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1.
Zootaxa ; 4577(1): zootaxa.4577.1.4, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715736

RESUMO

Type material of moth flies of Neoarisemus leponti sp. nov. was collected in Madagascar, Toamasina province, environments of Analamazaotra and Amboditafonana. Hemimormia nyangerensis sp. nov. and Iranotelmatoscopus kenyensis sp. nov. were captured in Equatorial Africa near Victoria Lake during a fieldwork in Uganda (Gaba) and Kenya (Kusa, Nyangera). The mentioned three species are described, differential diagnoses included, and diagnostic characters illustrated.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Psychodidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Quênia , Madagáscar , Uganda
2.
Zootaxa ; 4688(2): zootaxa.4688.2.4, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719449

RESUMO

Notes on the Enicocephalidae and Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) fauna in Liberia, sampled with various methods including a vehicle-mounted net, the species taxonomy and general distribution are presented, including 19 new country records. In addition, new country records are provided for Uganda, Togo, and Burkina Faso. Previously published Liberian records for 42 reduviids supplement the checklist.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Reduviidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Libéria , Uganda
3.
Zootaxa ; 4679(3): zootaxa.4679.3.3, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715946

RESUMO

A taxonomic review of the Afrotropical genus Kenyacus Alluaud, 1917 from the Rwenzori Mountains is given. Tropicoritus Alluaud, 1917 is treated as a new synonym of Kenyacus. Seven new species are described from the eastern part of the Rwenzori Mountains National Park (Uganda): K. gusarovi sp. n., K. parvus sp. n., K. berndi sp. n., K. trechoides sp. n., K. angustatus sp. n., K. similis sp. n. and K. pusillus sp. n. Two species previously known from the Rwenzori Mountains, K. ruwenzorii (Alluaud, 1917) and K. ruwenzoricus Basilewsky, 1955, are re-described, and a key to all described species of Kenyacus from these mountains is provided. The taxonomic position of Kenyacus within the subtribe Stenolophina is discussed. The genus Kenyacus is considered as a member of the Acupalpi genus group and closely related to the genus Anthracus sensu Jaeger, 2012.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Besouros , Animais , Uganda
4.
Zootaxa ; 4664(3): zootaxa.4664.3.5, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716667

RESUMO

The identification of the male of Cyana (Cyabarda) torrida (Holland, 1893) is corrected, the male is illustrated for the first time. Cyana suessmuthi Karisch, 2013 is transferred to the subgenus Cyabarda Karisch, 2013, its female adult and female genitalia are illustrated and diagnosed for the first time. A new species Cyana (Cyabarda) nambi sp. nov. similar to C. torrida is described from Uganda. Cyana torrida maculata Karisch, 2013 is upgraded to species rank and transferred to the subgenus Idiovulpecula Karisch, 2013: C. (Idiovulpecula) maculata Karisch, 2013, stat. nov. Two new species of the subgenus Idiovulpecula are described: C. (Idiovulpecula) lowa sp. nov. (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and C. (Idiovulpecula) foya sp. nov. (Liberia). Adults and genitalia of new and related species are illustrated.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Libéria , Masculino , Países Baixos , Uganda
5.
Zootaxa ; 4658(3): zootaxa.4658.3.10, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716738

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Homaloxestis Meyrick, 1910 are described from Uganda, Africa: H. arcuatus sp. nov. and H. lactizonalis sp. nov. A previously known species of the genus from Uganda, H. hemigastra Meyrick, 1931 is transferred to the genus Furcalis Park as F. hemigastra (Meyrick, 1931), comb. nov. The female of F. hemigastra is reported for the first time and described and illustrated. New distributional data for H. lophophora Janse for DR Congo, Tanzania and Uganda are given, and a maximum likelihood-tree of the four COI barcoded species of Homaloxestis is provided to reconfirm the relationship of H. lophophora Janse and H. cholopis (Meyrick). Diagnosis, descriptions and illustrations of adults, male and/or female genitalia for the new species, and the venation of H. lactizonalis sp. nov. are provided. A checklist of the species of the genus Homaloxestis Meyrick in the Afrotropical region is given.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Árvores , Uganda
6.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 315-325, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564725

RESUMO

Zoonotic diseases constitute a significant threat to the health of humans, livestock and wildlife, as well as to livestock production, and can also have a negative impact on our shared environment and on livelihoods. Uganda is a hotspot for emerging and re-emerging zoonotic disease threats, with the main drivers of this phenomenon being identified as agricultural intensification, proximity to wildlife reservoirs and climate change. The threat of zoonotic disease outbreaks affects not only human healthcare systems but also livestock production, food security, human capital development, wildlife health, environmental health and privatesector growth. Firstly, to prevent, control and mitigate the threat from zoonotic diseases, in March 2017, Uganda prioritised zoonotic diseases using a One Health approach that focuses the limited resources available on those diseases that have the greatest impact at the national level. The prioritised zoonotic diseases in question are anthrax, zoonotic influenza viruses, viral haemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, trypanosomiosis (African sleeping sickness), plague and rabies. Secondly, in January 2018, Uganda published a National One Health Strategic Plan, which was developed after these zoonotic diseases had been prioritised. In addition, the Ugandan Government and its partners are currently collaboratively addressing several of these previously neglected, endemic zoonotic diseases, such as anthrax, brucellosis and rabies. As a result of these One Health efforts, capacity has increased for early detection of, reporting on and response to zoonotic diseases at all levels. To consolidate the achievements of the One Health approach, the Ugandan Government and its partners should continue to support capacity building for the prevention and control of zoonotic diseases.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Saúde Única , Zoonoses , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos , Saúde Única/normas , Uganda , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 225-237, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564728

RESUMO

In 2016-2017, the H5N8 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) spread worldwide and Uganda reported the first occurrence of the disease in its poultry and wild birds. Genetic analysis revealed that the virus clusters with 2.3.4.4 group B strains from birds in central and southern Asia, and thus forms part of the 2.3.4.4 group B clade. Since Uganda is in the path of two major migratory bird flyways, it is likely that infected migratory wild birds played a crucial role in the introduction of H5N8 HPAI viruses into Uganda. The outbreaks happened in the districts of Wakiso, Masaka and Kalangala and affected domestic and wild birds. A One Health Multisectoral Coordination Committee, consisting of a National Task Force, Technical Working Groups and District Disaster Management Committees, was immediately activated to coordinate the preparedness and response efforts to control the disease. In all the affected districts, surveillance was intensified on both domestic and wild birds; biosecurity measures were increased; and movement controls, culling, cleaning, disinfection and safe disposal of carcasses were implemented. Awareness of the disease was raised through education materials, leaflets and brochures distributed to farmers. Finally, Uganda successfully controlled the H5N8 outbreak, using its national preparedness and response mechanisms and through collaboration with international partners. The emergence and spread of this virus strain in Uganda and other parts of Africa poses a significant threat to the poultry industry and food security.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8 , Influenza Aviária , Migração Animal , Animais , Ásia , Aves , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Uganda
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 851-854, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581162

RESUMO

Infection prevention and control (IPC) in health care facilities is essential to protecting patients, visitors, and health care personnel from the spread of infectious diseases, including Ebola virus disease (Ebola). Patients with suspected Ebola are typically referred to specialized Ebola treatment units (ETUs), which have strict isolation and IPC protocols, for testing and treatment (1,2). However, in settings where contact tracing is inadequate, Ebola patients might first seek care at general health care facilities, which often have insufficient IPC capacity (3-6). Before 2014-2016, most Ebola outbreaks occurred in rural or nonurban communities, and the role of health care facilities as amplification points, while recognized, was limited (7,8). In contrast to these earlier outbreaks, the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola outbreak occurred in densely populated urban areas where access to health care facilities was better, but contact tracing was generally inadequate (8). Patients with unrecognized Ebola who sought care at health care facilities with inadequate IPC initiated multiple chains of transmission, which amplified the epidemic to an extent not seen in previous Ebola outbreaks (3-5,7). Implementation of robust IPC practices in general health care facilities was critical to ending health care-associated transmission (8). In August 2018, when an Ebola outbreak was recognized in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), neighboring countries began preparing for possible introduction of Ebola, with a focus on IPC. Baseline IPC assessments conducted in frontline health care facilities in high-risk districts in Uganda found IPC gaps in screening, isolation, and notification. Based on findings, additional funds were provided for IPC, a training curriculum was developed, and other corrective actions were taken. Ebola preparedness efforts should include activities to ensure that frontline health care facilities have the IPC capacity to rapidly identify suspected Ebola cases and refer such patients for treatment to protect patients, staff members, and visitors.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Administração de Instituições de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Uganda
9.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1888-1896, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656472

RESUMO

Background: Adolescents experience high rates of depression, initiation of sexual activity, and substance use. Objectives: To better understand the demographics of adolescents presenting to an adolescent clinic in Uganda, and to elucidate which factors are associated with depressive symptoms, sexual initiation, and substance use. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on intake forms obtained during interviews with adolescents presenting to the Makerere/Mulago Columbia Adolescent Health Clinic (MMCAH) in Kampala, Uganda. Results: Depressive symptoms in adolescents were correlated with having a chronic illness (p=.026), and reported poor quality of home life (p<.001). Initiation of sexual activity was also correlated with chronic illness (p=.008) and poor quality of home life (p=.006). Substance use was correlated with maternal death (p=.041), chronic illness (p=.038), and substance use among family members (p<.001) and friends (p<.001). Conclusions: Knowing the aforementioned risk factors can help us better understand the needs of adolescents presenting to MMCAH, and allows us to develop targeted interventions aimed at decreasing health risks in Kampala's adolescent population.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1978-1987, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656480

RESUMO

Introduction: Chronic pain classification in HIV positive patients is essential for diagnosis and treatment. However, this is rarely done despite association with poor outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 345 consented patients at a specialized HIV care center in Uganda was conducted. Chronic pain was defined as pain of more than two weeks duration. Data was collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire, the IASP classification of chronic pain; the StEP; Mini Mental Status Examination, Patient Health Questionnaire, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the World Health Organization quality of life instrument brief version. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, t-test and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine factors associated with chronic pain. Results: Description of pain aetiology was difficult. Chronic pain was reported in 21.5% of the participants. Non-neuropathic (92.0%) was more common than neuropathic pain (8.0%). Chronic pain was found to be associated with feeling ill [OR=6.57 (3.48 - 12.39)], and worse scores in the quality of life domain for physical health [OR=0.71 (0.60 - 0.83)]. Conclusion: People living with HIV/AIDS commonly have chronic pain that is associated with poor quality of life. More sensitive tools are needed to accurately describe chronic pain in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/classificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565123

RESUMO

We present a histologically proven mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon in a 40 year old female from Gulu, Northern Uganda. Her elder sister died at 25 years with advanced adenocarcinoma of colon similarly with her mother who died of the same illness 10 years apart. Using the Amsterdam criteria for the diagnosis of the carcinoma of the colon, this is descriptive of Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Carcinoma (HNPCC). Blood examinations revealed microcytic hypochromic anaemia. The Renal and Liver function parameters were essentially normal. The abdominal ultrasonography showed an ill-defined mass in the right hypochondrial region which was heterogeneous with central echogenicity approximately 7.2cm wide and with no intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy or ascitis. At laparotomy, the sonographic findings were confirmed with a demonstrable mass in the hepatic flexure of the colon with hyperemic areas on its serosa. Macroscopically, there was an annular fungating mass with a central necrosis in the hepatic flexure measuring over 7.0cm. Histology of the colonic tumour showed a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon (Duke's B). This finding highlights the occurrence of colonic adenocarcinoma in the young person in Northern Uganda, a finding which draws the attention of the medical community towards having a higher index of suspicion for carcinoma of the colon in patients with similar presentation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico , Anemia Hipocrômica/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Adulto , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/métodos , Uganda
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489077

RESUMO

Introduction: The burden of brucellosis among smallholder farmers is poorly-documented in Uganda. The disease burden is likely to be high, given the high levels of endemicity, lots of exposures and due to lack of control measures. In order to designate appropriate control measures, the magnitude and risk factors for brucellosis need to be known. We established the burden of and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in cattle, goats, and humans in Iganga district, eastern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in in Kigulamo Parish, Iganga District. We enrolled 226 households and administered a structured questionnaire to heads of households to capture data on socio-demographic characteristics, human brucellosis-related risk factors, and livestock farming practices. Human, cattle, and goat blood samples were collected and tested serologically using commercial indirect-ELISA kits manufactured by USDA, USA. Results: Of 451 human blood samples, 20 (4.4%) were positive. Among 345 cattle blood samples, 4 (1.2%) were positive and among 351 goat blood samples, one (0.3%) was positive. Persons who reported consuming locally-made dairy products had 4 times higher odds of Brucella seropositivity (OR = 4.0, CI = 1.14-14.03, p = 0.031) than those who did not. None of the risk factors we asked about were significantly associated with seropositivity in cattle and goats. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in smallholder households in Kigulamo was relatively low and associated with consumption of locally made dairy products. No risk factors were significantly associated with seropositivity in livestock, likely due to the small number of seropositive animals. We recommend a One Health approach to control brucellosis simultaneously in animals and humans needed to sustainably reduce the burden of brucellosis in Uganda and beyond.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489090

RESUMO

Introduction: Animal bite injuries are a common public health concern in Uganda. We sought to characterize animal bite injuries among patients presenting to Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: This was a cross sectional study from 1st September to 30th November 2011. Participants were animal bite injury victims presenting to the accident and emergency (A&E) unit at Mulago hospital and were consecutively enrolled into the study. Socio-demographics, severity and patterns of injury, health seeking and dog handling behaviours were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize participant characteristics and the animal bite injuries. Poisson regression model's incident rate ratios (IRR) was used to explore the relationship of the number of days to accessing treatment at Mulago hospital with; a) received prior first aid, b) animal bite injury sustained during day time, c) unknown dog and d) victim resident in Kampala. Data were analyzed using STATA version 12.0 and statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Of 25,420 patients that presented to the A&E unit during the study period, 207 (0.8%) had animal bite injuries, mean age 22.7 years (SD 14.3), 64.7% male, and 40.1% were <18 years. Majority 199 (96.1%) were bitten by a lone unrestrained and un-signaled dog that had bitten someone else in 22.2% of cases, and eight victims (0.4%) were attacked in canine gangs of 2-5 dogs. Rabies vaccination was confirmed in only 23 dogs (11.1%) as 109 (52.7%) were unknown to the victims or the communities. One hundred and eighteen victims (57.0%) sustained the dog bites within Kampala district whilst the rest occurred near or far from Kampala district, and the victims especially referred to access anti-rabies vaccine. Of 207, 189 victims (91.3%) presented within 2.6 days (SD ± 4.3). Two hundred victims (96.6%) sustained extremity injuries while the rest had injuries to other body parts. All injuries were minor and managed on out-patient basis with wound dressing, analgesics, prophylactic antibiotics and anti-rabies vaccination. Victims who received prior first aid had a rate of 1.7 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1) compared to those that had no prior first aid. Participants who sustained the animal bite injuries during day time had a rate of 1.6 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1) compared to those that sustained injuries at other times. Participants bitten by unknown dog and participants residing in Kampala had IRR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9 and IRR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8 respectively of accessing treatment at Mulago hospital compared to bitten by known dog and not residing in Kampala. Conclusion: Dog bites injuries from unrestrained, un-signaled dogs are the commonest source of animal bite injuries especially among children (<18 years). Vaccination against rabies was only confirmed for a very small number of dogs, as majority were unknown and likely stray dogs. Government and public sensitization is urgently required to limit stray dogs, vaccinate dogs and restrain them to prevent a grave probability of a looming canine rabies epidemic.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489063

RESUMO

Introduction: Testicular self-examination (TSE) is a screening technique that involves inspection of the appearance and palpation of the testes to detect any changes from the normal. Globally, the incidence of cancer has increased among which is testicular cancer (TC). Data on this topic among male secondary school adolescents in Uganda is limited therefore this study sought to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School, Mbarara District in south western Uganda. The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study among 165 students. Recruitment was made using simple random sampling technique. Respondents were selected among advanced level (A' level) male students studying at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Structured self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Of the male students, 41.8% reported to have knowledge about TSE and only 23.6% practiced TSE. Most students rated their knowledge of TSE to be below 5 (from 1-10). Of the 39 students who admitted performing TSE, only 16 did so as recommended (monthly). Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of TSE were low among adolescent secondary school boys in Ntare School in Mbarara District, south western Uganda. This suggests that these students are unaware of the value of this personal health promotion tool which is fundamental in early diagnosis of testicular cancer.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoexame/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1106-1115, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539942

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk samples from healthy primiparous mothers who had lived in Kampala capital city (urban area) and Nakaseke district (a rural area) for the last five years. Fifty samples were collected between March and June 2018 and were extracted by dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE). Clean-up was performed on an SPE column and analysis was done using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total (∑) PBDEs (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 77, 99, 100,138,153, 154, 183 and 209) ranged from 0.59 to 8.11 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The levels of PBDEs in samples from Kampala capital city were significantly higher than those from Nakaseke (p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). The most dominant congeners were BDE-209 and -47 (contributed 37.1% and 20.2%, respectively to ∑PBDEs), suggesting recent exposure of mothers to deca-and penta-BDE formulations. Fish and egg consumption, plastics/e-waste recycling and paint fumes were associated with higher levels of BDE-47, -153 and -99, respectively, implying that diet and occupation were possible sources of the pollutants. Estimated dietary intakes (ng kg-1 body weight day-1) for BDE-47, -99 and -153 were below the US EPA reference doses for neurodevelopmental toxicity, suggesting minimal health risks to nursing infants who feed on the milk. Generally, the risk quotients for BDE-47, -99 and -153 were <1 in majority (96%) samples, indicating that the breast milk of mothers in Uganda was fit for human consumption.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Resíduo Eletrônico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Bifenil Polibromatos , Uganda
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1027, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual risky behaviours continue to be significant drivers of the HIV epidemic globally. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours among adolescents (10-19 years) in Karamoja sub-region, a pastoralist and post-conflict community in North-eastern Uganda. METHODS: Between August and September 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 1439 adolescents receiving primary healthcare services at nine public health facilities located in five of the seven districts that make up Karamoja sub-region. High-risk sexual behaviour was defined as engaging in sex with two or more (2+) sexual partners in the 6 months preceding the survey or exchanging sex for money or gifts with no or inconsistent use of condoms over the same period of time. Factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours were analysed using a modified Poison regression model with log-link and Poisson-family via a generalized linear model. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent (81.8%, n = 1177) of the respondents had ever tested for HIV while 62 % (61.5%, n = 885) had ever had sex. Of those that had ever had sex, 11.4% (n = 101) reported prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours. Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was lower among men than women (adjusted prevalence ratio (adj. PR) = 0.46; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.62) and those whose sex debut was above 14 years (adj.PR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.69). However, prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly higher in adolescents who were not aware of their recent sexual partner's HIV status (adj.PR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68, 3.52) and those who used illicit drugs (adj.PR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.88, 4.05). CONCLUSION: Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly associated with having sex with partners of unknown HIV sero-status and use of illicit drugs. These findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to improve mutual HIV status disclosure between sexual partners while minimizing their use of illicit drugs/substances.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Agricultura , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1048, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation of men in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) is crucial for the reduction of infant and maternal mortality. Men may be influential in making health care decisions that may affect their female partner's access to health care services, but also as individuals, whose health status has a significant impact on the health of their partners' and that of their children. However, male involvement is still inadequate due to various reasons. This paper sought to explore the community perspectives towards participation of men in maternal and child health care in Kabale District, Western Uganda. METHODS: The study used a case study approach. Household questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, direct field observation and document review were employed to collect data. One hundred and twenty-four respondents completed a household questionnaire, eight key informants took part in semi-structured interviews and thirty-six community members (two men and two women groups) participated in focus group discussions. RESULTS: The participation of men in maternal and child health care was found to be low. Patriarchal community values and norms influencing gender roles hindered male involvement in MCH. More so, sensitisation on the importance of male involvement was inadequate. CONCLUSION: Men's participation in MCH is affected by multiple factors emanating from the community and health institutions. Involving men in MCH is critical, and therefore participatory and comprehensive approaches should be applied to encourage participation. Sensitisation of communities is fundamental for increasing awareness of the significance of male involvement in MCH.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Homens/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Normas Sociais , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1176, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates are high in Uganda (6.7%), and rates are especially high among at-risk groups such as youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda. The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial correlates, particularly alcohol use, associated with HIV among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: Analyses are based on cross-sectional survey data collected in Spring of 2014. Participants comprised a convenience sample (N = 1134) of urban service-seeking youth living on the streets or in the slums, 12-18 years of age who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center (56.1% female and 43.9% male). Chi-Square Tests were used to determine differences in the proportions of alcohol use patterns between self-reported HIV-positive and HIV-negative youth. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were conducted to determine the associated risk factors with self-reported HIV. Institutional Review Board approvals were obtained from the Georgia State University and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. RESULTS: Among the total sample of youth (N = 1103), 10.5% (n = 116) reported being HIV-positive. There were statistically significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative youth on ever living on the streets (χ2 =10.14, df = 1, p = 0.002), past 12-month alcohol use (χ2 =16.38, df = 1, p < .0001), ever having sexual intercourse (χ2 =14.52, df = 1, p = 0.0001), ever engaging in sex work (χ2 =13.19, df = 1, p = 0.0003), inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months (χ2 =5.03, df = 1, p = 0.03), and ever being raped (χ2 =15.29, df = 1, p < 0.0001). A higher percentage of HIV-positive youth were classified as problem drinkers, defined by the CAGE scores (21.6% vs. 13.9%, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, previously being raped (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.83) and alcohol use without problem drinking (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.24, 3.69) was associated with HIV. CONCLUSION: Youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda have a high prevalence of HIV. These youth are in dire need of interventions which address both alcohol use behaviors and sexual risk behaviors to reduce further complications of their existing health conditions, including HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Uganda/epidemiologia
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