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1.
J Med Virol ; 96(4): e29591, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572940

RESUMO

Vaccine-associated multiple sclerosis (MS) is rare, with insufficient evidence from case reports. Given the scarcity of large-scale data investigating the association between vaccine administration and adverse events, we investigated the global burden of vaccine-associated MS and potential related vaccines from 1967 to 2022. Reports on vaccine-associated MS between 1967 and 2022 were obtained from the World Health Organization International Pharmacovigilance Database (total number of reports = 120 715 116). We evaluated global reports, reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information components (IC) to investigate associations between 19 vaccines and vaccine-associated MS across 156 countries and territories. We identified 8288 reports of vaccine-associated MS among 132 980 cases of all-cause MS. The cumulative number of reports on vaccine-associated MS gradually increased over time, with a substantial increase after 2020, owing to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-associated MS. Vaccine-associated MS develops more frequently in males and adolescents. Nine vaccines were significantly associated with higher MS reporting, and the highest disproportional associations were observed for hepatitis B vaccines (ROR 19.82; IC025 4.18), followed by encephalitis (ROR 7.42; IC025 2.59), hepatitis A (ROR 4.46; IC025 1.95), and papillomavirus vaccines (ROR 4.45; IC025 2.01). Additionally, MS showed a significantly disproportionate signal for COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (ROR 1.55; IC025 0.52). Fatal clinical outcomes were reported in only 0.3% (21/8288) of all cases of vaccine-associated MS. Although various vaccines are potentially associated with increased risk of MS, we should be cautious about the increased risk of MS following vaccination, particularly hepatitis B and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, and should consider the risk factors associated with vaccine-associated MS.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esclerose Múltipla , Vacinas Virais , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Vacinas de mRNA , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Farmacovigilância
2.
Curr Protoc ; 4(4): e1024, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578049

RESUMO

The primary mode of transmission for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is infection of the respiratory tract through droplets and/or aerosols. Therefore, immune responses at respiratory mucosal surfaces play a significant role in the prevention of infection. Greater emphasis is now being placed on mucosal immunity induced by exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigens through infection or vaccination. In concert with cellular immunity, humoral responses at mucosal surfaces, especially the secretory version of immunoglobulin A (sIgA), can be instrumental in preventing respiratory infections. A better understanding of mucosal immune responses can further our knowledge of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and help inform vaccine design. Here we describe a detailed protocol for an in vitro assay based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess mucosal antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in human saliva. © 2024 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: ELISA measurement of mucosal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in human saliva.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Saliva , Formação de Anticorpos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 142, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly infectious upper respiratory tract disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus or Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1). ILT is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the chicken industry. Although numerous relevant studies have been published, the overall prevalence of ILT infection among chicken in mainland China is still unknown, and associated risk factors need to be evaluated to establish preventive measures. RESULTS: The present study reviewed the literature on the prevalence of ILT in chickens in China as of December 20, 2022, retrieved from six databases-CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect-were used to retrieve relevant studies published between January 1, 1981 and December 20, 2022. The literature quality of studies was assessed, and 20 studies with a total of 108,587 samples were included in the meta-analysis. Results of the meta-analysis showed that the overall prevalence of ILT was 10% (95% confidence interval: 8 -12%) through the random-effects model, which showed high heterogeneity, I2 = 99.4%. Further subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence of ILT decreased over time; furthermore, the prevalence in Northwest China was slightly lower than that in North China and South China, and the prevalence estimated using the diagnostic technique AGP was higher than that reported using other diagnostic techniques. CONCLUSIONS: ILT is prevalent to some extent in mainland China. Given that the ILT attenuated live vaccine has a certain level of virulence and the prevalence differences between regions, we recommend controlling breeding density, improving immunization programs and continuously monitoring viruses and to prevent ILT prevailing in mainland China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1 , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Galinhas , Prevalência , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 248, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430229

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), is an acute and highly infectious disease, resulting in substantial economic losses in the pig industry. Given that PEDV primarily infects the mucosal surfaces of the intestinal tract, it is crucial to improve the mucosal immunity to prevent viral invasion. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) oral vaccines offer unique advantages and potential applications in combatting mucosal infectious diseases, making them an ideal approach for controlling PED outbreaks. However, traditional LAB oral vaccines use plasmids for exogenous protein expression and antibiotic genes as selection markers. Antibiotic genes can be diffused through transposition, transfer, or homologous recombination, resulting in the generation of drug-resistant strains. To overcome these issues, genome-editing technology has been developed to achieve gene expression in LAB genomes. In this study, we used the CRISPR-NCas9 system to integrate the PEDV S1 gene into the genome of alanine racemase-deficient Lactobacillus paracasei △Alr HLJ-27 (L. paracasei △Alr HLJ-27) at the thymidylate synthase (thyA) site, generating a strain, S1/△Alr HLJ-27. We conducted immunization assays in mice and piglets to evaluate the level of immune response and evaluated its protective effect against PEDV through challenge tests in piglets. Oral administration of the strain S1/△Alr HLJ-27 in mice and piglets elicited mucosal, humoral, and cellular immune responses. The strain also exhibited a certain level of resistance against PEDV infection in piglets. These results demonstrate the potential of S1/△Alr HLJ-27 as an oral vaccine candidate for PEDV control. KEY POINTS: • A strain S1/△Alr HLJ-27 was constructed as the candidate for an oral vaccine. • Immunogenicity response and challenge test was carried out to analyze the ability of the strain. • The strain S1/△Alr HLJ-27 could provide protection for piglets to a certain extent.


Assuntos
Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Suínos , Camundongos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Antibacterianos
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5735, 2024 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459086

RESUMO

The spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 induces neutralizing antibodies and is the key component of current COVID-19 vaccines. The most efficacious COVID-19 vaccines are genetically-encoded spikes with a double proline substitution in the hinge region to stabilize S in the prefusion conformation (S-2P). A subunit vaccine can be a valuable addition to mRNA and viral vector-based vaccines but requires high stability of spike. In addition, further stabilization of the prefusion conformation of spike might improve immunogenicity. To test this, five spike proteins were designed and characterized, ranging from low to high stability. The immunogenicity of these proteins was assessed in mice, demonstrating that a spike (S-closed-2) with a high melting temperature, which still allowed ACE2 binding, induced the highest neutralization titers against homologous and heterologous strains (up to 16-fold higher than the least stabilized spike). In contrast, the most stable spike variant (S-locked), in which the receptor binding domains (RBDs) were locked in a closed conformation and thus not able to breathe, induced relatively low neutralizing antibody titers against heterologous strains. These data demonstrate that S protein stabilization with RBDs exposing highly conserved epitopes may be needed to increase the immunogenicity of spike proteins for future COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
6.
Iran J Immunol ; 21(1): 1-14, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433582

RESUMO

Background: Since the outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), several vaccine candidates have been developed within a short period of time. Although the potency of these vaccines was evaluated individually, their comparative potency was not comprehensively evaluated. Objective: To compare the immunogenicity and neutralization efficacy of four approved COVID-19 vaccines in Iran, including: PastoCovac Plus, Sinopharm, SpikoGen, and Noora in BALB/c mice. Methods: Different groups of female BALB/c mice were vaccinated with three doses of each vaccine. The serum levels of antibodies against the viral receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) and spike (anti-spike) protein as well as the vaccine formulation (anti-vaccine) were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The neutralization efficacy of these four vaccines was assessed through four neutralization assays: conventional virus neutralization test (cVNT), pseudotype virus neutralization test (pVNT), surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT), and inhibition flow cytometry. Results: All four vaccines induced seroconversion in vaccinated animals. All vaccines successfully induced high levels of anti-vaccine antibody; however, PastoCovac Plus and Sinopharm vaccines induced significantly higher levels of anti-RBD antibody titer compared to Noora and SpikoGen. Moreover, the results of the antibody response were corroborated by the virus neutralization tests, which revealed very weak neutralization potency by Noora and SpikoGen in all tests. Conclusion: Our results indicate significant immunogenicity and neutralization efficacy induced by PastoCovac Plus and Sinopharm, but not by Noora and SpikoGen. This suggests the need for additional comparative assessment of the potency and efficacy of these four vaccines in vaccinated subjects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Feminino , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5999, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472237

RESUMO

Powassan virus (POWV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) capable of causing severe illness in humans for severe neurological complications, and its incidence has been on the rise in recent years due to climate change, posing a growing public health concern. Currently, no vaccines to prevent or medicines to treat POWV disease, emphasizing the urgent need for effective countermeasures. In this study, we utilize bioinformatics approaches to target proteins of POWV, including the capsid, envelope, and membrane proteins, to predict diverse B-cell and T-cell epitopes. These epitopes underwent screening for critical properties such as antigenicity, allergenicity, toxicity, and cytokine induction potential. Eight selected epitopes were then conjugated with adjuvants using various linkers, resulting in designing of a potentially stable and immunogenic vaccine candidate against POWV. Moreover, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and immune simulations revealed a stable interaction pattern with the immune receptor, suggesting the vaccine's potential to induce robust immune responses. In conclusion, our study provided a set of derived epitopes from POWV's proteins, demonstrating the potential for a novel vaccine candidate against POWV. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are warranted to advance our efforts and move closer to the goal of combatting POWV and related arbovirus infections.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Vacinas de Subunidades
8.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1362780, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487527

RESUMO

Dengue, caused by the dengue virus (DENV), affects millions of people worldwide every year. This virus has two distinct life cycles, one in the human and another in the mosquito, and both cycles are crucial to be controlled. To control the vector of DENV, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, scientists employed many techniques, which were later proved ineffective and harmful in many ways. Consequently, the attention shifted to the development of a vaccine; researchers have targeted the E protein, a surface protein of the virus and the NS1 protein, an extracellular protein. There are several types of vaccines developed so far, such as live attenuated vaccines, recombinant subunit vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines, viral vectored vaccines, DNA vaccines, and mRNA vaccines. Along with these, scientists are exploring new strategies of developing improved version of the vaccine by employing recombinant DNA plasmid against NS1 and also aiming to prevent the infection by blocking the DENV life cycle inside the mosquitoes. Here, we discussed the aspects of research in the field of vaccines until now and identified some prospects for future vaccine developments.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Dengue , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Vacinas de DNA , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(3): e1012038, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489257

RESUMO

Ebola disease (EBOD) remains a significant and ongoing threat to African countries, characterized by a mortality rate of 25% to 90% in patients with high viral load and significant transmissibility. The most recent outbreak, reported in Uganda in September 2022, was declared officially over in January 2023. However, it was caused by the Sudan Ebola virus (SUDV), a culprit species not previously reported for a decade. Since its discovery in 1976, the management of EBOD has primarily relied on supportive care. Following the devastating outbreak in West Africa from 2014 to 2016 secondary to the Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV), where over 28,000 lives were lost, dedicated efforts to find effective therapeutic agents have resulted in considerable progress in treating and preventing disease secondary to EBOV. Notably, 2 monoclonal antibodies-Ebanga and a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies, called Inmazeb-received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 2020. Additionally, multiple vaccines have been approved for EBOD prevention by various regulatory bodies, with Ervebo, a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored vaccine against EBOV being the first vaccine to receive approval by the FDA in 2019. This review covers the key signs and symptoms of EBOD, its modes of transmission, and the principles guiding supportive care. Furthermore, it explores recent advancements in treating and preventing EBOD, highlighting the unique properties of each therapeutic agent and the ongoing progress in discovering new treatments.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais , Ebolavirus/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2337665, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551145

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) is associated with a range of acute and chronic diseases such as hand, foot, and mouth disease, myocarditis, meningitis, pancreatitis, and type 1 diabetes, affecting millions of young children annually around the world. However, no vaccine is currently available for preventing CVB4 infection. Here, we report the development of inactivated viral particle vaccines for CVB4. Two types of inactivated CVB4 particles were prepared from CVB4-infected cell cultures as vaccine antigens, including F-particle (also called mature virion) consisting of VP1, VP3, VP2, and VP4 subunit proteins, and E-particle (also called empty capsid) which is made of VP1, VP3, and uncleaved VP0. Both the inactivated CVB4 F-particle and E-particle were able to potently elicit neutralizing antibodies in mice, despite slightly lower neutralizing antibody titres seen with the E-particle vaccine after the third immunization. Importantly, we demonstrated that passive transfer of either anti-F-particle or anti-E-particle sera could completely protect the recipient mice from lethal CVB4 challenge. Our study not only defines the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of inactivated CVB4 F-particle and E-particle but also reveals the central role of neutralizing antibodies in anti-CVB4 protective immunity, thus providing important information that may accelerate the development of inactivated CVB4 vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Criança , Animais , Camundongos , Pré-Escolar , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Imunização , Vacinação
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6737, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509174

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a single-stranded RNA virus that caused the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 outbreak has led to millions of deaths and economic losses globally. Vaccination is the most practical solution, but finding epitopes (antigenic peptide regions) in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome is challenging, costly, and time-consuming. Here, we proposed a deep learning method based on standalone Recurrent Neural networks to predict epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 proteins easily. We optimised the standalone Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) and Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU) with a bioinspired optimisation algorithm, namely, Bee Colony Optimization (BCO). The study shows that LSTM-based models, particularly BCO-Bi-LSTM, outperform all other models and achieve an accuracy of 0.92 and AUC of 0.944. To overcome the challenge of understanding the model predictions, explainable AI using the Shapely Additive Explanations (SHAP) method was employed to explain how Blackbox models make decisions. Finally, the predicted epitopes led to the development of a multi-epitope vaccine. The multi-epitope vaccine effectiveness evaluation is based on vaccine toxicity, allergic response risk, and antigenic and biochemical characteristics using bioinformatic tools. The developed multi-epitope vaccine is non-toxic and highly antigenic. Codon adaptation, cloning, gel electrophoresis assess genomic sequence, protein composition, expression and purification while docking and IMMSIM servers simulate interactions and immunological response, respectively. These investigations provide a conceptual framework for developing a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Abelhas , Humanos , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1336687, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525345

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to determine the intention and willingness-to-pay (WTP) of Chinese parents/guardians to vaccinate their children with the EV-71 vaccine. Knowledge levels about hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and the EV-71 vaccine were also investigated. Methods: A cross-sectional, self-administered online survey was conducted between November 2022 and March 2023. A stratified multi-stage random sampling method was used to recruit parents/guardians of children aged 0-5 years in southeastern China. Results: A total of 3,626 complete responses were received. The mean knowledge score of HFMD was 9.99 (±4.23) out of a total of 14 points. The majority of the participants reported a somewhat willing intent (58.8%), followed by an extremely willing intent (28.9%). Participants who did not consider the EV-71 vaccine expensive (OR = 2.94, 95%CI 2.45-3.53) perceived that the EV-71 vaccine is effective (OR = 2.73, 95%CI 1.52-4.90), and a high knowledge level of HFMD (OR = 1.90, 95%CI 1.57-2.29) had the highest significant odds of having an extremely willing intent to vaccinate their children with the EV-71 vaccine. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) of WTP for the EV-71 vaccine was CNY¥200/USD$28 (IQR CNY¥100-400/USD$14-56). The highest marginal WTP for the vaccine was mainly influenced by the perceived high cost of the vaccine. Those participants who did not consider the EV-71 vaccine expensive had more than 10 times higher odds of vaccinating their children (OR = 10.86, 95%CI 8.49-13.88). Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers were also significant influencing factors in the highest marginal WTP. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate the importance of improving health promotion and reducing the barriers to EV-71 vaccination. Therefore, it is important to improve health promotion and reduce the barriers to EV-71 vaccination.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Intenção , Vacinação , Pais , China
13.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 27(1): 143-146, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511679

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a disease extremely harmful to pig health. Intramuscular and Houhai acupoint injections are the main immunization routes to prevent and control PED. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of these two routes in pregnant sows based on serum IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibody levels. PED virus (PEDV) immunoprophylaxis with live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines was administered. The vaccinations for the intramuscular injections elevated IgG and neutralizing antibody levels more than Houhai acupoint injections at most timepoints after immunization. However, the anti-PEDV IgA antibodies induced by vaccination with the two immunization routes did not differ significantly. In conclusion, intramuscular injections are better than Houhai acupoint injections for PEDV vaccination of pregnant sows.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Vacinas Virais , Gravidez , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Imunização/veterinária , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Vacinação/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina A
14.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1428, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate the immunological response of layer chickens to live Newcastle disease virus vaccine using a newly developed vaccine schedule administered via the ocular route, as well as assess the persistence of passive antibodies in layer chickens and the effectiveness of protection against strains of the virus. METHODS: A total of 140-day-old Lohmann Brown chicks were randomly divided into seven groups, 20 chicks each. Groups 1-3 received a single eye instillation of the vaccine at ages 5, 26 and 54 days, respectively, whereas groups 4-6 received a double eye instillation. Group 7 served as non-vaccinated control group. Ten days after immunization, samples were taken from hens that had received the vaccine at ages 15, 36 and 64, as well as from control chickens that had not received the vaccine at ages 5, 15, 21 and 31. RESULTS: A total of 10 serum samples from all chickens exhibited protective antibodies, and booster doses resulted in the highest haemagglutination inhibition titre. No significant change in antibody production was observed among layer hens (p > 0.05). The study found that the La Sota (GMT ± SD: 6.71 ± 4.96), La Sota (GMT ± SD: 8.00 ± 0.00) and thermostable I2 (GMT ± SD: 7.60 ± 6.02), vaccination schedules provided the maximum immune response in single eye instillation, whereas the HB1 (GMT ± SD: 7.11 ± 4.77), La Sota (GMT ± SD: 7.83 ± 5.76) and La Sota (GMT ± SD: 7.60 ± 6.02), combination was the second-best vaccination schedule in double eye instillation. Furthermore, maternally-derived antibodies were maintained up to 31 days of age, indicating the level of passive immunity prior to vaccination. Characteristic lesions, such as edematous and diphtheria mucosal membranes of the trachea, along with petechial and necrotic haemorrhages of the proventriculus, were observed during the necropsy of the birds that died from the challenged virus. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that subsequent live virus vaccine by ocular route immunization is required to effectively protect against velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease infection. The results also highlight the importance of developing effective vaccination schedules and routes to enhance immunity against ND in layer chickens.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Feminino , Galinhas , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinação/veterinária , Formação de Anticorpos , Vacinas Atenuadas
15.
Cell ; 187(6): 1360-1362, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490180

RESUMO

The mpox outbreak in 2022 launched a vaccination campaign employing an existing vaccine with moderate protection, highlighting the lack of scalable Orthopoxvirus vaccines with optimal protection. In this issue of Cell, Zuiani et al. report pre-clinical findings of an mRNA-based mpox vaccine, paving the way for Phase I/II clinical trials.


Assuntos
Vacina Antivariólica , Vacinas Virais , Vacinas de mRNA , Animais , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/imunologia , Vacinas de mRNA/imunologia , Primatas , Vacina Antivariólica/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
16.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543692

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces severe economic losses in chicken farms due to the emergence of new variants leading to vaccine breaks. The studied IBV strains belong to Massachusetts (Mass), Canadian 4/91, and California (Cal) 1737 genotypes that are prevalent globally. This study was designed to compare the impact of these three IBV genotypes on primary and secondary lymphoid organs. For this purpose, one-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens were inoculated with Mass, Canadian 4/91, or Cal 1737 IBV variants, keeping a mock-infected control. We examined the IBV replication in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. The molecular, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examinations revealed significant differences in lesion scores and viral distribution in these immune organs. In addition, we observed B-cell depletion in the bursa of Fabricius and the spleen with a significant elevation of T cells in these organs. Further studies are required to determine the functional consequences of IBV replication in lymphoid organs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Canadá , Galinhas , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , California , Genótipo , Massachusetts
17.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543742

RESUMO

The African swine fever virus (ASFV) mutant ASFV-G-∆I177L is a safe and efficacious vaccine which induces protection against the challenge of its parental virus, the Georgia 2010 isolate. Although a genetic DIVA (differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals) assay has been developed for this vaccine, still there is not a serological DIVA test for differentiating between animals vaccinated with ASFV-G-∆I177L and those infected with wild-type viruses. In this report, we describe the development of the ASFV-G-∆I177L mutant having deleted the EP402R gene, which encodes for the viral protein responsible for mediating the hemadsorption of swine erythrocytes. The resulting virus, ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R, does not have a decreased ability to replicates in swine macrophages when compared with the parental ASFV-G-∆I177L. Domestic pigs intramuscularly (IM) inoculated with either 102 or 106 HAD50 of ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R remained clinically normal, when compared with a group of mock-vaccinated animals, indicating the absence of residual virulence. Interestingly, an infectious virus could not be detected in the blood samples of the ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R-inoculated animals in either group at any of the time points tested. Furthermore, while all of the mock-inoculated animals presented a quick and lethal clinical form of ASF after the intramuscular inoculation challenge with 102 HAD50 of highly virulent parental field isolate Georgia 2010 (ASFV-G), all of the ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R-inoculated animals were protected, remaining clinically normal until the end of the observational period. Most of the ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R-inoculated pigs developed strong virus-specific antibody responses against viral antigens, reaching maximum levels at 28 days post inoculation. Importantly, all of the sera collected at that time point in the ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R-inoculated pigs did not react in a direct ELISA coated with the recombinant EP402R protein. Conversely, the EP402R protein was readily recognized by the pool of sera from the animals immunized with recombinant live attenuated vaccine candidates ASFV-G-∆I177L, ASFV-G-∆MGF, or ASFV-G-∆9GL/∆UK. Therefore, ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R is a novel, safe and efficacious candidate with potential to be used as an antigenically DIVA vaccine.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Vacinas Virais , Suínos , Animais , Vacinas Virais/genética , Sus scrofa , Virulência , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Deleção de Genes
18.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543782

RESUMO

The sudden emergence of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates the need for new vaccines that rapidly protect in the case of an emergency. In this study, we developed a recombinant MVA vaccine co-expressing SARS-CoV-2 prefusion-stabilized spike protein (ST) and SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (N, MVA-SARS-2-ST/N) as an approach to further improve vaccine-induced immunogenicity and efficacy. Single MVA-SARS-2-ST/N vaccination in K18-hACE2 mice induced robust protection against lethal respiratory SARS-CoV-2 challenge infection 28 days later. The protective outcome of MVA-SARS-2-ST/N vaccination correlated with the activation of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (nABs) and substantial amounts of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells especially in the lung of MVA-SARS-2-ST/N-vaccinated mice. Emergency vaccination with MVA-SARS-2-ST/N just 2 days before lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge infection resulted in a delayed onset of clinical disease outcome in these mice and increased titers of nAB or SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in the spleen and lung. These data highlight the potential of a multivalent COVID-19 vaccine co-expressing S- and N-protein, which further contributes to the development of rapidly protective vaccination strategies against emerging pathogens.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Melfalan , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de DNA , Vacinas Virais , gama-Globulinas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
19.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543796

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has affected the pork industry worldwide and during outbreaks the mortality of piglets has reached 100%. Lipid nanocarriers are commonly used in the development of immunostimulatory particles due to their biocompatibility and slow-release delivery properties. In this study, we developed a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) complex based on glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) and tested its efficacy as an adjuvant in mice immunized with the recombinant N-terminal domain (NTD) of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spike (S) protein (rNTD-S). The dispersion stability analysis (Z-potential -27.6 mV) confirmed the size and charge stability of the LNP-GA, demonstrating that the particles were homogeneously dispersed and strongly anionic, which favors nanoparticles binding with the rNTD-S protein, which showed a slightly positive charge (2.11 mV) by in silico analysis. TEM image of LNP-GA revealed nanostructures with a spherical-bilayer lipid vesicle (~100 nm). The immunogenicity of the LNP-GA-rNTD-S complex induced an efficient humoral response 14 days after the first immunization (p < 0.05) as well as an influence on the cellular immune response by decreasing serum TNF-α and IL-1ß concentrations, which was associated with an anti-inflammatory effect.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Suínos , Camundongos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Imunidade , Proteínas Recombinantes , Lipídeos
20.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543822

RESUMO

Since the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in South Korea in 2010-2011, vaccination policies utilizing inactivated FMD vaccines composed of types O and A have been implemented nationwide. However, because type Asia1 occurred in North Korea in 2007 and intermittently in neighboring countries, the risk of type Asia1 introduction cannot be ruled out. This study evaluated the antigen yield and viral inactivation kinetics of the recombinant Asia1 Shamir vaccine strain (Asia1 Shamir-R). When Asia1 Shamir-R was proliferated in shaking flasks (1 L), a 2 L bioreactor (1 L), and a wave bioreactor (25 L), the antigen yields were 7.5 µg/mL, 5.2 µg/mL, and 3.8 µg/mL, respectively. The optimal FMDV inactivation conditions were 2 mM BEI at 26 °C and 1.0 mM BEI at 37 °C. There was no antigen loss due to BEI treatment, and only a decrease in antigen levels was observed during storage. The sera from pigs immunized with antigen derived from a bioreactor exhibited a neutralizing antibody titer of approximately 1/1000 against Asia1 Shamir and Asia1/MOG/05 viruses; therefore, Asia1 Shamir-R is expected to provide sufficient protection against both viruses. If an FMD vaccine production facility is established, this Asia1 Shamir-R can be employed for domestic antigen banks in South Korea.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Suínos , Inativação de Vírus , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Vacinas Sintéticas , Reatores Biológicos
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