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1.
Gene ; 766: 145077, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941951

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious poultry paramyxovirus, leading to substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Here, RNA-seq was carried out to investigate the altered expression of immune-related genes in chicken thymus within 96 h in response to NDV infection. In NDV-infected chicken thymus tissues, comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 1386 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 24 h with 989 up- and 397 down-regulated genes, 728 DEGs at 48 h with 567 up- and 161 down-regulated genes, 1514 DEGs at 72 h with 1016 up- and 498 down-regulated genes, and 1196 DEGs at 96 h with 522 up- and 674 down-regulated genes, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that these candidate targets mainly participate in biological processes or biochemical, metabolic and signal transduction processes. Notably, there is large enrichment in biological processes, cell components and metabolic processes, which may be related to NDV pathogenicity. In addition, the expression of five immune-related DEGs identified by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our results indicated that the expression levels of AvBD5, IL16, IL22 and IL18R1 were obviously up-regulated, and Il-18 expression was also changed, but not significantly, which play key roles in the defense against NDV. Overall, we identified several candidate targets that may be involved in the regulation of NDV infection, which provide new insights into the complicated regulatory mechanisms of virus-host interactions, and explore new strategies for protecting chickens against the virus.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/genética , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
2.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1034-1037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151866

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an emerging pandemic infection whose significant ability to spread in a naïve population is well established. The first response of states to the COVID-19 outbreak was to impose lock-down and social barrier measures, such as wearing a surgical mask or social distancing. One of the consequences of this pandemic in terms of public health was the suspension or slowdown of infant vaccination campaigns, in almost all countries. The indirect effects of COVID-19 may therefore weigh on mortality from measles and polio in developing countries. In this pandemic chaos, the only hope lies in the rapid development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, acceptance of this vaccine has not yet been won, as beyond the many unknowns that will inevitably weigh around such rapid development, skepticism among vaccine hesitants is growing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(10): 2066-2075, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169571

RESUMO

To achieve uniform soluble expression of multiple proteins in the same Escherichia coli strain, and simplify the process steps of antigen production in genetic engineering subunit multivalent vaccine, we co-expressed three avian virus proteins including the fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) Fiber-2 protein, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP2 protein and egg-drop syndrome virus (EDSV) Fiber protein in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells after optimization of gene codon, promoter, and tandem expression order. The purified proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and agar gel precipitation (AGP). The content of the three proteins were well-proportioned after co-expression and the purity of the purified proteins were more than 80%. Western blotting analysis and AGP experiment results show that all the three co-expression proteins had immunoreactivity and antigenicity. It is the first time to achieve the three different avian virus antigens co-expression and co-purification, which simplified the process of antigen production and laid a foundation for the development of genetic engineering subunit multivalent vaccine.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Antígenos Virais/genética , Bioensaio , Galinhas/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
4.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(S1): 170-175, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211442

RESUMO

Vaccine hesitancy is growing worldwide and hampering efforts to control vaccine-preventable diseases. Healthcare professionals have a critical role in the acceptance of vaccination by patients. Increased awareness about the benefits of vaccination is one of the recommended strategy to counter vaccine hesitancy. Beyond protection of individuals against specific pathogens, vaccination have broad benefits at multiple levels of society, partly mediated by community protection. These benefits include improved access to education, increased productivity and positive fiscal impact, limitation of gender inequalities, control and prevention of antibiotic resistant pathogens. In this narrative review, those benefits are summarized and relevant studies reviewed. The broad benefits of immunization should contribute to better communication about the impact of immunization and could be part of educational programs of future health-care workers. The COVID-19 pandemic has a tremendous socio-economic impact and is the illustration of a world without vaccine. Nevertheless, recent surveys indicate that the acceptance of a future SARS-CoV-2 vaccine will not be universal, illustrating the importance of communication centered on safety and tolerability of future vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vacinação , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 569611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133083

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by SARS CoV2 emerged in China at the end of 2019 and soon become a pandemic. Since the virus is novel, pre-existing CoV2-specific immunity is not expected to exist in humans, although studies have shown presence of CoV2 cross-reactive T cells in unexposed individuals. Lack of effective immunity in most individuals along with high infectiousness of the virus has resulted in massive global public health emergency. Intense efforts are on to study viral pathogenesis and immune response to help guide prophylactic and therapeutic interventions as well as epidemiological assessments like transmission modeling. To develop an effective vaccine or biologic therapeutic, it is critical to understand the immune correlates of COVID-19 control. At the same time, whether immunity in recovered individuals is effective for preventing re-infection will be important for informing interventions like social distancing. Key questions that are being investigated regarding immune response in COVID-19 which will help these efforts include, investigations of immune response that distinguishes patients with severe versus mild infection or those that recover relative to those that succumb, durability of immunity in recovered patients and relevance of developed immunity in a cured patient for protection against re-infection as well as value of convalescent plasma from recovered patients as a potential therapeutic modality. This is a broad and rapidly evolving area and multiple reports on status of innate and adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV2 are emerging on a daily basis. While many questions remain unanswered for now, the purpose of this focused review is to summarize the current understanding regarding immune correlates of COVID-19 severity and resolution in order to assist researchers in the field to pursue new directions in prevention and control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Recidiva , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
15.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147821

RESUMO

With an increasing fatality rate, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a promising threat to human health worldwide. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has announced the infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is known as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-2019), as a global pandemic. Additionally, the positive cases are still following an upward trend worldwide and as a corollary, there is a need for a potential vaccine to impede the progression of the disease. Lately, it has been documented that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for viral replication and interferes with host immune responses. We comparatively analyzed the sequences of N protein of SARS-CoV-2 for the identification of core attributes and analyzed the ancestry through phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, we predicted the most immunogenic epitope for the T-cell and B-cell. Importantly, our investigation mainly focused on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I potential peptides and NTASWFTAL interacted with most human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that are encoded by MHC class I molecules. Further, molecular docking analysis unveiled that NTASWFTAL possessed a greater affinity towards HLA and also available in a greater range of the population. Our study provides a consolidated base for vaccine design and we hope that this computational analysis will pave the way for designing novel vaccine candidates.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
16.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 21, 2020. 15 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129660

RESUMO

Después de más de ocho meses de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la Región de las Américas, y con todos los países de las subregiones de América del Norte, América Central y América del Sur (con excepción de Uruguay) reportando transmisión comunitaria, los sistemas de salud están siendo sometidos a constantes desafíos y las actividades de inmunización de rutina se están posponiendo en la mayoría de los países. La pandemia ha comprometido el cumplimiento de los indicadores de vigilancia integrada de sarampión / rubéola y Parálisis Flácida Aguda (PFA). Por otro lado, las restricciones impuestas a la circulación de las personas, así como el temor de las personas por adquirir la infección, han limitado las actividades de atención primaria de la salud, incluidos los servicios de prevención, como la vacunación. Las restricciones de movimiento también tuvieron un impacto en la aparición de brotes de enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación (EPV) y / o contribuyeron a la interrupción de la transmisión de estas enfermedades. Sin embargo, la reactivación de las actividades económicas y de las fronteras puede volver a incrementar el riesgo, el cual puede ser aún mayor, dado el impacto de la COVID-19 en la capacidad de los sistemas de salud. A la luz de esta situación y considerando estos factores, se alerta sobre el riesgo de la ocurrencia en las Américas de nuevos brotes de enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación, de diversa magnitud y se considera que el riesgo para la Región es muy alto.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle , América/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal
17.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 18, 2020. 4 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129659

RESUMO

En la última semana, se notificaron casi 1,5 millones de casos y 19.000 muertes por COVID-19 en la Región de las Américas. Desde el inicio de la pandemia, el virus de la COVID-19 ha infectado a más de 23 millones de personas en nuestra Región y ha causado la muerte a más de 680.000. En los actuales momentos, América del Norte sigue representando una gran proporción de las cifras de nuevas infecciones. En Estados Unidos aún se observa una aceleración en el número de casos: tan solo en la última semana se notificaron más de un millón de infecciones nuevas en ese país. Estos repuntes han dado lugar a un número récord de hospitalizaciones, lo cual es particularmente preocupante, ya que sabemos que cuando nuestros centros de salud están desbordados, nuestra capacidad para tratar a las personas gravemente enfermas se ve limitada. En México ya se ha superado el millón de casos de COVID-19 y en Canadá también hay un resurgimiento de la transmisión


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , América/epidemiologia
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2379-2380, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059515

RESUMO

This commentary provides an overview and links to presentations of a recent virtual congress series organized by the International Society for Vaccines (ISV) focused on COVID-19 vaccines. The series provided the academic community and vaccine developers as well as the wider general public with balanced information of the global response and resources for COVID-19 vaccines under development featuring: 1) NGOs and the regulatory perspective, 2) the status of vaccine development efforts, and 3) panel discussions to present and discuss challenges. ISV is a non-profit scientific organization whose members work on all areas relevant to vaccines. ISV plans to host additional virtual symposia including regional meetings and incorporating other topics along with COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
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