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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 512, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine health facility data are a critical source of local monitoring of progress and performance at the subnational level. Uganda has been using district health statistics from facility data for many years. We aimed to systematically assess data quality and examine different methods to obtain plausible subnational estimates of coverage for maternal, newborn and child health interventions. METHODS: Annual data from the Uganda routine health facility information system 2015-2019 for all 135 districts were used, as well as national surveys for external comparison and the identification of near-universal coverage interventions. The quality of reported data on antenatal and delivery care and child immunization was assessed through completeness of facility reporting, presence of extreme outliers and internal data consistencies. Adjustments were made when necessary. The denominators for the coverage indicators were derived from population projections and health facility data on near-universal coverage interventions. The coverage results with different denominators were compared with the results from household surveys. RESULTS: Uganda's completeness of reporting by facilities was near 100% and extreme outliers were rare. Inconsistencies in reported events, measured by annual fluctuations and between intervention consistency, were common and more among the 135 districts than the 15 subregions. The reported numbers of vaccinations were improbably high compared to the projected population of births or first antenatal visits - and especially so in 2015-2016. There were also inconsistencies between the population projections and the expected target population based on reported numbers of antenatal visits or immunizations. An alternative approach with denominators derived from facility data gave results that were more plausible and more consistent with survey results than based on population projections, although inconsistent results remained for substantive number of subregions and districts. CONCLUSION: Our systematic assessment of the quality of routine reports of key events and denominators shows that computation of district health statistics is possible with transparent adjustments and methods, providing a general idea of levels and trends for most districts and subregions, but that improvements in data quality are essential to obtain more accurate monitoring.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 948, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is still a challenge in Uganda, at 336 deaths per 100,000 live births, especially in rural hard to reach communities. Distance to a health facility influences maternal deaths. We explored women's mobility for maternal health, distances travelled for antenatal care (ANC) and childbirth among hard-to-reach Lake Victoria islands fishing communities (FCs) of Kalangala district, Uganda. METHODS: A cross sectional survey among 450 consenting women aged 15-49 years, with a prior childbirth was conducted in 6 islands FCs, during January-May 2018. Data was collected on socio-demographics, ANC, birth attendance, and distances travelled from residence to ANC or childbirth during the most recent childbirth. Regression modeling was used to determine factors associated with over 5 km travel distance and mobility for childbirth. RESULTS: The majority of women were residing in communities with a government (public) health facility [84.2 %, (379/450)]. Most ANC was at facilities within 5 km distance [72 %, (157/218)], while most women had travelled outside their communities for childbirth [58.9 %, (265/450)]. The longest distance travelled was 257.5 km for ANC and 426 km for childbirth attendance. Travel of over 5 km for childbirth was associated with adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) [AOR = 1.9, 95 % CI (1.1-3.6)], up to five years residency duration [AOR = 1.8, 95 % CI (1.0-3.3)], and absence of a public health facility in the community [AOR = 6.1, 95 % CI (1.4-27.1)]. Women who had stayed in the communities for up to 5 years [AOR = 3.0, 95 % CI (1.3-6.7)], those whose partners had completed at least eight years of formal education [AOR = 2.2, 95 % CI (1.0-4.7)], and those with up to one lifetime birth [AOR = 6.0, 95 % CI (2.0-18.1)] were likely to have moved to away from their communities for childbirth. CONCLUSIONS: Despite most women who attended ANC doing so within their communities, we observed that majority chose to give birth outside their communities. Longer travel distances were more likely among AGYW, among shorter term community residents and where public health facilities were absent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201903906459874 (Retrospectively registered). https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=5977 .


Assuntos
Lagos , Saúde Materna , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 386, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social inclusion establishes a basis for the overall wellbeing of children with special needs. Although children's lives are centred around the household, little is known about the household's influence on social inclusion. Therefore, the aim is to investigate the household's role in the social inclusion of children with special needs in Uganda. METHODS: Twelve carers of children with special needs participated in this photovoice study on the outskirts of Kampala, Uganda - including a training workshop, home visits, in-depth individual interviews and focus group discussion. RESULTS: The social inclusion of children with special needs is highly complex because it has the potential to both benefit and cause harm. The results show that when a disability is socially devalued to a certain degree, carers and their household members have to deal with the ongoing process of stigma management. Depending on the characteristics of the child, carer and household, this can lead to an upward spiral towards visibility or a downward spiral towards concealment - reinforcing social inclusion or stigma, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that there is disability among Ugandan children it remains a 'hidden reality'. This research helps to reveal this hidden reality by understanding the role of the household in social inclusion in a stigmatized context.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Cuidadores , Criança , Características da Família , Humanos , Inclusão Social , Uganda
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490176

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, affecting all countries, with millions of cases and deaths, and economic disruptions due to lockdowns, also threatens the health and conservation of endangered mountain gorillas. For example, increased poaching due to absence of tourism income, led to the killing on 1st June 2020 of a gorilla by a hungry community member hunting duiker and bush pigs. Conservation Through Public Health (CTPH), a grassroots NGO and non-profit founded in 2003 promotes biodiversity conservation by enabling people to co-exist with wildlife through integrated programs that improve animal health, community health, and livelihoods in and around Africa's protected areas and wildlife rich habitats. Through these programs, we have helped to mitigate these impacts. CTPH worked with Uganda Wildlife Authority and other NGOs to improve great ape viewing guidelines and prevent transmission of COVID-19 between people and gorillas. Park staff, Gorilla Guardians herding gorillas from community land to the park and Village Health and Conservation Teams were trained to put on protective face masks, enforce hand hygiene and a 10-meter great ape viewing distance. To reduce the communities' need to poach, CTPH found a UK-based distributor, for its Gorilla Conservation Coffee social enterprise enabling coffee farmers to earn revenue in the absence of tourism and provided fast growing seedlings to reduce hunger in vulnerable community members. Lessons learned show the need to support non-tourism dependent community livelihoods, and more responsible tourism to the great apes, which CTPH is advocating to governments, donors and tour companies through an Africa CSO Biodiversity Alliance policy brief.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hominidae , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Florestas , Gorilla gorilla , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos , Uganda
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e043827, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the maternal and newborn characteristics associated with high umbilical artery lactate levels at Mulago National Referral Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a national referral hospital located in the capital of Uganda, Kampala. PARTICIPANTS: We randomly selected 720 pregnant mothers at term who presented in labour and their newborn babies. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Umbilical artery lactate level. RESULTS: During the study, there were 579 vaginal deliveries (18 instrumental) and 141 caesarean sections which met the inclusion criteria. One hundred and eighty-seven neonates (187) had high arterial lactate levels. The following factors were associated with an increased likelihood of high lactate concentration: male sex (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.71; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.54; p<0.05), primigravidity (aOR=2.78; 95% CI 1.89 to 4.08; p<0.001), meconium-stained liquor (aOR=5.85; 95% CI 4.08 to 8.47; p<0.001) and administration of oxytocin (aOR=1.97; 95% CI 1.00 to 3.77; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: About a fifth of the babies born in Mulago National Referral Hospital during the study period had high umbilical artery lactate. The maternal-fetal factors significantly associated with high umbilical artery lactate levels included: baby's sex, mother's gravidity, meconium-stained amniotic fluid and oxytocin administration during labour.


Assuntos
Encaminhamento e Consulta , Artérias Umbilicais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactatos , Masculino , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 2): 52, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2006, Uganda adopted the Reaching Every District strategy with the goal of attaining at least 80% coverage for routine immunizations in every district. The development and utilization of health facility/district immunization microplans is the key to the strategy. A number of reports have shown suboptimal development and use of microplans in Uganda. This study explores factors associated with suboptimal development and use of microplans in two districts in Uganda to pinpoint challenges encountered during the microplanning process. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted comparing two districts: Kapchorwa, with low immunization coverage, and Luwero with high immunization coverage. Data were collected through multilevel observation of health facilities, planning sessions and planning meetings; records review of microplans, micromaps and meeting minutes; 57 interviews with health workers at the ministry level and lower-level health facility workers. Data were analysed using NVivo 8 qualitative text analysis software. Transcripts were coded, and memos and display matrices were developed to examine the process of developing and utilizing microplans, including experiences of health workers (implementers). RESULTS: Three key findings emerged from this study. First, there are significant knowledge gaps with regard to the microplanning process among health workers at all levels (community and district health facility and nationally). Limited knowledge about communities and programme catchment areas greatly hinders the planning process by limiting the ability to identify hard-to-reach areas and to prioritize areas according to need. Secondly, the microplanning tool is bulky and complex. Finally, microplanning is being implemented in the context of already overtasked health personnel who have to conduct several other activities as part of their daily routines. CONCLUSIONS: In order to achieve quality improvement as outlined in the Reaching Every District campaign, the microplanning process should be revised. Health workers' misunderstanding and limited knowledge about the microplanning process, especially at peripheral health facilities, coupled with the complex, bulky nature of the microplanning tool, reduces the effectiveness of microplanning in improving routine immunization in Uganda. This study reveals the need to reduce the complexity of the tool and to identify ways to train and support workers in the use of the revised tool, including support in incorporating the microplanning process into their busy schedules.


Assuntos
Imunização , Vacinação , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Uganda
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 822, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine how emerging evidence over the past decade informed how Ugandan HIV clinicians prescribed protease inhibitors (PIs) in HIV patients on rifampicin-based tuberculosis (TB) treatment and how this affected HIV treatment outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed clinical records of HIV patients aged 13 years and above, treated with rifampicin-based TB treatment while on PIs between1st-January -2013 and 30th-September-2018 from twelve public HIV clinics in Uganda. Appropriate PI prescription during rifampicin-based TB treatment was defined as; prescribing doubled dose lopinavir/ritonavir- (LPV/r 800/200 mg twice daily) and inappropriate PI prescription as prescribing standard dose LPV/r or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r). RESULTS: Of the 602 patients who were on both PIs and rifampicin, 103 patients (17.1% (95% CI: 14.3-20.34)) received an appropriate PI prescription. There were no significant differences in the two-year mortality (4.8 vs. 5.7%, P = 0.318), loss to follow up (23.8 vs. 18.9%, P = 0.318) and one-year post TB treatment virologic failure rates (31.6 vs. 30.7%, P = 0.471) between patients that had an appropriate PI prescription and those that did not. However, more patients on double dose LPV/r had missed anti-retroviral therapy (ART) days (35.9 vs 21%, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: We conclude that despite availability of clinical evidence, double dosing LPV/r in patients receiving rifampicin-based TB treatment is low in Uganda's public HIV clinics but this does not seem to affect patient survival and viral suppression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Guias como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 788, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 50 % of the population in Uganda seeks health care from private facilities but there is limited data on the quality of care for malaria in these facilities. This study aimed to document the knowledge, practices and resources during the delivery of malaria care services, among private health practitioners in the Mid-Western region of Uganda, an area of moderate malaria transmission. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study in which purposive sampling was used to select fifteen private-for-profit facilities from each district. An interviewer-administered questionnaire that contained both quantitative and open-ended questions was used. Information was collected on availability of treatment aides, knowledge on malaria, malaria case management, laboratory practices, malaria drugs stock and data management. We determined the proportion of health workers that adequately provided malaria case management according to national standards. RESULTS: Of the 135 health facilities staff interviewed, 61.48 % (52.91-69.40) had access to malaria treatment protocols while 48.89 % (40.19-57.63) received malaria training. The majority of facilities, 98.52 % (94.75-99.82) had malaria diagnostic services and the most commonly available anti-malarial drug was artemether-lumefantrine, 85.19 % (78-91), followed by Quinine, 74.81 % (67-82) and intravenous artesunate, 72.59 % (64-80). Only 14.07 % (8.69-21.10) responded adequately to the acceptable cascade of malaria case management practice. Specifically, 33.33 % (25.46-41.96) responded correctly to management of a patient with a fever, 40.00 % (31.67-48.79) responded correctly to the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, whereas 85.19 % (78.05-90.71) responded correctly to severe malaria treatment. Only 28.83 % submitted monthly reports, where malaria data was recorded, to the national database. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed sub-optimal malaria case management knowledge and practices at private health facilities with approximately 14 % of health care workers demonstrating correct malaria case management cascade practices. To strengthen the quality of malaria case management, it is recommended that the NMCD distributes current guidelines and tools, coupled with training; continuous mentorship and supportive supervision; provision of adequate stock of essential anti-malarials and RDTs; reinforcing communication and behavior change; and increasing support for data management at private health facilities.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemeter/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Setor Privado , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046536, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a positive deviance intervention on dual-method contraceptive use among married or in-union women. DESIGN: Open-label cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 20 health facilities in Mbarara District, Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: 960 married or in-union women aged 18-49 years using a non-barrier modern contraceptive method. INTERVENTIONS: A combination of clinic-based and telephone-based counselling and a 1-day participatory workshop, which were developed based on a preliminary qualitative study of women practising dual-method contraception. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Dual-method contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse and its consistent use in the 2 months prior to each follow-up. These outcomes were measured based on participants' self-reports, and the effect of intervention was assessed using a mixed-effects logistic regression model. RESULTS: More women in the intervention group used dual-method contraception at the last sexual intercourse at 2 months (adjusted OR (AOR)=4.12; 95% CI 2.02 to 8.39) and 8 months (AOR=2.16; 95% CI 1.06 to 4.41) than in the control group. At 4 and 6 months, however, the proportion of dual-method contraceptive users was not significantly different between the two groups. Its consistent use was more prevalent in the intervention group than in the control group at 2 months (AOR=14.53; 95% CI 3.63 to 58.13), and this intervention effect lasted throughout the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: The positive deviance intervention increased dual-method contraceptive use among women, and could be effective at reducing the dual risk of unintended pregnancies and HIV infections. This study demonstrated that the intervention targeting only women can change behaviours of couples to practise dual-method contraception. Because women using non-barrier modern contraceptives may be more reachable than men, interventions targeting such women should be recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000037065.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Infecções por HIV , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Uganda
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444315

RESUMO

In mountain communities like Sebei, Uganda, which are highly vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, community-based surveillance plays an important role in the monitoring of public health hazards. In this survey, we explored capacities of village health teams (VHTs) in Sebei communities of Mount Elgon in undertaking surveillance tasks for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the context of a changing climate. We used participatory epidemiology techniques to elucidate VHTs' perceptions on climate change and public health and assessed their capacities to conduct surveillance for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Overall, VHTs perceived climate change to be occurring with wider impacts on public health. However, they had inadequate capacities in collecting surveillance data. The VHTs lacked transport to navigate through their communities and had insufficient capacities in using mobile phones for sending alerts. They did not engage in reporting other hazards related to the environment, wildlife, and domestic livestock that would accelerate infectious disease outbreaks. Records were not maintained for disease surveillance activities and the abilities of VHTs to analyze data were also limited. However, VHTs had access to platforms that could enable them to disseminate public health information. The VHTs thus need to be retooled to conduct their work effectively and efficiently through equipping them with adequate logistics and knowledge on collecting, storing, analyzing, and relaying data, which will improve infectious disease response and mitigation efforts.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 impacted global maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. We hypothesised that the early, strict lockdown that restricted individuals' movements in Uganda limited access to services. METHODS: An observational study, using routinely collected data from Electronic Medical Records, was carried out, in Kawempe district, Kampala. An interrupted time series analysis assessed the impact on maternal, neonatal, child, sexual and reproductive health services from July 2019 to December 2020. Descriptive statistics summarised the main outcomes before (July 2019-March 2020), during (April 2020-June 2020) and after the national lockdown (July 2020-December 2020). RESULTS: Between 1 July 2019 and 31 December 2020, there were 14 401 antenatal clinic, 33 499 deliveries, 111 658 childhood service and 57 174 sexual health attendances. All antenatal and vaccination services ceased in lockdown for 4 weeks.During the 3-month lockdown, the number of antenatal attendances significantly decreased and remain below pre-COVID levels (370 fewer/month). Attendances for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV dropped then stabilised. Increases during lockdown and immediately postlockdown included the number of women treated for high blood pressure, eclampsia and pre-eclampsia (218 more/month), adverse pregnancy outcomes (stillbirths, low-birth-weight and premature infant births), the rate of neonatal unit admissions, neonatal deaths and abortions. Maternal mortality remained stable. Immunisation clinic attendance declined while neonatal death rate rose (from 39 to 49/1000 livebirths). The number of children treated for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria decreased during lockdown. CONCLUSION: The Ugandan response to COVID-19 negatively impacted maternal, child and neonatal health, with an increase seen in pregnancy complications and fetal and infant outcomes, likely due to delayed care-seeking behaviour. Decreased vaccination clinic attendance leaves a cohort of infants unprotected, affecting all vaccine-preventable diseases. Future pandemic responses must consider impacts of movement restrictions and access to preventative services to protect maternal and child health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 831, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess health facilities' readiness to provide safe surgical care during Ebola and COVID-19 era in Uganda and in the Eastern DR Congo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected national, regional referral and general hospital facilities in Uganda and in the eastern part of DR Congo from 1st August 2020 to 30th October 2020. Data was analysed using Stata version 15. RESULTS: The participation rate was of 37.5 % (72/192) for both countries. None of the hospitals fulfilled the readiness criteria for safe surgical care provision in both countries. The mean bed capacity of participating health facilities (HF) was 184 in Eastern DR Congo and 274 in Uganda with an average surgical ward bed capacity of 22.3 % (41/184) and 20.4 % (56/274) respectively. The mean number of operating rooms was 2 and 3 in Eastern DR Congo and Uganda respectively. Nine hospitals (12.5 %) reported being able to test for Ebola and 25 (34.7 %) being able to test for COVID-19. Postponing of elective surgeries was reported by 10 (13.9) participating hospitals. Only 7 (9.7 %) hospitals reported having a specific operating room for suspect or confirmed cases of Ebola or COVID-19. Appropriate Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) was reported to be available in 60 (83.3 %) hospitals. Most of the staff had appropriate training on donning and doffing of PPE 40 (55.6 %). Specific teams and protocols for safe surgical care provision were reported to be present in 61 (84.7 %) and 56 (77.8 %) respectively in Uganda and Eastern DR Congo participating hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of readiness to provide safe surgical care during Ebola and COVID-19 era across the participating hospitals in both countries indicate a need for strategies to enhance health facility supplies and readiness for safe surgical provision in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047641, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The burden of post-tuberculosis (TB) lung disease (PTBLD) is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, causing disability among TB survivors. Without effective medicines, the mainstay of PTBLD treatment evolves around disease prevention and supportive treatment. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), a low-cost, non-pharmacological intervention has shown effectiveness in a group of PTBLD individuals but has not been tested in a clinical trial. This study aims to assess the impact of a 6-week PR programme on maximal exercise capacity and other outcomes among adults in Uganda living with PTBLD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised waiting-list controlled trial with blinded outcome measures, comparing PR versus usual care for patients with PTBLD. A total of 114 participants will be randomised (1:1) to receive either usual care (on the waiting list) or PR, with follow-up assessments at 6 weeks and 12 weeks postintervention. The primary outcome is change in walking distance measured by the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test from baseline to the end of 6 weeks of PR. All secondary outcomes will be compared between the PR and usual care arms from baseline to 6-week and 12-week follow-ups. Secondary outcomes include self-reported respiratory symptoms, physical activity, psychological well-being, health-related quality of life and cost-benefit analysis. All randomised participants will be included in the intention-to-treat analysis population. The primary efficacy analysis will be based on both per-protocol and modified intention-to-treat populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has received ethical clearance from the Mulago Hospital Research and Ethics Committee (MHREC 1478), Kampala, Uganda as well as the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (SS 5105). Ethical approval has been obtained from the University of Leicester, UK research ethics committee (Ref No. 22349). Study findings will be published in appropriate peer-reviewed journals and disseminated at appropriate local, regional and international scientific meetings and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN18256843. PROTOCOL VERSION: Version 1.0 July 2019.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Tuberculose , Adulto , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Uganda
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 397, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381541

RESUMO

Introduction: Ponseti technique is the treatment of choice for idiopathic congential talipes equino varus (ICTEV) since 1950s with excellent treatment outcomes reported worldwide. However, despite the popularity of this technique, Uganda adapted it as a treatment modality for ICTEV in May 2005. Since then, the effectiveness of delivered Ponseti care to children with this very common orthopaedic deformity under the supervision of an orthopaedic surgeon was unknown. The implication of this undertaking was that, satisfactory outcomes would then support the Ministry of Health (MOH)-Uganda´s decision to embrace this mode of treatment and if the outcomes were unsatisfactory, MOH would then consider a policy revision in this regard. To assess the midterm treatment outcomes of children with ICTEV who had been enrolled for treatment at Mulago National Referral Hospital in the period of 2006-2009. Methods: in November/December 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the treatment outcomes of 68 feet of 45 children using the designed questionnaire and the PBS score; a pilot study of 10 neonates was performed prior to research. A good treatment outcome meant having a foot or feet that did not require any major or minor surgery. Results: forty-five (45) children with 68 ICTEV feet were evaluated; males 29 (64.4%) and 16 (35.6%) females with a mean age of 73.22 months (SD 11.364, range 48-96 months). Among the feet assessed, 46 (68%) had good to excellent outcomes while 22 (32%) had a relapse of moderate and severe deformity. Good functionality was seen in 61.8% out of which, 69% and 55.9% had no limitation in walking or running respectively. Conclusion: Ponseti treatment technique in children with ICTEV under the care of predominantly orthopaedic officers with some supervision from orthopaedic surgeons had fair to good midterm outcomes even in low resource settings like Uganda. Public health approach should be embraced in the management of clubfoot in Uganda by enhancing adequate comprehensive support supervision and establishment of reliable institutionalized systems for patient follow up which will lead to early detection and treatment of relapsed ICTEV cases or neglected clubfeet in the communities.


Assuntos
Moldes Cirúrgicos , Pé Torto Equinovaro/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Recidiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Caminhada
16.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 201, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence regarding oral health related quality of life of HIV positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Focusing HIV positive- and HIV negative Ugandan mothers, this study assessed the influence of HIV status on oral health related quality of life in terms of oral impacts on daily performances, whilst adjusting for clinical- and socio-behavioural factors. We also examined whether any association of clinical and socio-behavioural factors with oral impacts on daily performances vary according to mothers' HIV status. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from a trial (n = 164) and a comparison group (n = 181). The trial comprised of mothers with HIV-1 participating in the ANRS 121741-PROMISE-PEP-trial (NCT00640263) conducted between 2009 and 2013 and from the ANRS 12341-PROMISE-PEP-M&S follow-up study conducted in 2017. The comparison group comprised of HIV negative mothers recruited in 2017. Interviews and clinical oral examinations were performed. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the oral impacts on daily performances frequency scale. Caries experience and gingival bleeding were assessed using the World Health Organization's Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth indices and community periodontal index. Logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: 29% of HIV-1 positive and 32% among the comparison reported any oral impact on daily performance. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, HIV status was not significantly associated with oral impacts on daily performances. Mother's self-reported oral health, caries experience, gingival bleeding and oral health related quality of life of their children were independently associated with oral impacts on daily performances. Corresponding prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were: 0.3 (0.2-0.6), 1.8 (1.0-3.2), 1.1 (1.0-1.1), and 2.1 (1.1-4.3). No significant interaction between HIV status and covariates were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Oral health related quality of life was substantially impaired in Ugandan mothers but did not discriminate between HIV positive and negative participants. Mothers with impaired oral health related quality of life were more likely to have dental caries and children with impaired oral health related quality of life. HIV positive and negative mothers in Uganda deserve special attention regarding their oral disease and quality of life status.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , HIV-1 , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
17.
F1000Res ; 10: 598, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457243

RESUMO

Background: In January 2020, a previously unknown coronavirus strain was identified as the cause of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). The first viral whole-genome was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing from a sample collected in Wuhan, China. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is imperative in investigating disease outbreak transmission dynamics and guiding decision-making in public health. Methods: We retrieved archived SARS-CoV-2 samples at the Integrated Biorepository of H3Africa Uganda, Makerere University (IBRH3AU). These samples were collected previously from individuals diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). 30 samples with cycle thresholds (Cts) values <25 were selected for WGS using SARS-CoV-2 ARTIC protocol at Makerere University Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory. Results: 28 out of 30 (93.3%) samples generated analyzable genomic sequence reads. We detected SARS-CoV-2 and lineages A (22/28) and B (6/28) from the samples. We further show phylogenetic relatedness of these isolates alongside other 328 Uganda (lineage A = 222, lineage B = 106) SARS-CoV-2 genomes available in GISAID by April 22, 2021 and submitted by the Uganda Virus Research Institute. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated adoption and optimization of the low-cost ARTIC SARS-CoV-2 WGS protocol in a resource limited laboratory setting. This work has set a foundation to enable rapid expansion of SARS-CoV-2 WGS in Uganda as part of the Presidential Scientific Initiative on Epidemics (PRESIDE) CoV-bank project and IBRH3AU.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Filogenia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1940763, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402763

RESUMO

With over 1.4 million refugees, Uganda is Sub-Saharan Africa's largest refugee-hosting nation. Bidi Bidi, Uganda's largest refugee settlement, hosts over 230,000 residents. There is a dearth of evidence-based sexual violence prevention and post-rape clinical care interventions in low- and middle-income humanitarian contexts tailored for refugee youth. Graphic medicine refers to juxtaposing images and narratives, often through using comics, to convey health promotion messaging. Comics can offer youth-friendly, low-cost, scalable approaches for sexual violence prevention and care. Yet there is limited empirical evaluation of comic interventions for sexual violence prevention and post-rape clinical care. This paper details the study design used to develop and pilot test a participatory comic intervention focused on sexual violence prevention through increasing bystander practices, reducing sexual violence stigma, and increasing post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) knowledge with youth aged 16-24 and healthcare providers in Bidi Bidi. Participants took part in a single-session peer-facilitated workshop that explored social, sexual, and psychological dimensions of sexual violence, bystander interventions, and post-rape clinical care. In the workshop, participants completed a participatory comic book based on narratives from qualitative data conducted with refugee youth sexual violence survivors. This pilot study employed a one-group pre-test/post-test design to assess feasibility outcomes and preliminary evidence of the intervention's efficacy. Challenges included community lockdowns due to COVID-19 which resulted in study implementation delays, political instability, and attrition of participants during follow-up surveys. Lessons learned included the important role of youth facilitation in youth-centred interventions and the promise of participatory comics for youth and healthcare provider engagement for developing solutions and reducing stigma regarding SGBV. The Ngutulu Kagwero (Agents of change) project produced a contextually and age-tailored comic intervention that can be implemented in future fully powered randomized controlled trials to determine effectiveness in advancing sexual violence prevention and care with youth in humanitarian contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estupro , Refugiados , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estupro/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2291-2299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408411

RESUMO

Introduction: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a low cost, high impact intervention that ameliorates the disability associated with chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). PR is becoming increasingly recognized in low resource settings where the burden of CRD is rapidly increasing. To aid the implementation of PR in Uganda, we conducted a study to assess the attitudes and opinions towards PR among patients with CRD in Uganda and explore barriers faced by health care workers (HCWs) in referring to PR. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising two survey populations: people living with CRD and HCWs regarded as potential PR referrers and PR deliverers. This exploratory study sought initial opinions and thoughts regarding PR, as well as baseline knowledge and potential barriers faced in the referral process. Results: Overall, 30 HCWs (53% female, 43% doctors) and 51 adults with CRD (63% female) participated in the survey. Among those with CRD, the majority reported breathlessness as a major problem (86%) and breathlessness affected their ability to do paid and unpaid work (70%). Interest in PR was high amongst adults with CRD (92%) with preference for a hospital-based programme (67%) as opposed to community-based (16%) or home-based (17%). All HCWs considered PR important in lung disease management, but 77% do not refer patients due to a lack of information about PR. HCWs' free-text responses identified the need for training in PR, patient education and streamlining the referral process as key elements to develop successful PR referral services. Conclusion: To successfully set up a PR service for people with CRD in Uganda, there is a great need for appropriately tailored training and education of prospective referrers about CRD and PR programs. Educating patients about the benefits of PR as well as streamlining the referral process is critical in expanding PR services across Uganda to fulfill this unmet need.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda/epidemiologia
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