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1.
Cardiol Rev ; 28(6): 295-302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017364

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus, declared a pandemic, has infected 2.6 million people as of April 27, 2020, and has resulted in the death of 181,938 people. D-dimer is an important prognostic tool, is often elevated in patients with severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection and in those who suffered death. In this systematic review, we aimed to investigate the prognostic role of D-dimer in COVID-19-infected patients. We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane for studies reporting admission D-dimer levels in COVID-19 patients and its effect on mortality. Eighteen studies (16 retrospective and 2 prospective) with a total of 3682 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) demonstrated significantly elevated D-dimer levels in patients who died versus those who survived (WMD, 6.13 mg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.16-8.11; P < 0.001). Similarly, the pooled mean D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in patients with severe COVID-19 infection (WMD, 0.54 mg/L; 95% CI 0.28-0.80; P < 0.001). The risk of mortality was fourfold higher in patients with positive D-dimer versus negative D-dimer (risk ratio, 4.11; 95% CI, 2.48-6.84; P < 0.001) and the risk of developing severe disease was twofold higher in patients with positive D-dimer levels versus negative D-dimer (risk ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.34-3.11; P < 0.001). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that patients with COVID-19 infection presenting with elevated D-dimer levels have an increased risk of severe disease and mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos
2.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875776

RESUMO

Lung Ultrasound (LUS) is regarded to be potentially useful to diagnose lung injury in older adults living in nursing homes with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed at evaluating presence lung injury among senior nursing home residents by LUS performed with portable wireless scanner echography. The study population consisted of 150 residents with a mean age of 88 years (85% female) residing in 12 nursing homes in Northern Italy. Subjects had to have a history of recent onset of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia or have been exposed to the contagion of patients carrying the disease. COVID-19 testing was performed with SARS-CoV-2 nasal-pharyngeal (NP) swabs. Positive subjects to LUS scanning were considered those with non-coascelent B-lines in >3 zones, coalescent B-lines in >3 zones and with iperdensed patchy non-consolidated lungs. Sixty-three percent had positive NP testing and 65% had LUS signs of pulmonary injury. LUS had a sensitivity of 79% in predicting positive NP testing. Sixteen percent of residents tested negative for SARSCoV-2 carried the signs of COVID-19 lung injury at LUS. There were 92 patients (61%) with current or recent symptoms.Positivity to LUS scanning was reported in 73% of residents with symptoms, while it was 53% in those without (P=0.016). A positive NP testing was observed in 66% of residents with symptoms and in 57% of those without (P=0.27). We conclude that assessment of LUS by portable wireless scanner echography can be profitability utilized to diagnose lung injury among senior nursing home residents with or without symptoms compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Ultrassonografia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Tecnologia sem Fio
3.
Theranostics ; 10(21): 9663-9673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863952

RESUMO

Introduction: To explore the involvement of the cardiovascular system in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we investigated whether myocardial injury occurred in COVID-19 patients and assessed the performance of serum high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin I (hs-cTnI) levels in predicting disease severity and 30-day in-hospital fatality. Methods: We included 244 COVID-19 patients, who were admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University with no preexisting cardiovascular disease or renal dysfunction. We analyzed the data including patients' clinical characteristics, cardiac biomarkers, severity of medical conditions, and 30-day in-hospital fatality. We performed multivariable Cox regressions and the receiver operating characteristic analysis to assess the association of cardiac biomarkers on admission with disease severity and prognosis. Results: In this retrospective observational study, 11% of COVID-19 patients had increased hs-cTnI levels (>40 ng/L) on admission. Of note, serum hs-cTnI levels were positively associated with the severity of medical conditions (median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 6.00 [6.00-6.00] ng/L in 91 patients with moderate conditions, 6.00 [6.00-18.00] ng/L in 107 patients with severe conditions, and 11.00 [6.00-56.75] ng/L in 46 patients with critical conditions, P for trend=0.001). Moreover, compared with those with normal cTnI levels, patients with increased hs-cTnI levels had higher in-hospital fatality (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI]: 4.79 [1.46-15.69]). The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that the inclusion of hs-cTnI levels into a panel of empirical prognostic factors substantially improved the prediction performance for severe or critical conditions (area under the curve (AUC): 0.71 (95% CI: 0.65-0.78) vs. 0.65 (0.58-0.72), P=0.01), as well as for 30-day fatality (AUC: 0.91 (0.85-0.96) vs. 0.77 (0.62-0.91), P=0.04). A cutoff value of 20 ng/L of hs-cTnI level led to the best prediction to 30-day fatality. Conclusions: In COVID-19 patients with no preexisting cardiovascular disease, 11% had increased hs-cTnI levels. Besides empirical prognostic factors, serum hs-cTnI levels upon admission provided independent prediction to both the severity of the medical condition and 30-day in-hospital fatality. These findings may shed important light on the clinical management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/sangue , China , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21001, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous literature on epidural pneumatosis (pneumorrhachis, or air in epidural cavity) associated with forceful vomiting in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has consisted of individual case reports without comprehensive syndrome characterization due to syndromic rarity, with the largest previous literature review comprising 6 cases. Presumed pathophysiology is air escaping from alveolar rupture from forceful vomiting via tissue planes to cause epidural pneumatosis. AIM: Systematically review literature to facilitate syndromic diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. A new illustrative case is reported. METHODS: Systematic review of literature using 2 independent readers, 2 computerized databases, and the following medical terms/keywords: ["epidural pneumatosis" OR "pneumorrhachis"] AND ["diabetes" OR "diabetic ketoacidosis" or "DKA"]. Discrepancies between 2 readers were resolved by consensus using prospectively developed study inclusion criteria. Two readers independently abstracted case report. Prospective review protocol and patients, problems, intervene, comparison group, outcomes discussed in Methods section of paper. RESULTS-SYSTEMATIC-LITERATURE-REVIEW: Revealed 10 previously reported cases plus 1 new case (see below) that shows this syndrome presents rather stereotypically with the tentatively proposed following pentad (% of patients fulfilling individual criterion): 1-forceful vomiting (100%), 2-during DKA (100%), 3-pneumomediastinum from forceful alveolar rupture (100%), 4-epidural pneumatosis from air escape from pneumomediastinum (100%), and 5-no complications of Boerhaave syndrome or of focal neurological deficits (100%). Pentad is pathophysiologically reasonable because forceful vomiting can cause alveolar rupture, pneumomediastinum, and air entry into epidural space. RESULTS-ILLUSTRATIVE-CASE-REPORT: Epidural pneumatosis occurred in a 33-year-old-male with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 1 who presented with forceful vomiting while in DKA. Radiologic findings also included subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and small pneumothorax. The patient rapidly improved while receiving acute therapy for DKA, and was discharged after 2 hospital days. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Limited number of analyzed, retrospectively reported cases. Case reports subject to reporting bias. Specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value not meaningfully analyzed in this homogeneous population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on systematic review, syndrome is tentatively proposed as a pentad with: 1-forceful vomiting, 2-during DKA, 3- pneumomediastinum, 4-epidural pneumatosis, and 5-no complications of Boerhaave syndrome or focal neurological deficits. Proposed pentad should be prospectively tested in a larger population including patients with this versus closely related syndromes.


Assuntos
Cetoacidose Diabética/complicações , Perfuração Esofágica/complicações , Doenças do Mediastino/complicações , Pneumorraque/diagnóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Vômito/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Pneumorraque/fisiopatologia , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruptura/complicações , Enfisema Subcutâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Subcutâneo/etiologia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21304, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871861

RESUMO

To determine the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) between young and old patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in terms of tumor response and survival outcome.LARC patients undergoing NCRT and radical surgery from 2011 to 2015 were included and divided into: young (aged ≤50 years) and old group (aged >50 years). Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for local recurrence. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis was performed to identify risk factors for overall survival. Predicting nomograms and time-indepent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to compare the models containing with/withour age groups.A total of 572 LARC patients were analyzed. The young group was associated with higher pathological TNM stage, poorly differentiated tumors, and higher rate of positive distal resection margin (P = .010; P = .019; P = .023 respectively). Young patients were associated with poorer 5-year disease-free survival and local recurrence rates (P = .023, P = .003 respectively). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that age ≤50 years (Hazard ratio = 2.994, P = .038) and higher pathological TNM stage (Hazard ratio = 3.261, P = .005) were significantly associated with increased risk for local recurrence. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis and the time-indepent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that including the age group were superior than that without age group.Young patients were associated with poorer disease free survival (DFS) and a higher risk for local recurrence in LARC following NCRT. The predicting model basing based on the age group had a better predictive ability. More intense adjuvant treatment could be considered to improve DFS and local control for young patients with LARC following NCRT.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Nomogramas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21327, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871862

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased recently in Qatar. Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of T2D in many populations. However, BMI is based on height and weight measurements and not on body adiposity. Therefore, the utility of BMI for predicting the risk of T2D has been questioned. Visceral adiposity appears to be a better predictor of T2D.This study aimed to assess the relative effectiveness of visceral adiposity index (VAI) and body adiposity index (BAI), in comparison with BMI, for T2D among Qatari adults.A random sample of 1103 adult Qatari nationals and long term residents over 20 years old were included in this study. This data were obtained from the Qatar Biobank (QBB). We performed a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between VAI, BAI, BMI, and T2D, and computed z-scores for VAI, BAI and BMI.VAI z-scores showed the strongest association with the risk of T2D (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.24-1.68) compared with the z-scores for BAI (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43) and BMI (OR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.59). ROC curve analysis showed that VAI was a stronger predictor than BAI and BMI (P < .0001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was stronger between VAI and T2D in Qatari women than in men.VAI was a stronger and an independent predictor of T2D compared to BAI and BMI among the Qatari adult population. Therefore, VAI could be a useful tool for predicting the risk of T2D among Qatari adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adiposidade , Adulto , Algoritmos , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21700, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871887

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has become a global health threat and will likely be one of the greatest global challenges in the near future. The battle between clinicians and the COVID-19 outbreak may be a "protracted war."The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19, so as to provide a reference for the early diagnosis and treatment.This study retrospectively enrolled 118 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to Eastern District of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from February 04, 2020 to March 04, 2020. The demographics and laboratory data were collected and compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. The risk factors of in-hospital mortality were explored by univariable and multivariable logistic regression to construct a clinical prediction model, the prediction efficiency of which was verified by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve.A total of 118 patients (49 males and 69 females) were included in this study; the results revealed that the following factors associated with in-hospital mortality: older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.175, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.073-1.287, P = .001), neutrophil count greater than 6.3 × 10 cells/L (OR 7.174, (95% CI 2.295-22.432, P = .001), lymphocytopenia (OR 0.069, 95% CI 0.007-0.722, P = .026), prothrombin time >13 seconds (OR 11.869, 95% CI 1.433-98.278, P = .022), D-dimer >1 mg/L (OR 22.811, 95% CI 2.224-233.910, P = .008) and procalcitonin (PCT) >0.1 ng/mL (OR 23.022, 95% CI 3.108-170.532, P = .002). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the above indicators for predicting in-hospital mortality were 0.808 (95% CI 0.715-0.901), 0.809 (95% CI 0.710-0.907), 0.811 (95% CI 0.724-0.898), 0.745 (95% CI 0.643-0.847), 0.872 (95% CI 0.804-0.940), 0.881 (95% CI 0.809-0.953), respectively. The AUC of combined diagnosis of these aforementioned factors were 0.992 (95% CI 0.981-1.000).In conclusion, older age, increased neutrophil count, prothrombin time, D-dimer, PCT, and decreased lymphocyte count at admission were risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. The prediction model combined of these factors could improve the early identification of mortality risk in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pró-Calcitonina/análise , Tempo de Protrombina , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos/métodos , Contagem de Leucócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Tempo de Protrombina/métodos , Tempo de Protrombina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(9): 1200-1209, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862689

RESUMO

AIMS: We quantitatively compared the 3D bone density distributions on CT scans performed on scaphoid waist fractures subacutely that went on to union or nonunion, and assessed whether 2D CT evaluations correlate with 3D bone density evaluations. METHODS: We constructed 3D models from 17 scaphoid waist fracture CTs performed between four to 18 weeks after fracture that did not unite (nonunion group), 17 age-matched scaphoid waist fracture CTs that healed (union group), and 17 age-matched control CTs without injury (control group). We measured the 3D bone density for the distal and proximal fragments relative to the triquetrum bone density and compared findings among the three groups. We then performed bone density measurements using 2D CT and evaluated the correlation with 3D bone densities. We identified the optimal cutoff with diagnostic values of the 2D method to predict nonunion with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: In the nonunion group, both the distal (100.2%) and proximal (126.6%) fragments had a significantly higher bone density compared to the union (distal: 85.7%; proximal: 108.3%) or control groups (distal: 91.6%; proximal: 109.1%) using the 3D bone density measurement, which were statistically significant for all comparisons. 2D measurements were highly correlated to 3D bone density measurements (Spearman's correlation coefficient (R) = 0.85 to 0.95). Using 2D measurements, ROC curve analysis revealed the optimal cutoffs of 90.8% and 116.3% for distal and proximal fragments. This led to a sensitivity of 1.00 if either cutoff is met and a specificity of 0.82 when both cutoffs are met. CONCLUSION: Using 3D modelling software, nonunions were found to exhibit bone density increases in both the distal and proximal fragments in CTs performed between four to 18 weeks after fracture during the course of treatment. 2D bone density measurements using standard CT scans correlate well with 3D models. In patients with scaphoid fractures, CT bone density measurements may be useful in predicting the likelihood of nonunion. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1200-1209.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas não Consolidadas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Osso Escafoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Escafoide/lesões , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(9): 778-783, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894912

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the value of the diaphragmatic thickening fraction (DTF) combined with the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) for the prediction of weaning success in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College and on mechanical ventilation for 24 hours from June 2018 to April 2019 were selected as the study subjects. A low-level pressure support ventilation (PSV) method was applied to conduct a spontaneous breathing test (SBT) for 30 minutes after the patients met the screening conditions for clinical weaning; and the patients were weaned when they met the clinical weaning criteria. Before weaning, the patient's MIP was measured. The right hemidiaphragmatic excursion (DE) and the thickness of the diaphragm at the end of inspiration and at the end of exhalation were measured by ultrasound, and the DTF was calculated. The statistical relationship between the DTF, DE and MIP was analyzed. The predictive value for the success of weaning was calculated with the DTF, DE and MIP and was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: A total of 73 patients were included in this study, including 57 patients who were successfully weaned, and 16 patients who experienced failure. The DTF of the successful weaning group (35%, 8%) was significantly higher than that of the failed weaning group (25%±5%), and the difference was statistically significant (t=6.401, P<0.01). The MIP (34±9 cmH(2)O) in the successful weaning group was significantly higher than that in the failed weaning group (23±3 cmH(2)O), and the difference was statistically significant (t=7.186, P<0.01). The ROCs for the DTF, MIP, and diaphragmatic displacement were 0.907, 0.896, and 0.749, respectively. A DTF ≥ 27.78%, with a sensitivity of 92.98%, a specificity of 81.25%, and an AUC of 0.907 (95% CI: 0.816-0.963), was used as the standard to predict the success of weaning. An MIP>26.5 cmH(2)O, with a sensitivity of 80.7%, a specificity of 93.75%, and an AUC of 0.896 (95% CI: 0.803-0.955), was used as the standard to predict the success of weaning. The AUC of DTF ≥ 27.78% and MIP ≥ 26.5 cmH(2)O was 0.920 (95% CI:0.832-0.971), and the specificity increased to 87.7%, but the sensitivity was slightly reduced to 87.5%. Conclusions: The DTF and MIP play a crucial role in determining the appropriate time and predicting the outcome of weaning of mechanical ventilation patients. Compared with the DTF and MIP alone, the DTF combined with MIP greatly improved the accuracy of predicting successful weaning.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Respiração Artificial , Humanos , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Desmame do Respirador
11.
ESMO Open ; 5(5)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, healthcare professionals (HCP) are at the frontline of clinical management and at increased risk for infection. The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of oncological HCP and their patients has significant implications for oncological care. METHODS: HCP and patients with cancer at the Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna were included between 21 March and 4 June and tested for total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 employing the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay. Reactive samples were confirmed or disproved by the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG test. Additionally, a structured questionnaire regarding basic demographic parameters, travel history and COVID-19-associated symptoms had to be completed by HCP. RESULTS: 146 subjects (62 HCP and 84 patients with cancer) were enrolled. In the oncological HCP cohort, 20 (32.3%) subjects were medical oncologists, 28 (45.2%) nurses at our ward and 14 (22.6%) fulfil other functions such as study coordinators. In the patient cohort, most individuals are on active anticancer treatment (96.4%). 26% of the HCP and 6% of the patients had symptoms potentially associated with COVID-19 since the end of February 2020. However, only in 2 (3.2%) HCP and in 3 (3.6%) patients, anti-SARS-Cov-2 total antibodies were detected. The second assay for anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG antibodies confirmed the positive result in all HCP and in 2 (2.4%) patients, suggesting an initial assay's unspecific reaction in one case. In individuals with a confirmed test result, an active COVID-19 infection was documented by a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR test. CONCLUSION: Specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were found solely in persons after a documented SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, thus supporting the test methods' high sensitivity and specificity. The low prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in our cohorts indicates a lack of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. It highlights the need for continued strict safety measures to prevent uncontrolled viral spread among oncological HCPs and patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Serviço Hospitalar de Oncologia , Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Oncologistas , Enfermagem Oncológica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 153-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908070

RESUMO

The COVID-19 infection has been a matter of urgency to tackle around the world today, there exist 200 countries around the world and 54 countries in Africa that the COVID-19 infection cases have been confirmed. This situation prompted us to look into the challenges African laboratories are facing in the diagnosis of novel COVID-19 infection. A limited supply of essential laboratory equipment and test kits are some of the challenges faced in combatting the novel virus in Africa. Also, there is inadequate skilled personnel, which might pose a significant danger in case there is a surge in COVID-19 infection cases. The choice of diagnostic method in Africa is limited as there are only two available diagnostic methods being used out of the six methods used globally, thereby reducing the opportunity of supplementary diagnosis, which will further lead to inappropriate diagnosis and affect the accuracy of diagnostic reports. Furthermore, challenges like inadequate power supply, the method used in sample collection, storage and transportation of specimens are also significant as they also pose their respective implication. From the observations, there is an urgent need for more investment into the laboratories for proper, timely, and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Virologia/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Orçamentos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral , Virologia/economia , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
BMJ ; 370: m3339, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a pragmatic risk score to predict mortality in patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK) study (performed by the ISARIC Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium-ISARIC-4C) in 260 hospitals across England, Scotland, and Wales. Model training was performed on a cohort of patients recruited between 6 February and 20 May 2020, with validation conducted on a second cohort of patients recruited after model development between 21 May and 29 June 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (age ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with covid-19 at least four weeks before final data extraction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: In-hospital mortality. RESULTS: 35 463 patients were included in the derivation dataset (mortality rate 32.2%) and 22 361 in the validation dataset (mortality rate 30.1%). The final 4C Mortality Score included eight variables readily available at initial hospital assessment: age, sex, number of comorbidities, respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, level of consciousness, urea level, and C reactive protein (score range 0-21 points). The 4C Score showed high discrimination for mortality (derivation cohort: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.79; validation cohort: 0.77, 0.76 to 0.77) with excellent calibration (validation: calibration-in-the-large=0, slope=1.0). Patients with a score of at least 15 (n=4158, 19%) had a 62% mortality (positive predictive value 62%) compared with 1% mortality for those with a score of 3 or less (n=1650, 7%; negative predictive value 99%). Discriminatory performance was higher than 15 pre-existing risk stratification scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve range 0.61-0.76), with scores developed in other covid-19 cohorts often performing poorly (range 0.63-0.73). CONCLUSIONS: An easy-to-use risk stratification score has been developed and validated based on commonly available parameters at hospital presentation. The 4C Mortality Score outperformed existing scores, showed utility to directly inform clinical decision making, and can be used to stratify patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 into different management groups. The score should be further validated to determine its applicability in other populations. STUDY REGISTRATION: ISRCTN66726260.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido
15.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 87(4): 240-242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about COVID-19 patients who have not traveled to infected areas or had direct contact with infected persons. This report describes the clinical features of 28 such patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Data on clinical characteristics during hospitalization were collected. RESULTS: Epidemiological exposures were investigated among patients reporting no travel to infected areas or direct contact with a case-patient. Patients presented with various symptoms, increased levels of inflammatory markers, and consolidation or ground-glass opacification on computed tomography scans. CONCLUSIONS: The present report contributes critical information on the clinical presentation of COVID-19 patients without typical epidemiological exposures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 82-87, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data on C-reactive protein (CRP) as a predictor of anastomotic leakage (AL) after surgery for colorectal cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature searching was performed in Medline, Elibrary, Scopus, Web of Science databases. Literature request consisted of keywords «CRP¼, «colorectal surgery¼, «anastomotic leakage¼ for the period 2008-2018. Meta-analysis included 2 manuscripts for the second postoperative day, 7 articles for the third postoperative day and 6 articles for the fourth postoperative day. ROC-analysis was made to determine optimal prognostic values. RESULTS: ROC-curve for the second postoperative day - AUC 0.758; optimal CRP value - 154 mg/l (sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 55.6%), 95% confidence interval 0.698-0.819. ROC-curve for the third postoperative day - AUC 0.715; optimal CRP value - 144.5 mg/l (sensitivity 79.1% specificity 60.3%), 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.75. ROC-curve for the fourth postoperative day - AUC 0.767; optimal CRP value - 122.91 mg/l (sensitivity 72.3% specificity 60%), 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.804. CONCLUSION: Increased CRP is an early predictor of AL after surgery for colorectal cancer. CRP level ≥144.5 mg/l on the third postoperative day can predict AL (sensitivity 79%, specificity 60%).


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
18.
J Vasc Access ; 21(5): 795-798, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breakage and fragment embolization is a rare but feared complication of peripherally inserted central catheter use. While chest radiographs are no longer the gold standard for determining peripherally inserted central catheter tip position, their use in diagnosing complications is still warranted. We report a case of occult catheter embolization discovered by routine chest X-ray. CASE DESCRIPTION: A patient with a right brachial vein peripherally inserted central catheter was admitted to our Emergency Department for palpitations and dyspnea. The peripherally inserted central catheter was not visible at presentation, and she was unclear as to what had happened; she left the Emergency Department before workup was performed. Catheter embolization was discovered upon implantation of a new peripherally inserted central catheter. CONCLUSION: Although routine chest radiographs are no longer necessary after peripherally inserted central catheter implantation, they are in diagnosing peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications even in asymptomatic patients. We discuss their use and the possible role of securement devices in preventing some instances of catheter embolization.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateterismo Periférico/instrumentação , Cateteres de Demora , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Migração de Corpo Estranho/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Migração de Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Migração de Corpo Estranho/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 325-329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982261

RESUMO

Lumivascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel adjunct in the field of medicine. It offers clear real-time imaging of artery walls before and during endovascular intervention. This study reports our initial experience on the use of lumivascular OCT-guided atherectomy in the management of two patients with recurrent restenosis in their femoropopliteal arteries associated with in-stent restenosis. Endovascular procedures were successful with a Pantheris atherectomy device (Avinger, Redwood City, CA, USA) and drug-eluting balloons. The OCT images clearly distinguished normal anatomy from plaque pathology, were of great advantage in both the accurate diagnosis and treatment of target lesions, and may reduce radiation during the endovascular procedure. However, the price of the device and its need for contrast infusion limit its routine clinical use.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Aterectomia , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Artéria Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Stents , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Aterectomia/efeitos adversos , Aterectomia/instrumentação , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Artéria Poplítea/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 331-341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982262

RESUMO

Purpose: Physiological tests may aid in diagnosing median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS). MALS is a symptomatic compression of the celiac artery causing symptoms similar to chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) of atherosclerotic etiology. Simultaneous use of visible light spectroscopy (VLS) and laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) during upper endoscopy may detect microcirculatory changes in these patients. Patients and Methods: In a single-center, prospective comparative cohort, 25 patients were evaluated for MALS. Patients with a consensus diagnosis of MALS (n=15) underwent a gastroscopy assisted, transmucosal microcirculatory assessment with LDF and VLS. Results were compared to individuals with normal intestinal circulation (n=38) evaluated with duplex ultrasonography, and to patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia (n=32). Treatment response was evaluated clinically at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and with ultrasound, VLS and LDF at three months. Health-related quality of life (QoL) was assessed with Euroqol (EQ-5D-5L), preoperatively, and 12 months postoperatively. Results: Preoperative mean transmucosal oxygen saturation was significantly lower in patients with MALS (SO2 76±6), as compared to healthy individuals (SO2 81±4), p=0.02. An overall significant improvement in SO2 after surgical decompression of the celiac artery was found (SO2 81±3.7, p=0.05). Eleven (92%) patients with clinical improvement after laparoscopic decompression had a definitive diagnosis of MALS. Median follow-up was 18 months (4-24 months). Four of the five dimensions investigated with EQ-5D-5L improved. Conclusion: VLS detected a significantly lower baseline transmucosal SO2 in patients with MALS as compared to control subjects with normal intestinal circulation. An improvement in SO2 after laparoscopic decompression was found, supporting a possible ischemic etiology in our patient population.


Assuntos
Artéria Celíaca/fisiopatologia , Duodeno/irrigação sanguínea , Gastroscopia , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Síndrome do Ligamento Arqueado Mediano/diagnóstico , Microcirculação , Circulação Esplâncnica , Estômago/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Síndrome do Ligamento Arqueado Mediano/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Ligamento Arqueado Mediano/cirurgia , Isquemia Mesentérica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Mesentérica/fisiopatologia , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/diagnóstico , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Análise Espectral , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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