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1.
Soft Matter ; 20(15): 3243-3247, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572565

RESUMO

In this study, by fabricating DNA doped with tetraphenylethene-containing ammonium surfactant, the resulting solvent-free DNA ionic complex could undergo a humidity-induced phase change that could be well tracked by the fluorescence signal of the surfactant. Taking advantage of the humidity-induced change in fluorescence, the reported ionic DNA complex could accurately indicate the humidity in real time.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Cristais Líquidos/química , Umidade , Materiais Biocompatíveis , DNA/química , Tensoativos/química
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 187, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of climate change, a growing concern is that vector-pathogen or host-parasite interactions may be correlated with climatic factors, especially increasing temperatures. In the present study, we used a mosquito-microsporidian model to determine the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, wind and rainfall on the occurrence rates of opportunistic obligate microparasites (Microsporidia) in hosts from a family that includes important disease vectors (Culicidae). METHODS: In our study, 3000 adult mosquitoes collected from the field over 3 years were analysed. Mosquitoes and microsporidia were identified using PCR and sequencing of the hypervariable V5 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene and a shortened fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, respectively. RESULTS: DNA metabarcoding was used to identify nine mosquito species, all of which were hosts of 12 microsporidian species. The prevalence of microsporidian DNA across all mosquito samples was 34.6%. Microsporidian prevalence in mosquitoes was more frequent during warm months (> 19 °C; humidity < 65%), as was the co-occurrence of two or three microsporidian species in a single host individual. During warm months, microsporidian occurrence was noted 1.6-fold more often than during the cold periods. Among the microsporidians found in the mosquitoes, five (representing the genera Enterocytospora, Vairimorpha and Microsporidium) were positively correlated with an increase in temperature, whereas one (Hazardia sp.) was significantly correlated with a decrease in temperature. Threefold more microsporidian co-occurrences were recorded in the warm months than in the cold months. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasite occurrence is primarily determined by environmental conditions, such as, for example, temperatures > 19 °C and humidity not exceeding 62%. Collectively, our data provide a better understanding of the effects of the environment on microsporidian-mosquito interactions.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Microsporídios , Animais , Culicidae/parasitologia , Temperatura , Umidade , Mosquitos Vetores , Microsporídios/genética , DNA
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6339, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491197

RESUMO

Detailed examinations of the internal structure of tablets are imperative for comprehending their formulation, physical attributes, and ensuring their safe utilization. While X-ray computed tomography (CT) is valuable for noninvasively analyzing internal structural changes, the influence of humidity on these structural changes remains unexplored. Accordingly, we aimed to assess the viability of X-ray CT in non-destructively evaluating the internal structure of humidified magnesium oxide (MgO) tablets. MgO tablets were subjected to conditions of 40 °C and 75% humidity for 7 days, weighed pre- and post-humidification, and subsequently stored at room temperature (22-27 °C) until day 90. Their internal structure was evaluated using X-ray CT. We observed a substantial increase in the weight of MgO tablets concomitant with moisture absorption, with minimal changes observed upon storage at room temperature. The skewness reduced immediately post-moisture absorption, remained almost the same post-storage at room temperature, and failed to revert to pre-humidification levels during the storage period. These findings highlight the utility of X-ray CT as an effective tool for non-destructive, three-dimensional, and detailed evaluation of internal structural transformations in MgO tablets.


Assuntos
Óxido de Magnésio , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Comprimidos/química , Umidade
4.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104495, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431315

RESUMO

This study assessed the fate of a Salmonella enterica cocktail (S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport, S. Agona and S. Anatum; initial counts 3.5 log CFU/g) in minimally processed sliced chard, broccoli and red cabbage at 16 conditions of different temperature (7, 14, 21 and 37 °C) and relative humidity (RH; 15, 35, 65 and 95%) over six days (144 h). Linear regression was used to estimate the rate change of Salmonella in cut vegetables as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH). R2 value of 0.85, 0.87, and 0.78 were observed for the rates of change in chard, broccoli, and red cabbage, respectively. The interaction between temperature and RH was significant in all sliced vegetables. Higher temperatures and RH values favored Salmonella growth. As temperature or RH decreased, the rate of S. enterica change varied by vegetable. The models developed here can improve risk management of Salmonella in fresh cut vegetables.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Brassica , Salmonella enterica , Temperatura , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Umidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Salmonella , Verduras
5.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 26(4): 53-61, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38523449

RESUMO

Air humidity is an important environmental factor restricting the fruit body growth of Auricularia heimuer. Low air humidity causes the fruit body to desiccate and enter dormancy. However, the survival mechanisms to low air humidity for fruit bodies before dormancy remain poorly understood. In the present study, we cultivated A. heimuer in a greenhouse and collected the fruit bodies at different air humidities (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%) to determine the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH); and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Results showed that the MDA contents tended to increase with decreasing relative air humidity. Relative air humidity below 90% caused membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress (based on MDA contents) to the fruit body, which we named air humidity stress. In contrast to the control and with the degree of stress, the GSH contents and activities of SOD, CAT, GR, GPX, and APX tended to ascend, whereas AsA showed a declining trend; the POD activity only rose at 50%. The antioxidants favored the fruit body to alleviate oxidative damage and strengthened its tolerance to air humidity stress. The antioxidant defense system could be an important mechanism for the fruit body of A. heimuer in air humidity stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Auricularia , Basidiomycota , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Umidade , Frutas/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos
6.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300920, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512950

RESUMO

We previously reported that variations in the number and type of bacteria found in public spaces are influenced by environmental factors. However, based on field survey data alone, whether the dynamics of bacteria in the air change as a result of a single environmental factor or multiple factors working together remains unclear. To address this, mathematical modeling may be applied. We therefore conducted a reanalysis of the previously acquired data using principal component analysis (PCA) in conjunction with a generalized linear model (Glm2) and a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) test employing the χ2 distribution. The data used for the analysis were reused from a previous public environmental survey conducted at 8:00-20:00 on May 2, June 1, and July 5, 2016 (regular sampling) and at 5:50-7:50 and 20:15-24:15 on July 17, 2017 (baseline sampling) in the Sapporo underground walking space, a 520-meter-long underground walkway. The dataset consisted of 60 samples (22 samples for "bacterial flora"), including variables such as "temperature (T)," "humidity (H)," "atmospheric pressure (A)," "traffic pedestrians (TP)," "number of inorganic particles (Δ5: 1-5 µm)," "number of live airborne bacteria," and "bacterial flora." Our PCA with these environmental factors (T, H, A, and TP) revealed that the 60 samples could be categorized into four groups (G1 to G4), primarily based on variations in PC1 [Loadings: T(-0.62), H(-0.647), TP(0.399), A(0.196)] and PC2 [Loadings: A(-0.825), TP(0.501), H(0.209), T(-0.155)]. Notably, the number of inorganic particles significantly increased from G4 to G1, but the count of live bacteria was highest in G2, with no other clear pattern. Further analysis with Glm2 indicated that changes in inorganic particles could largely be explained by two variables (H/TP), while live bacteria levels were influenced by all explanatory variables (TP/A/H/T). ANOVA tests confirmed that inorganic particles and live bacteria were influenced by different factors. Moreover, there were minimal changes in bacterial flora observed among the groups (G1-G4). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dynamics of live bacteria in the underground walkway differ from those of inorganic particles and are regulated in a complex manner by multiple environmental factors. This discovery may contribute to improving public health in urban settings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bactérias , Umidade , Modelos Teóricos , Microbiologia do Ar
7.
Food Chem ; 447: 138926, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471278

RESUMO

4-Terpineol (4-TA), a typical monocyclic monoterpene essential oil compound with important biological activities, poor stability and solubility severely hamper its biological activities. To date, ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) encapsulating essential oil to form inclusion complexes (ICs) is considered as a satisfactory treatment. Nevertheless, the detailed inclusion mechanism of ß-CD for 4-TA especially the behavior of 4-TA during inclusion formation have not available yet. Herein, 4-TA/ß-CD ICs were successfully synthesized by the co-precipitation method, and hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions played a key role in the formation of ICs, and the isopropyl of 4-TA entered the cavity through the wide rim of ß-CD. Moreover, the release profile demonstrated that high RH (85 % and 99 %) triggered the release of TA from ICs. This study suggests the great potential of cyclodextrin inclusion strategy for improving the stability and sustained release of 4-TA in food preservation application.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Óleos Voláteis , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Umidade , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Solubilidade
8.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 237: 113831, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508084

RESUMO

Biofilms are complex porous materials formed by microorganisms, polysaccharides, proteins, eDNA, inorganic matter, and water. They are ubiquitous in various environmental niches and are known to grow at solid-liquid, solid-air and air-liquid interfaces, often causing problems in several industrial and sanitary fields. Their removal is a challenge in many applications and numerous studies have been conducted to identify promising chemical species as cleaning agents. While these substances target specific components of biofilm structure, the role of water content in biofilm, and how it can influence wettability and detergent absorption have been quite neglected in the literature. Estimating water content in biofilm is a challenging task due to its heterogeneity in morphology and chemical composition. In this study, we controlled water content in Pseudomonas fluorescens AR 11 biofilms grown on submerged glass slides by regulating environmental relative humidity after drying. Interfacial properties of biofilm were investigated by measuring wetting of water and soybean oil. The morphology of biofilm structure was evaluated using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that biofilm water content has a significant and measurable effect on its wettability, leading to the hypothesis that a preliminary control of water content can play a crucial role in biofilm removal process.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas fluorescens , Molhabilidade , Pseudomonas fluorescens/fisiologia , Umidade , Biofilmes , Água
9.
Biomacromolecules ; 25(4): 2367-2377, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456841

RESUMO

Soil quality is one of the main limiting factor in the development of the food sector in arid areas, mainly due to its poor mechanics and lack of water retention. Soil's organic carbon is nearly absent in arid soils, though it is important for water and nutrient transport, to soil mechanics, to prevent erosion, and as a long-term carbon sink. In this study, we evaluate the potential benefits that are brought to inert sand by the incorporation of a range of, mainly, cellulosic networks in their polymeric or structured (fiber) forms, analogously to those found in healthy soils. We explore the impact of a wide range of nonfood polysaccharide-based amendments, including pulp fibers, nanocellulose, cellulose derivatives, and other readily available polysaccharide structures derived from arthropods (chitosan) or fruit peels (pectin) residues. A practical methodology is presented to form sand-polymer composites, which are evaluated for their soil mechanics as a function of humidity and the dynamics of their response to water. The mechanics are correlated to the network of polymers formed within the pores of the sandy soil, as observed by electron microscopy. The response to water is correlated to both the features of the network and the individual polysaccharides' physicochemical features. We expect this work to provide a rapid and reproducible methodology to benchmark sustainable organic amendments for arid soils.


Assuntos
Celulose , Areia , Benchmarking , Umidade , Solo/química , Água/química , Polímeros
10.
Food Chem ; 446: 138885, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447387

RESUMO

Biobased multi-stimulation materials have received considerable attention for intelligent packaging and anti-counterfeiting applications. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cyanidins are good material candidates for monitoring food freshness as they are eco-friendly natural substances. This work incorporated cyanidin with a CNC-hosting substrate to develop a simple, environment-friendly colorimetric device to visualize food freshness. Across the pH range of 2-13, the indicator exhibited noticeable color changes ranging from red to gray and eventually to orange. The CNC-cyanidin (CC) film exhibited a dramatic color change from blue to dark red and high sensitivity at a relative humidity of 30 %-100 %. In corresponding to the total volatile elemental nitrogen (TVB-N) level of shrimp, the indicator showed distinguishable colors at different stages of shrimp. The findings imply that the samples have substantial potential for use as an intelligent indicator for tracking shrimp freshness.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Alimentos Marinhos , Umidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Antocianinas/química , Embalagem de Alimentos
11.
ACS Sens ; 9(3): 1584-1591, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450591

RESUMO

Chemoresistive gas sensors made from SnO2, ZnO, WO3, and In2O3 have been prepared by flame spray pyrolysis. The sensors' response to CO and NO2 in darkness and under illumination at different wavelengths, using commercially available LEDs, was investigated. Operation at room temperature turned out to be impractical due to the condensation of water inside the porous sensing layers and the irreversible changes it caused. Accordingly, for sensors operated at 70 °C, a characterization procedure was developed and proven to deliver consistent data. The resulting data set was so complex that usual univariate data analysis was intricate and, consequently, was investigated by correlation and principal component analysis. The results show that light of different wavelengths affects not only the resistance of each material, both under exposure to the target gases in humidity and in its absence, but also the sensor response to humidity and the target gases. It was found that each of the materials behaves differently under light exposure, and it was possible to identify conditions that need further investigations.


Assuntos
Gases , Análise Multivariada , Umidade , Porosidade , Análise de Componente Principal
12.
Genet Sel Evol ; 56(1): 23, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the current context of climate change, livestock production faces many challenges to improve the sustainability of systems. Dairy farming, in particular, must find ways to select animals that will be able to achieve sufficient overall production while maintaining their reproductive ability in environments with increasing temperatures. With future forecasted climate conditions in mind, this study used data from Holstein and Montbeliarde dairy cattle to: (1) estimate the genetic-by-temperature-humidity index (THI) interactions for female fertility, and (2) evaluate the production-fertility trade-off with increasing values of THI. RESULTS: Two-trait random regression models were fitted for conception rate (fertility) and test-day protein yield (production). For fertility, genetic correlations between different THI values were generally above 0.75, suggesting weak genotype-by-THI interactions for conception rate in both breeds. However, the genetic correlations between the conception rate breeding values at the current average THI (THI = 50, corresponding to a 24-h average temperature of 8 °C at 50% relative humidity) and their slopes (i.e., potential reranking) for heat stress scenarios (THI > 70), were different for each breed. For Montbeliarde, this correlation tended to be positive (i.e., overall the best reproducers are less affected by heat stress), whereas for Holstein it was approximately zero. Finally, our results indicated a weak antagonism between production and fertility, although for Montbeliarde this antagonism intensified with increasing THI. CONCLUSIONS: Within the range of weather conditions studied, increasing temperatures are not expected to exacerbate the fertility-production trade-off. However, our results indicated that the animals with the best breeding values for production today will be the most affected by temperature increases, both in terms of fertility and production. Nonetheless, these animals should remain among the most productive ones during heat waves. For Montbeliarde, the current selection program for fertility seems to be adequate for ensuring the adaptation of fertility traits to temperature increases, without adverse effects on production. Such a conclusion cannot be drawn for Holstein. In the future, the incorporation of a heat tolerance index into dairy cattle breeding programs would be valuable to promote the selection of animals adapted to future climate conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Leite , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Umidade , Temperatura , Leite/metabolismo , Lactação/genética , Temperatura Alta , Fertilidade/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária
13.
Int J Biometeorol ; 68(4): 777-793, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427096

RESUMO

To adapt to Earth's rapidly changing climate, detailed modelling of thermal stress is needed. Dangerous stress levels are becoming more frequent, longer, and more severe. While traditional measurements of thermal stress have focused on air temperature and humidity, modern measures including radiation and wind speed are becoming widespread. However, projecting such indices has presented a challenging problem, due to the need for appropriate bias correction of multiple variables that vary on hourly timescales. In this paper, we aim to provide a detailed understanding of changing thermal stress patterns incorporating modern measurements, bias correction techniques, and hourly projections to assess the impact of climate change on thermal stress at human scales. To achieve these aims, we conduct a case study of projected thermal stress in central Hobart, Australia for 2040-2059, compared to the historical period 1990-2005. We present the first hourly metre-scale projections of thermal stress driven by multivariate bias-corrected data. We bias correct four variables from six dynamically downscaled General Circulation Models. These outputs drive the Solar and LongWave Environmental Irradiance Geometry model at metre scale, calculating mean radiant temperature and the Universal Thermal Climate Index. We demonstrate that multivariate bias correction can correct means on multiple time scales while accurately preserving mean seasonal trends. Changes in mean air temperature and UTCI by hour of the day and month of the year reveal diurnal and annual patterns in both temporal trends and model agreement. We present plots of future median stress values in the context of historical percentiles, revealing trends and patterns not evident in mean data. Our modelling illustrates a future Hobart that experiences higher and more consistent numbers of hours of heat stress arriving earlier in the year and extending further throughout the day.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Temperatura , Umidade , Vento , Sensação Térmica
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(5)2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474888

RESUMO

As one of the most important human health indicators, respiratory status is an important basis for the diagnosis of many diseases. However, the high cost of respiratory monitoring makes its use uncommon. This study introduces a low-cost, wearable, flexible humidity sensor for respiratory monitoring. Solution-processed chitosan (CS) placed on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate was used as the sensing layer. An Arduino circuit board was used to read humidity-sensitive voltage changes. The CS-based sensor demonstrated capacitive humidity sensitivity, whereby the capacitance instantly increased from 10-2 to 30 nF when the environmental humidity changed from 43% to 97%. The capacitance logarithm sensitivity and response voltage change was 35.9 pF/%RH and 0.8 V in the RH range from 56% to 97%. And the voltage variation between inhalation and exhalation was ~0.5 V during normal breathing. A rapid response time of ~0.7 s and a recovery time of ~2 s were achieved during respiration testing. Breathing modes (i.e., normal breathing, rest breathing, deep breathing, and fast breathing) and tonal changes during speech could be clearly distinguished. Therefore, such sensors provide a means for economical and convenient wearable respiratory monitoring, and they have the potential to be used for daily health examinations and professional medical diagnoses.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Humanos , Umidade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Respiração , Expiração
15.
Nature ; 626(7998): 319-326, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326596

RESUMO

Late Pleistocene ice-age climates are routinely characterized as having imposed moisture stress on low- to mid-latitude ecosystems1-5. This idea is largely based on fossil pollen evidence for widespread, low-biomass glacial vegetation, interpreted as indicating climatic dryness6. However, woody plant growth is inhibited under low atmospheric CO2 (refs. 7,8), so understanding glacial environments requires the development of new palaeoclimate indicators that are independent of vegetation9. Here we show that, contrary to expectations, during the past 350 kyr, peaks in southern Australian climatic moisture availability were largely confined to glacial periods, including the Last Glacial Maximum, whereas warm interglacials were relatively dry. By measuring the timing of speleothem growth in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics, which today has a predominantly negative annual moisture balance, we developed a record of climatic moisture availability that is independent of vegetation and extends through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Our results demonstrate that a cool-moist response is consistent across the austral subtropics and, in part, may result from reduced evaporation under cool glacial temperatures. Insofar as cold glacial environments in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics have been portrayed as uniformly arid3,10,11, our findings suggest that their characterization as evolutionary or physiological obstacles to movement and expansion of animal, plant and, potentially, human populations10 should be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Umidade , Camada de Gelo , Animais , Humanos , Migração Animal , Austrália , Temperatura Baixa , Clima Desértico , História Antiga , Plantas , Pólen , Volatilização
16.
Virol J ; 21(1): 42, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is the secondary vector for dengue virus (DENV) in the Philippines, and also harbors chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses. This study aimed to determine the minimum infection rates (MIRs) of CHIKV, DENV serotypes, and ZIKV in Ae. albopictus collected from selected two-site categories by altitude (highland [H] and lowland [L] sites) in Cebu city, Philippines during the wet (WS) and dry seasons (DS) of 2021-2022, and to explore the relationships between these arboviral MIRs and the local weather. METHODS: The viral RNA extracts in pooled and reared adult Ae. albopictus collected during the DS and WS from two-site categories were subjected to RT-PCR to amplify and detect gene loci specific for CHIKV, DENV-1 to DENV-4, and ZIKV and analyzed with the weather data. RESULTS: The range of CHIKV MIRs was higher in the WS (13.61-107.38 infected individuals per 1,000 mosquitoes) than in the DS (13.22-44.12), but was similar between the two-site categories. Rainfall (RF) influenced the CHIKV MIR. The MIR ranges of both DENV-2 (WS: H = 0, L = 0; DS: H = 0-5.92; L = 0-2.6) and DENV-4 (WS: H = 0, L = 0-2.90; DS: H = 2.96-6.13, L = 0-15.63) differed by season but not between the two-site categories. Relative humidity (RH), RF, and temperature did not influence DENVs' MIRs. The MIR range of ZIKV was similar in both seasons (WS: 11.36-40.27; DS: 0-46.15) and two-site categories (H = 0-90.91, L = 0-55.56). RH and temperature influenced ZIKV MIR. CONCLUSIONS: RF influenced CHIKV MIR in Ae. albopictus, whereas RH and temperature influenced that of ZIKV. Season influenced the MIRs of CHIKV and DENVs but not in ZIKV. Ae. albopictus were co-infected with CHIKV, DENVs, and ZIKV in both highland and lowland sites in Cebu city. Recommendations include all-year-round implementation of the Philippine Department of Health's  4S enhanced strategy and installation of water pipelines in rural highlands for vector and disease control. Our findings are relevant to protect public health in the tropics in this climate change.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Zika virus/genética , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Estações do Ano , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Temperatura , Umidade , Mosquitos Vetores
17.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297538, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381723

RESUMO

Canines are one of the best biological detectors of energetic materials available; however, canine detection of explosives is impacted by a number of factors, including environmental conditions. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine how canine detection limits vary when both the canine and odorant are tested in varying temperature and humidity conditions (canine and odor interactive effects); and 2) determine if an acclimatization plan can improve detection limits in an adverse environmental condition. Eight working line canines were trained to detect four energetics: prill ammonium nitrate (AN), Composition 4 (C4), trinitrotoluene (TNT) and double base smokeless powder (SP). In Experiment 1, canines completed a 3-alternative forced choice 3-down-1-up staircase threshold assessment in five environmental conditions: 40°C and 70% relative humidity (RH), 40°C and 40% RH, 0°C and 90% RH, 0°C and 50% RH and 21°C and 50% RH. Canines showed a 3.5-fold detection limit increase (poorer detection) for C4 in 40°C and 70% RH compared to their detection limit at 21°C and 50% RH. In Experiment 2, the eight canines were split into two groups (n = 4), control and acclimation groups. The control group completed the threshold assessment for C4 at 21°C and 50% RH each day for 20 days, with 5 minutes of petting prior to testing. The acclimation group completed the same assessment daily starting at 21°C and 50% RH but temperature and RH were incremented daily over the course of 6 days to the 40°C and 70% RH condition. After the initial six days, the acclimation group completed daily assessments at 40°C and 70% RH condition for the remainder of the experiment. All acclimatization group canines started their session with 5 minutes of toy or food retrieves. Detection limits for C4 for all dogs were tested in 40°C and 70% RH on day 11 and day 22. The acclimatization plan improved detection limits in the 40°C and 70% RH condition for C4 compared to the non-acclimated group. In this set of experiments, canine detection limits for four explosive odorants were found to vary based on environmental condition and were mostly driven by impacts on the canine rather than odor availability. The acclimatization plan did result in lower detection limits (i.e., increased performance). Future work should determine what factor (exercise or environmental exposure) is more effective in acclimatization for odor detection work.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas , Cães , Animais , Aclimatação , Temperatura , Temperatura Corporal , Umidade , Temperatura Alta
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170683, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325465

RESUMO

The real indoor environment involves the comprehensive interaction of multiple factors, and human subjective responses to different factors are influenced by various aspects such as physics, physiology, and psychology. The relative significance of various factors influencing different types of human subjective thermal perception, as well as the extent of their interactions, remains somewhat unclear. This investigation, leveraging the "Chinese Thermal Comfort Dataset," analyzed the integrated impact of basic thermal perception factors-temperature, humidity, air speed, as well as clothing insulation and metabolic rate-on subjective thermal perception. The findings underscored the definitive role of air temperature as the primary determinant of thermal sensation, with the impact of other factors generally remaining below 15 % of temperature. Nonetheless, the sensitivity of thermal sensation to temperature is significantly affected by other factors, demonstrating a significant interaction between temperature and different factors in influencing temperature sensation. Additionally, it was observed that significant differences (p < 0.001) in thermal comfort levels existed even at the same thermal sensation. For instance, in the state of thermal neutrality, occupants with relatively higher clothing insulation reported higher thermal comfort level (d = 0.40, p < 0.001) during the cooling season but lower thermal comfort level (d = 0.54, P < 0.001) during the heating season. Consequently, it can be deduced that when comprehensively considering the impact of multiple factors, evaluating the environment solely based on thermal sensation or thermal neutrality may prove insufficient.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Sensação Térmica , Humanos , Umidade , Temperatura , Percepção
19.
ACS Sens ; 9(2): 1014-1022, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334494

RESUMO

In all their applications, gas sensors should satisfy several requirements, including low cost, reduced energy consumption, fast response/recovery, high sensitivity, and reliability in a broad humidity range. Unfortunately, the fast response/recovery and sensing reliability under high humidity conditions are often still missing, especially those working at room temperature. In this study, a humidity-resistant gas sensor with an ultrafast response/recovery rate was designed by integrating a defect-rich semiconducting sensing interface and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) with controllable wettability. As a proof-of-concept application, ammonia (NH3), one of the atmospheric and indoor pollutants, was selected as the target gas. The decoration of interconnected defective CeO2 nanowires on spaced TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) provided superior NH3 sensing performances. Moreover, we showed that manipulating the functional end group of SAMs is an efficient and simple method to adjust the wettability, by which 86% sensitivity retention with an ultrafast response (within 5 s) and a low limit of detection (45 ppb) were achieved even at 75% relative humidity and room temperature. This work provides a new route toward the comprehensive design and application of metal oxide semiconductors for trace gas monitoring under harsh conditions, such as those of agricultural, environmental, and industrial fields.


Assuntos
Amônia , Nanotubos , Umidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Molhabilidade
20.
J Insect Sci ; 24(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308818

RESUMO

Climatic stressors are important drivers in the evolution of social behavior. Social animals tend to thrive in harsh and unpredictable environments, yet the precise benefits driving these patterns are often unclear. Here, we explore water conservation in forced associations of a solitary bee (Melissodes tepidus timberlakei Cockerell, 1926) to test the hypothesis that grouping can generate synergistic physiological benefits in an incipient social context. Paired bees displayed mutual tolerance and experienced reduced water loss relative to singleton bees when exposed to acute low-humidity stress, with no change in activity levels. While the mechanism underlying these benefits remains unknown, social advantages like these can facilitate the evolution of cooperation among nonrelatives and offer important insights into the social consequences of climate change.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Abelhas , Animais , Condições Sociais , Comportamento Social , Umidade
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