Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24.513
Filtrar
1.
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 429, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although unmet medical needs for better care of patients with chronic cough exist in Japan, epidemiological information about these patients and their treatments is very limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe patient characteristics, underlying cough-related diseases and drug utilisation patterns in patients with chronic cough, and their changes over time. METHODS: This large retrospective claims database study enrolled subjects with chronic cough, identified either by a specific diagnostic cough code for chronic cough (Population 1) or by multiple cough-related diagnostic codes spanning > 8 weeks (Population 2). Within Population 2, patients with each of the three most frequent diagnostic cough codes were analysed as subgroups. Patient characteristics, underlying cough-related diseases and utilisation patterns for drugs used for cough were documented at the index date, during the 6-month pre-index period and during the 12-month post-index period. RESULTS: 6,038 subjects were enrolled in the cohort (Population 1: N = 3,500; Population 2: N = 2,538). The mean age was 43.7 ± 12.2 years and 61.8% were women. The largest cough diagnosis subgroups in Population 2 were 'other coughs' (N = 1,444), 'cough-variant asthma' (N = 1,026) and 'atopic/allergic cough' (N = 105). At the index date, the most frequent underlying cough-related diseases were allergic rhinitis/nasal inflammation (N = 3,132; 51.9%), asthma (N = 2,517; 41.7%) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (N = 829; 13.7%). At the index date, 4,860 participants (80.5%) were prescribed at least one cough-related treatment. 194 participants (4.0% of medication users) were prescribed central antitussives alone, principally in Population 1, and 2,331 (48.0%) were prescribed expectorants. Other frequently prescribed medications were antiallergic drugs (N = 2,588; 53.3%), antimicrobials (N = 1,627; 34.4%) and inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting beta-agonists (N = 1,404; 28.9%). Over time, cough diagnoses tended to be lost, with only 470 participants in Population 1 retaining a diagnostic code for chronic cough one year later. The frequency of underlying cough-related diseases was stable over time. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in this cohort with chronic cough are most frequently identified by a diagnostic cough code for chronic cough, followed by codes for other coughs, cough-variant asthma and atopic cough. Chronic cough frequently presents with an underlying cough-related disease, most frequently allergic rhinitis/nasal inflammation, asthma or GERD. Medication prescription for the underlying cough-related diseases was generally appropriate.


Assuntos
Asma , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Rinite Alérgica , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uso de Medicamentos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Inflamação
3.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 20(77): 43-46, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273289

RESUMO

Background The advancement in drug development and availability of newer drugs has improved overall health services including decrease in mortality and hospital stay. Along, it has brought negative impacts such as polypharmacy and associated adverse drug reactions and antimicrobial resistance. Drug utilization research is an essential approach to understand the drug use pattern, identify the early signs of such irrational drug use and to improve quality of drug use. Objective To study the drug utilization pattern in the Ophthalmology Outpatient department (OPD) of Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital (DH-KUH). Method A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted from March 2019 to August 2019 in patients attending OPD of Ophthalmology in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital. Prescriptions of 311 patients were analyzed using World Health Organization (WHO) International Network of Rational Use of Drug (INRUD) and additional other indices. The descriptive data was presented in mean and standard deviation. Result The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.10±1.35. Out of total 311 prescriptions, drugs prescribed in generic name were 152 (23.30%). Total antibiotics encountered were 247 (37.90%) and total drugs prescribed from National Essential Medicine List (NEML) were 371 (56.90%). Antibiotics 247 (37.90%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs followed by lubricants 146 (22.40%). Conclusion Practice of polypharmacy was very high. Most of the drugs were prescribed in brand names and antibiotics were the most frequently used drugs.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Lubrificantes , Prescrições de Medicamentos
4.
Euro Surveill ; 27(41)2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239173

RESUMO

BackgroundIn 2019, the World Health Organization published the 21st Model list of Essential Medicines and updated the Access, Watch Reserve (AWaRe) antibiotics classification to improve metrics and indicators for antibiotic stewardship activities. Reserve antibiotics are regarded as last-resort treatment options.AimWe investigated hospital-sector consumption quantities and trends of Reserve group antibiotics in European Union/European Economic Area countries and the United Kingdom (EU/EEA/UK).MethodsHospital-sector antimicrobial consumption data for 2010-2018 were obtained from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Antibacterials' consumption for systemic use (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (ATC) group J01) were included in the analysis and expressed as defined daily doses (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants per day. We defined reserve antibiotics as per AWaRe classification and applied linear regression to analyse trends in consumption of reserve antibiotics throughout the study period.ResultsEU/EEA/UK average hospital-sector reserve-antibiotic consumption increased from 0.017 to 0.050 DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day over the study period (p = 0.002). This significant increase concerned 15 countries. In 2018, four antibiotics (tigecycline, colistin, linezolid and daptomycin) constituted 91% of the consumption. Both absolute and relative (% of total hospital sector) consumption of reserve antibiotics varied considerably (up to 42-fold) between countries (from 0.004 to 0.155 DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day and from 0.2% to 9.3%, respectively).ConclusionAn increasing trend in reserve antibiotic consumption was found in Europe. The substantial variation between countries may reflect the burden of infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Our results could guide national actions or optimisation of reserve antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Daptomicina , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colistina , Uso de Medicamentos , Hospitais , Humanos , Linezolida , Tigeciclina , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost half of antimicrobial prescriptions in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) is inappropriate. This broad use might represent a strong contributor to antimicrobial resistance in these facilities. This study aimed to assess antibiotic use patterns and potential associated factors with a survey of LTCFs in the local health authority (LHA) of Novara. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 LTCFs in the LHA of Novara following the healthcare-associated infection in LCTFs (HALT) protocol. Information on residents and facilities was assessed. Antibiotic usage and potential determinants were also estimated. RESULTS: In total, 1137 patients were screened for antibiotic usage. Mean age was 84.58 years (SD 9.77), and the majority were female (76.52%). Twenty-six were antibiotic users (prevalence rate 2.29%, 95%CI 1.50-3.33). Antimicrobials were mainly prescribed orally (84.62%). Potential risk factors for antibiotic prescription were catheter use (central and peripheral venous, p-values 0.0475 and 0.0034, respectively, and urinary, p-value 0.0008), immobilization (p-value < 0.0001), and sex (p-value 0.0486). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a low prevalence of antimicrobic consumption in LTCFs. Further surveillance studies are warranted to identify trends and changes in pathogen incidence and antimicrobial resistance and to inform public health authorities on the necessity of prudent use of antimicrobials in LCTFs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Uso de Medicamentos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência de Longa Duração , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Prescrição Inadequada
6.
Acta Vet Scand ; 64(1): 27, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Danish Veterinary Statistics Program, VetStat, sales data on medicinal products prescribed for veterinary consumption is collected. The Danish Food and Veterinary Administration (DVFA) manages the database and each purchase contains detailed product-specific information linked with a species-specific ID. National surveillance systems are also implemented or being developed in the other European Union Member States. By 2029, all Member States are required to report data on antimicrobial usage for companion animals to the European Medicines Agency. This study aimed to assess the challenges encountered when using the VetStat database to quantify antimicrobial use in Danish companion animals. Raw VetStat data were propagated by the DVFA and originated from veterinary practitioners and Danish pharmacies. RESULTS: Comprehensive estimates of antimicrobial use in Danish companion animals were not readily available due to database construct. Antimicrobials sold for use in companion animals (linked to a companion animal ID) comprised a large number of products licensed solely for horses or livestock, while data assigned a replacement code encompassed both topical and peroral antimicrobials licensed for companion animals. Additionally, antimicrobials sold from pharmacies to veterinary practitioners presented the biggest challenge in data retrieval and validation. Treatment data are only transferred to VetStat through the billing systems when Danish veterinarians are treating livestock, but not companion animals. Information on products sold for in-house use in companion animals is only available from pharmacy records without a species-specific ID. As a result, parenteral antimicrobials with multi-species authorization utilized by small animal veterinary practitioners are not accounted for in the overall estimate for companion animals. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the database structure and requirements for data entry, antimicrobial use in companion animals is an approximation. The actual consumption may be significantly higher than what is currently calculated from the database, as the majority of parenteral products are not included. Consumption data can be measured more accurately provided treatment data from veterinary practitioners in small or mixed practices are transferred to the database through the billing system. This would equal the legal requirements for Danish veterinary practitioners treating livestock.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Dinamarca , Uso de Medicamentos , Cavalos , Humanos , Gado
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): 947-952, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102742

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate antibiotic prescriptions for children with otitis media (OM) in a large nationwide network of private clinics between 2014 and 2020. Special focus was paid to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid prescriptions, which the national guidelines recommend for first-line drugs. We also focused on macrolides, which are commonly prescribed for respiratory tract infections in children but are not appropriate for OM cases. METHODS: The data were obtained from the electronic health records of about 250,000 annual visits in <18 years old children. The collected variables were all diagnoses, age, visit year, doctor's specialty, and prescribed antibiotics. Children with OM and upper respiratory tract infections were included, but those with lower respiratory tract infections were excluded. RESULTS: The number of children with OM was 357,390 (55.2% boys). Antibiotics were prescribed in 44.8% of cases, with the lowest proportion (44.1%) being in <2 years old children. The overall prescription rate decreased from 48.3% in 2014 to 41.4% in 2020. The rates were 19.3% and 18.1% for amoxicillin and 12.6% and 13.2% for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, respectively. Macrolide prescriptions were reduced from 7.5% to 3.5%. Pediatricians prescribed antibiotics for 38.8%, general practitioners for 54.0% and ear, nose and throat physicians for 39.8% of children with OM. CONCLUSION: The selection of antibiotics for OM, when prescribed, was according to the recommendations (amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) in 80.1% of pediatricians, 67.0% of general practitioners and 55.1% of ear, nose and throat physicians.


Assuntos
Otite Média , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Amoxicilina , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico
9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2011, direct healthcare professional communication (DHPC) letters on citalopram and escitalopram were sent out to address the risk of QTc prolongation in the ECG. Healthcare professionals were informed about a reduction of the maximum recommended daily dose. Furthermore, a contraindication for QTc-prolonging co-medication was given. Previous studies noted that these instructions were implemented incompletely. AIM: For the first time, this study analyzed how the DHPC affected the prescription of citalopram and escitalopram in patients with anxiety disorders. METHODS: Drug utilization data from the project "Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie e. V." (AMSP) was used to examine whether the proportion of patients treated with a higher-than-recommended daily dose ("high dose") and the proportion of patients with QTc-prolonging co-medication would decrease post-DHPC (combined category of citalopram/escitalopram). RESULTS: Drug utilization data of n = 364 patients pre- and n = 262 patients post-DHPC were compared. The proportion of patients with high dose declined from 10.7% to 5.4% (p = 0.019). The proportion of patients with QTc-prolonging co-medication did not change significantly from pre- (54.7%) to post-DHPC (51.5%, p = 0.437). DISCUSSION: In accordance with previous studies, the proportion of high-dose patients decreased after DHPC publication while the proportion of patients with QTc-prolonging co-medication remained widely unchanged. The specific recommendation on daily dosage seems to have been better implemented than the broadly formulated contraindication of QTc-prolonging co-medication. Hence, DHPCs should be written precisely and give advice for specific clinical situations.


Assuntos
Citalopram , Escitalopram , Humanos , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Citalopram/efeitos adversos , Pacientes Internados , Alemanha , Uso de Medicamentos , Comunicação , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Atenção à Saúde
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2547: 275-387, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068470

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a priority health problem in developed countries with a high cost to society. Approximately 20% of direct costs are associated with pharmacological treatment. Over 90% of patients require multifactorial treatments, with risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for the treatment of concomitant diseases such as hypertension (>25%), obesity (>70%), diabetes mellitus type 2 (>25%), hypercholesterolemia (40%), hypertriglyceridemia (20%), metabolic syndrome (20%), hepatobiliary disorder (15%), endocrine/metabolic disorders (>20%), cardiovascular disorder (40%), cerebrovascular disorder (60-90%), neuropsychiatric disorders (60-90%), and cancer (10%).For the past decades, pharmacological studies in search of potential treatments for AD focused on the following categories: neurotransmitter enhancers (11.38%), multitarget drugs (2.45%), anti-amyloid agents (13.30%), anti-tau agents (2.03%), natural products and derivatives (25.58%), novel synthetic drugs (8.13%), novel targets (5.66%), repository drugs (11.77%), anti-inflammatory drugs (1.20%), neuroprotective peptides (1.25%), stem cell therapy (1.85%), nanocarriers/nanotherapeutics (1.52%), and other compounds (<1%).Pharmacogenetic studies have shown that the therapeutic response to drugs in AD is genotype-specific in close association with the gene clusters that constitute the pharmacogenetic machinery (pathogenic, mechanistic, metabolic, transporter, pleiotropic genes) under the regulatory control of epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation, histone/chromatin remodeling, microRNA regulation). Most AD patients (>60%) are carriers of over ten pathogenic genes. The genes that most frequently (>50%) accumulate pathogenic variants in the same AD case are A2M (54.38%), ACE (78.94%), BIN1 (57.89%), CLU (63.15%), CPZ (63.15%), LHFPL6 (52.63%), MS4A4E (50.87%), MS4A6A (63.15%), PICALM (54.38%), PRNP (80.7059), and PSEN1 (77.19%). There is also an accumulation of 15 to 26 defective pharmagenes in approximately 85% of AD patients. About 50% of AD patients are carriers of at least 20 mutant pharmagenes, and over 80% are deficient metabolizers for the most common drugs, which are metabolized via the CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4/5 enzymes.The implementation of pharmacogenetics can help optimize drug development and the limited therapeutic resources available to treat AD, and personalize the use of anti-dementia drugs in combination with other medications for the treatment of concomitant disorders.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Farmacogenética , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274772, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126062

RESUMO

The use of drug utilization management techniques such as formulary exclusions, prior authorizations, and step edits has risen sharply during the last decade, contributing to the growing burden on physicians and patients. Limited quantitative data exist, however, on physician perceptions of drug utilization management. A national survey was conducted between February 9 and March 30, 2021, targeting office-based physicians working in the United States to assess their perceptions on drug utilization management in their practice. Of the 742 physicians that participated in the study, over 80% reported deciding against prescribing certain treatments in anticipation of drug utilization management at least sometimes (>50% of the time). Despite utilization management having an impact on prescribing decisions, about half of physicians said that the utilization management policies they encounter rarely or never (0-25% of the time) align with clinical evidence.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos , Médicos , Humanos , Consultórios Médicos , Estados Unidos
12.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 239, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication use assessment has a critical role in promoting the effective and rational use of pharmaceutical medications. There are no studies that have explored the utilization of all medications in England and Wales in the past 15 years without restrictions in the age group being studied or class of medications. AIM: To explore the medication utilization pattern of dispensed medications in England and Wales in the past 15 years. METHOD: A secular trend analysis study using publically available dispensing data on the population level in England and Wales for the duration between 2004 and 2019. Medication dispensing data was extracted from the Prescription Cost Analysis database. RESULTS: Medication prescriptions rate increased by 42.6% [from 1,345,095.75 (95% CI 1,345,004.25 - 1,345,187.26) in 2004 to 1,918,138.48 (95% CI 1,918,038.38 - 1,918,238.57) in 2019 per 100,000 persons, trend test, p < 0.001]. During the study period, the most common medication prescriptions were for the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and endocrine system, which accounted for 30.2%, 18.8%, and 9.4%, respectively. The rate of medication prescriptions for skin, immunological products and vaccines, infections, and musculoskeletal and joint diseases decreased by 18.4%, 15.8%, 9.8%, and 5.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The last two decades have witnessed a remarkable rise in the quantity of medications dispensed in community settings. Utilization of chronic disease medications has increased in the past 15 years, specifically, dispensed medications for the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and endocrine system. It is necessary to conduct additional cohort studies to investigate the clinical outcomes and prescribing safety of these medications.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , País de Gales/epidemiologia
13.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, sept. 2022
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56484

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Caracterizar y describir las notificaciones de sospechas de reacciones adversas de un grupo de medicamentos que se utilizaron en Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, El Salvador, México y Perú para tratar o prevenir la enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) entre el 1 de marzo y el 31 de agosto del 2020. Métodos. Se elaboró una lista de los 13 medicamentos utilizados para tratar o prevenir la COVID-19, según fuentes oficiales y no oficiales. Desde las bases de datos de los programas nacionales de farma- covigilancia de los países participantes, se recopilaron las notificaciones de sospechas de reacciones adversas a estos medicamentos recibidas en el período comprendido entre el 1 de marzo y 31 de agosto de año 2020. Resultados. Se recibieron 3 490 notificaciones de sospechas de reacciones adversas desde los programas de farmacovigilancia de Perú (n = 3 037), Cuba (n = 270), Colombia (n = 108), Chile (n = 72) y El Salvador (n = 3). Los medicamentos con mayor número de notificaciones de reacciones adversas fueron la azitromi- cina, la ivermectina y la hidroxicloroquina. La diarrea fue el evento más frecuente (15,0%). Del total de las sospechas de reacciones adversas, 11,9% fueron notificadas como graves. La más frecuente fue la prolon- gación del intervalo QT posterior al uso de hidroxicloroquina. De estas sospechas de reacciones adversas graves, 54,5% ocurrieron en personas mayores de 65 años. Conclusión. Si bien no es posible establecer una relación causal a partir de la evaluación de informes espon- táneos, el presente estudio confirma la presencia de reacciones adversas, algunas graves, con medicamentos que se utilizaron para tratar o prevenir la COVID-19.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Characterize and describe reports of suspected adverse reactions to a group of drugs used in Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico, and Peru to treat or prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) between 1 March and 31 August 2020. Methods. A list of the 13 drugs used to treat or prevent COVID-19 was prepared, based on official and unofficial sources. Drawing on the databases of the national pharmacovigilance programs of the participating countries, reports of suspected adverse reactions to these drugs were collected for the period from 1 March and 31 August 2020. Results. A total of 3 490 reports of suspected adverse reactions were received from the pharmacovigilance programs of Peru (n = 3 037), Cuba (n = 270), Colombia (n = 108), Chile (n = 72), and El Salvador (n = 3). The drugs with the highest number of reported adverse reactions were azithromycin, ivermectin, and hydroxychlo- roquine. Diarrhea was the most frequent event (15.0%). Of the total suspected adverse reactions, 11.9% were reported as serious. The most frequent was QT prolongation following use of hydroxychloroquine. Of these suspected serious adverse reactions, 54.5% occurred in people over 65 years of age. Conclusion. While it is not possible to establish a causal relationship from the evaluation of spontaneous reports, the present study confirms the presence of adverse reactions—some of them serious—involving drugs used to treat or prevent COVID-19.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Caracterizar e descrever as notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas a um grupo de medica- mentos utilizados na Colômbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, El Salvador, México e Peru, para tratar ou prevenir a doença do coronavírus (COVID-19), entre 1o de março e 31 de agosto de 2020. Métodos. Foi elaborada uma lista dos 13 medicamentos usados para tratar ou prevenir a COVID-19, segundo fontes oficiais e não oficiais. A partir das bases de dados dos programas nacionais de farmacovigilância dos países participantes, foram coletadas notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas a esses medicamentos, recebidas no período entre 1o de março e 31 de agosto de 2020. Resultados. Foram recebidas 3.490 notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas dos programas de far- macovigilância do Peru (n = 3.037), Cuba (n = 270), Colômbia (n = 108), Chile (n = 72) e El Salvador (n = 3). Os medicamentos com maior número de notificações de reações adversas foram azitromicina, ivermectina e hidroxicloroquina. A diarreia foi o evento mais frequente (15,0%). Do total de suspeitas de reações adversas, 11,9% foram notificadas como graves. A mais frequente foi o prolongamento do intervalo QT após o uso de hidroxicloroquina. Dessas suspeitas de reações adversas graves, 54,5% ocorreram em pessoas com mais de 65 anos. Conclusão. Embora não seja possível estabelecer uma relação causal com base na avaliação de relatos espontâneos, o presente estudo confirma a presença de reações adversas – algumas graves – a medicamen- tos que foram usados para tratar ou prevenir a COVID-19.


Assuntos
Farmacovigilância , Infecções por Coronavirus , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Segurança do Paciente , Anti-Infecciosos , Farmacovigilância , Infecções por Coronavirus , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Segurança do Paciente , Anti-Infecciosos , Farmacovigilância , Infecções por Coronavirus , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Segurança do Paciente , Anti-Infecciosos , COVID-19
14.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 67: 104184, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Authorizations of fingolimod, teriflunomide and cladribine were accompanied by risk minimization measures concerning their teratogenic potential. Real-world data on their use are scarce. We aimed to assess trends in the use of fingolimod, teriflunomide and cladribine among women of childbearing age, estimate the number of pregnancies occurring under treatment and explore the occurrence of malformations in newborns exposed during early pregnancy in Germany. METHODS: Using the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD, claims data from ∼20% of the German population), we determined annual age-standardized prevalences of fingolimod, teriflunomide and cladribine use from their authorization until 2019 among women aged 13-49 years (cross-sectional analyses). In longitudinal analyses, we estimated the number of exposed pregnancies by assessing whether there was an overlap between the exposure windows assigned to dispensations and the onset of pregnancy or a dispensation in the first eight weeks of pregnancy. For live births, a mother-baby linkage was performed. All available data of children with in-utero exposure and malformation codes in the first year of life were reviewed to verify the occurrence of congenital malformations. RESULTS: For fingolimod, the age-standardized prevalence of use per 1,000 females increased from 0.14 in 2011 to 0.46 in 2019; for teriflunomide, from 0.06 in 2013 to 0.28 in 2019; for cladribine, from 0.01 in 2017 to 0.07 in 2019. The proportion of users aged ≤40 years was 60% for fingolimod, 45% for teriflunomide and 65% for cladribine. We identified 136 pregnancies exposed to fingolimod, 50 to teriflunomide and one to cladribine. For fingolimod and teriflunomide, respectively, 72% and 62% of exposed pregnancies ended in a live birth. Mother-newborn linkage was successful in 64 (fingolimod) and 20 (teriflunomide) live-born children. Among these, there were six with relevant malformations (mainly heart defects) for fingolimod and two for teriflunomide. CONCLUSION: Use of fingolimod, teriflunomide and cladribine among women of childbearing age has substantially increased in Germany. A high proportion of users was in age groups in which pregnancies typically occur. Despite risk minimization measures, early pregnancy exposure to these drugs was observed.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/uso terapêutico , Cladribina/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(11): 9191-9201, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lipegfilgrastim (Lonquex, Teva Pharma B.V.) is approved for reduction in neutropenia duration and febrile neutropenia incidence. In the framework of lipegfilgrastim regulatory approval in the EU, the Health Authorities requested a drug utilization study. This study was conducted to characterize prescribing patterns of lipegfilgrastim and quantify the extent of on- and off-label use of lipegfilgrastim in real-world setting in Europe. METHODS: Information on lipegfilgrastim use between January 2014 and March 2020 was abstracted from medical records in hospital and outpatient clinical settings. Indication for lipegfilgrastim was classified either as on-label or off-label use according to pre-determined criteria. The primary endpoint was the extent of lipegfilgrastim off-label use based on the most recent lipegfilgrastim cycle. RESULTS: Records of 481 patients were obtained from five European countries. Lipegfilgrastim was most commonly prescribed for prevention of neutropenia by oncologists and hematologists. Patients who were administered lipegfilgrastim were primarily ≥ 55 years old (65.1%) and female (65.7%). The most frequent underlying diagnosis was breast cancer (38.3%). For the most recent lipegfilgrastim cycle, on-label use was recorded in 452/459 patients with no missing data (98.5%), while off-label use was recorded in 7/459 patients (1.5%). The majority of off-label use was attributed to use with non-cytotoxic chemotherapy (57.1%). Off-label use of lipegfilgrastim across all treatment cycles with no missing data was 11/1547 cycles (0.7%). CONCLUSION: Using real-world data, these findings confirm the low rate of lipegfilgrastim off-label use as reported in a preceding feasibility study, indicating very high adherence to the approved indication.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos , Neutropenia , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Filgrastim/uso terapêutico , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Europa (Continente) , Uso de Medicamentos
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The essential role of infection prevention in long-term care facilities has become evident during the current SARS-CoV­2 pandemic. In order to obtain a reliable database on nosocomial infections and antibiotic use, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated the third point prevalence survey in European long-term care facilities from 2016 to 2017 (HALT-3). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In Germany, 131 facilities with 10,565 residents participated voluntarily. On a single day in 2016, the number of nosocomial infections and/or uses of antibiotics as well as care characteristics and risk factors of the residents were recorded. Infections were documented based on symptoms using an algorithm in accordance with the McGeer surveillance criteria for long-term care facilities. RESULTS: A nosocomial infection was documented in 177 residents, which corresponds to a prevalence of 1.7% (95% CI: 1.3-2.1), still low in comparison with the European prevalence (mean value 3.9%). Urinary tract infections were the most common infections at almost 50%, followed by respiratory, skin, and soft-tissue infections. The type of infection was consistent with the most common indications for antibiotic use. Antibiotic use was documented in 143 residents (prevalence of 1.4%, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). The frequent use of fluoroquinolones with over 20% of all prescriptions was noticeable. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of facility-based surveillance of the most common infections and antibiotic consumption, together with the creation of guidelines specifically tailored to the geriatric population, could contribute to improving infection prevention and control as well as a more rational use of antibiotics, thus increasing the quality and safety of care.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , COVID-19 , Infecção Hospitalar , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Uso de Medicamentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(10): 2713-2717, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in the hospital sector in Croatia by analysing data reported to the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Network (ESAC-Net) between 2016 and 2020. METHODS: AMC was measured as the number of DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day and as the number of DDDs/100 bed days. To assess trends, linear regression was performed. To assess the impact of the pandemic on AMC, the compound annual growth rate was calculated for the years preceding the pandemic based on which AMC for 2020 was forecasted and compared with the actual consumption. RESULTS: While hospital AMC expressed as DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day between 2019 and 2020 decreased by 17%, when expressed as DDDs/100 bed days, an 8% increase was observed. Hospital consumption of antibacterials for systemic use in the 5 year period did not significantly change when expressed as DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day, while it statistically significantly increased when expressed as DDDs/100 bed days. An increasing trend in consumption of broad-spectrum antimicrobials was found. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic there was an increase in hospital AMC with a shift towards broad-spectrum antimicrobials requiring further in-depth qualitative analysis based on patient-level data. Contrasting results obtained using different denominators indicate that the metric DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day is not sensitive enough to evaluate hospital AMC. When assessing hospital AMC, the population under surveillance should be relevant for healthcare context. Antimicrobial stewardship remains one of the most important strategies to tackle antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial surveillance methods must be as sensitive as possible.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , COVID-19 , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Croácia/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias
19.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 31(10): 1015-1026, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug utilization studies are essential to facilitate rational drug use in the society. AIM: In this review, we provide an overview of drug utilization measures that can be used with individual-level drug dispensing data, referencing additional reading on the individual analysis. This is intended to serve as a primer for those new to drug utilization research and a shortlist from which researchers can identify useful analytical approaches when designing their drug utilization study. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We provide an overview of: (1) basic measures of drug utilization which are used to describe changes in drug use over time or compare drug use in different populations; (2) treatment adherence measures with specific focus on persistence and implementation; (3) how to measure drug combinations which is useful when assessing drug-drug interactions, concomitant treatment, and polypharmacy; (4) prescribing quality indicators and measures to assess variations in drug use which are useful tools to assess appropriate use of drugs; (5) proxies of prescription drug misuse and skewness in drug use; and (6) considerations when describing the characteristics of drug users or prescribers.


Assuntos
Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Humanos , Polimedicação , Padrões de Prática Médica
20.
Eur J Pain ; 26(9): 1896-1909, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use is well documented in several countries: some countries struggle with overuse, whereas others have almost no access to opioids. For Europe, limited data are available. This study analysed Hungarian opioid utilization in ambulatory care between 2006 and 2020. METHODS: We obtained national drug utilization data on reimbursed opioid analgesics (ATC code: N02A) from a national health insurance database for a 15-year period. We investigated utilization trends, using three volume-based metrics [defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID), oral morphine equivalent per 1000 inhabitants per day, packages dispensed per 1000 inhabitants per year]. We stratified data based on administration routes, analgesic potency and reimbursement categories. RESULTS: Total opioid utilization increased during the study period according to all three metrics (74% in DID) and reached 5.31 DID by 2020. Upward trends were driven by an increase both in weak and strong opioid use (79% vs. 53%). The most commonly used opioids were fentanyl (in the strong category; 0.76 DID in 2020) and tramadol (in the weak category; 2.62 DID in 2020). Overall, tramadol was also the most commonly used opioid throughout the study period. Oral administration of opioid medications was dominant. Based on reimbursement categories, musculoskeletal pain was becoming a more frequent indication for opioid use (1552% increase in DID), while opioid use for cancer pain declined significantly during the study period (-33% in DID). CONCLUSIONS: Our low utilization numbers might indicate underuse of opioid analgesia, especially for cancer pain. SIGNIFICANCE: This study was one of the recent opioid utilization studies using three volume-based metrics, covering a long time period. To our knowledge, this was also the first national, population level study describing opioid utilization in Hungary. National opioid utilization data suggested not an overuse but rather an underuse of opioid analgesics in a developed, Central European country.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Tramadol , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...