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1.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 240, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630158

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of ureteroscope position within renal cavities as well as different locations of the tip of the ureteral access sheath (UAS) on fluid dynamics during retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational clinical study was performed. Measurements with a flexible ureteroscope placed in the upper, middle and lower calyces were obtained with the tip of the UAS placed either 2 cm below the pyelo-ureteric junction (PUJ), or at the level of the iliac crest. RESULTS: 74 patients were included. The outflow rates from the middle and upper calyxes were statistically significantly higher compared to the lower calyx, both with the UAS close to the pyelo-ureteric junction and at the iliac crest. When the UAS was withdrawn and positioned at the level of the iliac crest, a significant decrease in outflow rates from the upper (40.1 ± 4.3 ml/min vs 35.8 ± 4.1 ml/min) and middle calyces (40.6 ± 4.0 ml/min vs 36.8 ± 4.6 ml/min) and an increase in the outflow from the lower calyx (28.5 ± 3.3 ml/min vs 33.7 ± 5.7 ml/min) were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that higher fluid outflow rates are observed from upper and middle calyces compared to lower calyx. This was true when the UAS was positioned 2 cm below the PUJ and at the iliac crest. Significant worsening of fluid dynamics from upper and middle calyces was observed when the UAS was placed distally at the level of the iliac crest. While the difference was statistically significant, the absolute change was not significant. In contrast, for lower calyces, a statistically significant improvement was documented.


Assuntos
Ureter , Ureteroscópios , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Rim , Endoscopia , Ureter/cirurgia
2.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 81, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the safety and short-term outcomes of a new way of laparoscopic trocar placement in pediatric robotic-assisted Lich-Gregoir ureteral reimplantation for vesicoureteral reflux. METHODS: The retrospective study included 32 patients under 14 years diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). All these patients underwent robotic-assisted Lich-Gregoir ureteral reimplantation in our department from December 2020 to August 2022. These patients were divided into the following groups according to the different ways of trocar placement: 13 patients in group single-port plus one (SR) and 19 patients in group multiple-port (MR). Patients' characteristics as well as their perioperative and follow-up data were collected and evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the data regarding patients' characteristics and preoperative data. These data included the grade of vesicoureteral reflux according to the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), and the differential degree of renal function (DRF) at the following time points: preoperative, postoperative, and comparison of preoperative and postoperative. There was no difference between the two groups. During surgery, the time of artificial pneumoperitoneum establishment, ureteral reimplantation time, and total operative time in the SR group were longer than those in the MR group. Yet only the time of artificial pneumoperitoneum establishment shows a statistical difference (P < 0.0001). Also, the peri-operative data, including the volume of blood loss, fasting time, hospitalization, and length of time that a ureteral catheter remained in place, and the number of postoperative complications demonstrate no difference. In addition, the SFU grade and VCUG grade at the following time point also show no difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that SR in robotic-assisted Lich-Gregoir ureteral reimplantation has reached the same surgical effects as MR. In addition, the single-port plus one trocar placement receives a higher cosmetic satisfaction score from parents and did not increase the surgical time and complexity.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Ureter , Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Criança , Humanos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter/cirurgia , Reimplante
3.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 228, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Commercial double J stents (DJS) have a uniform shape regardless of the specific nature of various ureteral diseases. We tested renovated DJS and compared them with conventional DJS using ureter models. METHODS: One straight ureter model included stenosis at the distal ureter near the ureterovesical junction and the other did not. We used conventional DJS and renovated 5- and 6-Fr soft DJS for ureter stones and 6-, 7-, and 8.5-Fr hard DJS for tumors. The DJS comprised holes in the upper, middle, or lower one-third of the shaft (length, 24 cm; 2-cm-diameter coils at both ends). More holes were created along the shaft based on the ureteral disease location. Conventional DJS had holes spaced 1 cm apart along the shaft. Renovated DJS had holes spaced 1 cm apart along the shaft with 0.5-cm intervals on the upper, middle, or lower one-third of the shaft. Urine flow was evaluated. RESULTS: As the DJS diameter increased, the flow rate decreased. The flow rates of DJS with holes in the lower shaft were relatively lower than those of conventional DJS and DJS with holes in the upper and middle shafts. In the ureter model without stenosis, 6-, 7-, and 8.5-Fr renovated stents exhibited significantly higher flow rates than conventional stents. In the ureter model with stenosis, 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8.5-Fr renovated stents did not exhibit significantly higher flow rates than conventional stents. CONCLUSION: Renovated stents and conventional stents did not exhibit significant differences in urine flow with stenosis.


Assuntos
Ureter , Ureterolitíase , Humanos , Ureter/cirurgia , Constrição Patológica , Stents
4.
Andes Pediatr ; 95(1): 53-60, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587344

RESUMO

In patients with complete double renal system with the involvement of only one system, there are several surgical alternatives for its resolution. Uretero-ureteral anastomosis has been presented as a good alternative, even in cases with atrophy of the affected system. OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in patients with complete double renal system with only one system affected, with the surgical technique of uretero-ureteral anastomosis. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study of patients with double renal system with involvement of one of the systems, treated with uretero-ureteral anastomosis technique between January 2015 and May 2022. The variables of age, specific pathology of the affected system, preoperative study, days of hospitalization, postoperative complications (leakage, obstruction, infection), and follow-up time were evaluated. RESULTS: We analyzed 26 procedures in 25 patients, mean age 36.8 months (range: 8-80); 53.8% had ectopic ureter, 23% ureterocele, 11.5% sphincteric ureterocele, and 11.5% VUR of the lower system. All were studied preoperatively with urethrocystography and 65% with scintigraphy. 50% of the operated systems showed signs of renal atrophy. The average hospital stay was 2.2 days (range: 1-7). In an average follow-up of 26.5 months (range: 3-77), one patient presented leakage, no patient presented signs suggestive of obstruction, and one patient presented febrile urinary tract infection with persistent lower-grade reflux. CONCLUSION: In our experience, the uretero-ureteral anastomosis technique proved to be an easy and safe alternative to reproduce, with a success rate of 96%, 11% of grade I complications, and 4% of grade II complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Ureter , Ureterocele , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Ureter/cirurgia , Ureterocele/complicações , Ureterocele/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ureterostomia/métodos , Atrofia/complicações
5.
Urol Clin North Am ; 51(2): 209-220, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609193

RESUMO

Bladder compliance is the relationship between detrusor pressure and bladder storage volume. We discuss the definition of compliance, how it may be accurately measured, and its clinical relevance. Specifically, we discuss the association between low compliance and upper urinary tract deterioration. We discuss medical and surgical therapies that have been demonstrated to improve compliance and reduce upper tract risk. Finally, we propose a model, which not only considers compliance but also differential pressure between the bladder and ureters, and how this may also be an accurate predictor of upper tract deterioration. We call for further investigation to test this model.


Assuntos
Ureter , Bexiga Urinária , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301778, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598450

RESUMO

The urinary collecting system (UCS) consists of organized ducts that collect urine from the nephrons and transport it to the ureter and bladder. Understanding the histogenesis of the UCS is critical. Thirty human embryos between the Carnegie stages (CS) 18 and 23 were selected from the Congenital Anomaly Research Center, Kyoto, Japan. Epithelia of the UCS, ureter, and bladder of each sample were randomly selected. Histological findings of the epithelia were analyzed according to the following criteria: type of epithelium, presence or absence of glycogen, percentage of migrated nuclei, percentage of cells in mitosis, and the surrounding mesenchyme. A thickened epithelium lining a narrow luminal cavity was observed in the pre-expanded pelvic specimens at CS18-CS23. At CS23, after pelvic expansion, the UCS showed a thin epithelium with a large luminal cavity mainly located on the early branches, whereas the epithelium covering the subsequent branches had medium thickness. Histological characteristics differed depending on the UCS part and sample stage. The degree of differentiation was evaluated, revealing that in CS18-CS23 pre-expanded pelvis specimens, the undifferentiated epithelium was found in the zeroth to third/fifth generation, whereas at CS23, after pelvic expansion, a differentiated epithelium covered the UCS zeroth to seventh generation. In a comparison of the urothelial epithelium between the UCS, ureter, and bladder, we found that urinary tract differentiation may be initiated in the bladder, followed by the ureter, UCS zeroth to seventh generations, and finally, UCS eighth to end generations. An understanding of the histogenesis of embryonic stage UCS can aid in the clinical management of congenital urinary tract defects and other diseases.


Assuntos
Ureter , Sistema Urinário , Humanos , Embrião de Mamíferos , Bexiga Urinária , Urotélio/patologia
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558555

RESUMO

An intravesical ureterocele is a rare condition in which a terminal ureter terminates in a cystic dilation of the bladder. We present the case of a 42-year-old female who presented with irritative lower urinary tract symptoms and left lower back pain. Computed tomography (CT) urography revealed ureteral duplication with a ureterocele complicated by upper tract obstruction. Treatment involved endoscopic ureterocelotomy, which successfully relieved symptoms and resolved renal obstruction.


Assuntos
Ureter , Obstrução Ureteral , Ureterocele , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Ureter/cirurgia , Ureterocele/complicações , Ureterocele/diagnóstico , Ureterocele/cirurgia , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia , Pelve Renal , Endoscopia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37623, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To emphasize preventive measures and outline management strategies for inadvertent ureteral cannulation. METHODS: We present a case report and conduct a literature review of 39 case reports on ureteral cannulation, examining a total of 48 patients. RESULTS: About 67% of the cases were female, and long-term catheterization was observed in 67% of the cases. Neurological conditions such as spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, dementia, multiple sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis were the primary factors (48%) in ureteral cannulation. Symptoms included flank pain (46%), fever (31%), oliguria (27%), non-deflatable balloon issues (25%), hematuria (21%), abdominal pain (17%), urine leak (12.5%), and nausea/vomiting (8%). Complications varied, including acute pyelonephritis (35%), acute kidney injury (27%), urosepsis (21%), and ureter rupture (17%). Despite inadvertent catheter placement, 25% of patients had no complications. More than half of the patients (58%) were managed through catheter change, while 27% underwent cysto-ureteroscopy with or without balloon puncture or ureteral stenting. Additionally, 10% received interventional radiology procedures, 6.25% underwent surgical repair, and 4% underwent ultrasound-guided balloon puncture. CONCLUSIONS: Female gender, neurologic conditions, and long-term catheterization were identified as predominant risk factors. Early detection of ureteral cannulation can prevent severe complications, particularly in certain special populations such as patients with neurogenic bladder or SCI, who may have reduced sensation and expression capabilities.


Assuntos
Ureter , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Cateteres Urinários/efeitos adversos , Punções , Ureteroscopia , Hematúria
9.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 77, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the intrarenal pelvic pressure in endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery using an artificial kidney model. METHODS: An artificial kidney model was created using the Urovac evacuator™. Four sizes of nephrostomy sheaths (MIP-L: 25/26 Fr, MIP-M: 16.5/17.5 Fr, MIP-S: 11/12 Fr, MIP-XS: 8.5/9.5 Fr) and two sizes of ureteral access sheaths (12/14 Fr and 10/12 Fr) were installed into the model. For each combination of nephrostomy and ureteral access sheath, renal pelvic pressure was measured with and without insertion of the retrograde flexible ureteroscope. Irrigation from the nephroscope was adjusted to 40-160 mmHg using an automatic irrigation device, and the irrigation of the ureteroscope was by spontaneous dripping at 80 cmH2O. Conditions were measured six times, and the renal pelvic pressure was compared in different conditions. RESULTS: Without ureteroscope insertion through the ureteral access sheath, the renal pelvic pressure never exceeded 30 mmHg. Meanwhile, when the ureteroscope was inserted, the renal pelvic pressure increased as the nephrostomy sheath and ureteral access sheath became narrower and as the irrigation pressure increased. Intrarenal pelvic pressure exceeded 30 mmHg when the irrigation pressure was increased in 12/14 Fr ureteral access sheath when MIP-XS was used, and in 10/12 Fr ureteral access sheath when MIP-XS and MIP-S were used. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a thin nephrostomy sheath in endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery can lead to increased intrarenal pelvic pressure. Although our results are from an artificial kidney model, special care is suggested to be required when using a retrograde flexible ureteroscope simultaneously in treatment of patients.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Rins Artificiais , Ureter , Humanos , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Pelve Renal/cirurgia , Rim/cirurgia , Ureter/cirurgia , Ureteroscópios , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrotomia
10.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 151, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to define factors affecting the non-invasive overall treatment success (medical expulsive therapy (MET) ± shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)) for uncomplicated ureteral steinstrasse (SS) clearance. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated consecutive patients who underwent SWL for renal stones between 2017 and 2021. Patients with uncomplicated SS were included. All patient's demographic and radiological data, e.g., age, gender, pre-SWL stenting, SS site, type, leading stone size in widest diameter (< 10 mm and ≥ 10 mm), ureteral wall thickness (UWT) in mm against the leading stone were collected. If SS was diagnosed, medical treatment was given for 4 weeks. In case of MET failure, either SWL for the leading stones + MET or direct URS was done. Non-invasive treatment success (SFR) was considered if complete clearance of SS occurred with no complications or the need for invasive intervention. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were included with mean age of 45.9 ± 12.4 years. SFR in case of MET only occurred in 27.9%. Complications happened in 26 patients (17.9%). Non-invasive treatment SFR was achieved in 78 patients (53.8%) totally where SS type I, leading stone size ≤ 10 mm type and decreased UWT around the leading stone increased treatment success. CONCLUSION: Ureteral wall thickness is an important factor predicting SS management success. Besides the decreased UWT, non-invasive management should be offered for type I SS with leading stone ≤ 10 mm.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Litotripsia , Ureter , Cálculos Ureterais , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cálculos Ureterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Ureterais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 146, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the rate of and predictors of ureteral obstruction after mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) for kidney stones. METHODS: We analyzed data from 263 consecutive patients who underwent mPCNL at a single tertiary referral academic between 01/2016 and 11/2022. Patient's demographics, stone characteristics, and operative data were collected. A nephrostomy tube was placed as the only exit strategy in each procedure. On postoperative day 2, an antegrade pyelography was performed to assess ureteral canalization. The nephrostomy tube was removed if ureteral canalization was successful. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with a lack of ureteral canalization. RESULTS: Overall, median (IQR) age and stone volume were 56 (47-65) years and 1.7 (0.8-4.2) cm3, respectively. Of 263, 55 (20.9%) patients showed ureteral obstruction during pyelography. Patients without ureteral canalization had larger stone volume (p < 0.001), longer operative time (p < 0.01), and higher rate of stones in the renal pelvis (p < 0.01) than those with normal pyelography. Length of stay was longer (p < 0.01), and postoperative complications (p = 0.03) were more frequent in patients without ureteral canalization. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that stone volume (OR 1.1, p = 0.02) and stone located in the renal pelvis (OR 2.2, p = 0.04) were independent predictors of transient ureteral obstruction, after accounting for operative time. CONCLUSION: One out of five patients showed transient ureteral obstruction after mPCNL. Patients with a higher stone burden and with stones in the renal pelvis are at higher risk of inadequate ureteral canalization. Internal drainage might be considered in these cases to avoid potential complications.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Ureter , Obstrução Ureteral , Humanos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(11): e37525, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489740

RESUMO

To evaluate the technical feasibility of the alternative snare technique using a 0.018-inch guide wire and 5-French (Fr) catheter for double-J ureteral stent (DJUS) removal. In this retrospective study, 11 DJUS were removed in 9 consecutive patients between July 2023 and October 2023. We evaluated patient characteristics, DJUS characteristics, and procedure characteristics. Out of 11 cases, 8 (72.7%) were successful in removing the DJUS using the alternative snare technique without major complications. The average time between DJUS insertion and removal was 47.4 ±â€…50.0 days. The most common DJUS size was an 8-Fr, with proximal tips predominantly in the proximal ureter and renal pelvis. The mean procedure time for successful cases was 15.2 ±â€…16.8 minutes. Three failed cases, attributed to obstructions like debris, were later successfully addressed using the ALN inferior vena cava filter removal kit, forceps, and modified snare technique. The alternative snare technique using a 0.018-inch guidewire and Fr catheter is safe and effective in cases of DJUS removal.


Assuntos
Ureter , Humanos , Ureter/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Cateteres , Stents
13.
Urolithiasis ; 52(1): 48, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520492

RESUMO

To evaluate the optimal duration of Medical Expulsive Therapy (MET) application for distal ureteric stones on a time period based manner. 89 patients with 5-10 mm distal ureter stones received tamsulosin (0.4 mg) for MET and diclofenac sodium (75 mg) for analgesia. Patients were evaluated once a week for 4 weeks. Radiologic stone passage was evaluated by kidney ureter bladder (KUB) and ultasonography where non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) was also performed if needed. While 23 cases (28.4%) were SF after first week, 23 were SF (28.4%) after 2 weeks, 9 cases (11.1%) after 3 and lastly 7 cases (8.6%) became SF after four weeks. Nineteen (23.5%) cases were not SF after 4 weeks. A positive relationship was found between the time period elapsed for stone passage and ureteral wall thickness (UWT) along with the degree of hydronephrosis. In addition, mean number of renal colics and emergency department (ED) visits were found to be higher in patients passing stones in the 4th week along with the ones who could not despite MET. SFR for distal ureteric stones sizing 5-10 mm was higher within the first 3 weeks under MET application. Thus, waiting for a longer period of time may result in increased analgesic and unnecessary MET treatment with increased risk of emergency department visits and additional costs as well. We believe that other options could be considered in such cases who are not SF at the end of the first 3 weeks.


Assuntos
Ureter , Cálculos Ureterais , Cálculos Urinários , Humanos , Cálculos Ureterais/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tansulosina , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 103, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of ureteral stents has become an integral part of urological practice. However, it also brought with it many complications. Double J (DJ) stent knotting is a rare stent complication, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Although the exact cause is unknown and, in the literature, it is generally thought that knots occur due to traction. In this case report we present for the first time that spontaneous knots can occur due to ureteral peristalsis or ureteral anomalies. CASE PRESENTATION: Two patients (67 and 35 aged-Caucasian person) with ureteral stones who presented to the emergency department with colicky pain and had no previous history of urological surgery. We observed knot formation in the routine urinary system radiographs taken before stent removal in two patients whose ureters were observed to be narrow during endoscopic ureteral stone treatment. The stents were successfully removed using gentle traction under general anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: We discussed the cause and solution of spontaneous knot formation. We emphasized the importance of the direct urinary system radiograph taken before DJ stent removal.


Assuntos
Ureter , Idoso , Humanos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Stents , Adulto
16.
J Radiol Prot ; 44(2)2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537259

RESUMO

Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and achievable doses (ADs) provide guidance to optimise radiation doses for patients undergoing medical imaging procedures. This multi-centre study aimed to compare institutional DRLs (IDRLs) across hospitals, propose ADs and multi-centric DRLs (MCDRLs) for four common x-ray examinations in Sri Lanka, and assess the potential for dose reduction. A prospective cross-sectional study of 894 adult patients referred for abdomen anteroposterior (AP), kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) AP, lumbar spine AP, and lumbar spine lateral (LAT) x-ray examinations was conducted. Patient demographic information (age, sex, weight, BMI) and exposure parameters (tube voltage, tube current-exposure time product) were collected. Patient dose indicators were measured in terms of kerma-area product (PKA) using a PKAmeter. IDRLs, ADs, and MCDRLs were calculated following the International Commission on Radiological Protection guidelines, with ADs and MCDRLs defined as the 50th and 75th percentiles of the median PKAdistributions, respectively. IDRL ranges varied considerably across hospitals: 1.42-2.42 Gy cm2for abdomen AP, 1.51-2.86 Gy cm2for KUB AP, 0.83-1.65 Gy cm2for lumbar spine AP, and 1.76-4.10 Gy cm2for lumbar spine LAT. The proposed ADs were 1.82 Gy cm2(abdomen AP), 2.03 Gy cm2(KUB AP), 1.27 Gy cm2(lumbar spine AP), and 2.21 Gy cm2(lumbar spine LAT). MCDRLs were 2.24 Gy cm2(abdomen AP), 2.40 Gy cm2(KUB AP), 1.43 Gy cm2(lumbar spine AP), and 2.38 Gy cm2(lumbar spine LAT). Substantial intra- and inter-hospital variations in PKAwere observed for all four examinations. Although ADs and MCDRLs in Sri Lanka were comparable to those in the existing literature, the identified intra- and inter-hospital variations underscore the need for dose reduction without compromising diagnostic information. Hospitals with high IDRLs are recommended to review and optimise their practices. These MCDRLs serve as preliminary national DRLs, guiding dose optimisation efforts by medical professionals and policymakers.


Assuntos
Níveis de Referência de Diagnóstico , Ureter , Adulto , Humanos , Raios X , Doses de Radiação , Bexiga Urinária , Sri Lanka , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Abdome , Valores de Referência , Rim
17.
Curr Opin Urol ; 34(3): 146-153, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426237

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to present the recent literature regarding effects of aging and ureteral stent implantation (UrS) on the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: UTIs in kidney transplant recipients remain a clinical challenge and represent a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization rates, and mortality. Higher age was described as a significant risk factor for UTIs in several studies including a recent Brazilian analysis, indicating a 3.6%/years of age increase in UTI risk. Subsequently, a large meta-analysis, published in 2023, confirmed the correlation between older age and elevated UTI risk. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study in 2022, largest of its kind, similarly confirmed a link between advanced age and heightened risk of recurrent UTIs in KTX. A recent prospective study highlighted UrS placement as a modifiable risk factor, emphasizing the need for careful consideration and antibiotic prophylaxis. Additionally, the type of stents played a crucial role, with external stents associated with a 1.69 times higher UTI risk. The challenge of determining optimal UrS removal timing further complicates posttransplant care, with insufficient evidence to guide practices. SUMMARY: The aging population of KTX recipients requires a personalized approach to effectively reduce and manage UTIs as one of the most important complications following KTX. Prophylactic stent implantation is successful in lowering ureteral complications, however, is associated with an increased incidence of UTIs. To reduce the increased risk of UTIs, the length of stent insertion requires strict supervision and maintenance.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Ureter , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Stents/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
18.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 96(1): 12231, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In urology, ureteral stents are used to treat obstructive diseases. Hematuria (54%), fever, discomfort, and lower urinary system symptoms are the predominant symptoms related to ureteral stent. AIM: This article links stent symptoms to double-j width and length, as well as patient's height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire (USSQ) was used to measure ureteral stent symptoms at 1st and 4th week of stent in situ as well as the 4th week after pigtail removal. METHODS: A 200-patient prospective study, where patients were allocated into four groups following ureteral stent insertion depending on the stent characteristics. Those groups were: 4.8 Fr./26 cm (Group A), 4.8 Fr./28 cm (Group B), 6 Fr/26 cm (Group C), and 6 Fr/28 cm (Group D). RESULTS: Men comprised 53.5% of 200 patients. Participants had an average age of 49 ± 15.5 years, height of 175 ± 8.94 cm, and BMI of 23.8 ± 7.6 cm. The laboratory results were identical between groups. At the first and fourth week, groups had similar urine symptoms, pain severity, health status and occupational activities. The difference in pain location was statistically significant. Group A had 82.4% renal back pain in the first week, whereas Group B had 68.8%, Group C 31.3% and Group D 62.5 (p=0.04). At the fourth week, 64.7% of Group A patients reported kidney front pain, compared to 100% of Group B, 93.3% of Group C, and 100% of Group D (p=0.04). There was statistical significance in the sexual activity of the patients. 24.4% of Group C patients stopped sexual activity before stent installation, compared to 10.6%, 8.3%, and 6.4% of the other groups (p=0.03). A moderate percentage of patients had active sexual activity at week 4 (Group A: 7.8%, Group B: 5.8%, Group C: 8.2%, Group D: 4.1%), p=0.83. In multivariate analysis, urinary catheter group, age, weight, height, and BMI did not significantly affect urine index score (UIS), pain index score (PIS), general health (GH), quality of work (QW), and quality of sex (QS). CONCLUSIONS: Despite various attempts to establish the best ureteral stent, the effect of double-j stent physical features on stent-related symptoms remained unknown. No verdict is conceivable without adequate empirical data.


Assuntos
Nefrolitíase , Ureter , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ureter/cirurgia , Hematúria , Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários , Stents , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 96(1): 12067, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ureteral stents require materials that balance bulk and surface properties. Achieving both can be challenging, as ideal bulk properties may not align with optimal surface properties. Thus, researching coatings and biomanufacturing methods for ideal materials is essential. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis, following PRISMA Guidelines, involved literature searches across five databases: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ClinicalKey, and Cochrane. From 417 screened articles, eight studies were deemed eligible for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The selected articles underwent bias assessment using ROB Tools 2. RESULTS: The systematic review analyzed 1.356 participants. Findings revealed that firm ureteral stents significantly increased risk of infection, hematuria, and lower body pain. On the contrary, soft stents reduced infection (OR: 0.62; p=0.004), hematuria (OR: 0.60; p<0.001), and lower body pain (OR: 0.63; p=0.0002). However, infection reduction effect was uncertain due to heterogeneity. Coated vs non-coated material analysis found no difference in encrustation (OR: 1.26; p=0.52) or infection (OR: 1.67; p=0.99). Stent firmness did not affect encrustation on double J stent (OR: 0.97; p=0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Softer materials like silicone are preferred for ureteral stents to reduce symptoms like hematuria and lower body pain. Coatings like silver nanoparticles and triclosan, while enhancing antimicrobial properties, did not effectively lower infection risk.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ureter , Humanos , Hematúria/etiologia , Hematúria/prevenção & controle , Prata , Stents/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia
20.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 96(1): 12263, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451241

RESUMO

To the Editor, Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) is a well-recognised clinical entity characterised by functionally significant impairment of drainage of urine at the level of the pelvi-ureteric junction due to extrinsic or intrinsic obstruction and is encountered both by adult and paediatric urologists alike. Management of PUJO has been surgical historically, and the gold standard has been an open Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty [...].


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Ureter , Obstrução Ureteral , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Pelve Renal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Ureter/cirurgia , Rim , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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