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2.
BMJ ; 370: m3173, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), which grades the nutritional quality of food products and is used to derive the Nutri-Score front-of-packet label to guide consumers towards healthier food choices, is associated with mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from 23 centres in 10 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 521 324 adults; at recruitment, country specific and validated dietary questionnaires were used to assess their usual dietary intakes. A FSAm-NPS score was calculated for each food item per 100 g content of energy, sugars, saturated fatty acids, sodium, fibre, and protein, and of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. The FSAm-NPS dietary index was calculated for each participant as an energy weighted mean of the FSAm-NPS score of all foods consumed. The higher the score the lower the overall nutritional quality of the diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and mortality, assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: After exclusions, 501 594 adults (median follow-up 17.2 years, 8 162 730 person years) were included in the analyses. Those with a higher FSAm-NPS dietary index score (highest versus lowest fifth) showed an increased risk of all cause mortality (n=53 112 events from non-external causes; hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, P<0.001 for trend) and mortality from cancer (1.08, 1.03 to 1.13, P<0.001 for trend) and diseases of the circulatory (1.04, 0.98 to 1.11, P=0.06 for trend), respiratory (1.39, 1.22 to 1.59, P<0.001), and digestive (1.22, 1.02 to 1.45, P=0.03 for trend) systems. The age standardised absolute rates for all cause mortality per 10 000 persons over 10 years were 760 (men=1237; women=563) for those in the highest fifth of the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and 661 (men=1008; women=518) for those in the lowest fifth. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, consuming foods with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher mortality for all causes and for cancer and diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems, supporting the relevance of FSAm-NPS to characterise healthier food choices in the context of public health policies (eg, the Nutri-Score) for European populations. This is important considering ongoing discussions about the potential implementation of a unique nutrition labelling system at the European Union level.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 89, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foods consumed by children that attend basic health units. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative probabilistic sample of 536 children aged between 6 and 59 months treated at a health unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional information was extracted from labels of the ultra-processed foods referred to in a 24-hour recall. The 351 foods mentioned were divided into 22 groups and 38 subgroups according to the type of product, and they were characterized according to the averages of the values for energy, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats and sodium in 100 grams of the product, in addition to presence, number, and type of "other sweeteners". The nutritional Profile Model of the Pan American Health Organization was applied for each food and for the average of nutrient content obtained for each group to examine the occurrence of critical nutrients excess. RESULTS: Ultra-processed foods contained high energy value and high levels of total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. Out of the total of ultra-processed foods, 66% presented excess of at least one critical nutrient, with emphasis on requeijões and ultra-processed cheeses, instant noodles, and industrialized and sausage-like meats, which presented 100% of foods with excess of total fats, saturated fats and sodium. Out of the 21 groups, the following exceeded the limit established by the Pan American Health Organization: for total fats, 10 groups; for saturated fats, 11; for trans fats, 3; and sodium, 13. Requeijões and ultra-processed cheeses; industrialized and sausage-like meats; and biscuits exceeded this limit in all parameters. Out of the set of ultra-processed foods analyzed, 13.4% contained "other sweeteners" (eight different types). CONCLUSIONS: The ultra-processed foods analyzed presented unbalanced nutritional profile, and two thirds presented excess of at least one critical nutrient. Educational actions and regulatory measures are necessary to better inform the population and to discourage its consumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos
4.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 224, ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103542

RESUMO

El consumo de proteína y especialmente aminoácidos esenciales juega un papel fundamental en la dieta, ya que suple las necesidades de nitrógeno del organismo y favorece el mantenimiento de estructuras corporales. En los últimos años, la nutrición y la tecnología de los alimentos están experimentando una profunda transformación debido al desarrollo del concepto de alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos. Tanto las proteínas funcionales como los péptidos bioactivos están cobrando gran importancia ya que, además de su papel nutricional por ser fuente de aminoácidos, son capaces de ejercer diferentes efectos biológicos específicos sobre el sistema inmune, el sistema cardiovascular o el tracto gastrointestinal. Los aminoácidos de cadena ramificada (BCAAs denominación por las siglas en inglés) como lo son la Leucina, Isoleucina y Valina son considerados útiles para el tratamiento y predicción de algunas enfermedades, el presente artículo de revisión, se recopila información acerca de los aminoácidos de cadena ramificada y su uso positivo en el tratamiento de diferentes patologías como enfermedades neurológicas, hepáticas, cardiometabólicas, cáncer, además de su uso en deportistas. Se tuvieron en cuenta los siguientes criterios de inclusión: 1. La búsqueda se realizó en reconocidas bases de datos, 2. Se incluyeron artículos desde el 2006 a la fecha, 3. Se realizó la búsqueda con palabras como aminoácidos de cadena ramificada y efecto en diferentes patologías, con la inclusión de artículos donde se menciona el consumo humano de los mismos, se excluyeron artículos donde los aminoácidos no intervengan de manera positiva en su consumo y tratamiento de enfermedades(AU)


The consumption of protein and especially essential amino acids play a fundamental role in the diet, in order to meet the body's nitrogen needs and the maintenance of body structures. In recent years nutrition and food technology are undergoing a profound transformation due to the development of the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals. Both functional proteins and bioactive peptides are becoming very important since, in addition to their nutritional role as a source of amino acids, they are capable of exerting different specific biological effects on the immune system, the cardiovascular system or the gastrointestinal tract. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), such as Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine, are considered useful for the treatment and prediction of some diseases. This review article collects information about branched-chain amino acids. and it's positive use in the treatment of different pathologies such as neurological, liver, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, in addition to it's use in athletes. The following inclusion criteria were taken into account: 1. The search was carried out in recognized databases, 2. Articles were included from 2006 to date, 3. The search was carried out with words such as branched-chain amino acids and effect in different pathologies, with the inclusion of articles where their human consumption is mentioned, articles were excluded where amino acids do not intervene positively in their consumption and treatment of diseases(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Proteínas , Dieta , Composição de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo
5.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111092, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805582

RESUMO

Animal excreta are commonly recycled as fertilizers, although attention should be given to environmental impacts. Legislation must also be adapted to new research findings. The framework of this study is an intensive fodder Mediterranean agricultural system affected by EU legislation on the protection of waters against nitrate pollution. This paper studies the effect of two N based dairy cattle slurry (DCS) rates (170 vs. 250 kg N ha-1 yr-1) plus additional mineral N (up to 450 kg N ha-1 divided between two crops), on different soil quality parameters. A control (no N applied) was included. The experiment, which lasted for 8 years, included forage maize followed by ryegrass, grain maize and rapeseed. In the whole period, the organic carbon inputs from the DCS treatments comprised C slurry inputs (14.8 or 21.9 Mg ha-1) plus the C input difference in crop residues (8.3 Mg ha-1) between DCS and the control treatment. In the 0-0.3 m soil depth, slurries significantly increased soil organic carbon (SOC) from by 2.3 or 2.7% yearly (c. 2.8 Mg C with 10 Mg C ha-1 input) mainly in its light fraction. The size of the microbial biomass increased by 5.1% yearly (c. 0.12 Mg C with 10 Mg C ha-1 input). A higher aggregate stability against slaking disruption was observed. Soil pH slightly decreased, P (Olsen) fertility increased (up to 10 mg P kg-1) as did K availability (up to 140 mg K kg-1) and Mn and Ni bioavailability. In rapeseed plants, seed Ca, S, Cu and Mn content increased as did K, S, Fe, Mn and Zn in the rest of the plant biomass. These changes were within acceptable concentration ranges. The higher N rate from DCS has proved useful for the circular nutrient economy, while improving soil physical and chemical quality and the sustainability of the agricultural system as a whole.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Valor Nutritivo
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20181313, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756841

RESUMO

Quinoa, classified as a pseudocereal, presents greater nutritional value compared to traditional cereals. Considering the potential for cultivation presented by the species and the benefits of studying plant morphology and morphobiometry, this paper describes seed and seedling morphobiometric characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivar BRS Piabiru during germination and emergence. To evaluate seed morphobiometry the 1000-seeds weight, moisture content, seed morphological characterization and the tetrazolium test were performed. The morphological characterization of germination and seedling emergence were performed by periodic observations during the development, allowing the description using pictures and drawings. Quinoa seeds cv. BRS Piabiru present an average diameter of 2.05 mm and 1.07 width. 1000-seeds weight of 2.68 g and moisture content of 11%. Externally, quinoa seeds present the pericarp as testa, the hilum and the raphe and, internally, the embryonic axis (cotyledons, radicle and hypocotyl-radicle), perisperm and endosperm. The germination is characterized as epigeal, phanerocotylar type, with radicle protrusion at 3 hours after sowing and complete formed seedlings at 24 hours after sowing. Emergence occurs at 9 days after sowing and plants are completely formed at 12 days after sowing.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Germinação , Valor Nutritivo , Plântula , Sementes
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003256, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has increased drastically worldwide and already represents 50%-60% of total daily energy intake in several high-income countries. In the meantime, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen continuously during the last century. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between UPF consumption and the risk of overweight and obesity, as well as change in body mass index (BMI), in a large French cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 110,260 adult participants (≥18 years old, mean baseline age = 43.1 [SD 14.6] years; 78.2% women) from the French prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2019) were included. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline using repeated and validated 24-hour dietary records linked to a food composition database that included >3,500 different food items, each categorized according to their degree of processing by the NOVA classification. Associations between the proportion of UPF in the diet and BMI change during follow-up were assessed using linear mixed models. Associations with risk of overweight and obesity were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. After adjusting for age, sex, educational level, marital status, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol intake, number of 24-hour dietary records, and energy intake, we observed a positive association between UPF intake and gain in BMI (ß Time × UPF = 0.02 for an absolute increment of 10 in the percentage of UPF in the diet, P < 0.001). UPF intake was associated with a higher risk of overweight (n = 7,063 overweight participants; hazard ratio (HR) for an absolute increase of 10% of UPFs in the diet = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08-1.14; P < 0.001) and obesity (n = 3,066 incident obese participants; HR10% = 1.09 (1.05-1.13); P < 0.001). These results remained statistically significant after adjustment for the nutritional quality of the diet and energy intake. Study limitations include possible selection bias, potential residual confounding due to the observational design, and a possible item misclassification according to the level of processing. Nonetheless, robustness was tested and verified using a large panel of sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this large observational prospective study, higher consumption of UPF was associated with gain in BMI and higher risks of overweight and obesity. Public health authorities in several countries recently started to recommend privileging unprocessed/minimally processed foods and limiting UPF consumption. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03335644 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03335644).


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/tendências , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111045, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745785

RESUMO

Cardamine violifolia (Brassicaceae) is a novel selenium(Se) hyperaccumulation plant with rich nutrients, and serves as a good source of special vegetables in Enshi, China. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the application of selenate, selenite, and Se yeast (50-800 mg/L) on the growth, Se accumulation, nutrient uptake, and antioxidant response of C. violifolia. The results showed that the Se accumulation efficiency was selenate > selenite > Se yeast, the maximum Se concentration could achieve over 7000 mg/kg, and about 90% was organic Se. The major Se speciation found was mainly SeCys2 and the proportion of various Se species were affected by the Se forms and concentrations. Besides, the plant growth, nutrition quality indexes, element uptakes, and antioxidant responses indicated that 200 mg/L selenate was optimum for C. violifolia to accumulate Se without much impacts, while to obtain more proportion of organic Se, 200 mg/L selenite might be a better choice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cardamine/fisiologia , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Fermento Seco/química , Bioacumulação , Cardamine/química , Cardamine/enzimologia , Cardamine/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Elementos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Valor Nutritivo
9.
JAMA ; 324(4): 359-368, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721008

RESUMO

Importance: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, implemented nationwide in 2012, was intended to improve the nutritional quality of meals served in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Objective: To assess whether there was an association between the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 and dietary quality of lunch for students participating in the NSLP, stratified by income. Design, Setting, Participants: Serial cross-sectional study design, using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016, of students who were surveyed in the NHANES and were attending schools participating in the NSLP. Individuals who were aged 5 to 18 years, in kindergarten through 12th grade, enrolled in a school that served school lunch, and had a reliable weekday dietary recall were included. Exposures: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (prepolicy period: 2007-2010; postpolicy period: 2013-2016), with participation in the NSLP estimated based on an algorithm. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was dietary quality of intake for lunch, measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score (range, 0-100; 0 indicates a diet with no adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and 100 indicates a diet with complete adherence to the guidelines). Results: Among 6389 students included in the surveys (mean age, 11.7 [95% CI, 11.6-11.9] years; 3145 [50%] female students; 1880 [56%] were non-Hispanic white), 32% were low-income, 12% were low-middle-income, and 56% were middle-high-income students. A total of 2472 (39%) were participants in the NSLP. Among low-income students, the adjusted mean prepolicy HEI-2010 score was 42.7 and the postpolicy score was 54.6 among NSLP participants and the adjusted mean prepolicy score was 34.8 and postpolicy score was 34.1 among NSLP nonparticipants (difference in differences, 12.6 [95% CI, 8.9-16.3]). Among low-middle-income students, the adjusted mean prepolicy HEI-2010 score was 40.4 and postpolicy score was 54.8 among NSLP participants and the adjusted mean prepolicy score was 34.2 and postpolicy score was 36.1 among NSLP nonparticipants (difference in differences, 12.4 [95% CI, 4.9-19.9]). Among middle-high-income students, the adjusted mean HEI-2010 prepolicy score was 42.7 and postpolicy score 55.5 for NSLP participants and the adjusted mean prepolicy score was 38.9 and prepolicy score was 43.6 for NSLP nonparticipants (difference in differences, 8.1 [95% CI, 4.2-12.0]). Conclusions and Relevance: In a serial cross-sectional study of students, the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 was associated with better changes in dietary quality for lunch among presumed low-income, low-middle-income, and middle-high-income participants in the NSLP compared with nonparticipants.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Assistência Alimentar/legislação & jurisprudência , Almoço , Valor Nutritivo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003220, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In June 2016, the first phase of the Chilean Food Labelling and Advertising Law that mandated front-of-package warning labels and marketing restrictions for unhealthy foods and beverages was implemented. We assess foods and beverages reformulation after this initial implementation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A data set with the 2015 to 2017 nutritional information was developed collecting the information at 2 time periods: preimplementation (T0: January-February 2015 or 2016; n = 4,055) and postimplementation (T1: January-February 2017; n = 3,025). Quartiles of energy and nutrients of concern (total sugars, saturated fats, and sodium, per 100 g/100 mL) and the proportion of products with energy and nutrients exceeding the cutoffs of the law (i.e., products "high in") were compared pre- and postimplementation of the law in cross-sectional samples of products with sales >1% of their specific food or beverage groups, according to the Euromonitor International Database; a longitudinal subsample (i.e., products collected in both the pre- and postimplementation periods, n = 1,915) was also analyzed. Chi-squared, McNemar tests, and quantile regressions (simple and multilevel) were used for comparing T0 and T1. Cross-sectional analysis showed a significant decrease (T0 versus T1) in the proportion of product with any "high in" (from 51% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49-52] to 44% [95% CI 42-45]), mostly in food and beverage groups in which regulatory cutoffs were below the 75th percentile of the nutrient or energy distribution. Most frequent reductions were in the proportion of "high in" sugars products (in beverages, milks and milk-based drinks, breakfast cereals, sweet baked products, and sweet and savory spreads; from 80% [95% CI 73-86] to 60% [95% CI 51-69]) and in "high in sodium" products (in savory spreads, cheeses, ready-to-eat meals, soups, and sausages; from 74% [95% CI 69-78] to 27% [95% CI 20-35]). Conversely, the proportion of products "high in" saturated fats only decreased in savory spreads (p < 0.01), and the proportion of "high in" energy products significantly decreased among breakfast cereals and savory spreads (both p < 0.01). Quantile analyses showed that most of the changes took place close to the cutoff values, with only few exceptions of overall left shifts in distribution. Longitudinal analyses showed similar results. However, it is important to note that the nonexperimental nature of this study does not allow to imply causality of these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that, after initial implementation of the Chilean Law of Food Labelling and Advertising, there was a significant decrease in the amount of sugars and sodium in several groups of packaged foods and beverages. Further studies should clarify how food reformulation will impact dietary quality of the population.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Nutrientes , Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Embalagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Açúcares
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Accurate estimates of Zn intake would facilitate the design and implementation of effective nutritional interventions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to improve estimates of dietary Zn intake by evaluating staple crop Zn content and dietary Zn consumption by children under the age of 5 in 9 rural districts of Uganda. METHODS: We measured the Zn content of 581 crop samples from household farms and 167 crop samples from nearby markets, and administered food frequency questionnaires to the primary caretakers of 237 children. We estimated Zn consumption using 3 sources of crop Zn content: (i) the HarvestPlus food composition table (FCT) for Uganda, (ii) measurements from household crops, and (iii) measurements from market crops. RESULTS: The Zn content of staple crops varied widely, resulting in significantly different estimates of dietary Zn intake. 41% of children appeared to be at risk when estimates were based on market-sampled crops, 23% appeared at risk when estimates were based on the HarvestPlus FCT, and 16% appeared at risk when estimates were based on samples from household farms. CONCLUSION: The use of FCTs to calculate Zn intake overestimated the risk of dietary inadequacy for children who primarily consumed staple crops that were produced on household farms, but underestimated the risk for children who primarily consumed staple crops that were purchased at market. More information on the Zn content of staple crops in developing countries could lead to more accurate estimates of dietary intake and associated deficiencies.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Zinco/análise , Zinco/deficiência , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Minerais , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Uganda , Zinco/metabolismo
12.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(3): 337-343, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638209

RESUMO

Concerns about the nutritional and sensory qualities of gluten-free (GF) products has generated interest in the evaluation of novel gluten-free ingredients. Folate content is of particular interest due to limited sources of enriched folic acid in a GF diet as well as lack of nutrient composition data in novel flours. The aim of this study was to determine the total folate content and chemical composition of GF flours commercially available in Canada. A tri-enzyme method was used to extract folate from the flour samples, and a microbiological assay was used to measure the total folate contents. The chemical compositions of the GF flours were determined according to standard Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) International methods. Compared to all-purpose flour, 265 ± 6.9 µg/100 (dry-weight basis), chickpea flour registered the highest folate content 451 ± 10.8 µg/100 (dry-weight basis) followed by quinoa flour, 174 ± 12.4 µg/ 100 g folate (dry-weight basis). Fonio, had a total starch content of ~77% but was not a source of folate. Flaxseed, chickpea, chia and coconut flours had the highest reported protein contents (mean value: 21.3 ± 1.3%) whereas flaxseed (~42%), and chia (~35%), had the highest lipid content. These findings may inform the selection of gluten-replacement flours with acceptable nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Farinha , Ácido Fólico , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Glutens , Valor Nutritivo
13.
Food Chem ; 332: 127288, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619935

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of green tea extract at 10 (GWG1%) and 50 (GWG5%) g/L as the steeping solution on the chemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of wheat grain during 14 days of germination. Fat, dry matter, and ash contents in the control was higher than GWG treatments due to the faster growth of control germs. Moisture, phenolic compounds, thiamin, niacin, and tocopherols decreased, whereas, fat, dry matter, carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber, ash, folic acid, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn increased significantly in all samples during germination. GWG5% showed the highest values in total phenols, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrate, followed by GWG1% and then the control. No significant differences in protein and crude fiber content were detected among treatments. GWG decreased the growth of total bacterial, yeast, and mold in germinated seeds. Overall, GWG improved the microbial and nutritional quality of wheat germ during 14 days of germination.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Food Chem ; 333: 127481, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663753

RESUMO

In this study, we tested the exogenous application of phytosulfokine α (PSKα) for delaying the yellowing of broccoli florets during cold storage. Our results showed that the lower yellowing in broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα was probably due to the higher endogenous accumulation of PSKα, leading to the endogenous accumulation of guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Besides, broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα exhibited a higher accumulation of phenols and flavonoids by triggering gene expression and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS). Moreover, the higher expression of L-galactotno-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) gene and the lower expression of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) gene in broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα may be the reasons for the higher accumulation of ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the exogenous application of PSKα is a promising strategy in delaying the yellowing and preserving the nutritional quality of broccoli florets during cold storage.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Pigmentação/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Food Chem ; 333: 127525, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683262

RESUMO

The consumption of halophytes as healthy gourmet food has increased considerably in the past few years. However, knowledge on the nutritional profile of domesticated halophytes is scarce and little is known on which cultivation conditions can produce plants with the best nutritional and functional properties. In this context, Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods was cultivated in six different salt concentrations, ranging from 35 to 465 mM of NaCl. Both the nutritional profile, the antioxidant capacity, and microbial quality of the produced plants were evaluated including minerals and vitamins. Salt has a marked effect on growth, which decreases for salinities higher than 110 mM. Nonetheless, plants cultivated with intermediate levels of salinity (110 and 200 mM) revealed better antioxidant status with higher amounts of phenolic compounds. Overall, results from this paper indicated that soilless culture systems using low-intermediate salinities produces S. ramosissima plants fit for commercialization and human consumption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Chenopodiaceae/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/análise , Chenopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodiaceae/microbiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/química , Vitaminas/análise
17.
Food Chem ; 333: 127536, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707417

RESUMO

Some halophyte plants are currently used in gourmet cuisine due to their unique organoleptic properties. Moreover, they exhibit excellent nutritional and functional properties, being rich in polyphenolics and vitamins. These compounds are associated to strong antioxidant activity and enhanced health benefits. This work compared the nutritional properties and antioxidant potential of three species (Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, Suaeda maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa) collected in saltmarshes from Portugal and Spain with those of cultivated plants. The latter were generally more succulent and had higher contents of minerals than plants obtained from the wild and contained less fibre. All species assayed are a good source of proteins, fibres and minerals. Additionally, they are good sources of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and B6 and showed good antioxidant potential particularly S. maritima. Chromatographic analysis of the phenolic profile revealed that ferulic and caffeic acids as the most relevant phenolic compounds detected in the halophytes tested.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chenopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodiaceae/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
18.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(5): 417-419, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648163

RESUMO

Too many children in Europe are overweight. The unregulated marketing of unhealthy products target to children, and the installation of vending machines stocked with unhealthy snacks in public venues, are contributing factors. While innovative legislation on the regulation of the nutritional quality of food and beverages sold in vending machines in schools has become law in some European countries, it is not on the political agenda in others. However, an easy alternative solution could be to introduce a clause in all new tenders for vending machines, which states that the successful supplier must commit to ensuring that at least 50% of the products sold have a medium-to-small portion size, are low in saturated fat, salt, calories, and have no added sugar. This strategy, called "A vending machine for a friend", was developed at CNR of Rome, and with the support of the SIPREC, the LHA and the EHN, and with the alliance with teachers and students, is being rolled out in some Italian and Lithuanian high schools. Creating a healthy nutritional environment with the aim of encouraging healthier choices, is a real possibility.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Serviços de Alimentação , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Tamanho da Porção , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 514-523, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193859

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: se evidencia un aumento cada vez mayor de la preocupación debido a valores alarmantes en condición física y composición corporal, que sitúan a los escolares en unos parámetros de riesgo en lo relativo a la salud física. Numerosas investigaciones relacionan la actividad física con la mejora en la condición física y la composición corporal. OBJETIVO: analizar los efectos de un programa de ejercicio interválico de intensidad moderada-vigorosa sobre indicadores de condición física (fuerza isométrica manual en ambas manos, fuerza explosiva del tren inferior, velocidad-agilidad y capacidad aeróbica) y de composición corporal (índice de masa corporal, % de grasa corporal, perímetro de cintura e índice cintura/altura), referentes todos ellos para la salud en escolares de 11 y 12 años. MÉTODOS: se desarrolla una intervención en la que participó un grupo experimental y otro control con 28 escolares cada uno de ellos. Transcurrió a lo largo de 7 semanas, con sesiones de 30 minutos totales antes del inicio de la actividad académica, 3 días por semana. Se realizaron diferentes juegos interválicos, con una intensidad moderada-vigorosa (70-80 % de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima). El registro en condición física y composición corporal se realizó a través de la batería ALPHA. RESULTADOS: mejoras significativas en fuerza isométrica con ambas manos y una reducción significativa del perímetro de cintura e índice cintura/altura. CONCLUSIÓN: los resultados muestran mejoras significativas en indicadores de condición física y composición corporal; sin embargo, se precisa de una intervención de mayor duración para conocer si las otras mejoras logradas en los indicadores analizados consiguen ser significativas con el transcurso del tiempo


INTRODUCTION: there is growing evidence of concern for values in terms of physical condition and body composition that place school children being at risk in physical health. Numerous investigations relate physical activity with improvement in physical condition and body composition. OBJECTIVE: to analyze the effects of a sub-maximal intensity interval exercise program on physical condition (upper body isometric strength in both hands, lower body explosive strength, velocity-agility and cardiorespiratory fitness) and body composition (body mass index, % of body fat, waist circumference and waist/height index), all of them related to health, in schoolchildren of 11 and 12 years. METHODS: an intervention was developed in which an experimental group participated and another control group with 28 schoolchildren each. The study developped over 8 weeks, with sessions of total 30 minutes before the start of the academic activity 3 days per week. Different intervallic games were made with motor, cognitive and coordination challenges; with a moderate-vigorous intensity (70 %-80 % of maximum heart rate). The registration in physical condition and body composition was made through the ALPHA Battery. RESULTS: significant improvements in isometric strength in both hands and a reduction in waist circumference and waist/height were found. CONCLUSIONS: the results show significant improvements in indicators of fitness and fatness, however, it requires a long-term intervention to know if the other improvements achieved in the analyzed indicators are significant over time


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 631-635, mayo-jun. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193873

RESUMO

El fallo intestinal (FI) se define como una reducción de la función intestinal por debajo del mínimo necesario para la absorción de nutrientes y que precisa suplementación intravenosa para mantener la salud y/o el crecimiento. La causa más frecuente es el síndrome de intestino corto (SIC). Aproximadamente el 50 % de los pacientes con SIC presenta FI y requiere soporte parenteral. La teduglutida es un análogo del péptido-2 similar al glucagón (GLP-2) humano aprobado para el tratamiento de pacientes con SIC. Los resultados de ensayos clínicos han probado su eficacia: se reducen el volumen y los días de administración de nutrición parenteral y fluidoterapia. Pocas publicaciones evalúan los efectos sobre la función intestinal a largo plazo en pacientes respondedores tras la suspensión de teduglutida. Se describe un paciente con SIC tipo I (yeyunostomía terminal) debido a múltiples intervenciones quirúrgicas por enfermedad de Crohn, que recibió tratamiento con liraglutida un año y teduglutida secuencial durante 21 meses. Con el primero, se objetivó una reducción en la necesidad de aporte y débito por yeyunostomía. El análogo del GLP-2 consiguió una mayor reducción del desequilibrio hídrico que permitió suspender la sueroterapia nocturna, con ganancia ponderal y mantenimiento de parámetros nutricionales, situación mantenida dos años después de su suspensión


Intestinal failure (IF) is defined as a reduction in intestinal function below the minimum necessary for the absorption of nutrients, requiring intravenous supplementation to maintain health and/or growth. The most common cause is short bowel syndrome (SBS). Approximately 50 % of patients with SBS have IF and require parenteral support. Teduglutide is a human glucagon-like peptide-2 analogue (GLP-2) approved for the treatment of patients with SBS. Clinical trial results have proven its efficacy by reducing volume and days of administration of parenteral nutrition and fluid therapy. Few publications evaluate the effects on long-term bowel function in respondent patients after teduglutide suspension. A patient with type I SBS (terminal jejunostomy) due to multiple surgeries for Crohn's disease, who was treated with liraglutide for one year and sequential teduglutide for 21 months, is described. With the former, a reduction in the need for contribution and debit by jejunostomy was observed. The GLP-2 analogue achieved a greater reduction in the hydric disbalance that allowed the suspension of the nocturnal suerotherapy, with weight gain and maintenance of nutritional parameters; situation maintained two years after its suspension


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/tratamento farmacológico , Nutrientes , Infusões Intravenosas/métodos , Hidratação , Valor Nutritivo
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