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1.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110489, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399485

RESUMO

Knowledge on the functional and nutritional properties of wet roasted pulses can increase the utilization of processed pulses as ingredients in food products. This study investigated the effects of tempering different pulse [chickpea (CP), green lentil (GL), navy bean (NB) and yellow pea (YP)] seeds to 20 or 30% moisture prior to roasting (160℃ for 30 min) on the functional properties and nutritional quality of their resulting flours. The surface charge of each pulse remained the same (p > 0.05) after wet roasting and there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the different raw pulse flours. The oil holding capacity (OHC) of GL (~2 g/g) was not improved by wet roasting (p > 0.05) whereas the other pulses generally had better OHC for one or both of the tempering moistures used prior to roasting. Foaming properties of all pulses decreased after heat treatment with the exception of both foaming capacity (107%) and stability (~71%) for GL tempered to 20% moisture prior to roasting (p > 0.05). Raw GL had inferior foaming properties compared to the other raw pulse flours (p < 0.001). Emulsion properties of the wet roasted pulses were similar to those of the control (raw flour) for each pulse. Solubility decreased with roasting regardless of the tempering moisture (p < 0.05) whereas in general the in vitro protein digestibility increased. Small improvements (2.4-6.9% increase) in the in vitro protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score were found for GL and NB tempered to 20% moisture before roasting and roasted YP at either moisture content (p < 0.05). Wet roasting increased (p < 0.05) the rapidly digestible starch content, more so with a tempering moisture of 30%. Overall the results from this study will allow for the utilization of wet roasted pulses as ingredients based on their functional properties and protein quality.


Assuntos
Cicer , Lens (Planta) , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444976

RESUMO

Food provides humans with more than just energy and nutrients, addressing both vital needs and pleasure. Food habits are determined by a wide range of factors, from sensorial stimuli to beliefs and, once commanded by local and seasonal availability, are nowadays driven by marketing campaigns promoting unhealthy and non-sustainable foodstuffs. Top-down and bottom-up changes are transforming food systems, driven by policies on SDGs and by consumer's concerns about environmental and health impacts. Food quality, in terms of taste, safety, and nutritional value, is determined by its composition, described in food composition databases (FDBs). FDBs are then useful resources to agronomists, food and mechanical engineers, nutritionists, marketers, and others in their efforts to address at maximum human nutrient needs. In this work, we analyse some relevant food composition databases (viz., purpose, type of data, ease of access, regularity of updates), inspecting information on the health and environmental nexus, such as food origin, production mode as well as nutritional quality. The usefulness and limitations of food databases are discussed regarding what concerns sustainable diets, the food 'matrix effect', missing compounds, safe processing, and in guiding innovation in foods, as well as in shaping consumers' perceptions and food choices.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dieta , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445009

RESUMO

The Portfolio Diet, a plant-based portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods, has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and other cardiovascular risk factors, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It is not known if these beneficial effects translate to a lower incidence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To support examinations between Portfolio Diet adherence and disease, a Portfolio Diet score (PDS) was developed and its predictive and concurrent validity was assessed within the Toronto Healthy Diet Study, a six-month RCT in overweight adults. Predictive validity was assessed using change in the PDS measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and concomitant change in LDL-C from baseline to six months using multiple linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders (n = 652). Concurrent validity was assessed in a subset of participants (n = 50) who completed the FFQ and a 7-day diet record (7DDR) at baseline. The PDS determined from each diet assessment method was used to derive correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots to assess the between-method agreement. The change in PDS was inversely associated with change in LDL-C (ß coefficients: -0.01 mmol/L (95% confidence intervals (CIs): -0.02, -0.002; p =0.02). The correlation between the PDS from the FFQ and 7DDR was 0.69 (95% CIs: 0.48, 0.85). The Bland-Altman plot showed reasonable agreement between the score from the FFQ and 7DDR. These findings indicate predictive validity of the PDS with lower LDL-C, and reasonable concurrent validity of the PDS as assessed by an FFQ against a 7DDR.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While consent exists, that nutritional status has prognostic impact in the critically ill, the optimal feeding strategy has been a matter of debate. METHODS: Narrative review of the recent evidence and international guideline recommendations focusing on basic principles of nutrition in the ICU and the treatment of specific patient groups. Covered topics are: the importance and diagnosis of malnutrition in the ICU, the optimal timing and route of nutrition, energy and protein requirements, the supplementation of specific nutrients, as well as monitoring and complications of a Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT). Furthermore, this review summarizes the available evidence to optimize the MNT of patients grouped by primarily affected organ system. RESULTS: Due to the considerable heterogeneity of the critically ill, MNT should be carefully adapted to the individual patient with special focus on phase of critical illness, metabolic tolerance, leading symptoms, and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: MNT in the ICU is complex and requiring an interdisciplinary approach and frequent reevaluation. The impact of personalized and disease-specific MNT on patient-centered clinical outcomes remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Alimentos Formulados , Desnutrição/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrição Enteral , Alimentos Formulados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Apoio Nutricional/efeitos adversos , Valor Nutritivo , Nutrição Parenteral , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A (VA) plays critical roles in prenatal and postnatal development; however, limited information is available regarding maternal VA metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of pregnancy and lactation on VA metabolism and kinetics in rats, hypothesizing that changes in physiological status would naturally perturb whole-body VA kinetics. METHODS: Eight-week old female rats (n = 10) fed an AIN-93G diet received an oral tracer dose of 3H-labeled retinol to initiate the kinetic study. On d 21 after dosing, six female rats were mated. Serial blood samples were collected from each female rat at selected times after dose administration until d 14 of lactation. Model-based compartmental analysis was applied to the plasma tracer data to develop VA kinetic models. RESULTS: Our compartmental model revealed that pregnancy resulted in a gradual increase in hepatic VA mobilization, presumably to support different stages of fetal development. Additionally, the model indicates that during lactation, VA derived from dietary intake was the primary source of VA delivered to the mammary gland for milk VA secretion. CONCLUSION: During pregnancy and lactation in rats with an adequate VA intake and previous VA storage, the internal redistribution of VA and increased uptake from diet supported the maintenance of VA homeostasis.


Assuntos
Lactação/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitamina A/prevenção & controle , Vitamina A/farmacocinética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Administração Oral , Ração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Modelos Biológicos , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/fisiopatologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445014

RESUMO

The maternal diet can potentially influence the life-course health of the child. A poor-quality maternal diet creates nutrient deficiencies and affects immune-metabolic regulation during pregnancy. The nutrient-based overall dietary quality can be assessed using the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), which measures adherence to the national reference daily values of nutrient intake. Pro- and anti-inflammatory nutrient intake can be assessed using the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII), a comprehensive index of diet-derived inflammatory capacity. Using these indices, we assessed the overall dietary quality and inflammatory potential of pregnant women during mid-gestation in an urban area of Japan (n = 108) and found that there was a strong inverse correlation between the NRF9.3 and E-DII scores. Comparison of the scores among the tertiles of NRF9.3 or E-DII indicated that dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin A, and magnesium mainly contributed to the variability of both indices. Intake of vegetables and fruits was positively associated with high NRF9.3 scores and negatively associated with high E-DII scores, after adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and educational level. Consistent with the previous studies that used dietary pattern analysis, this study also demonstrated that vegetables and fruits were the food groups chiefly associated with high dietary quality and low inflammatory potential among pregnant Japanese women.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tóquio , Verduras
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4728, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354065

RESUMO

Understanding how diet and gut microbiota interact in the context of human health is a key question in personalized nutrition. Genome-scale metabolic networks and constraint-based modeling approaches are promising to systematically address this complex problem. However, when applied to nutritional questions, a major issue in existing reconstructions is the limited information about compounds in the diet that are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Here, we present AGREDA, an extended reconstruction of diet metabolism in the human gut microbiota. AGREDA adds the degradation pathways of 209 compounds present in the human diet, mainly phenolic compounds, a family of metabolites highly relevant for human health and nutrition. We show that AGREDA outperforms existing reconstructions in predicting diet-specific output metabolites from the gut microbiota. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing data of faecal samples from Spanish children representing different clinical conditions, we illustrate the potential of AGREDA to establish relevant metabolic interactions between diet and gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta Mediterrânea , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lens (Planta)/química , Valor Nutritivo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espanha
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371960

RESUMO

Adolescence is a time in life when lifestyle behaviours are acquired. One indicator of poor diet quality is the intake of foods and beverages with a relatively low nutritional value. Using the Australian classification of such foods, termed "discretionary", we classified the intakes of Swedish adolescents who participated in the Riksmaten Adolescent 2016-17 national dietary survey. From selected schools, 3099 adolescents in age groups 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years provided two 24-h recalls. Intakes and healthy dietary scores were calculated. Plasma ferritin, folate and 25(OH)D were available for a third. Almost 40% of total energy came from discretionary foods/beverages. Adolescents with higher intakes were more likely to be female, older, from a low socioeconomic position-household and born in Sweden. Most discretionary foods/beverages were consumed on weekend days and during in-between meals, outside of the home and at school. Percent energy from discretionary intake was associated with healthy dietary scores but not nutritional status. A substantial amount of energy was obtained from discretionary foods/beverages, and we found that consumption is pervasive across sociodemographic factors, time and place. Addressing this pattern will require a comprehensive approach to food environments and behaviours to reach all adolescents in an equitable manner.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Nutrientes , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Estado Nutricional , Lanches , Suécia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444959

RESUMO

The rapid rise in prevalence of overweight/obesity, as well as high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases, has led the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to propose a front-of-package labeling (FOPL) regulation. An effective FOPL system applies a nutrient profile model that identifies foods high in sugar, sodium, and saturated fat that would receive a warning label for consumers to effectively discern between more and less healthy foods. Previous Nutrition Alchemy data collected by the food industry (n = 1306 products) estimated that approximately 96% of foods in India would have at least one warning label based on the FSSAI proposed FOPL. This near universal coverage of warning labels may be inaccurate and misleading. To address this, the current study compared two nutrient profile models, the WHO South-East Asia Region Organization (SEARO) and the Chilean Warning Octagon (CWO) Phase 3, applied to food products available in the Indian market from 2015-2020, collected through Mintel Global New Products Database (n = 10,501 products). Results suggest that 68% of foods and beverages would have at least one ' high-in' level warning label. This study highlights the need to include a more comprehensive sample of food products for assessing the value of warning labels.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Chile , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bases de Dados Factuais , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Índia , Valor Nutritivo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Health Rep ; 32(8): 18-26, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic have upended the way Canadians eat and shop for food. Since the pandemic began, many Canadians have reported consuming food away from home (FAFH) less often. FAFH tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home. Little is known about patterns of Canadians' FAFH consumption before the pandemic. This study used 2015 national-level nutrition data, the most recent available, to characterize patterns of FAFH consumption and selected markers of dietary intake. DATA AND METHODS: National-level food intake data came from the first 24-hour dietary recall provided by 20,475 respondents aged 1 or older to the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition. Mean daily intakes of selected food subgroups and nutrients, adjusted for total energy intake, were compared between those who had consumed any food in a restaurant on the previous day and those who had not. Estimates were generated overall and for eight age and sex groups. RESULTS: In 2015, overall, 21.8% of Canadians had consumed FAFH in a restaurant on the previous day. Eating out was most common among males aged 19 to 54 (27.7%) and least common among young children aged 1 to 5 (8.4%). Compared with Canadians who had not eaten out on the previous day, those who had eaten out had consumed, on that day, fewer servings of whole fruit; whole grains; dark green and orange vegetables; other vegetables (excluding potatoes); milk and fortified soy-based beverages; and legumes, nuts and seeds, on average. Those who had eaten out had consumed, on average, less fibre and total sugar, and more total fat, saturated fat and sodium on that day. There were few differences for meat and poultry, fish and seafood, and protein intake. DISCUSSION: On the day that Canadians ate out in a restaurant, their dietary intake was generally less favourable than that of Canadians who did not eat out. If Canadians continue to eat at home more and to consume less FAFH, as early pandemic-period reports suggest, then results can be used to gauge the potential dietary implications of these shifts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371970

RESUMO

Restaurant meal consumption has increased substantially, but the ability of restaurants to adhere to guidelines for the Mediterranean diet, healthiness and food allergen management is a challenge. This cross-sectional study aims to assess the Mediterranean diet adherence, healthiness, nutritional quality and food allergen management of meals at restaurants in the Tarragona province (Catalonia, Spain). Primary outcomes included adherence to criteria for the Mediterranean diet (AMed) and gluten management (SMAP), nutritional quality of dishes indicated by a green traffic light rating, meal nutrient content and allergen-free options. Secondary outcomes included restaurant staff knowledge about the Mediterranean diet and food allergens. Forty-four restaurants and 297 dishes were analysed. The restaurants fulfilled an average (mean ± SD) of 5.1 ± 1.6 of 9 compulsory AMed criteria and 12.9 ± 2.8 of 18 SMAP criteria. Dishes were mainly rated green for sugar (n = 178/297; 59.9%) but not for energy (n = 23/297; 7.7%) or total fat (n = 18/297; 6.1%). Waiters and cooks received passing scores for food allergen knowledge (5.8 ± 1.7 and 5.5 ± 1.5 out of 10 points, respectively). Restaurants partially met the AMed and SMAP criteria. Increasing fibre and decreasing saturated fat content are necessary to improve consumers' adherence to healthy diets. For restaurant staff, training courses should be considered to improve their food allergen management.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Refeições , Restaurantes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Dieta Vegana , Dieta Vegetariana , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Restaurantes/organização & administração , Espanha
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371839

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic is associated with increased consumption of restaurant food. Labeling of menus is an intervention used to provide consumers with kilocalorie (calorie) information in hopes of them making healthier food choices. This study evaluated the relationship between young adults' calorie choices on restaurant menus and menu design, dietary behaviors, and demographic characteristics. A 3 (fast-casual restaurants) × 4 (menu-designs based on menu engineering theories) between-subjects (n = 480, 18-24-year olds) experimental design was used. The relationship between the participants' calorie choices (high versus low) and menu design, stage of change, gender, race, educational level and weight status was evaluated using logistic regression. All independent variables had at least one category that had greater odds (CI 95% ± 5%) of subjects choosing a lower calorie entree, except education level and race/ethnic group. Normal weight and overweight subjects had greater odds of choosing lower calorie entrees than those that were obese. In addition, subjects that had started to control their calorie intake for less than six months or had sustained this change for at least six months, had greater odds of choosing lower calorie entrees compared to others. Including a green symbol and calories on fast casual restaurant menus may influence some young adults to choose lower calorie entrees.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Fast Foods/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Restaurantes , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445648

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most extensively cultivated and used staple crops in human nutrition, while wheat bread is annually consumed in more than nine billion kilograms over the world. Consumers' purchase decisions on wheat bread are largely influenced by its nutritional and sensorial characteristics. In the last decades, metabolomics is considered an effective tool for elucidating the information on metabolites; however, the deep investigations on metabolites still remain a difficult and longtime action. This review gives emphasis on the achievements in wheat bread metabolomics by highlighting targeted and untargeted analyses used in this field. The metabolomics approaches are discussed in terms of quality, processing and safety of wheat and bread, while the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensorial and nutritional characteristics of wheat bread are pointed out. These aspects are of crucial importance in the context of new consumers' demands on healthy bakery products rich in bioactive compounds but, equally, with good sensorial acceptance. Moreover, metabolomics is a potential tool for assessing the changes in nutrient composition from breeding to processing, while monitoring and understanding the transformations of metabolites with bioactive properties, as well as the formation of compounds like toxins during wheat storage.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Metaboloma , Valor Nutritivo , Controle de Qualidade , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361748

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects that the type of impregnating solution and drying method (freeze drying (FD) and vacuum drying (VD) at 45 °C and convective drying (CD) at 50, 60, and 70 °C) had on the physicochemical and quality properties of courgettes. Courgette slices were vacuum-impregnated (6 kPa) in freshly squeezed onion, kale, and onion and kale (50:50) juices with 3% NaCl solution (N). The application of vacuum impregnation (VI) with impregnating solutions from freshly squeezed onions and kale had a beneficial effect on the bioactive values of courgette. The highest contents of quercetin (41.84 µg/g d.m.) and carotenoids (276.04 µg/g d.m.) were found in courgette impregnated with onion juice after freeze drying. The highest values of lutein and zeaxanthin (216.42 µg/g d.m.) were recorded for courgette impregnated with kale juice and convective dried. By analysing the kinetics of convective drying, the best matching of the logistic model was found. Increasing the drying process temperature from 50 to 70 °C reduced the drying time from 15% to 36%, depending on the type of impregnating solution used. Water activity < 0.6 was recorded for courgette dried by freezing, vacuum, and convection at 60 and 70 °C. Conclusions: The vacuum impregnation process and the impregnation solutions from freshly squeezed vegetables can be used to develop new snacks with high levels of bioactive compounds. The FD method is the most appropriate considering both the bioactive compounds content and the obtained colour and water activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cucurbitaceae/química , Dessecação/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização/métodos , Brassica/química , Carotenoides/análise , Dessecação/instrumentação , Liofilização/instrumentação , Humanos , Cinética , Luteína/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Cebolas/química , Quercetina/análise , Lanches , Vácuo , Zeaxantinas/análise
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444912

RESUMO

Inhibitory control is the ability to control impulsive behavior. It is associated with a range of mental and physical health outcomes, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance dependence. Breastfeeding and healthy dietary patterns have been associated with better executive functions, of which inhibitory control is part. Additionally, breastfeeding has been associated with healthy dietary patterns. Following our preregistration in the Open Science Framework, we investigated the associations between breastfeeding history and inhibitory control at preschool age, with habitual diet quality as a potential mediating factor. A total of 72 families from a longitudinal study participated at child age 3. Breastfeeding questionnaires were administered at 2, 6, and 12 weeks, and at 12 and 36 months. Six inhibitory control tasks were performed during a home visit, and questionnaires were filled in by both parents. Diet quality at age 3 was assessed via three unannounced 24-h recalls. Structural equation modelling was performed in R. This study did not provide evidence that breastfeeding history is associated with inhibitory control in 3-year-old children. Furthermore, diet quality at age 3 did not mediate the link between breastfeeding history and inhibitory control. Previous studies have investigated broader aspects of inhibitory control, such as executive functions, and used different methods to assess nutritional intake, which might explain our differential findings. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on associations between nutrition and behavior. Future replications with larger and more diverse preschool samples are recommended.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Fatores de Tempo , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
17.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1439-1442, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464183

RESUMO

Improvements to correctional facilities' food environment can provide healthier food and beverage options for incarcerated individuals, a population disproportionately affected by chronic disease. This article describes efforts to increase healthy options in the commissary program at Washington State correctional facilities from 2017 to 2019, and the role of a multidisciplinary collaboration between the state's Department of Corrections, Department of Health, and Statewide Family Council. Through the development, implementation, and promotion of nutrition standards, the nutritional quality of foods and beverages in the commissary program improved.


Assuntos
Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Prisioneiros , Washington
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444695

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the associations between food waste and the diet quality of foods purchased and with grocery purchasing behaviors. This was a cross-sectional study among 109 primary household food providers conducting primary shopping. Participants were recruited outside of local grocery stores and were asked to complete a survey assessing amounts of avoidable food waste and grocery purchasing behaviors. The diet quality of the foods purchased was assessed from grocery receipts using the Grocery Purchase Quality Index-2016 (GPQI-2016). Variables were associated using linear regression, analysis of covariance, and point biserial correlations. We found that fresh fruits (63%) and leafy greens (70%) were the foods that were the most wasted. The GPQI-2016 total score was significantly inversely associated with the total amount of food wasted (ß = -0.63; 95% CI: -1.14,-0.12) after adjusting for important confounders. The reason "food past the date printed on the package" was directly correlated with food wasted (r = 0.40; p < 0.01) but inversely correlated with GPQI-2016 score (r = -0.21; p = 0.04). Food wasted, but not the GPQI-2016 score, was significantly higher among those who grocery shop 2-4 times per week compared to 1 time every 1-2 weeks (p = 0.02). In conclusion, food waste is inversely associated with diet quality and directly associated with grocery purchasing frequency.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Florida , Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444844

RESUMO

The implementation of REGULATION (EC) No 1924/2006 has led to the formation of a list of health claims that can be used in food supplements (EU 432/2012). However, such supplements are often composed of plant preparations with claims omitted from this list. The peculiarity of plants is related to their long history of use, that could allow claims based on traditionally recognized health effects. In addition, the scientific literature has been enriched over the years through clinical studies that have assessed the bioavailability and efficacy of bioactive components, and investigated their mechanisms of action. Based on existing recognized models which aim to classify research according to the level of scientific evidence, Synadiet developed a three-grade model (A, B or C) for assessing plants health claims. In this paper, the applicability of the model is illustrated through an example for which a Grade B health claim attesting the possible contribution of red clover isoflavones to the improvement of blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women has been attributed. The model appears able to be easily extrapolated to claims pertaining to other plants. If adopted by consensus at European level, this model could initiate the implementation of a positive list of health claims on plant preparations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Preparações de Plantas/normas , Plantas Comestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Trifolium/química
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444877

RESUMO

Diet quality in the United States is improving over time but remains poor. Food outlets influence diet quality and represent the environments in which individuals make choices about food purchases and intake. The objective of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) to evaluate the quality of foods consumed from the four major outlets where food is obtained-stores, full-service restaurants, quick-services restaurants, and schools-and to assess changes over time. This cross-sectional study used 24 h dietary recall data from eight cycles (2003-2004 to 2017-2018) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Linear trend estimation was used to test for changes in HEI scores over time, and balanced repeated replicate weighted linear regression was used to test for differences in total and component scores between types of food outlets. Overall, Americans are not consuming a mix of foods from any major category of food outlet that aligns with dietary guidelines. The total score for schools (65/100 points) and stores (62/100 points) was significantly higher than full-service (51/100 points) and quick-service (39/100 points) restaurants (p < 0.0001). HEI scores significantly improved over time for schools (p < 0.001), including an increase in whole grains from less than 1 point in 2003-2004 to 7 out of 10 points in 2017-2018. In 2017-2018, schools received the maximum score for total fruits, whole fruits, and dairy. Continued research on strategies for improving the quality of foods consumed from restaurants and stores is warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Restaurantes , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Supermercados , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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