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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16213, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004925

RESUMO

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the COVID-19 transmission in two large metropolitan areas in Northern Italy as Milan and Florence and in the autonomous province of Trento. Milan, capital of Lombardy region, it is considered the epicenter of the virus outbreak in Italy. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation (at lesser degree). In other words, COVID-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For those reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned indoor environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17002, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046802

RESUMO

First identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has affected over 16,800,000 people worldwide as of July 29, 2020 and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Influenza studies have shown that influenza viruses survive longer on surfaces or in droplets in cold and dry air, thus increasing the likelihood of subsequent transmission. A similar hypothesis has been postulated for the transmission of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. It is important to propose methodologies to understand the effects of environmental factors on this ongoing outbreak to support decision-making pertaining to disease control. Here, we examine the spatial variability of the basic reproductive numbers of COVID-19 across provinces and cities in China and show that environmental variables alone cannot explain this variability. Our findings suggest that changes in weather (i.e., increase of temperature and humidity as spring and summer months arrive in the Northern Hemisphere) will not necessarily lead to declines in case counts without the implementation of drastic public health interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Temperatura Baixa , Meio Ambiente , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Pandemias , Dinâmica Populacional
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(18): 9753-9759, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The weather-related conditions change the ecosystem and pose a threat to social, economic and environmental development. It creates unprecedented or unanticipated human health problems in various places or times of the year. Africa is the world's second largest and most populous continent and has relatively changeable weather conditions. The present study aims to investigate the impact of weather conditions, heat and humidity on the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic in various regions of Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 16 highly populated countries from North, South, East, West, and Central African regions were selected. The data on COVID-19 pandemic including daily new cases and new deaths were recorded from World Health Organization. The daily temperature and humidity figures were obtained from the weather web "Time and Date". The daily cases, deaths, temperature and humidity were recorded from the date of appearance of first case of "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" in the African region, from Feb 14 to August 2, 2020. RESULTS: In African countries, the daily basis mean temperature from Feb 14, 2020 to August 2, 2020 was 26.16±0.12°C, and humidity was 57.41±0.38%. The overall results revealed a significant inverse correlation between humidity and the number of cases (r= -0.192, p<0.001) and deaths (r= -0.213, p<0.001). Similarly, a significant inverse correlation was found between temperature and the number of cases (r= -0.25, p<0.001) and deaths (r=-0.18, p<0.001). Furthermore, the regression results showed that with 1% increase in humidity the number of cases and deaths was significantly reduced by 3.6% and 3.7% respectively. Congruently, with 1°C increase in temperature, the number of cases and deaths was also significantly reduced by 15.1% and 10.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in relative humidity and temperature was associated with a decrease in the number of daily cases and deaths due to COVID-19 pandemic in various African countries. The study findings on weather events and COVID-19 pandemic have an impact at African regional levels to project the incidence and mortality trends with regional weather events which will enhance public health readiness and assist in planning to fight against this pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Tempo (Meteorologia) , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Incidência
4.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 229: 113587, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917371

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between weather factors (temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and rainfall) and COVID-19 infection in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Solar radiation showed a strong (-0.609, p < 0.01) negative correlation with the incidence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Temperature (maximum and average) and wind speed showed negative correlation (p < 0.01). Therefore, in this studied tropical state, high solar radiation can be indicated as the main climatic factor that suppress the spread of COVID-19. High temperatures, and wind speed also are potential factors. Therefore, the findings of this study show the ability to improve the organizational system of strategies to combat the pandemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and other tropical countries around the word.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Clima Tropical , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Temperatura , Vento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faced with the global pandemic of COVID-19, declared by World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11th 2020, and the need to better understand the seasonal behavior of the virus, our team conducted this systematic review to describe current knowledge about the emergence and replicability of the virus and its connection with different weather factors such as temperature and relative humidity. METHODS: The review was registered with the PROSPERO database. The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LILACS, OpenGrey and Google Scholar were examined with the searches restricted to the years 2019 and 2020. Risk of bias assessment was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist tool. The GRADE tool was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: The initial screening identified 517 articles. After examination of the full texts, seventeen studies met the review's eligibility criteria. Great homogeneity was observed in the findings regarding the effect of temperature and humidity on the seasonal viability and transmissibility of COVID-19. Cold and dry conditions were potentiating factors on the spread of the virus. After quality assessment, two studies had a high risk of bias, eleven studies were scored as moderate risk of bias, and four studies were classified as low risk of bias. The certainty of evidence was graded as low for both outcomes evaluated. CONCLUSION: Considering the existing scientific evidence, warm and wet climates seem to reduce the spread of COVID-19. However, these variables alone could not explain most of the variability in disease transmission. Therefore, the countries most affected by the disease should focus on health policies, even with climates less favorable to the virus. Although the certainty of the evidence generated was classified as low, there was homogeneity between the results reported by the included studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Temperatura , Viés , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9216-9225, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The weather allied conditions have an impact on air, water, soil, food, ecosystem, feelings, behaviors, and pattern of health and disease. The present study aims to investigate the impact of heat and humidity on the daily basis incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 pandemic in European countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 10 European countries, Russia, United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Germany, Turkey, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Belarus. This region has a relatively low temperature and high humidity, and has homogenous European ethnicity with almost similar socioeconomic culture and health care system. The data on COVID-19 pandemic including daily new cases and new deaths were recorded from World Health Organization (WHO). The information on daily temperature and humidity was obtained from world climate web "Time and Date". The daily cases, deaths, temperature and humidity were recorded from the date of appearance of first case of "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" in the European region, from Jan 27, 2020 to July 17, 2020. RESULTS: In 10 European countries, (Russia, United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Germany, Turkey, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Belarus), the daily basis mean temperature from Jan 27, 2020 to July 17, 2020 was 17.07±0.18°C, and humidity was 54.78±0.47%. The overall results revealed a significant inverse correlation between humidity and the number of cases (r= -0.134, p<0.001) and deaths (r= -0.126, p<0.001). Moreover, an increase in temperature was linked with an increase in the number of cases (r=0.062, p=0.013) and deaths (r=0.118, p<0.001). The regression analysis results further revealed that with an increase of 1% humidity the number of cases (ß = -15.90, p<0.001) and deaths (ß=-1.56, p<0.001) reduced significantly. Whereas, with an increase of 1°C in temperature the number of cases (ß = 20.65, p<0.001) and deaths (ß = 3.71, p<0.001) increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in relative humidity was associated with a decrease in the number of daily cases and deaths, however, a rise in temperature was allied with an upsurge in the number of daily cases and daily deaths due to COVID-19 pandemic in European countries. The study findings on weather events and COVID-19 pandemic have an impact at European regional levels to project the incidence and mortality trends with regional weather events to enhance public health readiness and assist in planning to fight against this pandemic situation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise de Regressão , Taxa de Sobrevida , Temperatura
7.
Appl Opt ; 59(25): 7585-7595, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902458

RESUMO

We present evidence-based design principles for three different UV-C based decontamination systems for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) within the context of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak of 2019-2020. The approaches used here were created with consideration for the needs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and other under-resourced facilities. As such, a particular emphasis is placed on providing cost-effective solutions that can be implemented in short order using generally available components and subsystems. We discuss three optical designs for decontamination chambers, describe experiments verifying design parameters, validate the efficacy of the decontamination for two commonly used N95 FFRs (3M, #1860 and Gerson #1730), and run mechanical and filtration tests that support FFR reuse for at least five decontamination cycles.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Máscaras , Raios Ultravioleta , Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Reutilização de Equipamento , Umidade , Ozônio/síntese química , Ozônio/toxicidade , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140106, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive indices have been used to quantify the interactive effect of temperature and humidity on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The majority of them reflect how weather feels to humans. In this study, we propose an alternative index aiming to reflect the impacts of weather on HFMD and compare its performance with that of previous indices. METHODS: We proposed an index defined as the product of temperature and a weight parameter raised to the rescaled relative humidity, denoted by THIa. We then compared its model fit and heterogeneity with those of previous indices (including the humidex, heat index and temperature) by a multicity two-stage time series analysis. We first built a common distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate the associations between different indices and HFMD for each city separately. We then pooled the city-specific estimates and compared the average model fit (measured by the QAIC) and heterogeneity (measured by I2) among the different indices. RESULTS: We included the time series of HFMD and meteorological variables from 143 cities in mainland China from 2009 to 2014. By varying the weight parameter of THIa, the results suggested that 100% relative humidity can amplify the effects of temperature on HFMD 1.6-fold compared to 50% relative humidity. By comparing different candidate indices, THIa performed the best in terms of the average of the model fits (QAIC = 9449.37), followed by humidex, heat index and temperature. In addition, the estimated exposure-response curves between THIa and HFMD were consistent across climate regions with minimum heterogeneity (I2 = 65.90), whereas the others varied across climate regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposed an alternative comprehensive index to characterize the interactive effects of temperature and humidity on HFMD. In addition, the results also imply that previous human-based indices might not be sufficient to reflect the complicated associations between weather and HFMD.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , China , Cidades , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Lactente , Temperatura
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 374-378, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955217

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scabies is a contagious parasitic disease, a skin infestation caused by Scaroptes scabieri, tiny mites that burrow under the skin. Outbreaks of scabies can be difficult to control and require the implementation of appropriate control programme. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of scabies in north-east Poland, considering socio-economic and selected climatic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was based on data reports (n=26,362) obtained from the Polish National Health Fund (NFZ) for the period 2007-2014. Monthly climate data were collected from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management/National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) in Warsaw, including data on temperature and relative humidity. Additionally, the influence of socio-economic factors on the prevalence of scabies was analyzed. Data on population size, medical staff, and unemployment rate were obtained from the Central Statistical Office (GUS) in Warsaw, and analyzed using SPSS Statistics 24.0 programme. RESULTS: The age group of 10-19 years showed the highest infestation rates. Seasonality of scabies was demonstrated. The highest numbers of cases were reported during the autumn and winter months. There was a significant negative correlation (rho = -0.499; p<0.001) between air temperature and the incidence of scabies, and a positive correlation (r = 0.532; p<0.001) between relative humidity and the number of cases reported. A rise in the unemployment rate also caused an increase in the scabies incidence rate (r = 0.294; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that an improvement of socio-economic conditions may contribute to a reduction in the number of scabies infections. The possibility should be considered of monitoring the parameters, such as air temperature and humidity, particularly when scabies outbreaks occur.


Assuntos
Escabiose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Escabiose/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Temperatura , Adulto Jovem
10.
N C Med J ; 81(5): 307-310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900890

RESUMO

This commentary is adapted from the North Carolina Climate Science Report, led by the North Carolina Institute for Climate Studies, drawing from climate science expertise across the state and peer-reviewed research to reach conclusions about the impact of climate change and associated extreme weather on our state.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima Extremo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Umidade , North Carolina , Chuva
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817683

RESUMO

To explain the asymmetrical abundance of native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and invasive Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in the fields, we examined differential susceptibility to pesticides and environmental conditions, i.e., nine combinations of temperatures and relative humidities (RHs). We found adult female F. intonsa to be more susceptible to most of the tested insecticides as compared to F. occidentalis. Chlorfenapyr was most toxic to both thrips' species. In the evaluation of environment conditions in the adult stage, F. intonsa survived 2.5 and 2.4-fold longer as RH increased at 20 and 25 °C, respectively, whereas F. occidentalis survived 1.8 and 1.6-fold longer, respectively. In both pupal and larval stage, no significant effect of interaction of temperatures and RHs was found between the two species. In conclusion, the insecticides tested differed considerably in their species-specific toxicity, and F. intonsa was generally more susceptible to the insecticides, while at the same time survivorship was better at higher RH conditions than F. occidentalis. Thus, differences in the relative susceptibility to changing environmental conditions, especially humidity, may be an underlying mechanism for the recent dominance of F. intonsa over F. occidentalis in the strawberry plastic greenhouse in Korea.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Tisanópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Fragaria/parasitologia , Umidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , República da Coreia , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
12.
Plant Dis ; 104(10): 2622-2633, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804014

RESUMO

The Triticum pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae (MoT) that causes wheat blast has not yet been reported in the U.S., but the closely related M. oryzae Lolium pathotype (MoL), also capable of inciting blast, is found in several wheat growing regions. Since the epidemiology of MoL-incited wheat blast is unknown, it is difficult to project where and under what conditions this pathogen may be of importance. To quantify conditions favorable for MoL infection and temporal development of wheat blast, separate cohorts of wheat spikes were spray or point inoculated at anthesis and immediately subjected to different combinations of temperature (TEMP; 20, 25, and 30°C) and 100% relative humidity (RH) duration (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Blast developed under all tested conditions, with both incidence (INC) and severity (SEV) increasing over time. The effects of TEMP on angular-transformed INC and SEV (arcINC and arcSEV) were significant (P < 0.05) in most cases, with the magnitude of the TEMP effect influenced by RH duration when spikes were spray-inoculated. Between 12 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI), there were significant, positive linear relationships between hours of high RH and arcINC and arcSEV at 25 and 30°C, but not at 20°C. The estimated rates of increase in transformed INC or SEV per hour increase in high RH duration were significantly higher at 30°C than at 25°C at 12 to 14 DAI, but not at 19 to 21 DAI. The highest estimated temporal rates of increase in INC and SEV and the shortest estimated incubation periods (5 to 8 days) occurred at 25 and 30°C, with 24 and 48 h of high RH immediately after inoculation. These results will contribute to ongoing efforts to better understand the epidemiology of wheat blast incited by MoL as well as MoT.


Assuntos
Lolium , Magnaporthe , Umidade , Doenças das Plantas , Temperatura , Triticum
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825607

RESUMO

In the CoViD-19 pandemic, the precautionary approach suggests that all possible measures should be established and implemented to avoid contagion, including through aerosols. For indoor spaces, the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 could be mitigated not only via air changes, but also by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems maintaining thermodynamic conditions possibly adverse to the virus. However, data available in literature on virus survival were never treated aiming to this. In fact, based on comparisons in terms of specific enthalpy, a domain of indoor comfort conditions between 50 and 60 kJ/kg is found to comply with this objective, and an easy-to-use relationship for setting viable pairs of humidity and temperature using a proper HVAC plant is proposed. If confirmed via further investigations on this research path, these findings could open interesting scenarios on the use of indoor spaces during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Calefação , Termodinâmica , Ventilação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Umidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Temperatura
14.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(8): 1063-1069, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741864

RESUMO

Quantitative NMR (qNMR) has been developed as an absolute quantitation method to determine the purity or content of organic compounds including marker compounds in crude drugs. The "qNMR test" has been introduced into the crude-drug section of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) for determining the purity of reagents used for the assay in the JP. In Supplement II to the JP 17th edition published in June 2019, fifteen compounds adopted qNMR test were listed as the reagents for the assay. To establish the "qNMR test" in the crude drug section of the JP, there were several problems to be solved. Previously, we reported that the handling impurity signals from reference substances and targeted marker compounds, chemical shifts of reference substances, and peak unity of signals of targeted marker compounds are important factors to conduct qNMR measurements with intended accuracy. In this study, we investigated that the hygroscopicity of reagents could cause the changes in the compounds' purity depending on increasing their water content. Twenty-one standard products used for the crude-drug test in JP were examined by water sorption-desorption analysis, and ginsenosides and saikosaponins were found to be hygroscopic. To prepare a sample solution of saikosaponin b2 for qNMR analysis, samples need to be maintained for 18 h at 25°C and 76% relative humidity; further, samples need to be weighed at the same humidity for the qNMR analysis.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Higroscópicos/química , Higroscópicos/normas , Indicadores e Reagentes/normas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Farmacopeias como Assunto/normas , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/normas , Umidade , Japão , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/normas , Psicoterapia Breve , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/normas , Temperatura , Água/análise
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8232-8238, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health crisis with social, psychological and long-lasting economical damages. Weather-related dynamics have an impact on the pattern of human health and disease. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of heat and humidity on daily basis incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 pandemic in ten of the world's hottest countries compared to ten of the coldest ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide, we selected 20 countries; 10 hottest countries with the highest temperatures and 10 coldest countries with the lowest temperature. The selection of the countries was based on the daily basis mean temperature from the date of appearance of the initial cases of COVID-19, Dec 29, 2019 to May 12, 2020. In the world's 10 hottest countries, the mean temperature was (26.31±1.51) and humidity (44.67±4.97). However, in the world's 10 coldest countries the mean temperature was (6.19±1.61) and humidity (57.26±2.35). The data on the global outbreak of COVID-19, daily new cases and deaths were recorded from World Health Organization, and daily information on temperature and humidity was obtained from metrological web "Time and Date". RESULTS: In countries with high temperatures and low humidity, the mean daily cases incidence were (407.12±24.33); cumulative cases (9094.34±708.29); and cumulative deaths (452.84±43.30) were significantly low compared to countries with low temperatures and high humidity: daily cases (1876.72±207.37); cumulative cases (44232.38±5875.11); and cumulative deaths (2008.29±310.13). Moreover, COVID-19 cases and deaths per million population were significantly low in countries with high temperatures (cases 711.23, and deaths 16.27) compared to countries with low temperatures (cases 1685.99; and deaths 86.40). Furthermore, in hottest countries, a 1% increase in humidity reduced number of cases and deaths by (ß = -5.40, p<0.001) and (ß = -0.187, p=0.004) respectively. A similar trend was seen with a 1°C increase in temperature, reducing the number of deaths by (ß = -1.35. p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed a significant decrease in incidence of daily cases and deaths in countries with high temperatures and low humidity (warmest countries), compared to those countries with low temperatures and high humidity (coldest countries). The findings could be of interest to the policymakers and the health officials on the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 pandemic and weather changes.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estônia/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Kuweit/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751311

RESUMO

This study analyzed the morbidity and mortality rates of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in different prefectures of Japan. Under the constraint that daily maximum confirmed deaths and daily maximum cases should exceed 4 and 10, respectively, 14 prefectures were included, and cofactors affecting the morbidity and mortality rates were evaluated. In particular, the number of confirmed deaths was assessed, excluding cases of nosocomial infections and nursing home patients. The correlations between the morbidity and mortality rates and population density were statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). In addition, the percentage of elderly population was also found to be non-negligible. Among weather parameters, the maximum temperature and absolute humidity averaged over the duration were found to be in modest correlation with the morbidity and mortality rates. Lower morbidity and mortality rates were observed for higher temperature and absolute humidity. Multivariate linear regression considering these factors showed that the adjusted determination coefficient for the confirmed cases was 0.693 in terms of population density, elderly percentage, and maximum absolute humidity (p-value < 0.01). These findings could be useful for intervention planning during future pandemics, including a potential second COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Previsões , Humanos , Umidade , Japão/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Temperatura
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842189

RESUMO

Objective:To explore the correlation between acute otitis media(AOM), acute pharyngitis(AP) and allergic rhinitis(AR) and environmental-meteorological factors in children in Lanzhou. Method:Data were collected in 2015-2017 from the outpatient department and emergency department of Otolaryngology of one hospital in Lanzhou. The association between clinical data and the environmental meteorological factors during the same period, including the air quality index(AQI), PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, O3, average temperature, average air pressure, average wind speed, average humidity in Lanzhou, was analyzed. Result:The incidence of AOM was positively correlated with AQI, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, average air pressure, and was negatively correlated with O3, average wind speed and average air temperature, but not correlated with average humidity. The incidence of AP was positively correlated with average temperature and average humidity, and not correlated with other 9 factors. The incidence of AR was correlated with all 10 environmental meteorological factors except for O3.The number of children with AOM, AP and AR varied with different seasons. Environmental meteorological factors have single lag and cumulative lag effects on the incidence of children with AOM, AP and AR, and difference between the single lag and cumulative lag time was observed. Conclusion:There may be some correlation between the environmental meteorological factors and the incidence of AOM, AP, AR in children, and there is a lag effect. The incidence of pediatric AOM, AP and AR is affected by seasonal factors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Otorrinolaringopatias , Criança , China , Humanos , Umidade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Vento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759816

RESUMO

(1) Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began spreading across the globe in December and, as of 9 July 2020, had inflicted more than 550,000 deaths. Public health measures implemented to control the outbreak caused socio-economic havoc in many countries. The pandemic highlighted the quality of health care systems, responses of policymakers in harmony with the population, and socio-economic resilience factors. We suggest that different national strategies had an impact on mortality and case count. (2) Methods: We collected fatality data for 17 countries until 2 June 2020 from public data and associated these with implemented containment measures. (3) Results: The outcomes present the effectiveness of control mechanisms in mitigating the virus for selected countries and the UAE as a special case. Pre-existing conditions defined the needed public health strategies and fatality numbers. Other pre-existing conditions, such as temperature, humidity, median age, and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations played minor roles and may have had no direct impact on fatality rates. (4) Conclusions: Prevention, fast containment, adequate public health strategies, and importance of indoor environments were determining factors in mitigating the pandemic. Development of public health strategies adapted to pre-existing conditions for each country and community compliance with implemented policies ensure the successful control of pandemics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764257

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 virus infections in humans were first reported in December 2019, the boreal winter. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020. By July 2020, COVID-19 was present in 213 countries and territories, with over 12 million confirmed cases and over half a million attributed deaths. Knowledge of other viral respiratory diseases suggests that the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 could be modulated by seasonally varying environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Many studies on the environmental sensitivity of COVID-19 are appearing online, and some have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Initially, these studies raised the hypothesis that climatic conditions would subdue the viral transmission rate in places entering the boreal summer, and that southern hemisphere countries would experience enhanced disease spread. For the latter, the COVID-19 peak would coincide with the peak of the influenza season, increasing misdiagnosis and placing an additional burden on health systems. In this review, we assess the evidence that environmental drivers are a significant factor in the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic, globally and regionally. We critically assessed 42 peer-reviewed and 80 preprint publications that met qualifying criteria. Since the disease has been prevalent for only half a year in the northern, and one-quarter of a year in the southern hemisphere, datasets capturing a full seasonal cycle in one locality are not yet available. Analyses based on space-for-time substitutions, i.e., using data from climatically distinct locations as a surrogate for seasonal progression, have been inconclusive. The reported studies present a strong northern bias. Socio-economic conditions peculiar to the 'Global South' have been omitted as confounding variables, thereby weakening evidence of environmental signals. We explore why research to date has failed to show convincing evidence for environmental modulation of COVID-19, and discuss directions for future research. We conclude that the evidence thus far suggests a weak modulation effect, currently overwhelmed by the scale and rate of the spread of COVID-19. Seasonally modulated transmission, if it exists, will be more evident in 2021 and subsequent years.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Betacoronavirus , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Umidade , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Temperatura
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13875, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807805

RESUMO

Respiratory protection is key in infection prevention of airborne diseases, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic for instance. Conventional technologies have several drawbacks (i.e., cross-infection risk, filtration efficiency improvements limited by difficulty in breathing, and no safe reusability), which have yet to be addressed in a single device. Here, we report the development of a filter overcoming the major technical challenges of respiratory protective devices. Large-pore membranes, offering high breathability but low bacteria capture, were functionalized to have a uniform salt layer on the fibers. The salt-functionalized membranes achieved high filtration efficiency as opposed to the bare membrane, with differences of up to 48%, while maintaining high breathability (> 60% increase compared to commercial surgical masks even for the thickest salt filters tested). The salt-functionalized filters quickly killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria aerosols in vitro, with CFU reductions observed as early as within 5 min, and in vivo by causing structural damage due to salt recrystallization. The salt coatings retained the pathogen inactivation capability at harsh environmental conditions (37 °C and a relative humidity of 70%, 80% and 90%). Combination of these properties in one filter will lead to the production of an effective device, comprehensibly mitigating infection transmission globally.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/química , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/microbiologia , Membranas Artificiais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Aerossóis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cristalização , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
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