted practice in Uganda. We assessed the level of, and factors associated with acceptability to donate HM among postnatal mothers at St. Francis Hospital Nsambya (SFHN). METHODS: A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed method study was conducted between October 2018 and March 2019. A questionnaire on sociodemography, awareness and likely acceptability to donate HM was administered to 410 postnatal mothers at SFHN. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine factors associated with acceptance of HM donation. Focus Group Discussions (4) and Key Informants Interviews (4) were used to explore factors influencing behaviours to donate human milk. Qualitative data were analysed using a content thematic approach. RESULTS: Overall acceptance of donating the HM was 77.6%, and the significant factors were: willingness to express the HM (AOR 7.5; 95% CI 3.01, 18.68); wet-nursing knowledge (AOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1, 5.0) and visit to under-5 years' clinic (AOR 21.3; 95% CI 2.3, 196.9). The major themes in relation to accepting to donate HM were wet nursing experience, and confidence in donating the HM, and its perceived effectiveness. There were concerns about the safety and adequacy of HM and fear of transmitting criminal behaviours and mental illness through human milk. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptance to donate HM among postnatal mothers at St. Francis Hospital Nsambya was very high. Willingness to express and store human milk, prior knowledge about wet nursing and a visit to an under-five outpatient clinic were associated with acceptance. Thus, establishing a human milk bank is feasible in the study setting.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Leite Humano , Feminino , Lactente , Humanos , Uganda , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais
14.
AMA J Ethics ; 26(2): E153-161, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306205

RESUMO

Bats are diverse mammals that are globally distributed and ecologically critical, yet some bat species are associated with disease agents that have severe consequences for human health. Disease outbreak responses require interdisciplinary knowledge of bat-associated pathogens and microbial transmission patterns. Health promotion requires close, collaborative attention to the needs, vulnerabilities, and interests of diverse stakeholders, including the public and professionals in public health, conservation, ecology, social science, communication, and policy. This article describes a successful One Health engagement among such stakeholders and partners looking to motivate both bat-human ecology preservation and viral disease management in Uganda.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Uganda , Ecologia , Saúde Pública
15.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 27(2): e26200, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population-level data on durable HIV viral load suppression (VLS) following the implementation of Universal Test and Treat (UTT) in Africa are limited. We assessed trends in durable VLS and viraemia among persons living with HIV in 40 Ugandan communities during the UTT scale-up. METHODS: In 2015-2020, we measured VLS (<200 RNA copies/ml) among participants in the Rakai Community Cohort Study, a longitudinal population-based HIV surveillance cohort in southern Uganda. Persons with unsuppressed viral loads were characterized as having low-level (200-999 copies/ml) or high-level (≥1000 copies/ml) viraemia. Individual virologic outcomes were assessed over two consecutive RCCS survey visits (i.e. visit-pairs; ∼18-month visit intervals) and classified as durable VLS (<200 copies/ml at both visits), new/renewed VLS (<200 copies/ml at follow-up only), viral rebound (<200 copies/ml at initial visit only) or persistent viraemia (≥200 copies/ml at both visits). Population prevalence of each outcome was assessed over calendar time. Community-level prevalence and individual-level predictors of persistent high-level viraemia were also assessed using multivariable Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Overall, 3080 participants contributed 4604 visit-pairs over three survey rounds. Most visit-pairs (72.4%) exhibited durable VLS, with few (2.5%) experiencing viral rebound. Among those with any viraemia at the initial visit (23.5%, n = 1083), 46.9% remained viraemic through follow-up, 91.3% of which was high-level viraemia. One-fifth (20.8%) of visit-pairs exhibiting persistent high-level viraemia self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) use for ≥12 months. Prevalence of persistent high-level viraemia varied substantially across communities and was significantly elevated among young persons aged 15-29 years (vs. 40- to 49-year-olds; adjusted risk ratio [adjRR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.21-3.96), males (vs. females; adjRR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.87-3.07), persons reporting inconsistent condom use with non-marital/casual partners (vs. persons with marital/permanent partners only; adjRR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.10-1.74) and persons reporting hazardous alcohol use (adjRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.16). The prevalence of persistent high-level viraemia was highest among males <30 years (32.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Following universal ART provision, most persons living with HIV in south-central Uganda are durably suppressed. Among persons exhibiting any viraemia, nearly half exhibited high-level viraemia for ≥12 months and reported higher-risk behaviours associated with onward HIV transmission. Intensified efforts linking individuals to HIV treatment services could accelerate momentum towards HIV epidemic control.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 12(3): e500-e508, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease is the largest contributor to cardiac-related mortality in children worldwide. Outcomes in endemic settings after its antecedent illness, acute rheumatic fever, are not well understood. We aimed to describe 3-5 year mortality, acute rheumatic fever recurrence, changes in carditis, and correlates of mortality after acute rheumatic fever. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of Ugandan patients aged 4-23 years who were diagnosed with definite acute rheumatic fever using the modified 2015 Jones criteria from July 1, 2017, to March 31, 2020, enrolled at three rheumatic heart disease registry sites in Uganda (in Mbarara, Mulago, or Lira), and followed up for at least 1 year after diagnosis. Patients with congenital heart disease were excluded. Patients underwent annual review, most recently in August, 2022. We calculated rates of mortality and acute rheumatic fever recurrence, tabulated changes in carditis, performed Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, and used Cox regression models to identify correlates of mortality. FINDINGS: Data were collected between Sept 1 and Sept 30, 2022. Of 182 patients diagnosed with definite acute rheumatic fever, 156 patients were included in the analysis. Of these 156 patients (77 [49%] male and 79 (51%) female; data on ethnicity not collected), 25 (16%) died, 21 (13%) had a cardiac-related death, and 17 (11%) had recurrent acute rheumatic fever over a median of 4·3 (IQR 3·0-4·8) years. 16 (24%) of the 25 deaths occurred within 1 year. Among 131 (84%) of 156 survivors, one had carditis progression by echo. Moderate-to-severe carditis (hazard ratio 12·7 [95% CI 3·9-40·9]) and prolonged PR interval (hazard ratio 4·4 [95% CI 1·7-11·2]) at acute rheumatic fever diagnosis were associated with increased cardiac-related mortality. INTERPRETATION: These are the first contemporary data from sub-Saharan Africa on medium-term acute rheumatic fever outcomes. Mortality rates exceeded those reported elsewhere. Most decedents already had chronic carditis at initial acute rheumatic fever diagnosis, suggesting previous undiagnosed episodes that had already compounded into rheumatic heart disease. Our data highlight the large burden of undetected acute rheumatic fever in these settings and the need for improved awareness of and diagnostics for acute rheumatic fever to allow earlier detection. FUNDING: Strauss Award at Cincinnati Children's Hospital, American Heart Association, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Miocardite , Febre Reumática , Cardiopatia Reumática , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Febre Reumática/epidemiologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Uganda/epidemiologia , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1475, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368384

RESUMO

Little is known about the pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in sub-Saharan Africa, where severe COVID-19 fatality rates are among the highest in the world and the immunological landscape is unique. In a prospective cohort study of 306 adults encompassing the entire clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Uganda, we profile the peripheral blood proteome and transcriptome to characterize the immunopathology of COVID-19 across multiple phases of the pandemic. Beyond the prognostic importance of myeloid cell-driven immune activation and lymphopenia, we show that multifaceted impairment of host protein synthesis and redox imbalance define core biological signatures of severe COVID-19, with central roles for IL-7, IL-15, and lymphotoxin-α in COVID-19 respiratory failure. While prognostic signatures are generally consistent in SARS-CoV-2/HIV-coinfection, type I interferon responses uniquely scale with COVID-19 severity in persons living with HIV. Throughout the pandemic, COVID-19 severity peaked during phases dominated by A.23/A.23.1 and Delta B.1.617.2/AY variants. Independent of clinical severity, Delta phase COVID-19 is distinguished by exaggerated pro-inflammatory myeloid cell and inflammasome activation, NK and CD8+ T cell depletion, and impaired host protein synthesis. Combining these analyses with a contemporary Ugandan cohort of adults hospitalized with influenza and other severe acute respiratory infections, we show that activation of epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor pathways are distinct features of COVID-19, deepening translational understanding of mechanisms potentially underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated pulmonary fibrosis. Collectively, our findings provide biological rationale for use of broad and targeted immunotherapies for severe COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa, illustrate the relevance of local viral and host factors to SARS-CoV-2 immunopathology, and highlight underemphasized yet therapeutically exploitable immune pathways driving COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 113, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Provision of effective care to all women and newborns during the perinatal period is a viable strategy for achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 3 targets on reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This study examined perinatal care (antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum) and its association with perinatal deaths at three district hospitals in Bunyoro region, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which a questionnaire was administered consecutively to 872 postpartum women before discharge who had attended antenatal care and given birth in the study hospitals. Data on care received during antenatal, labour, delivery, and postpartum period, and perinatal outcome were extracted from medical records of the enrolled postnatal women using a pre-tested structured tool. The care received from antenatal to 24 h postpartum period was assessed against the standard protocol of care established by World Health Organization (WHO). Poisson regression was used to assess the association between care received and perinatal death. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 25 years (standard deviation [SD] 5.95). Few women had their blood tested for hemoglobin levels, HIV, and Syphilis (n = 53, 6.1%); had their urine tested for glucose and proteins (n = 27, 3.1%); undertook an ultrasound scan (n = 262, 30%); and had their maternal status assessed (n = 122, 14%) during antenatal care as well as had their uterus assessed for contraction and bleeding during postpartum care (n = 63, 7.2%). There were 19 perinatal deaths, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 22/1,000 births (95% Confidence interval [CI] 8.1-35.5). Of these 9 (47.4%) were stillbirths while the remaining 10 (52.6%) were early neonatal deaths. In the antenatal phase, only fetal examination was significantly associated with perinatal death (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.22, 95% CI 0.1-0.6). No significant association was found between perinatal deaths and care during labour, delivery, and the early postpartum period. CONCLUSION: Women did not receive all the required perinatal care during the perinatal period. Perinatal mortality rate in Bunyoro region remains high, although it's lower than the national average. The study shows a reduction in the proportion of perinatal deaths for pregnancies where the mother received fetal monitoring. Strategies focused on strengthened fetal status monitoring such as fetal movement counting methods and fetal heart rate monitoring devices during pregnancy need to be devised to reduce the incidence of perinatal deaths. Findings from the study provide valuable information that would support the strengthening of perinatal care services for improved perinatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Adulto , Assistência Perinatal , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais de Distrito
19.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 390, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the face of drought and food insecurity emergency, evidence on access to health and nutrition services is important. Karamoja is one of the regions that have experienced extreme drought and food insecurity emergency in Uganda. As a part of the drought and food insecurity emergency response, World Health Organization (WHO) with Ministry of Health (MoH) has designed and implemented a qualitative study in 15 districts that have experienced drought and food insecurity emergency in north-east Uganda. Thus, we aimed to explore the barriers of access to health and nutrition services in drought and food insecurity emergency affected districts in north-east Uganda. METHODS: We employed a descriptive qualitative study design. We interviewed 30 patients and 20 Village Health Teams (VHT) from 15 districts. We employed an in-depth interview with semi-structured questions to collect data until information saturation reached. We used thematic data analysis approach by ATLAS.ti version 7.5.1.8 software. RESULTS: Of the 30 interviewed subjects, 15 were female, and the median age of the subjects was 29 years with interquartile range (IQR) of 23 to 37 years. Majority (68.8%) of subjects reported that access to health and nutrition services was harder to them. Four themes: sociocultural and economic; environmental; health system, and individual related factors were identified as the barriers of access to health and nutrition services. CONCLUSION: The present study identified several modifiable barriers that hinder access to health and nutrition services in drought and food insecurity affected districts. Comprehensive interventions aimed at addressing sociocultural, economic, environmental, health system and subject related challenges are required to improve access to health and nutrition services in drought and food insecurity affected setups.


Assuntos
Secas , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Uganda , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Abastecimento de Alimentos
20.
Malar J ; 23(1): 41, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 50% of suspected malaria cases in sub-Saharan Africa first seek care in the private sector, especially in private medicine retail outlets. Quality of care in these outlets is generally unknown but considered poor with many patients not receiving a confirmatory diagnosis or the recommended first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). In 2010, a subsidy pilot scheme, the Affordable Medicines Facility malaria, was introduced to crowd out the use of monotherapies in favour of WHO-pre-qualified artemisinin-based combinations (WHO-PQ-ACTs) in the private health sector. The scheme improved the availability, market share, and cost of WHO-PQ-ACTs in countries like Nigeria and Uganda, but in 2018, the subsidies were halted in Nigeria and significantly reduced in Uganda. This paper presents findings from six retail audit surveys conducted from 2014 to 2021 in Nigeria and Uganda to assess whether the impact of subsidies on the price, availability, and market share of artemisinin-based combinations has been sustained after the subsidies were reduced or discontinued. METHODS: Six independent retail audits were conducted in private medicine retail outlets, including pharmacies, drug shops, and clinics in Nigeria (2016, 2018, 2021), and Uganda (2014, 2019, 2020) to assess the availability, price, and market share of anti-malarials, including WHO-PQ-ACTs and non-WHO-PQ-ACTs, and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). RESULTS: Between 2016 and 2021, there was a 57% decrease in WHO-PQ-ACT availability in Nigeria and a 9% decrease in Uganda. During the same period, non-WHO-PQ-ACT availability increased in Nigeria by 41% and by 34% in Uganda. The price of WHO-PQ-ACTs increased by 42% in Nigeria to $0.68 and increased in Uganda by 24% to $0.95. The price of non-WHO-PQ-ACTs decreased in Nigeria by 26% to $1.08 and decreased in Uganda by 64% to $1.23. There was a 76% decrease in the market share of WHO-PQ-ACTs in Nigeria and a 17% decrease in Uganda. Malaria RDT availability remained low throughout. CONCLUSION: With the reduction or termination of subsidies for WHO-PQ-ACTs in Uganda and Nigeria, retail prices have increased, and retail prices of non-WHO-PQ-ACTs decreased, likely contributing to a shift of higher availability and increased use of non-WHO-PQ-ACTs.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Malária , Humanos , Uganda , Nigéria , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Setor Privado , Malária/diagnóstico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico
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