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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297027, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564609

RESUMO

Sustainable crop production requires adequate and efficient management practices to reduce the negative environmental impacts of excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization. Remote sensing has gained traction as a low-cost and time-efficient tool for monitoring and managing cropping systems. In this study, vegetation indices (VIs) obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were used to detect corn (Zea mays L.) response to varying N rates (ranging from 0 to 208 kg N ha-1) and fertilizer application methods (liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), urea side-dressing and slow-release fertilizer). Four VIs were evaluated at three different growth stages of corn (V6, R3, and physiological maturity) along with morphological traits including plant height and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD) to determine their predictive capability for corn yield. Our results show no differences in grain yield (average 13.2 Mg ha-1) between furrow-applied slow-release fertilizer at ≥156 kg N ha-1 and 208 kg N ha-1 side-dressed urea. Early season remote-sensed VIs and morphological data collected at V6 were least effective for grain yield prediction. Moreover, multivariate grain yield prediction was more accurate than univariate. Late-season measurements at the R3 and mature growth stages using a combination of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) in a multilinear regression model showed effective prediction for corn yield. Additionally, a combination of NDVI and normalized difference red edge index (NDRE) in a multi-exponential regression model also demonstrated good prediction capabilities.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Zea mays , Grão Comestível , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Ureia
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1336674, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590804

RESUMO

Background: Hyperuricemia is a common metabolic disorder linked to various health conditions. Its prevalence varies among populations and genders, and high-altitude environments may contribute to its development. Understanding the connection between blood cell parameters and hyperuricemia in high-altitude areas can shed light on the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between blood cell parameters and hyperuricemia in high-altitude areas, with a particular focus on gender differences. Methods: We consecutively enrolled all eligible Tibetan participants aged 18-60 who were undergoing routine medical examinations at the People's Hospital of Chaya County between January and December 2022. During this period, demographic and laboratory data were collected to investigate the risk factors associated with hyperuricemia. Results: Among the participants, 46.09% were diagnosed with hyperuricemia. In the male cohort, significant correlations were found between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and red blood cell (RBC) count, creatinine (Cr). Urea, alanine transaminase (ALT), and albumin (ALB). Notably, RBC exhibited the strongest association. Conversely, in the female cohort, elevated SUA levels were associated with factors such as white blood cell (WBC) count. Urea, ALT, and ALB, with WBC demonstrating the most significant association. Further analysis within the female group revealed a compelling relationship between SUA levels and specific white blood cell subtypes, particularly neutrophils (Neu). Conclusion: This study revealed gender-specific associations between SUA levels and blood cell parameters in high-altitude areas. In males, RBC count may play a role in hyperuricemia, while in females, WBC count appears to be a significant factor. These findings contribute to our understanding of metabolic dynamics in high-altitude regions but require further research for comprehensive mechanistic insights.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Altitude , Ácido Úrico , Células Sanguíneas , Ureia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7829, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570550

RESUMO

The immunotropic effects of aldosterone might play a role in COVID-19, as SARS-CoV-2 reportedly uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors as an entry point into cells. Aldosterone function is closely linked to its action on mineralocorticoid receptors in kidneys; it increases the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium, which increases blood pressure. Despite the large number of studies examining the effect of Ang-II and its blockers on the course of COVID-19 infection, there is still uncertainty about the role of aldosterone. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of aldosterone, urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) levels with 28 days of mortality in patients treated for COVID19 in an intensive care unit (ICU). This cross-selection study involved 115 adult patients who were divided into two groups: those who died within a 28-day period (n = 82) and those who survived (n = 33). The correlation of aldosterone, urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) levels with 28 days of mortality in patients treated for COVID-19 were performed. The patients' age, sex, scores from the APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA scales and comorbidities like HA, IHD and DM were also analyzed. Remarkably, the individuals who survived for 28 days were of significantly lower mean age and achieved notably lower scores on the APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA assessment scales. Statistically significantly higher CRP levels were observed on days 3, 5, and 7 in individuals who survived for 28 days. Creatinine levels in the same group were also statistically significantly lower on days 1, 3, and 5 than those of individuals who died within 28 days. The investigation employed both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models to explore factors related to mortality. In the univariate analysis, variables with a p value of less than 0.50 were included in the multivariate model. Age, APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA demonstrated significance in univariate analysis and were considered to be associated with mortality. The outcomes of the multivariate analysis indicated that age (HR = 1.03, p = 0.033) served as a robust predictor of mortality in the entire study population. In conclusion the plasma aldosterone level is not associated with ICU mortality in patients with COVID-19. Other factors, including the patient's age, creatinine or CRP contribute to the severity and prognosis of the disease. This study was retrospectively registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with registration no. ACTRN12621001300864 (27/09/2021: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=382563&isReview=true ).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sepse , Adulto , Humanos , Aldosterona , Pró-Calcitonina , Proteína C-Reativa , Creatinina , Sepse/metabolismo , Curva ROC , SARS-CoV-2 , Austrália , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Prognóstico , Morte , Ureia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 411-419, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557519

RESUMO

Among patients with chronic kidney disease stage-5 who are treated with dialysis, intradialytic complications commonly occur during routine hemodialysis (HD). It could be either patient related or mechanical. Protein catabolic rate during hemodialysis is a determinant of the mortality. nPCR was aimed to targets according to International guideline. This observational study was conducted in the Department of Nephrology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from January 2020 to December 2020 to compare two groups of nPCR and different value of biochemical parameters. This study was involving all patients and inclusion criteria were patients who underwent routine HD for at least three months. All patients under-went conventional intermittent HD with low-flux dialyser. A total of 179 patients enrolled. Serum albumin, serum calcium, phosphate, hemoglobin and pre-dialysis urea, post dialysis urea were measured from blood sample. The nPCR was calculated by the standard international equation. nPCR value of 14.0% patients was more than 1.0 gm/kg/day and average nPCR (mean±SD) of all patients was 0.903±0.09gm/kg/day and 86.0% patients nPCR was less than 1.0 gm/kg/day. Biochemical parameters were not significantly differing between two groups. The nPCR is an indicator, can help the determination of nutritional status. This study aimed to find out the intradialytic complications, mean value of nPCR and correlation of biochemical parameters among ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Diálise Renal , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Ureia
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 111(4): 714-728, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579669

RESUMO

Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASLD) is a recessive metabolic disorder caused by variants in ASL. In an essential step in urea synthesis, ASL breaks down argininosuccinate (ASA), a pathognomonic ASLD biomarker. The severe disease forms lead to hyperammonemia, neurological injury, and even early death. The current treatments are unsatisfactory, involving a strict low-protein diet, arginine supplementation, nitrogen scavenging, and in some cases, liver transplantation. An unmet need exists for improved, efficient therapies. Here, we show the potential of a lipid nanoparticle-mediated CRISPR approach using adenine base editors (ABEs) for ASLD treatment. To model ASLD, we first generated human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from biopsies of individuals homozygous for the Finnish founder variant (c.1153C>T [p.Arg385Cys]) and edited this variant using the ABE. We then differentiated the hiPSCs into hepatocyte-like cells that showed a 1,000-fold decrease in ASA levels compared to those of isogenic non-edited cells. Lastly, we tested three different FDA-approved lipid nanoparticle formulations to deliver the ABE-encoding RNA and the sgRNA targeting the ASL variant. This approach efficiently edited the ASL variant in fibroblasts with no apparent cell toxicity and minimal off-target effects. Further, the treatment resulted in a significant decrease in ASA, to levels of healthy donors, indicating restoration of the urea cycle. Our work describes a highly efficient approach to editing the disease-causing ASL variant and restoring the function of the urea cycle. This method relies on RNA delivered by lipid nanoparticles, which is compatible with clinical applications, improves its safety profile, and allows for scalable production.


Assuntos
Acidúria Argininossuccínica , Humanos , Acidúria Argininossuccínica/genética , Argininossuccinato Liase/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ureia
6.
Biotechnol J ; 19(4): e2300466, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581094

RESUMO

The bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii is the most commonly used microorganism for Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) due to its high urease activity. To date, no proper fed-batch cultivation protocol for S. pasteurii has been published, even though this cultivation method has a high potential for reducing costs of producing microbial ureolytic biomass. This study focusses on fed-batch cultivation of S. pasteurii DSM33. The study distinguishes between limited fed-batch cultivation and extended batch cultivation. Simply feeding glucose to a S. pasteurii culture does not seem beneficial. However, it was exploited that S. pasteurii is auxotrophic for two vitamins and amino acids. Limited fed-batch cultivation was accomplished by feeding the necessary vitamins or amino acids to a culture lacking them. Feeding nicotinic acid to a nicotinic acid deprived culture resulted in a 24% increase of the specific urease activity compared to a fed culture without nicotinic acid limitation. Also, extended batch cultivation was explored. Feeding a mixture of glucose and yeast extract results in OD600 of ≈70 at the end of cultivation, which is the highest value published in literature so far. These results have the potential to make MICP applications economically viable.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Ácidos Nicotínicos , Sporosarcina , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Urease/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ureia/química , Ureia/metabolismo , Vitaminas , Aminoácidos , Glucose
7.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(5): 252, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589716

RESUMO

A flexible, wearable, non-invasive contact lens sensor utilizing nickel-cobalt metal-organic framework (Ni-Co-MOF) based hydrogel is introduced for urea monitoring in tear samples. The synthesized Ni-Co-MOF hydrogel exhibits a porous structure with interconnected voids, as visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Detailed structural and vibrational properties of the material were characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The developed Ni-Co-MOF hydrogel sensor showcases a detection limit of 0.445 mM for urea within a linear range of 0.5-70 mM. Notably, it demonstrates exceptional selectivity, effectively distinguishing against interfering species like UA, AA, glucose, dopamine, Cl-, K+, Na+, Ca2+, and IgG. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance of the Ni-Co-MOF hydrogel electrode is attributed to the presence of Ni and Co, fostering Ni2+ oxidation on the surface and forming a Co2+ complex that acts as a catalyst for urea oxidation. The fabricated sensor exhibits successful detection and retrieval of urea in simulated tear samples, showcasing promising potential for bioanalytical applications. The binder-free, non-toxic nature of the Ni-Co-MOF hydrogel sensor presents exciting avenues for future utilization in non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing, including applications in wearable devices, point-of-care diagnostics, and personalized healthcare monitoring.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Níquel/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Ureia , Cobalto , Hidrogéis
8.
J Vet Sci ; 25(2): e27, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A urethral obstruction (UO) is an emergency commonly observed in male cats, which can result in significant clinical and laboratory alterations, leading to complications and death. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to correlate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) with the urea, creatinine, potassium, and bicarbonate levels in cats with UO. In addition, the correlation between clinical score and time of obstruction was evaluated. METHODS: Thirty male cats were selected and allocated into a control group (CG, n = 13) and an obstruction group (OG, n = 17). The laboratory analyses were conducted before treatment (M0) and at different times after treatment (12 h [M12], 24 h [M24], and 48 h [M48]). Correlations were established between SDMA and creatinine, urea, bicarbonate, potassium, time of obstruction, and the clinical score. RESULTS: A strong correlation (r > 0.6) was observed between SDMA and creatinine, urea, and potassium in the OG. Furthermore, there was substantial agreement (kappa value) between SDMA and creatinine at M24. A higher clinical score was associated with a longer time of obstruction. In the OG, at M48, the SDMA and creatinine levels were 50% and 41.2% higher, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A correlation was observed between SDMA and creatinine in obstructed cats, and significant agreement between these values was observed 24 h after the unblocking treatment. A correlation among SDMA, urea, and potassium was observed. Approximately 9% more cats continued to have elevated SDMA levels after 48 h of treatment compared to creatinine. This suggests a slightly lower sensitivity of the latter biomarker but does not exclude the possibility of congruent and normalized values after a longer evaluation period.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Gato , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Gatos , Animais , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Creatinina , Ureia , Potássio , Bicarbonatos , Biomarcadores , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(6): 1454-1465, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557711

RESUMO

We used bench-scale tests and mathematical modeling to explore chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for winery wastewater treatment, using either urea or nitrate as a nitrogen source. With urea addition, the COD removal fluxes ranged from 34 to 45 gCOD/m2-d. However, when nitrate was added, fluxes increased up to 65 gCOD/m2-d, twice the amount reported for aerobic biofilms for winery wastewater treatment. A one-dimensional biofilm model, calibrated with data from respirometric tests, accurately captured the experimental results. Both experimental and modelling results suggest that nitrate significantly increased MBBR capacity by stimulating COD oxidation in the deeper, oxygen-limited regions of the biofilm. Our research suggests that the addition of nitrate, or other energetic and broadly used electron acceptors, may provide a cost-effective means of covering peak COD loads in biofilm processes for winery or another industrial wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Nitratos , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Compostos Orgânicos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Nitrogênio , Ureia , Desnitrificação
10.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611717

RESUMO

In the present work, the synthesis of new ethacrynic acid (EA) derivatives containing nitrogen heterocyclic, urea, or thiourea moieties via efficient and practical synthetic procedures was reported. The synthesised compounds were screened for their anti-proliferative activity against two different cancer cell lines, namely, HL60 (promyelocytic leukaemia) and HCT116 (human colon carcinoma). The results of the in vitro tests reveal that compounds 1-3, 10, 16(a-c), and 17 exhibit potent anti-proliferative activity against the HL60 cell line, with values of the percentage of cell viability ranging from 20 to 35% at 1 µM of the drug and IC50 values between 2.37 µM and 0.86 µM. Compounds 2 and 10 showed a very interesting anti-proliferative activity of 28 and 48% at 1 µM, respectively, against HCT116. Two PyTAP-based fluorescent EA analogues were also synthesised and tested, showing good anti-proliferative activity. A test on the drug-likeness properties in silico of all the synthetised compounds was performed in order to understand the mechanism of action of the most active compounds. A molecular docking study was conducted on two human proteins, namely, glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (pdb:2GSS) and caspase-3 (pdb:4AU8) as target enzymes. The docking results show that compounds 2 and 3 exhibit significant binding modes with these enzymes. This finding provides a potential strategy towards developing anticancer agents, and most of the synthesised and newly designed compounds show good drug-like properties.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Ureia , Humanos , Tioureia/farmacologia , Ácido Etacrínico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Nitrogênio
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612862

RESUMO

The nucleophilic addition of 3-(4-cyanopyridin-2-yl)-1,1-dimethylurea (1) to cis-[Pt(CNXyl)2Cl2] (2) gave a new cyclometallated compound 3. It was characterized by NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 195Pt) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, as well as crystallized to obtain two crystalline forms (3 and 3·2MeCN), whose structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. In the crystalline structure of 3, two conformers (3A and 3B) were identified, while the structure 3·2MeCN had only one conformer 3A. The conformers differed by orientation of the N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl moiety relative to the metallacycle plane. In both crystals 3 and 3·2MeCN, the molecules of the Pt(II) complex are associated into supramolecular dimers, either {3A}2 or {3B}2, via stacking interactions between the planes of two metal centers, which are additionally supported by hydrogen bonding. The theoretical consideration, utilizing a number of computational approaches, demonstrates that the C···dz2(Pt) interaction makes a significant contribution in the total stacking forces in the geometrically optimized dimer [3A]2 and reveals the dz2(Pt)→π*(PyCN) charge transfer (CT). The presence of such CT process allowed for marking the C···Pt contact as a new example of a rare studied phenomenon, namely, tetrel bonding, in which the metal site acts as a Lewis base (an acceptor of noncovalent interaction).


Assuntos
Bases de Lewis , Platina , Ligantes , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Polímeros , Ureia
12.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(3): e4015, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613208

RESUMO

Toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) can lead to serious liver injury. The aim of the study is to investigate the protective effects of oregano oil (Origanum minutiflorum extract oil) against CCl4-induced liver injury. Two doses of oregano oil were used in the experiment: a low dose (LD; 20 mg/kg) and a high dose (HD; 60 mg/kg) during 2 weeks. CCl4 caused severe liver damage, nucleolus destruction in hepatocytes and cytogenetic changes in the nucleus. Indirectly, CCl4 causes decreased protein synthesis and significantly high creatinine and urea values. Hematological disorders have been recorded, such as decreased RBC and hemoglobin concentration, increased WBC and deformability of the erythrocyte membrane. Both doses of oregano oil had protective effects. Improved protein synthesis and high globulins level, creatinine and urea were found in both groups. Cytogenetic changes in the nucleus of hepatocytes were reduced. A high dose of oregano oil had maximal protective effects for RBC, but a very weak effect on hemoglobin synthesis. Also, WBC and lymphocyte values were low. Origanum stimulates protein synthesis and recovery of hepatocytes after liver injury, reduces the deformability of the erythrocyte membrane. High doses of oregano oil decreased WBC and lymphocytes which may lead to a weakening of the immune response. However, high doses are more effective against severe platelet aggregation than low doses, suggesting an effective treatment against thrombocytosis.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Origanum , Animais , Ratos , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Creatinina , Ureia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas
13.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(6): 139, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613599

RESUMO

Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are biopolymers that are good green alternative for synthetic carbon-based polymers, and are also one of the most researched members of the Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) family. In this study, a gram-positive bacterial strain Bacillus megaterium LSRB 0103 was isolated from Pallikaranai Marshland, Chennai, India. Primary screening using Sudan Black dye revealed the presence of intracellular PHB granules. Minimal Davis Media (MDM) which was used or PHB production gave a yield of 0.7107 g/L. Subsequently, using response surface methodology (RSM), a central composite design (CCD) model was designed for media optimization having cornstarch, urea, and pH as independent variables. The findings of the CCD model were fitted into a second-order polynomial equation. The RSM model predicted the maximum PHB yield of 0.93 g/L, at these independent variable levels, cornstarch, 5 g/L; urea, 2.1 g/L; and pH 7.0; while the experimental PHB yield was 0.94 g/L, with a percentage error of 1.1%. This study is the first-time report of production of PHB by Bacillus megaterium using cornstarch and urea as substrate.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium , Amido , Ureia , Bacillus megaterium/genética , Índia , Carbono
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 121, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607462

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the effect of detoxified castor bean replacing soybean meal in the concentrate diet or as nitrogen organic fertilizer replacing urea on intake and nutrient digestibility, blood parameters and productive performance of sheep finished on irrigated Tamani grass pasture under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. The treatments were two concentrate diets: standard (ground corn and soybean meal) and alternative diet (ground corn and detoxified castor bean cake), and two nitrogen fertilizers: chemical (urea) and organic (fresh castor bean cake). The randomized complete block design was used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with four replications (500 m² paddocks). Four sheep (2 castrated males and 2 females) were distributed in each experimental unit, totaling 64 animals with an average initial weight of 19.42 ± 3.6 kg. No effects (P > 0.05) were observed on the variables inherent to the evaluation of the pasture. The average stocking rate (SR) among treatments was 85.50 sheep/ha, equivalent to 9.87 Animal Units (AU)/ha. The alternative diet presented lower dry matter digestibility (62.71%), with no negative effects on nutrient intake and kidney parameters. Animals fed the standard and alternative diet showed average daily gain of 103.75 and 86.76 g/day, respectively. A finishing period of up to 100 days is recommended for sheep selected for production systems in semi-arid regions managed intensively on pasture. Detoxified castor bean cake did not alter nutrient intake, liver and kidney parameters of the sheep and can be used in pasture-based sheep farming.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Semente de Rícino , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Ovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Soja , Nitrogênio , Ureia
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 122, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607593

RESUMO

The present study aimed to use poor quality roughages, such as rice and faba bean straw, treated with or without urea, and their impacts on digestibility, rumen fermentation, some blood parameters, and growth performance of lambs. Twenty crossbred male lambs (1/4 Finland ×¾ Ossimi, 25±1.13kg live body weight) were chosen and divided into four groups. All lambs were fed rations of concentrated feed mixture at 2% of live weight with the following roughages ad libitum: URS (control group, untreated rice straw), TRS (urea-treated rice straw), FBS (faba bean straw), and TRS+FBS (mixture of TRS and FBS, 1:1). Nutrient digestibility and feeding values improved (P<0.05) with TRS+FBS lambs versus FBS, TRS and URS lambs. The highest numerical values of ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in TRS lambs were recorded 23.9 ml.eq/dl followed by TRS+FBS, URS and FBS. Regarding to the ruminal parameters, there were no differences (P>0.05) among evaluated groups except for NH3-N, the highest concentration (P<0.05) was recorded in TRS lambs at 3 h post-feeding. Lambs of TRS, FBS and TRS+FBS showed faster growth (P<0.05) than those of the control (i.e., URS). Intakes of dry matter, total digestible nutrients, and digestible crude protein were numerically increased for TRS, FBS, and TRS+FBS. Feed conversion, as kg dry matter/kg gain, was improved for TRS, FBS, and TRS+FBS lambs versus URS. Daily gain of lambs increased (P<0.05) with lambs of TRS, FBS, and TRS+FBS but URS lambs showed a decrease (P<0.05) in daily gain. Feed conversion as kg dry matter intake/kg gain was improved (P<0.05) by feeding on TRS, FBS and TRS+FBS rations versus URS. The TRS+FBS lambs tended to have the highest economic efficiency versus URS, TRS and FBS lambs. It was concluded that urea-treated rice straw could be used as sole roughage or mixed with faba bean straw (1:1) in growing lambs' ration to improve their performance and economic efficiency without adversely affecting their health.The present study aimed to use poor quality roughages, such as rice and faba bean straw, treated with or without urea, and their impacts on digestibility, rumen fermentation, some blood parameters, and growth performance of lambs. Twenty crossbred male lambs (1/4 Finland ×¾ Ossimi, 25±1.13kg live body weight) were chosen and divided into four groups. All lambs were fed rations of concentrated feed mixture at 2% of live weight with the following roughages ad libitum: URS (control group, untreated rice straw), TRS (urea-treated rice straw), FBS (faba bean straw), and TRS+FBS (mixture of TRS and FBS, 1:1). Nutrient digestibility and feeding values improved (P<0.05) with TRS+FBS lambs versus FBS, TRS and URS lambs. The highest numerical values of ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in TRS lambs were recorded 23.9 ml.eq/dl followed by TRS+FBS, URS and FBS. Regarding to the ruminal parameters, there were no differences (P>0.05) among evaluated groups except for NH3-N, the highest concentration (P<0.05) was recorded in TRS lambs at 3 h post-feeding. Lambs of TRS, FBS and TRS+FBS showed faster growth (P<0.05) than those of the control (i.e., URS). Intakes of dry matter, total digestible nutrients, and digestible crude protein were numerically increased for TRS, FBS, and TRS+FBS. Feed conversion, as kg dry matter/kg gain, was improved for TRS, FBS, and TRS+FBS lambs versus URS. Daily gain of lambs increased (P<0.05) with lambs of TRS, FBS, and TRS+FBS but URS lambs showed a decrease (P<0.05) in daily gain. Feed conversion as kg dry matter intake/kg gain was improved (P<0.05) by feeding on TRS, FBS and TRS+FBS rations versus URS. The TRS+FBS lambs tended to have the highest economic efficiency versus URS, TRS and FBS lambs. It was concluded that urea-treated rice straw could be used as sole roughage or mixed with faba bean straw (1:1) in growing lambs' ration to improve their performance and economic efficiency without adversely affecting their health.


Assuntos
Oryza , Vicia faba , Masculino , Ovinos , Animais , Carneiro Doméstico , Nutrientes , Fibras na Dieta , Ureia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Peso Corporal
16.
Georgian Med News ; (347): 66-69, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609116

RESUMO

Omentin and vaspin levels have been shown to change in many inflammatory diseases, the present study aimed to evaluate the omentin and vaspin levels in breast cancer patients. To do so serum samples were collected and analysed for omentin, vaspin, renal and liver function tests. The levels of creatinine (p<0.01) and urea (p<0.05) showed substantial increases, while omentin and Vaspin levels notably decreased (p<0.05). Additionally, breast cancer patients exhibited significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine transaminase (ALT) compared to the control group (p<0.05). In comparison to the control group, individuals with breast cancer demonstrated reduced blood concentrations of omentin and vaspin and elevated levels of creatinine and urea. Additionally, liver function testing indicated lower levels of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in breast cancer patients. Breast cancer patients had lower levels of omentin and vaspin, and higher levels of creatinine and urea compared to the control group. Liver function tests also indicated lower levels of AST, ALP, and ALT in breast cancer patients compared to the control group.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Fosfatase Alcalina , Alanina Transaminase , Creatinina , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Ureia
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5420, 2024 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443435

RESUMO

The microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis are the main source of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin. However, the effective extraction of astaxanthin from these microalgae remains a significant challenge due to the rigid, non-hydrolyzable cell walls. Energy savings and high-efficiency cell disruption are essential steps in the recovery of the antioxidant astaxanthin from the cysts of H. pluvialis. In the present study, H. pluvialis microalgae were first cultured in Bold's Basal medium under certain conditions to reach the maximum biomass concentration, and then light shock was applied for astaxanthin accumulation. The cells were initially green and oval, with two flagella. As the induction time increases, the motile cells lose their flagellum and become red cysts with thick cell walls. Pre-treatment of aqueous two-phase systems based on deep eutectic solvents was used to decompose the cell wall. These systems included dipotassium hydrogen phosphate salt, water, and two types of deep eutectic solvents (choline chloride-urea and choline chloride-glucose). The results of pre-treatment of Haematococcus cells by the studied systems showed that intact, healthy cysts were significantly ruptured, disrupted, and facilitated the release of cytoplasmic components, thus facilitating the subsequent separation of astaxanthin by liquid-liquid extraction. The system containing the deep eutectic solvent of choline chloride-urea was the most effective system for cell wall degradation, which resulted in the highest ability to extract astaxanthin. More than 99% of astaxanthin was extracted from Haematococcus under mild conditions (35% deep eutectic solvent, 30% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate at 50 °C, pH = 7.5, followed by liquid-liquid extraction at 25 °C). The present study shows that the pre-treatment of two-phase systems based on deep eutectic solvent and, thus, liquid-liquid extraction is an efficient and environmentally friendly process to improve astaxanthin from the microalgae H. pluvialis.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Clorofíceas , Cistos , Microalgas , Fosfatos , Compostos de Potássio , Animais , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Antioxidantes , Biomassa , Água , Solventes , Colina , Ureia , Xantofilas
19.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(2): 281-284, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431837

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of laparoscopic and laparotomy extensive hysterectomy on the safety of ureterovaginal fistula infection in patients with cervical cancer. For this purpose, a total of 90 patients with early cervical cancer admitted to Affiliated Huaian No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from February 2021 to May 2022 were randomly divided into laparoscopy group and laparotomy group, with 45 cases in each group. The laparoscopy group was treated with laparoscopic extensive hysterectomy, while the laparotomy group was treated with laparotomy extensive hysterectomy. The KPS score, adverse reactions, as well as serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were compared between the two groups. Results showed that after surgery, the KPS score in both groups was higher than before treatment, and the KPS score in laparoscopy group was higher than that in laparotomy group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After operation, the incidence of adverse reactions in laparotomy group was higher than that in the laparoscopy group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Moreover, after operation, the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen in laparoscopy group were significantly lower than those in laparotomy group, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, both laparoscopic and laparotomy extensive hysterectomy may lead to ureterovaginal fistula infection in patients with cervical cancer. However, compared with laparotomy extensive hysterectomy, laparoscopic extensive hysterectomy had higher safety and significantly improved the quality of life of patients, which was worthy of popularization and application in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fístula , Laparoscopia , Sinusite , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Creatinina , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Nitrogênio , Ureia
20.
J Oleo Sci ; 73(3): 311-319, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432995

RESUMO

Urea complexation is a widely used method for enriching polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cooling is the traditional approach for urea crystallization. This study aimed to investigate the potential of rotary-evaporation under vacuum as an alternative method for urea crystallization in urea complexation to enrich docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA-containing microalgal oil was converted to ethyl esters (EE) as the raw material. In comparison to cooling, rotary-evaporation crystallization, as a post-treatment method for urea complexation, led to higher DHA contents in the non-urea included fractions. The ratios of urea to EE converted from DHA-containing microalgal oil was found to be the primary factors influencing urea complexation when using rotary-evaporation crystallization. Through an orthogonal test, optimal process conditions were determined, including a urea/EE ratio of 2, an ethanol/urea ratio of 7, and a rotary-evaporation temperature of 75℃. Under these conditions, a concentrate containing more than 90% DHA could be obtained.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Microalgas , Cristalização , Transição de Fase , Temperatura Baixa , Ésteres , Ureia
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