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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053641, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine receipt among healthcare workers and the role of vaccine confidence in decisions to vaccinate, and to better understand concerns related to COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional anonymous survey among front-line, support service and administrative healthcare workers. SETTING: Two large integrated healthcare systems (one private and one public) in New York City during the initial roll-out of the COVID-19 vaccine. PARTICIPANTS: 1933 healthcare workers, including nurses, physicians, allied health professionals, environmental services staff, researchers and administrative staff. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was COVID-19 vaccine receipt during the initial roll-out of the vaccine among healthcare workers. RESULTS: Among 1933 healthcare workers who had been offered the vaccine, 81% had received the vaccine at the time of the survey. Receipt was lower among black (58%; OR: 0.14, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.2) compared with white (91%) healthcare workers, and higher among non-Hispanic (84%) compared with Hispanic (69%; OR: 2.37, 95% CI 1.8 to 3.1) healthcare workers. Among healthcare workers with concerns about COVID-19 vaccine safety, 65% received the vaccine. Among healthcare workers who agreed with the statement that the vaccine is important to protect family members, 86% were vaccinated. Of those who disagreed, 25% received the vaccine (p<0.001). In a multivariable analysis, concern about being experimented on (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.6), concern about COVID-19 vaccine safety (OR: 0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55), lack of influenza vaccine receipt (OR: 0.28, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.44), disagreeing that COVID-19 vaccination is important to protect others (OR: 0.37, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.52) and black race (OR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.59) were independently associated with COVID-19 vaccine non-receipt. Over 70% of all healthcare workers responded that they had been approached for vaccine advice multiple times by family, community members and patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated high overall receipt among healthcare workers. Even among healthcare workers with concerns about COVID-19 vaccine safety, side effects or being experimented on, over 50% received the vaccine. Attitudes around the importance of COVID-19 vaccination to protect others played a large role in healthcare workers' decisions to vaccinate. We observed striking inequities in COVID-19 vaccine receipt, particularly affecting black and Hispanic workers. Further research is urgently needed to address issues related to vaccine equity and uptake in the context of systemic racism and barriers to care. This is particularly important given the influence healthcare workers have in vaccine decision-making conversations in their communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 38, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997337

RESUMO

This study shows the effectiveness of diet containing Trachyspermum copticum (TC), Majorana hortensis Minch (MH), Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl (SL), and Zingiber officinale (ZO) on the growth performance, biochemical factors, and qualitative agents of eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and their immune responses against Newcastle and Avian Influenza vaccine. For this prepose, 675 quails were divided into 9 groups with three replicates and fed with different treatment diets (basic diet with no supplements (control treatment diet) and diets supplemented with one of two levels (0.5 and 2%) of each plant powders). Data showed that the use of TC 2% increased the Haugh unit significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the control (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiment, shell weight (g) and shell thickness were also remarkably enhanced in treated groups compared with the control group. Moreover, the findings of this study showed the thiobarbituric acid and yolk cholesterol level reduced remarkably (P < 0.05) in the MH and SL groups without significant adverse effect on albumen protein (%) and total protein (%) level. In this study, TC-2%, ZO-2%, and SL-2% all increased the antibody titers against avian influenza. The use of a diet containing MH-2% increased Newcastle disease in Japanese quail in comparison to both controls and different levels of other medicinal herb powders. Based on these results, using these four herbal plant powders in Japanese quail, diets could positively affect their egg qualitative and biochemical factors.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunidade , Óvulo , Codorniz
3.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 36: 159-176, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998097

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse literature data on vaccine related induction, worsening of the disease and disease reccurrences as well as vaccine safety and efficacy among pediatric patients with acquired inflammatory immune-mediated neuromuscular disorders (NMD). METHODS: Medline, Pub Med and Scopus database search from 1975 to 2020 focused on pediatric age was conducted including peer reviews, meta analyses and epidemiological studies on vaccination and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Bell's palsy, optic neuritis (ON), myasthenia gravis (MG), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and immune-mediated inflammatory myopathy (IM). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: s: There are no strong evidence supporting relationship between vaccination with different pediatric vaccines and development of first episodes or reccurrences of GBS, Bell's palsy, optic neuritis (ON), juvenile MG, CIDP, and IM. The vaccination and revaccination with inactivated vaccines is considered safe in children with medical history of GBS, Bell's palsy, ON, MG and IM. Caution when immunization against influenza, quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccine (MCV4) and pneumococcal disease and avoiding tetanus toxoid immunization in CIDP patients is suggested. Patients with immune mediated acquired NMD should be vaccinated with live vaccines before the initiation of immunosupressive treatment. Immunosuppressed patients with low protective antibody titers should be considered for revaccination.


Assuntos
Paralisia de Bell , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Criança , Humanos , Vacinação
4.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 36: 143-150, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979476

RESUMO

This review focused on vaccination in children with movement disorders, including cerebral palsy and the movement disorders triggered by vaccination in children with and without neurological disabilities. The following clinical questions were addressed: 1) Can children with movement disorders be vaccinated? 2) Can vaccination trigger movement disorders in children without neurological disabilities? 3) Can vaccination trigger movement disorders in children with neurological disabilities? and 4) Is there any consensus of care concerning vaccination in children with movement disorders? Following the PRISMA reporting guidelines, 1096 records were identified and 34 relevant papers were included. No evidence that vaccinations are contraindicated for children with movement disorders was noticed. Several reports of neurological adverse events, including movement disorders in children without neurological disabilities after various types of vaccination, were found. The reporting rates were low, the causality was controversial, and patient outcomes were mostly favourable. There was limited (if any) evidence in our search that any vaccination leads to any movement disorder exacerbation. Finally, no generally accepted consensus or standards of care concerning vaccination in patients with movement disorders were found. In summary, we found few precautions for vaccination in this group of patients and concluded that general best practice guidelines for immunization should be followed. In addition, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are recommended because they can reduce morbidity and mortality in individuals severely affected by movement restrictions.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Transtornos dos Movimentos , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 6, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are at increased risk of serious infections, including vaccine preventable diseases. Current evidence suggests uptake of additional recommended special risk vaccinations is low. Identification of IBD patients prior to commencing immunosuppressive therapy allows for optimisation of vaccination, including timely administration of live-attenuated and additional recommended vaccines, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. METHODS: Paediatric patients (0-18 years) seen at the tertiary Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, with a recent diagnosis of IBD were referred by the Gastroenterology Unit to our Specialist Immunisation Clinic (SIC) for assessment and provision of routine and special risk vaccines. Data was collected via a standardised REDCap questionnaire completed in or post attendance at the SIC and included serology results where available. RESULTS: Sixty-nine paediatric patients were recruited to the study between 2014 and 2017. Median age at IBD diagnosis was 11.25 years (IQR 4.64 years), with median time between diagnosis and SIC review of 0.88 years (IQR 2.84 years). At initial review 84.1% (58/69) of patients were up to date with vaccines on the Australian National Immunisation Program (NIP) schedule. Of those who were tested, serological evidence of immunity was demonstrated in 38.3% (23/60) of patients for Hepatitis B, 66.7% (36/54) for measles, 51.9% (28/54) for rubella and 41.9% (26/62) for Varicella Zoster Virus. Prior to SIC review 47.8% (33/69) had additional vaccinations and 92.8% (64/69) had vaccinations administered in the 12 months following SIC assessment. The Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (76.8%, 53/69) was the most commonly administered vaccine after SIC review, followed by influenza vaccine (69.6%, 48/69). Within 12 months of SIC review 43.5% (30/69) of patients had completed the schedule and were up-to-date as recommended by the SIC. CONCLUSIONS: Children with IBD and other special risk groups can benefit from early referral to a SIC team to ensure optimal administration of routine and additionally recommended vaccines, especially live and additional special risk vaccines. The value of optimising immunisations could also be applied to other special risk groups, including adult IBD cohorts, particularly those commencing newer biologic immunosuppressive medications.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Vacinas contra Influenza , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Imunização , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 264: 109306, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923247

RESUMO

Currently, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses still pose a potential pandemic threat. Influenza virus-like particle (VLP) is one of the most promising vaccine strategies to complement traditional egg-dependent vaccines. Here, we generated a H7N9 VLP vaccine candidate by baculovirus expression system and evaluated its efficacy in chickens and mice. The H7N9 VLP was produced through co-infection of Sf9 insect cells with three recombinant baculoviruses expressing individual HA, NA and M1 gene of the HPAI H7N9 virus A/chicken/Guangdong/GD15/2016. Intramuscular immunization of the H7N9 VLP elicited robust antibody immune responses and conferred complete clinical protection against lethal H7N9 virus challenge both in chickens and mice. Meanwhile, H7N9 VLP significantly restrained virus shedding and dramatically alleviated pulmonary lesions caused by H7N9 virus infection in birds and mice. Interestingly, chicken antibodies induced by the H7N9 VLP also had a good cross-reactivity with H7N9 field strains isolated in different years. In addition, vaccination with the H7N9 VLP elicited high T cell immunity in mouse lung, evidenced by significantly upregulated expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, the H7N9 VLP significantly decreased the expression of some key inflammatory cytokines, such as IL6, RANTES and TNF-α in mouse lung, which may partially account for its contribution to alleviate lung pathology. Therefore, our study describes the good efficacy of the HA + NA + M1-containing H7N9 VLP both in chicken and mice models, highlighting the potential of VLP-based vaccine as a critical alternative of traditional egg-based vaccine for control of H7N9 influenza virus in both humans and poultry.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Baculoviridae/imunologia , Galinhas , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
7.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 325-333, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903373

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to examine factors affecting the intent to vaccinate during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and to leverage the results to inform public health policy decisions aimed at increasing vaccine uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey data and state-level administrative data, we employ logistic regression and mediation models to estimate the association between vaccine uptake and state level public health spending, political ideology, and H1N1 case and death rates as well as a set of individual and household characteristics. We find that higher public health spending can significantly increase the intent to vaccinate, mainly through raising concerns about the pandemic and promoting vaccine relevant doctor patient interactions. We conclude that physicians, especially primary care physicians, should play more important roles in the ongoing vaccination efforts against the COVID-19 virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
8.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 503-511, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how influenza vaccine uptake changed during the 2020/2021 influenza season compared to previous pre-pandemic seasons is a key priority, as is identifying the relationship between prior influenza vaccination and COVID-19 vaccine willingness. METHODS: We analyzed data from a large, nationally representative cohort of Canadian residents aged 50 and older to assess influenza vaccination status three times between 2015 and 2020. We investigated: 1) changes in self-reported influenza vaccine uptake, 2) predictors of influenza vaccine uptake in 2020/2021, and 3) the association between influenza vaccination history and self-reported COVID-19 vaccine willingness using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 23,385 participants analyzed for aims 1-2, influenza vaccination increased over time: 14,114 (60.4%) in 2015-2018, 15,692 (67.1%) in 2019/2020, and 19,186 (82.0%; combining those already vaccinated and those planning to get a vaccine) in 2020/2021. After controlling for socio-demographics, history of influenza vaccination was most strongly associated with influenza vaccination in 2020/2021 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 147.9 [95% CI: 120.9-180.9]); this association remained after accounting for multiple health and pandemic-related factors (aOR 140.3 [95% CI: 114.5-171.8]). To a lesser degree, those more concerned about COVID-19 were also more likely to report influenza vaccination in fall 2020, whereas those reporting a very negative impact of the pandemic were less likely to get vaccinated. Among 23,819 participants with information on COVID-19 vaccine willingness during the last quarter of 2020 (aim 3), prior influenza vaccination was most strongly associated with willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine (aOR 15.1 [95% CI: 13.5-16.8] for those who had received influenza vaccine at all previous timepoints versus none). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis highlights the importance of previous vaccination in driving vaccination uptake and willingness. Efforts to increase vaccination coverage for influenza and COVID-19 should target individuals who do not routinely engage with immunization services regardless of demographic factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
9.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(1): 289-293, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to measure the acceptability towards the COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients and to investigate determinant factors associated with the patient's choice. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a self-administered questionnaire delivered to 329 cancer patients in 3 oncology cancer centers in Tunisia between February-May 2021. Logistic regression was used to evaluate odds ratio predicting patient's intentions toward the vaccine. RESULTS: Acceptance rate was 50.5%, 28.3% (n = 93) reported to definitely refuse the vaccine and 21.2% (n = 70) did not make their decision yet. High educational level, history of comorbidities, history of influenza vaccination in the current season, and patient's opinion about the severity of COVID-19 did not predict vaccine resistance. However, patients who think that the vaccine may interfere with treatment efficacy (OR = 7.28, 95%CI [2.5-12.32]), or may impact cancer outcome (OR = 6.14, 95%CI [2.27-16.7]), were significantly more likely to refuse the vaccine. Patients who disagree that the vaccine is a major weapon against the pandemic (OR = 6.07, 95%CI [2.34-9.52]) or that it could reduce the virus transmission (OR = 7.34, 95%CI [4.22-11.81]) were also significantly more likely to reject the vaccination. Safety concerns were also significant predictive factors (OR = 7.9, 95%CI [4.10-11.27]. Confidence level in the authorities played a significant role in patient's acceptance of the vaccine, indeed patients who are not registered (OR = 5.9, 95%CI [1.58-8.7]) or not informed about the Tunisian national vaccination platform EVAX (OR = 5.51, 95%CI [2.1-7.9]) were more likely to be against the vaccine. CONCLUSION: Cancer patient's education about the impact of the vaccine on their disease and on the COVID-19 is needed. Governments should build strategies to gain more population confidence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Neoplasias , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
10.
Equine Vet J ; 54(1): 139-144, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Keeping vaccine strains up to date is the key to controlling equine influenza (EI). Viruses generated by reverse genetics (RG) are likely to be effective for quickly updating a vaccine strain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the growth properties of an RG virus in embryonated chicken eggs, and to evaluate antibody responses to a formalin-inactivated vaccine derived from the RG virus in Thoroughbred horses. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) viruses (A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007) or RG viruses (consisting of haemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase genes derived from A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 and the six other genes derived from high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34) were inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and the allantoic fluids were harvested at every 24 hours after inoculation. WT and RG viruses were inactivated by formalin for vaccine use. Ten unvaccinated yearlings (five each for WT or RG vaccine) received the first two doses of a primary vaccination course 4 weeks apart followed by their third dose 12 weeks later. Twenty vaccinated adult horses (10 each for WT or RG vaccine) received a single dose of a booster vaccination. RESULTS: The RG virus had high growth properties in embryonated chicken eggs. Unvaccinated yearlings responded poorly to the first vaccination, especially those that received the RG vaccine, but mounted better responses to the second and the third vaccinations, and maintained relatively high haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres up to 28 weeks after the first vaccination. Vaccinated adult horses did not respond remarkably to the booster vaccination, but no horses showed titres below their pre-booster values even at 12 weeks after vaccination. The RG virus elicited immunogenicity in horses adequate for vaccine use. MAIN LIMITATIONS: No virus challenge study was performed. CONCLUSIONS: The RG viruses are useful as an EI vaccine strain, and quick updates of an EI vaccine strain can be achieved by using RG techniques.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Vírus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Cavalos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Genética Reversa/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária
11.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 3337-3346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949917

RESUMO

Background: SARS-CoV-2 tends to cause more severe disease in patients with COPD once they are infected. We aimed to investigate the rates of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination uptake in patients with COPD and to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread vaccination against COVID-19 had any impact on the intention to accept influenza vaccines in these patients. Methods: We conducted a multi-center and cross-sectional survey in seven tertiary hospitals in Beijing and consecutively recruited outpatients with COPD from June 1st to July 30th, 2021. The survey included patient's clinical characteristics, uptake of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine knowledge, attitude towards vaccines, and the change of intention to receive influenza vaccination after COVID-19 epidemic and COVID-19 vaccination in Beijing. Results: A total of 264 patients were enrolled. The rate of COVID-19 vaccination during the study period was 39.0%. The rates of influenza vaccination in the past season and pneumococcal vaccination in the past year were 22.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Of the patients who had not received COVID-19 vaccination (n = 161), only 16.2% reported that COVID-19 vaccination was recommended by clinicians, while 23.5% had no knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination. About 51.1% of the patients reported that their intention to receive influenza vaccination was influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination was independently associated with a positive change in intention to receive influenza vaccination. Conclusion: The coverage rate of COVID-19 vaccination among patients with COPD in Beijing was 39.0%, and that of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination was very low. The COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 vaccination campaign showed a significant, positive impact on patients with COPD in terms of influenza vaccination. Improving awareness of the effectiveness and safety of vaccines among both healthcare professionals and patients could increase vaccination coverage in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Pandemias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
12.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959898

RESUMO

A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 72 volunteers who received a synergistic combination of yeast-based ingredients with a unique ß-1,3/1,6-glucan complex and a consortium of heat-treated probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae rich in selenium and zinc (ABB C1®) or placebo on the next day after getting vaccinated against influenza (Chiromas®) (n = 34) or the COVID-19 (Comirnaty®) (n = 38). The duration of treatment was 30 and 35 days for the influenza and COVID-19 vaccine groups, respectively. Mean levels of CD4+T cells increased from 910.7 at baseline to 1000.2 cells/µL after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in the ABB C1® group, whereas there was a decrease from 1055.1 to 929.8 cells/µL in the placebo group. Changes of CD3+T and CD8+T lymphocytes showed a similar trend. In the COVID-19 cohort, the increases in both IgG and IgM were higher in the ABB C1® supplement than in the placebo group. Serum levels of selenium and zinc showed a higher increase in subjects treated with the active product than in those receiving placebo. No serious adverse events related to ABB C1® or tolerance issues were reported. The study findings validate the capacity of the ABB C1® product to stimulate trained immunity.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selênio/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/imunologia
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 700, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generally, seasonal influenza does not cause severe infection in healthy adults, but for the elderly, an infection can pose a serious health concern. Although several measures can help prevent influenza, vaccination is considered the most effective. This study aimed to assess influenza vaccine uptake among elderly with chronic diseases in Tunisia during the 2018-2019 influenza season, and to identify knowledge, attitudes and barriers associated with influenza vaccine uptake. METHODS: During influenza season of 2018-2019, we conducted a national cross-sectional study among elderly with chronic disease who were attending primary and secondary health care facilities in Tunisia. We collected data regarding practices, general knowledge and attitudes related to influenza and influenza vaccine, using a standardized questionnaire. A multivariate analysis by logistic regression was performed to assess the factors influencing willingness to receive influenza vaccine. RESULTS: Among the 1191 surveyed elderly, 19.4% (95%CI 14.1-21.9) were vaccinated during the 2018-2019 influenza season and 64.7% (61.9-67.3) expressed willingness to be vaccinated in the next season regardless of vaccination status in the 2018-2019 season. Previous vaccination in the 2018-2019 influenza season was the most significantly associated factor with willingness to receive influenza vaccine (adjusted OR = 16.5 [3.7-72.4]). Significant associations were also observed between knowledge of influenza severity for the elderly as well as for those with chronic diseases and willingness to be vaccinated (p < 0.01). Likewise, participants who were convinced by flu vaccine effectiveness and those who were not concerned about vaccine side effects were more likely to be vaccinated (p < 0.001). The main reason that may lead to vaccine acceptance was a doctor's recommendation (41.1%), while the two main reasons that may lead to vaccine refusal were concerns about side effects (71.5%) and a belief that vaccine was ineffective in averting influenza illness (33.9%). Doctors were the most trusted source for information about influenza vaccine (91.5%). CONCLUSION: Our study revealed low influenza vaccination coverage among Tunisian elderly with chronic diseases believed to be at higher risk for severe acute respiratory infections and death if infected with influenza. Treating physicians' role in promoting influenza vaccination in this high-risk group seems to be crucial.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(23): 7516-7525, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is the game-changing approach that tops all other strategies to contain the pandemic spread. A growing interest has been raised to heterologous prime-boost and booster COVID-19 vaccination to tackle vaccine shortage and to increase the vaccine's immunogenicity. This study aimed to evaluate the willingness and acceptance of Jordanians to receive heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccination and vaccine boosters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated online questionnaire. Adult Jordanian participants were recruited using several social media platforms. The questionnaire link was randomly posted by researchers on public groups in Jordan. Participant's demographics, medical history, knowledge of mixed and booster COVID-19 vaccination and their willingness to receive them were obtained and analyzed. RESULTS: Approximately 50.5% and 49.3% of the respondents stated former knowledge of the mixed and booster COVID-19 vaccination, respectively. Approximately 50% of respondents acknowledged that the side effects could preclude them from taking mixed and booster vaccines, and 45.3% responded that taking a third dose of the vaccine would increase the side effects. The respondents with previous history of COVID-19 and influenza vaccination were more likely to agree on mixed vaccines compared to those not vaccinated (29.5% vs. 6.5%, p <0.0001; 38.0% vs. 24.5%, p=0.0078, respectively). Moreover, both previous history of COVID-19 and seasonal influenza vaccine was an encouraging response for acceptance of mixed and booster vaccines when compared to those who did not receive the vaccines (54.5% vs. 11.3%; p<0.0001, 69.0% vs. 45.5%; p <0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that nearly half of the respondents were familiar with COVID-19 mixed and booster vaccine programs; however, a high percentage still expressed reticence to receive the mixed vaccines. We consider these results to emphasize the importance and need of awareness campaigns that accentuate the safety profile of such updated vaccination programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunização Secundária/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Jordânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 793533, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957038

RESUMO

Background: Along with individual-level factors, vaccination-related characteristics are important in understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to determine the influence of these characteristics on vaccine acceptance to formulate promotion strategies after considering differences among respondents with different characteristics. Methods: An online discrete choice experiment was conducted among people aged 18-64 years in Hong Kong, China, from 26 to 28 February 2021. Respondents were asked to make choices regarding hypothetical vaccination programmes described by vaccination-related characteristics-the attributes derived from a prior individual interview. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify the differences in vaccination-related characteristics among respondents with different personal characteristics. Results: A total of 1,773 respondents provided valid responses. The vaccine efficacy and brand were the most important factors affecting acceptance, followed by the exemption of quarantine for vaccinated travelers, safety, venue for vaccination, vaccine uptake of people in their lives, and recommendations by general physicians or government. Frequent exposure to vaccination information on social media has been associated with increasing vaccine refusal. Substantial preference heterogeneity for the attributes was found among people of different ages, incomes, chronic conditions, and previous acceptance of influenza vaccines. Conclusion: The findings provided evidence to formulate interventions to promote vaccine uptake, including the provision of vaccination at housing estate or workplaces, involvement of general physicians and interpersonal communication in vaccine promotion and information dissemination, and exemption of quarantine for vaccinated people. Moreover, social media is a significant information channel that cannot be neglected in the dissemination of official information.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , China , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
16.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E644-E652, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909492

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza epidemics yearly affects 5-15% of the world's population, resulting in 3-5 million serious cases and up to 650,000 deaths. Elderly, pregnant women and individuals with underlying conditions are at increased risk of complications. According to the Italian National Immunisation Prevention Plan 2017-2019, these categories benefit from free vaccination but coverage rate in Italy are below desirable levels. The study considered the coverage rate in five consecutive influenza seasons (2010/2011-2014/2015) in Local Health Unit (LHU) of Ferrara (Italy). The amount of delivered vaccinations was not constant, with a decreasing trend. Coverage rose with increasing age, but the 75% target of over-65 years old individuals immunised was never achieved. In addition to age, coverage rates varied also according to District (the area of residence within the LHU). The District with the lowest vaccination coverage was the Western District. Higher levels of immunisation were observed in South-Eastern District in the pediatric age and in North-Central District in adult age group with a statistically significant difference. In the considered timespan, the percentage of immunisations delivered by the General Practitioners (GPs) increased. The trend in the LHU of Ferrara was similar to regional and national data, conditioned in the 2014/2015 season by the spreading of worrying news, although unfounded, on the safety of the vaccine. The GPs were essential in ensuring vaccine uptake, growing the percentage of delivered doses and achieving as much as possible effective elderly immunisation.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Vacinação
17.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E782-E788, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909509

RESUMO

Background: Influenza is a major public health issue. Indeed, in Italy there were 7.6 million symptomatic cases of influenza in the 2019/2020 influenza season (from October 2019 to April 2020). The aim of this study is to analyse the circulation of influenza A and B viruses in hospitalized adult and elderly patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) at Le Scotte University Hospital in Siena. Methods: Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from SARI patients, who also completed a questionnaire recording their underlying diseases and vaccination status. Total RNA was extracted from each respiratory swab by means of the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit, and RT-PCR was carried out. All statistical analyses were performed by means of GraphPad Prism 6 software and STATA. Results: In this study we collected 68 swabs. The average age of subjects was 79.4 years (C.I.: 76.6-82.3) and 52.9% were female. The subjects had fever (89.7%), fatigue (77%), headache (47%), cough (75%), sore throat (70.5%), and breathlessness (63.2%). We found that 20% of the 68 subjects were positive (13% for A H3N2 and 7% for A H1N1). Of the 68 subjects, 25% had received a seasonal influenza vaccine (91.6% trivalent and 8.4% quadrivalent). Conclusions: Our study is important in order to determine the timing and spread of influenza viruses and track changes in circulating influenza viruses, so as to inform seasonal influenza vaccine composition. Seasonal vaccination is considered the most effective way to prevent influenza and its complications.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(11): 1595-1599, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research was carried out to evaluate people's knowledge of adult vaccination and their attitude and to observe the effect of the pandemic era on this situation. METHODS: A total of 1,425 people (18-80 years old) were included in this study. The types of questions like the province where they live, age, gender, occupation, education status, and the presence of chronic diseases, as well as knowing which vaccines are used in adult vaccination, which of these vaccines they had in the last 10 years, which ones they plan to have this year, and whether COVID-19 pandemic changed their perspective on adult vaccinations or not were asked to people. RESULTS: In the last 10 years, while participants stated that they had the highest rate of tetanus vaccine with 29.8%, hepatitis B vaccine with 23.1%, influenza vaccine with 22.7%, human papillomavirus vaccine with 1.3%, and zoster vaccine with 0.3% were the lowest levels of vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, it seems that we are far from the goals set by the health authorities for adult vaccination. We observed that the COVID-19 pandemic raised awareness toward pneumococcus and influenza vaccines and interest toward adult vaccinations and at the same time changed the thoughts against adult vaccinations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0250234, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914726

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of influenza vaccination with or without probiotic supplementation on the immune response and incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the elderly. METHODS: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a modified factorial design was conducted in 554 healthy elderly subjects aged 67 ± 5.6 (ranging from 60-90) years old in the Primary Health Care Center (Puskesmas area) of the Pulo Gadung District East Jakarta. Subjects received either a trivalent influenza vaccine or placebo at the start of the study, and a probiotic supplement (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) or a placebo for 6 months. Subjects were randomly assigned into four intervention groups: influenza vaccine and probiotics (n = 141), influenza vaccine and placebo (n = 136), placebo and probiotics (n = 140), and both placebo (n = 137). The primary outcome was ILI incidence within 6 months. The secondary outcomes were seroprotection and seroconversion rates at 1, 4, and 6 months after administering the interventions. RESULTS: This study showed that the trivalent influenza vaccine increased seroprotection (RR 3.6 [95%CI 2.92-4.47]; p<0.010) and seroconversion (RR 29.8 [95%CI 11.1-79.5]; p<0.010) rates 1 month after vaccination in elderly people while the probiotic supplement did not alter influenza antibody titers (p = 1.000 and p = 0.210). The relative ILI incidence risk was similar between vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups, as well as in the probiotic group compared to the non-probiotic group. CONCLUSION: The tested trivalent influenza vaccine significantly induced seroprotection and seroconversion in the vaccinated subjects, while probiotics administration did not influence these parameters. Vaccinated individuals displayed a similarly low ILI incidence as those in the Control Group. However, the observed trend towards a reduction of ILI incidence with probiotics supplementation warrants further assessments in a larger, at-risk population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: NCT03695432.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana , Lactobacillus helveticus , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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