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1.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 104: 61-67, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467080

RESUMO

There seems to be an emerging consensus among many philosophers of science that non-epistemic values ought to play a role in the process of scientific reasoning itself. Recently, a number of philosophers have focused on the role of values in scientific classification or taxonomy. Their claim is that a choice of ontology or taxonomic scheme can only be made, or should only be made, by appealing to non-epistemic or social values. In this paper, I take on this "argument from ontological choice," claiming that it equivocates on the notion of choice. An ontological choice can be understood either in terms of determining which taxonomic scheme is valid, or in terms of deciding which taxonomic scheme to deploy in a given context. I try to show that while the latter can be determined in part by social values, the former ought not to be so determined.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Valores Sociais , Resolução de Problemas , Dissidências e Disputas , Consenso
2.
J Med Philos ; 49(2): 195-206, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418080

RESUMO

Mere inability, which refers to what persons are naturally unable to do, is traditionally thought to be distinct from unfreedom, which is a social type of constraint. The advent of biomedical enhancement, however, challenges the idea that there is a clear division between mere inability and unfreedom. This is because bioenhancement makes it possible for some people's mere inabilities to become matters of unfreedom. In this paper, I discuss several ways that this might occur: first, bioenhancement can exacerbate social pressures to enhance one's abilities; second, people may face discrimination for not enhancing; third, the new abilities made possible due to bioenhancement may be accompanied by new inabilities for the enhanced and unenhanced; and finally, shifting values around abilities and inabilities due to bioenhancement may reinforce a pre-existing ableism about human abilities. As such, we must give careful consideration to these potential unfreedom-generating outcomes when it comes to our moral evaluations of bioenhancement.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Biomédico , Valores Sociais , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Relações Interpessoais
4.
Enferm. glob ; 23(73): 256-282, ene. 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-228895

RESUMO

Introducción: Los valores se vuelven necesarios para orientar el comportamiento profesional de la enfermera como una profesión digna. Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar los valores profesionales de las enfermeras de Indonesia y explorar elementos esenciales de valor profesional basados en las percepciones de las enfermeras. Material y métodos: Esta investigación utilizó una investigación de método mixto. Hasta 517 enfermeras completaron el cuestionario Revisado de la Escala de Valor Profesional de Enfermería (NPVS-R) de abril a mayo de 2019 y se incluyeron diez enfermeras clínicas en la entrevista semiestructurada. Resultados: Los resultados cuantitativos obtuvieron que la puntuación media de los valores profesionales de las enfermeras fue de 97,30 ± 14,15. Tanto como el 74,3% de las enfermeras perciben los valores profesionales de las enfermeras en un nivel alto. Hubo una diferencia significativa entre el nivel educativo y el cuidado de la enfermera (valor de p 0,001 <0,05). La dimensión más dominante de los valores profesionales de enfermería fue la dimensión de cuidar de 56,55 ± 8,19. De la investigación cualitativa se obtuvieron tres temas, a saber: Cuidado, Profesionalismo y Confianza. Conclusiones: Como sugieren los hallazgos, debemos prestar más atención a los valores profesionales, especialmente la profesionalidad y la confianza de las enfermeras para trabajar en el complejo contexto sanitario actual (AU)


Introduction: Values become necessary to direct nurses' professional behavior as a dignified profession. Objective: This research aimed to identify Indonesian nurses' professional values and explore essential professional value items based on clinical nurses' perceptions. Methods: This research used mixed method research. As many as 517 nurses filled out the Nursing Professional Value Scale Revised (NPVS-R) questionnaire from April to May 2019 and ten clinical nurses were included in the semi-structured interview.Results: The professional values of nurses were 97.30 ± 14.15. As many as 74.3% of nurses perceived the professional values of nurses at a high level. There was a significant difference between education level and nurse caring (P value 0.001 <0.05). The most dominant dimension of nurse professional values was the caring dimension of 56.55 ± 8.19. Three themes were obtained from the qualitative research, namely: Caring, Professionalism and Trust. Conclusions: As the findings suggest, we need to pay more attention to professional values, especially professionalism and trust for the nurses to work in today's complex healthcare context (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Public Health ; 226: 122-127, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Investment in public health has far-reaching impacts, not only on physical health but also on communities, economies and the environment. There is increasing demand to account for the wider impact of public health and the social value that can be created, which can be captured through the use of the social return on investment (SROI) framework. This study aims to explore the application of SROI and identify areas of advancement for its use in public health. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Publically available SROI studies of public health interventions previously identified through published systematic scoping reviews were examined through a methodological lens. This was complemented by semistructured interviews with key public health academic experts with experience in the field of SROI. The results were thematically analysed and triangulated. RESULTS: In total, 53 studies and nine interviews were included in the analysis. All interviewees agreed that SROI is a suitable framework to demonstrate the social value of public health interventions. Developmental aspects were also identified through the analysis. This included a more systematic use of SROI principles and methodological developments. Lastly, it was identified that further advancements were needed to promote awareness of SROI and how it can be used to generate investment. CONCLUSION: By identifying key areas for advancement, the results from this study can be used to further refine the SROI framework for use within the speciality to promote investment in services and interventions that demonstrate maximum value to people, communities, economies and the environment.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Valores Sociais , Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício
6.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 42(2): 177-198, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to synthesise knowledge on the relative social value of child and adult health. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative studies that evaluated the willingness of the public to prioritise treatments for children over adults were included. A search to September 2023 was undertaken. Completeness of reporting was assessed using a checklist derived from Johnston et al. Findings were tabulated by study type (matching/person trade-off, discrete choice experiment, willingness to pay, opinion survey or qualitative). Evidence in favour of children was considered in total, by length or quality of life, methodology and respondent characteristics. RESULTS: Eighty-eight studies were included; willingness to pay (n = 9), matching/person trade-off (n = 12), discrete choice experiments (n = 29), opinion surveys (n = 22) and qualitative (n = 16), with one study simultaneously included as an opinion survey. From 88 studies, 81 results could be ascertained. Across all studies irrespective of method or other characteristics, 42 findings supported prioritising children, while 12 provided evidence favouring adults in preference to children. The remainder supported equal prioritisation or found diverse or unclear views. Of those studies considering prioritisation within the under 18 years of age group, nine findings favoured older children over younger children (including for life saving interventions), six favoured younger children and five found diverse views. CONCLUSIONS: The balance of evidence suggests the general public favours prioritising children over adults, but this view was not found across all studies. There are research gaps in understanding the public's views on the value of health gains to very young children and the motivation behind the public's views on the value of child relative to adult health gains. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review is registered at PROSPERO number: CRD42021244593. There were two amendments to the protocol: (1) some additional search terms were added to the search strategy prior to screening to ensure coverage and (2) a more formal quality assessment was added to the process at the data extraction stage. This assessment had not been identified at the protocol writing stage.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Valores Sociais , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Lista de Checagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
8.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 103: 85-94, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38091644

RESUMO

The widely recognized 12 principles of green chemistry, introduced in 1998, have become a focal point for environmentally conscious chemists worldwide. These principles are regarded as a comprehensive summary of the achievements of green chemistry and a roadmap for future advancements in the field, aligning chemistry with sustainability goals. They have been hailed as groundbreaking in addressing pressing global challenges, including environmental and climate crises. However, a closer examination reveals a more nuanced perspective. Criticisms have emerged, asserting that these principles may stifle the creativity of emerging chemists and distort the history of green chemistry. Dissenting voices are growing, prompting scholars to reevaluate their effectiveness and relevance. It appears that the 12 principles provide an overarching narrative and a common language to practitioners of green chemistry but their success does not proceed from their 'scientific' qualities but should be rather understood in socio-historical terms. Analysing these principles provides insights into the mindset and collective identities of chemists, highlighting how underlying value-driven frameworks shape scientific discourse. It becomes evident that these frameworks can be co-opted and persist unquestioned for extended periods. The objective of this article is to demystify the 12 principles, stimulating dialogue on the necessity of self-reflection within scientific fields that heavily rely on value-laden sustainability-oriented terminology.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Idioma , Narração , Valores Sociais
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(59): 123335-123350, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981607

RESUMO

In recent years, green bonds have become an important part of the green financial system. In this paper, we investigate theoretically and empirically how green bond financing impacts corporate long-term value orientation. To study this relationship, we manually collect green bond financing data and use Python to construct a measure reflecting corporate long-term value. Using a sample of Chinese A-share bond issuing companies from 2016 to 2021, we find that (1) green bond financing can significantly promote companies to pursue long-term value, in which financing costs, management's strategic risk-taking, and external supervision are the underlying mechanisms. (2) There is a synergistic effect between green bond financing and environmental regulation, which can jointly improve the intensity of corporate long-term value orientation. (3) The relationship between green bond financing and corporate long-term value is more significant in enterprises with heavily polluting, lower risk-taking levels, less strategic change, and lower financial mismatch risk. Our findings reveal the "corrective" effect of green bond financing on management's strategic decision-making, which provides new empirical evidence for comprehensively and accurately evaluating the role of green bonds and promoting the development of the green bond market.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Regulamentação Governamental , China , Valores Sociais , Comércio
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37898890

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to identify relationship between value orientations and safety culture of workers of medical organization. The sampling consisted of 284 workers (66 men, 218 women) of medical clinic. To identify system of personal values the "Value Orientations" questionnaire by Sch. Schwartz was applied. The mean values and ranks were calculated for each value indicator. To assess safety culture the "Safety Attitudes Questionnaire" by K. N. Tsaranov et al. was applied. The data statistical processing of the data was carried out using variance analysis and correlation analysis (Pearson coefficient). The largest differences in the indicators in the group with a low level of value-intentional coherence indicator were observed in relation to values "conformity" (rank difference 2.16), "stimulation" (1.73), "universalism" (0.9), "achievement" (0.83), "independence" (0.77), "traditions" (0.61) For other values difference was less than 0.5. The largest differences in indicators in the group with high level of value-intentional coherence indicator (IVC) were observed for values "universalism" (1.01), "stimulation" (0.64), "achievement" (0.5). For the remaining values difference was less than 0.5. Assessment of safety culture revealed that below threshold of agreement (75%) were results on the scale "Recognition (understanding) of stress" in all groups of respondents. On indicator "Working conditions" below level of agreement were results of groups with low and high levels of value-intentional consistency indicator. Below threshold of agreement (75%) were results of responses to the question about the relationship with clinical pharmacologists in all groups of respondents. The value-intentional coherence index can be applied only concerning each single worker. The qualitative analysis of IVC indicator should both include its comparison at the level of normative ideals and behavioral priorities of values and to consider the spread between ranks. The values "stimulation" and "achievement" have no effect on manifestation of attitude to safety culture of medical organization. The key personal values associated with manifestations of safety culture are "power", "autonomy" and "conformality".


Assuntos
Atitude , Valores Sociais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0292552, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797064

RESUMO

Social Media is an important means of communication with audiences around the world. The purpose of this study was to explore whether GM-a famous US auto company adapts its US Cultural values to suit the prevalent cultural values of its Chinese stakeholders on Chinese social media. Content analysis was used to evaluate the cultural content of GM Company's posts on Weibo and Twitter. Although influenced by the special features of the car industry, there is still enough evidence that the communication style of the US auto Company makes cultural adaption on Chinese social media, reflecting more Chinese prevalent cultural values.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Organizações , Mídias Sociais , Valores Sociais , Comunicação , Estados Unidos , China , Valores Sociais/etnologia
14.
Psico USF ; 28(4): 741-751, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1529176

RESUMO

A Escala RASH (relação, autonomia, separação e heteronomia) foi desenvolvida para investigar padrões de self em estudos transculturais. No presente estudo, foi realizada uma análise fatorial da escala RASH em amostras brasileiras e norte-americanas, com o objetivo de fornecer uma medida de quatro fatores com bons índices de ajuste. Buscou-se confirmar o padrão de self autônomo-relacionado nas duas amostras e também a relação entre o nível de escolaridade dos pais e tipos de valores que desejam para seus filhos. Coletou-se dados de 756 participantes (EUA, n = 519, Brasil, n = 237), pais ou responsáveis por alunos de 7 a 14 anos. Foram realizadas análise fatorial exploratória e confirmatória, medidas de invariância e estatísticas básicas como média, desvio padrão e correlação. Os resultados corroboram uma estrutura de quatro fatores do instrumento e os padrões autorrelatados nas duas culturas. O instrumento pode auxiliar em pesquisas transculturais sobre o desenvolvimento de valores e captar diferenças entre culturas.(AU)


The RASH scale (which stands for relation, autonomy, separation, and heteronomy) was developed to investigate patterns of self in cross-cultural studies. In the present study, a factor analysis of the RASH scale was conducted in Brazilian and North American samples, with the aim of providing a four-factor measure with good fit indices. The aim was to confirm the pattern of autonomous-relational self in the two samples and also the relationship among the parents' level of education and the types of values they want for their children. We collected data from 756 participants (n = 519, USA; n = 237, Brazil), parents or guardians of students aged 7 to 14 years. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, invariance measures and basic statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and correlation were performed. The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the instrument and self-reported patterns in the two cultures. The instrument can help in cross-cultural research on the development of values and capture differences between cultures.(AU)


La escala RASH (relación, autonomía, separación y heteronomía) se desarrolló para investigar patrones del self en estudios transculturales. En el presente estudio, se realizó una validación de la escala RASH en muestras brasileñas y norteamericanas, con el objetivo de proporcionar una medida de cuatro factores con buenos índices de ajuste. Se buscó confirmar el patrón de self autónomo-relacionado en ambas muestras, así como la relación entre el nivel educativo de los padres y los tipos de valores que desean para sus hijos. Se recopilaron datos de 756 participantes (n = 519 en EE. UU.; N = 237 en Brasil), padres o tutores de estudiantes de 7 a 14 años. Se llevaron a cabo análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios, seguidos de medidas de invarianza y cálculos de estadísticas básicas como media, desviación estándar y correlación. Los resultados respaldaron la estructura de cuatro factores del instrumento y los patrones autoinformados en ambas culturas. El instrumento puede ser útil para investigaciones interculturales sobre el desarrollo de valores y para capturar las diferencias entre culturas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Valores Sociais , Comparação Transcultural , Desenvolvimento Moral , Inquéritos e Questionários , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Análise Fatorial , Diversidade Cultural , Autorrelato , Correlação de Dados , Fatores Sociodemográficos
15.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 31(Special Issue 1): 686-690, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37742233

RESUMO

The article discusses issues reflecting the importance of intergenerational sports as an institution influencing the formation of social values, civic identity, health-saving attitudes, etc. The paper defines the main and specific functions of sport as a social institution. Based on the author's sociological research, the results are presented reflecting the attitude of participants of intergenerational sports groups to certain types of social impact that sports activities and events held in mixed age groups have.


Assuntos
Cidadania , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Instalações de Saúde , Valores Sociais
16.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 31(Special Issue 1): 765-773, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37742247

RESUMO

The article presents the results of a research work aimed at identifying the features of the matrimonial behavior of students in the aspect of social health studying. Of particular importance is the study of students' value attitudes towards marriage and family in a gender context. The authors conducted an empirical study on the basis of the National Research University «BelSU¼ (n = 267; proportional selection based on gender, age, course, level and form of education). The analysis of the main marital attitudes of this group (attitude towards marriage, readiness for marriage, criteria for choosing a marriage partner, motives for marriage, reproductive behavior, reproductive health) was carried out on the basis of primary data obtained during a survey of students of the Belgorod State National Research University. It was revealed that most of the students of NRU «BelSU¼ have a traditional idea of marriage, have a desire to marry and start a family, students prefer official marriage, which implies traditional family values, which characterizes positive trends in the formation of social health. When choosing a marriage partner, most young people are guided by the personal characteristics of a person and their value orientations. It was revealed that the formation of the students' social health, among other aspects, is due to the orientation towards the established values in relation to the value of marriage and the socio-cultural norms of matrimonial behavior.


Assuntos
Motivação , Estudantes , Humanos , Adolescente , Casamento , Saúde Reprodutiva , Valores Sociais
17.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 27(5): 525-531, 2023 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37729449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer may receive cancer treatment that does not reflect their values because they may not be completely aware of what is important to them regarding treatment-related decisions when they are diagnosed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review was to determine whether existing values assessment tools can improve awareness of treatment-related decisional values in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: PubMed®, CINAHL®, and PsycINFO® databases were searched for original English-language articles evaluating values assessment tools that could be used to assess patients with advanced cancer. The quality of the identified tools was evaluated using selected International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument, version 3.0, criteria. FINDINGS: All tools identified are appropriate for use in patients with advanced cancer. Two scored at least 80% on the selected International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria. The Short Graphic Values History Tool was developed with patient and clinician input and may be particularly useful for low-literacy patient populations with advanced cancer. No values assessment tools have been identified specifically for use in patients with advanced cancer.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Neoplasias , Valores Sociais , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica
18.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 22(4): ar43, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37751505

RESUMO

Understanding the experiences of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHPI) students in science courses can help us foster inclusivity and belonging for these often excluded and unacknowledged students. Using social influence theory as a framework, we investigated the intersection between ethnic-racial identity and science identity in NHPI students to better understand their experiences in undergraduate Biology courses. We collected both quantitative and qualitative data and used concurrent triangulation design in our mixed-methods approach. Quantitative data include measures of student pre- and post-course science identity, self-efficacy, alignment with science values, sense of belonging, environmental concern, strength of ethnic-racial identity, and the interaction between ethnic-racial and science identity. We measured environmental concern because NHPI cultures often have strong connections with the environment that may overlap well with environmental science values. Qualitative data included short responses to survey questions that asked students to describe the interaction between their science identity and their ethnicity. We found that NHPI and non-NHPI students do not significantly differ in any construct we measured, nor do they experience different gains across a semester when comparing pre- and post-scores. We also found that NHPI students' feelings concerning the intersection of their ethnic and science identities are varied and complex, with some students expressing feelings of conflict and many others expressing a strengthening relationship between those identities. We discuss implications for instructors and encourage them to acknowledge the community culture of wealth NHPI students bring to the classroom because of their ethnic-racial identities.


Assuntos
Ciência Ambiental , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , População das Ilhas do Pacífico , Valores Sociais , Humanos , Emoções , Ciência Ambiental/educação , Estudantes , Biologia/educação
19.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 12: 7480, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37579447

RESUMO

An evidence-informed deliberative process (EDP) is defined as "a practical and stepwise approach for health technology assessment (HTA) bodies to enhance legitimate health benefit package design based on deliberation between stakeholders to identify, reflect and learn about the meaning and importance of values, informed by evidence on these values." In this commentary, I discuss some considerations for EDPs that arise from acknowledging the difference between social and moral values. First, the best practices for implementing EDPs may differ depending on whether the approach is grounded in moral versus social values. Second, the goals of deliberation may differ when focused on moral versus social values. I conclude by offering some considerations for future research to support the use of EDPs in practice, including the need to assess how different approaches to appraisal (eg, more quantitative versus qualitative) impact perceptions of the value of deliberation itself.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Valores Sociais , Humanos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
20.
Nurs Manage ; 54(8): 53-54, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37527651

Assuntos
Valores Sociais
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