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1.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 22(1): 1-11, Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231369

RESUMO

Background: Indonesia has recently implemented a national policy to ensure equitable access to medicines, promote their rational use, and maintain a reliable and quality supply, specifically for essential medicines. Several organizations have conducted evaluations on essential medicines use but have yielded varying results and cannot reflect the actual situation. Objectives: This study aims to discover the current situation regarding essential medicines and identify the most important factors to be considered during future indicator-based evaluations in health facilities in Indonesia. Methods: This qualitative study was carried out using FGDs and interview from January to February 2022. The sample population consisted of ten experts selected based on predetermined criteria. The discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim in the original language, thematically coded with Nvivo, and analyzed for common themes. Results: This study found 32 factors related to the use of essential medicines in Indonesia, divided into three categories of components, namely access, medicine handling quality, and rational use. Furthermore, a total of 10, 8, and 14 main factors were related to access, handling quality, and rational use, respectively. The discussion provided various perspectives on measuring drug use, specifically essential medicines. Based on expert opinions, evaluating the utilization of essential medicines by relying on existing guidelines was insufficient due to superficiality and irrelevance within the Indonesian health system. Conclusion: Based on the results, one of the crucial factors to consider during evaluation was the accessibility of medicines, which encompassed their availability in health facilities and affordability to patients... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicamentos Essenciais , Previdência Social , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Instituições Privadas de Saúde , Uso de Medicamentos , Indonésia
2.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 22(1): 1-12, Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231371

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a comprehensive methodology for the optimal assessment of the share of the use of medicines, based on the procedure for ranking drugs according to the pharmacoeconomic point scale and the minimax criterion was applied. Methods: The author’s approach is based on the minimax principle and allows solving the problem of optimizing the pharma drug portfolio based on available data, without the need to obtain the parameters of the Markowitz model associated with correlation analysis of data. Results: The authors obtained the optimal distribution of medicines in group A, B: 37% to 63%, which the authors consider a promising recommendation for a pharmaceutical company. The use of a similar approach, which does not contradict the Markowitz methodology, but allows us to reasonably accept the parameters of the model and give the optimal solution for the share distribution of drugs in medical practice. Conclusion: These mathematical tools, justified and equipped with an alternative confirmation, the minimax task can and should take a significant place in the complex pharma-analytical methodology of the management of large companies supplying concomitant drugs to the Russian and foreign market. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Uso de Medicamentos , Farmacêuticos , 50230 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Federação Russa
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(3): 391-397, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437610

RESUMO

Drug utilization management tools can be employed to ensure that medicines are prescribed cost-effectively, but they can also be implemented in ways that reduce adherence and harm patient health. We examined trends in the prevalence of utilization restrictions on non-protected-class compounds in Medicare Part D plans during the period 2011-20, including prior authorization and step therapy requirements as well as formulary exclusions. Part D plans became significantly more restrictive over time, rising from an average of 31.9 percent of compounds restricted in 2011 to 44.4 percent restricted in 2020. The prevalence of formulary exclusions grew particularly fast: By 2020, plan formularies excluded an average of 44.7 percent of brand-name-only compounds. Formulary restrictions were more common among brand-name-only compared with generic-available compounds, among more expensive compounds, and in stand-alone compared with Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans.


Assuntos
Medicare Part C , Medicare Part D , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Idoso , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Uso de Medicamentos , Prescrições
4.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 98, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entering dialysis is a critical moment in patients' healthcare journey, and little is known about drug therapy around it. A study funded by the Italian Medicines Agency offered the opportunity to leverage data from the Lazio Regional Dialysis and Transplant Registry (RRDTL) and perform an observational study on drug use patterns before and after initiating chronic dialysis. METHODS: Individuals initiating dialysis in 2016-2020 were identified from RRDTL, excluding patients with prior renal transplantation, stopping dialysis early, or dying within 12 months. Use of study drugs, predefined by clinicians, in the two years around the index date was retrieved from the drug claims register and described by semester. For each drug group, proportions of users (min 2 claims in 6 months) by semester, and intensity of treatment in terms of Defined Daily Doses (DDDs) for cardiovascular and antidiabetic agents were compared across semesters, stratifying by sex and age. RESULTS: In our cohort of 3,882 patients we observed a general increase in drug use after initiating dialysis, with the mean number rising from 5.5 to 6.2. Cardiovascular agents accounted for the highest proportions, along with proton pump inhibitors and antithrombotics over all semesters. Dialysis-specific therapies showed the most evident increase, in particular anti-anaemics (iron 4-fold, erythropoietins almost 2-fold), anti-parathyroids (6-fold), and chelating agents (4-fold). Use of cardiovascular and antidiabetic drugs was characterised by significant variations in terms of patterns and intensity, with some differences between sexes and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Entering dialysis is associated with increased use of specific drugs and goes along with adaptations of chronic therapies.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes , Diálise Renal , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Itália/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 62, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interrupted time series (ITS) design is a commonly used method for evaluating large-scale interventions in clinical practice or public health. However, improperly using this method can lead to biased results. OBJECTIVE: To investigate design and statistical analysis characteristics of drug utilization studies using ITS design, and give recommendations for improvements. METHODS: A literature search was conducted based on PubMed from January 2021 to December 2021. We included original articles that used ITS design to investigate drug utilization without restriction on study population or outcome types. A structured, pilot-tested questionnaire was developed to extract information regarding study characteristics and details about design and statistical analysis. RESULTS: We included 153 eligible studies. Among those, 28.1% (43/153) clearly explained the rationale for using the ITS design and 13.7% (21/153) clarified the rationale of using the specified ITS model structure. One hundred and forty-nine studies used aggregated data to do ITS analysis, and 20.8% (31/149) clarified the rationale for the number of time points. The consideration of autocorrelation, non-stationary and seasonality was often lacking among those studies, and only 14 studies mentioned all of three methodological issues. Missing data was mentioned in 31 studies. Only 39.22% (60/153) reported the regression models, while 15 studies gave the incorrect interpretation of level change due to time parameterization. Time-varying participant characteristics were considered in 24 studies. In 97 studies containing hierarchical data, 23 studies clarified the heterogeneity among clusters and used statistical methods to address this issue. CONCLUSION: The quality of design and statistical analyses in ITS studies for drug utilization remains unsatisfactory. Three emerging methodological issues warranted particular attention, including incorrect interpretation of level change due to time parameterization, time-varying participant characteristics and hierarchical data analysis. We offered specific recommendations about the design, analysis and reporting of the ITS study.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos
6.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295226, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330001

RESUMO

Patient Support Programmes (PSPs) are used by the pharmaceutical industry to provide education and support to consumers to overcome the challenges they face managing their condition and treatment. Whilst there is an increasing number of PSPs, limited information is available on whether these programmes contribute to safety signals. PSPs do not have a scientific hypothesis, nor are they governed by a protocol. However, by their nature, PSPs inevitably generate adverse event (AE) reports. The main goal of the research was to gather all Novartis-initiated PSPs for sacubitril/valsartan, followed by research in the company safety database to identify all AE reports emanating from these PSPs. Core data sheets (CDS) were reviewed to assess if these PSPs contributed to any new, regulatory-authority approved, validated signals. Overall, AEs entered into the safety database from PSPs confirmed no contribution to CDS updates. Detailed review of real-world data revealed tablet splitting or taking one higher dose tablet a day instead of twice daily. This research, and subsequent analyses, revealed that PSPs did not impact safety label changes for sacubitril/valsartan. It revealed an important finding concerning drug utilisation i.e. splitting of sacubitril/valsartan tablets to reduce cost. This finding suggests that PSPs may contribute important real-world data on patterns of medication usage. There remains a paucity of literature available on this topic, hence further research is required to assess if it would be worth designing PSPs for collecting data on drug utilisation and (lack of) efficacy. Such information from PSPs could be important for all stakeholders.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Comprimidos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 172: 116242, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed medication patterns for inpatients at a central hospital in Portugal and explored their relationships with clinical outcomes in COVID-19 cases. METHODS: A retrospective study analyzed inpatient medication data, coded using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, from electronic patient records. It investigated the association between medications and clinical severity outcomes such as ICU admissions, respiratory/circulatory support needs, and hospital discharge status, including mortality (identified by ICD-10-CM/PCS codes). Multivariate analyses incorporating demographic data and comorbidities were used to adjust for potential confounders and understand the impact of medication patterns on disease progression and outcomes. RESULTS: The analysis of 2688 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (55.3% male, average age 62.8 years) revealed a significant correlation between medication types and intensity and disease severity. Cases requiring ICU admission or ECMO support often involved blood and blood-forming organ drugs. Increased use of nervous system and genitourinary hormones was observed in nonsurvivors. Corticosteroids, like dexamethasone, were common in critically ill patients, while tocilizumab was used in ECMO cases. Medications for the alimentary tract, metabolism, and cardiovascular system, although widely prescribed, were linked to more severe cases. Invasive mechanical ventilation correlated with higher usage of systemic anti-infectives and musculoskeletal medications. Trends in co-prescribing blood-forming drugs with those for acid-related disorders, analgesics, and antibacterials were associated with intensive interventions and worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights complex medication regimens in managing severe COVID-19, underscoring specific drug patterns associated with critical health outcomes. Further research is needed to explore these patterns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antibacterianos , Uso de Medicamentos
9.
J Pregnancy ; 2024: 8862801, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38250012

RESUMO

Purpose: Studies focusing on safety outcomes typically require large populations to comprehensively characterise the patient groups exposed to the medicines under investigation. However, there is often less information for subpopulations, such as pregnant or breastfeeding women, particularly when new medicines are considered. It is important to understand what information can be obtained from drug utilization studies (DUS) involving pregnant women in the early years postmarketing to provide supportive information for safety studies. The aims of this literature review are to (1) identify and review DUS for new medicines in pregnancy and breastfeeding and (2) list and summarise key information items to be reported in a DUS for new medicines in pregnancy. Methods: To identify postmarketing DUS of new prescription medicines or enantiomers in pregnancy, a systematic literature review was undertaken in PubMed and Embase between January 2015 and June 2022. In addition, the complete database of the ENCePP EU PAS Register was systematically searched to June 2022. Results: We identified 11 published DUS on new medicines in pregnancy from the ENCePP EU PAS Register and none from other sources. No studies on breastfeeding were identified. The 11 identified publications reported the medicine's use for the first 3 to 5 years after marketing approval. No reports assessed utilization in the first 3 years of approval. It was usual to issue interim reports annually (7 studies). All studies concerned conditions managed in ambulatory care (primary care and outpatient facilities) and included some primary care prescribing. Most (n = 8) only had prescribing/dispensing data available at individual level for ambulatory care; outpatient prescribing was included in three of these studies Three studies held a limited amount of in-hospital prescribing data. A DUS can confirm at an early stage whether there are sufficient exposed pregnancies in available data sources to ensure a safety study is powered to detect a difference in the prevalence of adverse pregnancy or infant outcomes or if additional data from other databases are needed. A DUS may also help address methodological considerations such as selection of comparators. DUS can be performed embedded in a DUS in the general population, in a cohort of women of childbearing age, or in a cohort of pregnant women. Conclusion: This review summarises key aspects of a DUS for new medicines in pregnancy. DUS for new medicines in pregnancy should be planned before marketing, scheduled for the first 3 to 5 years after release, with annual interim/progress reports, and reported in peer-reviewed journals. By offering detailed information on data sources, exposure timing, prevalence and location, coprescribing, comorbidities, coexposures, and demographics, a DUS will offer a firm foundation for safety studies and will help to contextualize spontaneous reporting of serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Gestantes , Gravidez , Lactente , Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno , Bases de Dados Factuais , Uso de Medicamentos
10.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0290391, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of antibiotics, a major global threat to public health, is perhaps the key driver of antibiotic resistance. Monitoring antibiotic consumption is crucial to tackling antimicrobial resistance. This study assessed antibiotic consumption trends during the last six years in the Bahir Dar branch of the Ethiopian pharmaceutical supply agency (EPSA), Northwest Ethiopia, in 2022. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected in August 2022 based on antibiotic distribution data from the Bahir Dar Brach of EPSA from July 2016 to June 2022. Data were analyzed according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification (ATC) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). We measured antibiotic consumption using a defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DIDs) based on the Agency's catchment population. Descriptive statistics and trend analyses were conducted. RESULTS: About 30.34 DIDs of antibiotics were consumed during the six years. The consumption of antibiotics decreased by 87.4%, from 6.9 DIDs in 2016/17 to 0.9 DIDs in 2021/22. Based on the WHO AWaRe classification, 23.39 DIDs (77.1%) of the consumed antibiotics were from the Access category. Consumption of Access category antibiotics was decreased by 72.7% (from 5 to 0.5 DIDs) but Watch antibiotics decreased by 54.3% (from 1.8 to 0.4 DIDs). Oral antibiotics accounted for 29.19 DIDs (96.2%) of all consumed systemic antibiotics. The average cost expenditure per DDD for all antibiotics was 54.1 birr/DDD (0.4-482.3 birr/DDD). Only seven antibiotics accounted for DU90% and the cost expenditure per DDD for the DU90% antibiotics ranged from 0.4/DDD for Doxycycline to 232.8 birr/DDD for Piperacillin/tazobactam. Overall, during the last six years, the most commonly used antibiotic was Amoxicillin (10.1 DIDs), followed by Doxycycline (5.3 DIDs) and Ciprofloxacin (3.4 DIDs). CONCLUSION: In this study, we found that antibiotic usage was low and continuously declining over time. Minimizing unnecessary antibiotic usage is one possible approach to reduced AMR. However, a shortage of access to important medicines can compromise the quality of treatment and patient outcomes. A prospective study is needed to evaluate the balance of patient outcomes and reduce AMR by optimizing the community consumption of systemic antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Doxiciclina , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Etiópia , Uso de Medicamentos
11.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0297187, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the corresponding mitigation measures have had a discernible impact on drug utilization among outpatients. However, limited research exists on the prescription trends in the elderly population during the pandemic period in Viet Nam. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to analyze the effects of COVID-19 on outpatient drug utilization patterns at a national geriatric hospital in Ho Chi Minh City before and after the early onset of the pandemic. METHODS: Data was collected from the prescriptions and administration claims, encompassing the period from January 2016 to December 2022. The dataset was divided into two periods: Period 1: January 2016 to December 2020 and Period 2: January 2021 to December 2022. The drug utilization was measured using DDD/1000P (defined daily doses-DDD per 1000 prescriptions) on a monthly basis. The analysis employed interrupted time series using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) to detect changes in drug use levels and rates. RESULTS: A total of 1,060,507 and 644,944 outpatient prescriptions from Thong Nhat Hospital were included in Period 1 and Period 2, respectively. The median age of the patients were 58 in Period 1 and 67 years old in Period 2. The most common comorbidities were dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. In terms of medication utilization, cardiovascular drugs were the most frequently prescribed, followed by drugs active on the digestive and hormonal systems. The study observed significant surges in the number of prescriptions and the average number of drugs per prescription. However, there were no significant changes in the overall consumption of all drugs. Among the drug groups related to the cardiovascular system, three subgroups experienced a sudden and significant increase: cardiac therapy, beta-blocking agents, and antihypertensives, with increasing consumption levels of 1,177.73 [CI 95%: 79.29; 2,276.16], 73.32 [CI 95%: 28.18; 118.46], and 36.70 [CI 95%: 6.74; 66.66] DDD/1000P, respectively. On the other hand, there was a significant monthly decrease of -31.36 [CI 95%: -57.02; -5.70] DDD/1000P in the consumption of anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products. Interestingly, there was a significant increase of 74.62 [CI 95%: -0.36; 149.60] DDD/1000P in the use of antigout preparations. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 resulted in a sudden, non-significant increase in overall drug consumption levels among outpatients. Notably, our findings highlight significant increases in the utilization of three drug groups related to the cardiovascular system, specifically cardiac therapy, beta-blocking agents, and antihypertensives. Intriguingly, there was a statistically significant increase in the consumption of antigout preparations, despite a decline in the monthly consumption rate of non-steroidal anti-flammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Further studies in the following years are necessary to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on outpatient drug utilization patterns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Idoso , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos
12.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 33(1): e5720, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37885413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of medicines may have critical consequences from individual, public health, and economic perspectives. Discovering wrongful medicine use may require intentional surveillance or screening. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: (i) apply and evaluate the waiting time distribution (WTD) method as a screening tool for identifying aberrant drug use and (ii) evaluate the nationwide use of Dermatology drugs in Denmark for signals of aberrant drug use. METHOD: Dermatology drug use data from the Danish nationwide healthcare registries from 2018 to 2020 were used to produce WTDs that were analyzed for drug use patterns. The method provides estimates of the prevalence and incidence and enables estimation of mean treatment duration, drug relapse, and unexpected drug prescribing. RESULTS: The study included 2 027 889 individual drug users and analyzed 6 141 449 prescriptions. The analysis included approximately 100 dermatology drugs and drug categories and produced 56 WTD drug curves. The WTD patterns and epidemiological estimates confirmed that most drugs are used as intended and revealed few unexpected patterns for further investigation. Three unexpected findings were identified concerning (i) short-term use that would entail suboptimal clinical efficiency for minoxidil, (ii) sub-optimal use of topical tacrolimus, and (iii) potential undesirable increase in short-course doxycycline treatments. CONCLUSION: In Denmark, dermatology drugs are predominantly used as expected, with few unexpected use patterns identified. Targeted specific follow-up on the identified signals is necessary for conclusions about inappropriate use. The findings suggest that the WTD method is applicable for screening for aberrant drug use.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Humanos , Listas de Espera , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica
13.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 397(2): 1053-1059, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37578516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibacterial drugs are successful in combating most types of infections. Irrational use and higher consumption of these drugs can give rise to the antibiotic resistance globally. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antibacterial drug prescribing patterns and antibiogram in infectious disease cases admitted to the hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted from September 2019 to February 2020 among inpatients ward at the hospital after ethical approval. All the data was analysed by the mean and percentage values using Microsoft excel. RESULTS: Out of 250 admitted patients, males and females were 156 (62%) and 94 (38%) respectively. The majority of patients 79 (32%) belonged to the age group of 20-40 years. The majority of prescriptions reported were for viral fever 48 (19%), lower respiratory tract infections 40 (16%) and dengue 33 (13%). Antibacterial drugs administered through the intravenous route and the oral route were 301 (83%) and 63 (17%) respectively. The most frequently utilized antibacterial drugs were beta-lactam class ceftriaxone 149 (60%) and the fixed-dose combination, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid 65 (26%). Further highly prescribed antibacterial drugs were metronidazole 52 (21%), azithromycin 36 (15%), and levofloxacin 24 (10%). In Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli 6 (30%) contributed majorly, while in Gram-positive coagulase-negative, Staphylococci 6 (30%) contributed the highest growth of bacteria for the specific infections in the admitted cases. CONCLUSION: Ceftriaxone and the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination were highly prescribed among all antibacterial drugs, followed by metronidazole and azithromycin. The current study showed that in the antibiogram pattern, Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative Staphylococci contributed significantly as causative organisms for infectious disease cases. The present study highlighted demographic distribution, infectious diseases with their antibacterial drug utilization patterns and antibiogram assessment in the admitted patients.


Assuntos
Ceftriaxona , Doenças Transmissíveis , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Azitromicina , Metronidazol , Estudos Prospectivos , Coagulase , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Uso de Medicamentos
14.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 33(1): e5700, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37743261

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe utilization patterns, characteristics of users and prescribers of the new oral antiviral medication, molnupiravir, indicated for mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we identified all Danish adults who filled a prescription for molnupiravir from December 16th, 2021, to August 31st, 2022. We described weekly incidence rates and patient characteristics over time, prescriber characteristics as well as time between molnupiravir initiation and a positive SARs-CoV-2 test. Patient characteristics were compared to matched, untreated SARS-CoV-2 positive reference groups. RESULTS: By August 31st, 2022, 5847 individuals had filled a prescription for molnupiravir. The incidence rate gradually increased to 16 weekly prescriptions per 1000 RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 positives. Users of molnupiravir were most often men (55% vs. 45% women). The majority (81%) had a positive RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 test and few (2.9%) redeemed molnupiravir outside the recommended window of 5 days from the positive test result. Compared to matched, untreated SARS-CoV-2 positive reference groups, users of molnupiravir had a median age of 74 years versus 49 years, a higher proportion resided in a nursing home (12% vs. 1.5%) and had a higher number of comorbidities (median of 3 vs. 0); most commonly hypertension (38%), chronic lung disease (35%), diabetes (20%) and mood disorders (20%). General practitioners were the primary prescribers of molnupiravir (91%). CONCLUSIONS: Molnupiravir was mainly prescribed by general practitioners to RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals who had a potentially increased risk of severe COVID-19. Though some off-label prescribing occurred, our study indicates a high level of adherence to contemporary guidelines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Hidroxilaminas , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cognição , Uso de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2 , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Antivirais
15.
Vet Rec ; 193(11): 435, 2023 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38038287
16.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 21(4)oct.- dec. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229979

RESUMO

Background: Irrational drug usage is a global concern. WHO recommended a strategy for integrating education and awareness on the rational use of medicine into general education programs. Objective: To evaluate the rational drug use (RDU) literacy among the undergraduate students of Ubon Ratchathani University. Methods: This mixed-methods research consists of a quantitative cross-sectional study with a self-administered RDU literacy questionnaire and a qualitative in-depth interview study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used in the quantitative study. Thematic analysis was used in the qualitative study. Results: Students who participated in this study included 640 undergraduate students. Approximately half of the participants never studied a RDU-related course (50.94%). Although the findings revealed that most of the participants (73.13%) had good RDU literacy, many participants had less frequency of the right options on some questions (e.g., advertisement of health products). Health sciences students were 2.8 times more likely than non-health sciences students to have good RDU literacy (AOR=2.835, 95% CI: 1.752-4.587). Four main themes were derived from the qualitative study: 1. Definition of RDU; 2. Facilitators; 3. Concerns; 4. RDU country. Conclusion: While the majority of participants demonstrated good RDU literacy, some actually engaged in irrational drug use. Activities promoting RDU literacy among undergraduate students, particularly in faculties other than health sciences, are still required (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais
17.
Diagn. tratamento ; 28(4): 197-99, out-dez/2023. fig. 1
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1532351

RESUMO

Contexto: Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) é um método clínico de detecção de disfagia, entendida como dificuldade na deglutição. Em pesquisa realizada no Brasil, foi observado que 9,5% de indivíduos saudáveis assintomáticos têm resultados do teste compatível com disfagia. Objetivo: Avaliar os possíveis fatores que influenciam o resultado anormal do teste em indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Estudo transversal realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP-USP) em 358 voluntários sem doenças e sem sintomas, nos quais foi aplicado o teste EAT-10. Resultados: Em 316 o resultado nos 10 itens do teste foi zero, e em 42 os resultados da somatória dos 10 itens foi igual ou superior a 3, considerado indicativo de disfagia. O resultado ≥ 3 ocorreu em 10 homens entre 144 (7%) e 32 mulheres entre 214 (15%), (P = 0,01). A mediana (limites) de idades daqueles com resultado zero foi de 39 (20-84) anos, e com resultado ≥ 3 foi de 32 (20-83) anos (P = 0,04). O índice de massa corporal (IMC) não apresentou diferença entre pessoas com e sem indicação de disfagia. O máximo escore possível para o item 5 (dificuldade na ingestão de medicamentos) foi o que obteve o maior percentual (43,9%) de máximo escore possível, sendo o fator mais importante para o resultado anormal. Discussão: Em indivíduos saudáveis, a dificuldade em ingerir medicamentos foi o fator que mais influenciou a ocorrência de resultado do teste EAT-10 indicativo de disfagia. Conclusão: Dificuldade na ingestão de medicamentos sólidos deve ser considerada quando da interpretação do teste.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Deglutição , Deglutição , Ingestão de Alimentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Procedimentos Clínicos , Uso de Medicamentos
18.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 188-194, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532210

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: during the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of critical patients requiring intensive care increased considerably, resulting in an increase in infections due to multi-resistant microorganisms. In Brazil, in 2021, due to the high demand for polymyxin B use, there was a national shortage of the medication. One strategy used to overcome this situation was aminoglycoside use. The work aimed to analyze the impact of replacing polymyxin B with amikacin and gentamicin in the final stage of patients. Method: an analytical study with an observational, cross-sectional design, with a quantitative approach, through a retrospective analysis through the analysis of medical records, with the primary stages being discharges or deaths. Results: mortality was similar between the group treated with aminoglycoside and the group treated with polymyxin B. Within the aminoglycoside group, mortality was higher in the group that had bacteria resistant to the drug than in the group that had infection with an organism sensitive to this drug. Mortality was not affected by comorbidities, age, or number of hospital infections. The main factor that led to the need for dialysis was the combination of two nephrotoxic medications. Conclusion: two hypotheses emerged: the first would be that replacing polymyxin B with aminoglycosides did not impact mortality; the other would be that, regardless of the antibiotic group used, patients had a high risk of death. Despite sample limitations, the study corroborates the adoption of strategies for the rational use of antimicrobials.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: durante a pandemia de COVID-19, o número de pacientes críticos que necessitaram de cuidados intensivos aumentou consideravelmente, resultando em aumento de infecções por microrganismos multirresistentes. No Brasil, em 2021, devido à grande demanda pelo uso da polimixina B, houve escassez nacional do medicamento. Uma estratégia utilizada para superar essa situação foi o uso de aminoglicosídeos. O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o impacto da substituição da polimixina B por amicacina e gentamicina na fase final dos pacientes. Método: estudo analítico com desenho observacional, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, por meio de análise retrospectiva por meio de análise de prontuários, sendo as etapas primárias as altas ou óbitos. Resultados: a mortalidade foi semelhante entre o grupo tratado com aminoglicosídeo e o grupo tratado com polimixina B. Dentro do grupo aminoglicosídeo, a mortalidade foi maior no grupo que apresentava bactérias resistentes ao medicamento do que no grupo que apresentava infecção por organismo sensível a este medicamento. medicamento. A mortalidade não foi afetada por comorbidades, idade ou número de infecções hospitalares. O principal fator que levou à necessidade de diálise foi a combinação de dois medicamentos nefrotóxicos. Conclusão: surgiram duas hipóteses: a primeira seria que a substituição da polimixina B por aminoglicosídeos não impactou a mortalidade; a outra seria que, independentemente do grupo de antibióticos utilizado, os pacientes apresentavam alto risco de morte. Apesar das limitações amostrais, o estudo corrobora a adoção de estratégias para o uso racional de antimicrobianos.(AU)


Antecedentes y Objetivos: durante la pandemia de COVID-19, el número de pacientes críticos que requirieron cuidados intensivos aumentó considerablemente, resultando en un aumento de infecciones por microorganismos multirresistentes. En Brasil, en 2021, debido a la alta demanda del uso de polimixina B, hubo escasez nacional del medicamento. Una estrategia utilizada para superar esta situación fue el uso de aminoglucósidos. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo analizar el impacto de la sustitución de la polimixina B por amikacina y gentamicina en la etapa final de los pacientes. Método: estudio analítico con diseño observacional, transversal, con enfoque cuantitativo, mediante un análisis retrospectivo mediante el análisis de historias clínicas, siendo las etapas primarias las altas o defunciones. Resultados: la mortalidad fue similar entre el grupo tratado con aminoglucósido y el grupo tratado con polimixina B. Dentro del grupo de aminoglucósido, la mortalidad fue mayor en el grupo que tenía bacterias resistentes al fármaco que en el grupo que tenía infección con un organismo sensible a este. droga. La mortalidad no se vio afectada por las comorbilidades, la edad o el número de infecciones hospitalarias. El principal factor que llevó a la necesidad de diálisis fue la combinación de dos medicamentos nefrotóxicos. Conclusión: surgieron dos hipótesis: la primera sería que la sustitución de polimixina B por aminoglucósidos no impactó la mortalidad; la otra sería que, independientemente del grupo de antibióticos utilizado, los pacientes tenían un alto riesgo de muerte. A pesar de las limitaciones de la muestra, el estudio corrobora la adopción de estrategias para el uso racional de antimicrobianos.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Polimixina B/provisão & distribuição , COVID-19/mortalidade , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos
19.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 9(3): 33232, 26 dez. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1524374

RESUMO

Introduction: Self-medication consists of selecting and using medication without a poprescription or guidance from a healthcare professional. This practice has been widely reported worldwide, which has contributed to a series of adverse health outcomes, such as delayed diagnosis, worsening of clinical conditions, drug interactions, intoxication, and adverse reactions, which tend to compromise patient safety. Objective:To analyze the prevalence of self-medication associated with toothache, the main factors associated with self-medication in dental patients, as well as outline the profile of medications used by these individuals, the preferred route of administration, and the main sources of medication.Methodology:Asystematic review was developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Relevant articles published in the last ten years, without limitations of language were searched using the following descriptors/MeSHterms and keywords: "self-medication" and (toothache or "dental pain") not Child. Results:The initial search returned 61 manuscripts. Fourteen papers, all cross-sectional studies, were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review.Conclusions:The prevalence of self-medication for toothache ranged from 6.5% to 100.0%. Cultural and economic factors, barriers to access, the high cost of dental treatments, lack of time and money, and the perception that dental problems are not a serious problem are among the main factors associated with the practice. Regarding the drugs used, the most used classes were paracetamol, especially anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly ibuprofen, and analgesics administered orally (AU).


Introdução:A automedicação consiste na escolha e uso de medicamentos sem prescrição ou orientação de um profissional de saúde. Essa prática tem sido amplamente divulgada em todo o mundo, o que tem contribuído para uma série de desfechos adversos à saúde, como atraso no diagnóstico, piora do quadro clínico, interações medicamentosas, intoxicações e reações adversas, que tendem a comprometer a segurança do paciente. Objetivo:Analisar a prevalência da automedicação associada à dor de dente, os principais fatores associados à automedicação em pacientes odontológicos, bem como traçar o perfil dos medicamentos utilizados por esses indivíduos, a via preferencial de administração e as principais fontes de medicação. Metodologia:Uma revisão sistemática foi desenvolvida de acordo com os itens de relatório preferidos para revisões sistemáticas e meta-análises (PRISMA). Foram pesquisados artigos relevantes publicados nos últimos dez anos, sem limitação de linguagem, utilizando os seguintes descritores/MeSHterms e palavras-chave: "self-medication" e (toothache or "dental pain") não Child. Resultados:A busca inicial encontrou61manuscritos. Quatorze artigos, de delineamento transversal,foram considerados elegíveis e incluídos para a revisão.Conclusões:A prevalência de automedicação para dor de dente variou de 6,5% a 100,0%. Fatores culturais e econômicos, barreiras de acesso, alto custo dos tratamentos odontológicos, falta de tempo e dinheiro e a percepção de que os problemas odontológicos não são um problema grave estão entre os principais fatores associados à prática. Em relação aos medicamentos utilizados, as classes mais utilizadas foram o paracetamol, principalmente os anti-inflamatórios, principalmente o ibuprofeno, e os analgésicos por via oral (AU).


Introducción: La automedicación consiste en seleccionar y utilizar medicamentos sin receta ni orientación de un profesional sanitario. Esta práctica ha sido ampliamente reportada a nivel mundial, lo que ha contribuido a una serie de resultados adversos para la salud, como retraso en el diagnóstico, empeoramiento de las condiciones clínicas, interacciones medicamentosas, intoxicaciones y reacciones adversas, que tienden a comprometer la seguridad del paciente.Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de automedicación asociada al dolor de muelas, los principales factores asociados a la automedicación en pacientes odontológicos, así como delinear el perfil de medicamentos utilizados por estos individuos, la vía de administración preferida y las principales fuentes de medicación. Metodología: Se desarrolló una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con los Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Se buscaron artículos relevantes publicados en los últimos diez años, sin limitaciones de idioma, utilizando los siguientes descriptores/MeSHterms y palabras clave: "self-medication" y (toothache or "dental pain") not Child. Resultados: La búsqueda inicial arrojó 61 manuscritos. Catorce artículos, todos estudios transversales, fueron elegibles para su inclusión en la revisión sistemática.Conclusiones: La prevalencia de automedicación para el dolor de muelas osciló entre 6,5% y 100,0%. Los factoresculturales y económicos, las barreras de acceso, el alto costo de los tratamientos dentales, la falta de tiempo y dinero, y la percepción de que los problemas dentales no son un problema grave se encuentran entre los principales factores asociados con la práctica. En cuanto a los fármacos utilizados, las clases más utilizadas fueron el paracetamol, especialmente los antiinflamatorios, especialmente el ibuprofeno, y los analgésicos por vía oral (AU).


Assuntos
Automedicação , Odontalgia , Odontologia em Saúde Pública , Uso de Medicamentos
20.
Drug Saf ; 46(12): 1353-1362, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37907775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ranitidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA), is indicated in the management of gastric acid-related disorders. In 2020, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended suspension of all ranitidine-containing medicines in the European Union (EU) due to the presence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) impurities, which were considered to be carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of regulatory intervention on use patterns of ranitidine-containing medicines and their therapeutic alternatives. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study drug utilisation patterns of ranitidine and report discernible trends in treatment discontinuation and switching to alternative medications. METHODS: This retrospective, population-based cohort study was conducted using primary care records from six European countries between 2017 and 2023. To explore drug utilisation patterns, we calculated (1) incident use of ranitidine, other H2RAs, and other alternative drugs for the treatment of gastric ulcer and/or gastric bleeding; (2) ranitidine discontinuation; and (3) switching from ranitidine to alternative drugs (H2RAs, proton-pump inhibitors [PPIs], and other medicinal products for acid-related disorders). RESULTS: During the study period, 385,273 new ranitidine users were observed, with most users being female and aged 18-74 years. Ranitidine was the most commonly prescribed H2RA in the pre-referral period (September 2017-August 2019), with incidence rates between 0.8 and 9.0/1000 person years (PY). A steep decline to 0.3-3.8/1000 PY was observed in the referral period (September 2019-March 2020), eventually dropping to 0.0-0.4/1000 PY in the post-referral period (April 2020-March 2022). Switching from ranitidine to alternative drugs increased in the post-referral period, with the majority of patients switching to PPIs. Discontinuation of ranitidine use ranged from 270 to 380/1000 users in 2017 and decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: Ranitidine was commonly used prior to referral, but it was subsequently discontinued and replaced primarily with PPIs.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina , Ranitidina , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Ranitidina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Uso de Medicamentos
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