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1.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 330-339, mayo 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192070

RESUMO

En la actualidad, la corrupción constituye uno de los principales problemas psicológicos, sociales, económicos y políticos a nivel mundial. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las variables psicológicas asociadas a la corrupción a través de una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones entre 2008 y 2018. Tras realizar una búsqueda en las bases de datos Psycinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo y Dialnet, se encontraron 44 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de selección propuestos. Los grandes núcleos encontrados fueron la ética organizacional, creencias y valores culturales, moral y normas percibidas, y personalidad y variables relacionadas. En general, los resultados apuntan a que variables organizacionales como la percepción de la conducta de sus dirigentes o las estrategias de justificación están relacionadas con la corrupción. Valores culturales meritocráticos y materialistas también han sido ligados a la conducta corrupta, como ocurre en el caso de la percepción de un entorno corrupto y de las normas sociales. En cuanto a la personalidad, rasgos como el narcisismo y la psicopatía se encuentran íntimamente ligados a este fenómeno. Por otra parte, variables como la percepción del poder o el sexo de los participantes han recibido un sustento empírico ambiguo


Nowadays, corruption is one of the most important psychological, social, economic and political issues worldwide. The present paper aims to analyse psychological variables related to corruption through a systematic review of publications from 2008 to 2018. After carrying out a bibliographic search in scientific databases such as Psycinfo, Web of Science and Dialnet, 41 papers were found to match selection criteria. Core topics haven been organizational ethics, cultural beliefs and values, perceived norms and moral, and personality and related variables. Overall, results have shown that organizational variables such as leaders' behaviour and justification strategies are linked to corruption. Meritocratic and materialist values have also been linked to corrupt behaviour, just like perceiving a corrupt environment and social norms. In regard to personality, features such as narcissism and psychopathy are deeply connected with this phenomenon. On the other side, perception of power and gender have a mixed empirical support


Assuntos
Humanos , Corrupção/psicologia , Valores Sociais , Normas Sociais , Ética Institucional , Religião , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Moral
2.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 151-165, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910669

RESUMO

The public health crisis caused by COVID-19 disease has bring again to the public arena the old debate of the role in decision-making process of politics and science. In this paper we analyze, in the context of the current pandemics, how politics has left a stellar role for science, either because science has anticipated in its proposals to politics, or because politics has opted for it as a premeditated strategy. The references to the opinion of scientists as a decision-making criterion or, furthermore, their presence as true spokesmen for authority have been so frequent. This means rediscovering science and health as instruments of power, in terms that remind us of what Foucault denounced almost fifty years ago with his Biopolitics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política , Ciência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisões , Democracia , Teoria Ética , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poder Psicológico , Saúde Pública , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Papel (figurativo) , Valores Sociais , Sociedades Científicas , Espanha , Vacinas Virais
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936815

RESUMO

We report and interpret preferences of a sample of the Dutch adult population for different strategies to end the so-called 'intelligent lockdown' which their government had put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a discrete choice experiment, we invited participants to make a series of choices between policy scenarios aimed at relaxing the lockdown, which were specified not in terms of their nature (e.g. whether or not to allow schools to re-open) but in terms of their effects along seven dimensions. These included health-related effects, but also impacts on the economy, education, and personal income. From the observed choices, we were able to infer the implicit trade-offs made by the Dutch between these policy effects. For example, we find that the average citizen, in order to avoid one fatality directly or indirectly related to COVID-19, is willing to accept a lasting lag in the educational performance of 18 children, or a lasting (>3 years) and substantial (>15%) reduction in net income of 77 households. We explore heterogeneity across individuals in terms of these trade-offs by means of latent class analysis. Our results suggest that most citizens are willing to trade-off health-related and other effects of the lockdown, implying a consequentialist ethical perspective. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that the elderly, known to be at relatively high risk of being affected by the virus, are relatively reluctant to sacrifice economic pain and educational disadvantages for the younger generation, to avoid fatalities. We also identify a so-called taboo trade-off aversion amongst a substantial share of our sample, being an aversion to accept morally problematic policies that simultaneously imply higher fatality numbers and lower taxes. We explain various ways in which our results can be of value to policy makers in the context of the COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Modelos Econométricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Valor da Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Altruísmo , Comportamento de Escolha , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Valores Sociais , Impostos , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238682, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941474

RESUMO

The appearance of a new coronavirus (Covid-19) and its rapid expansion throughout the world has forced all countries to establish regulations based on social confinement. In the early days of a pandemic, the adherence to regulations is crucial to be able to block its spread. This research aims to analyse the relationship between motivational variables associated with physical distancing and self-interested consumption behaviours in the first 10 days of confinement in Spain. A total of 1,324 people participated throughout the country (mean age 28.92 years). Participants answered an online survey about socio-demographic, motivational variables, which included a) risk information seeking, b) confidence in self- and collective efficacy in coping with the pandemic, and c) the four higher-order personal values ‒conservation (security, conformity, and tradition), self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence), openness (self-direction actions and stimulation), and self-improvement (hedonism and power) ‒ and the aforementioned behaviours in coping with Covid-19. Results showed a positive association between self- and collective efficacy and both coping behaviours analysed: a protective role of conservation values on normative behaviours; and a negative relationship between self-transcendence values and self-interested consumption. Additionally, risk information seeking was positively associated with the development of physical distancing behaviour.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Valores Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S13-S17, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737227

RESUMO

Although parents are typically the most appropriate decision-makers for their children, there are limits to this authority. Medical providers may be ethically obligated to seek state intervention against a parental decision if the parent places a child at significant and imminent risk of serious harm. When parents make medical decisions for their children, they assess both the projected benefits and risks of their choices for their family. These assessments are impacted by uncertainty, which is a common feature of neonatal intensive care. The relative presence or absence of uncertainty may impact perceptions of parental decisions and a medical provider's decision to seek state intervention to overrule parents. In this article, we propose a model integrating prognostic uncertainty into pediatric decision-making that may aid providers in such assessments. We will demonstrate how to apply this model to 3 neonatal cases and propose that the presence of greater uncertainty ought to permit parents greater latitude to incorporate family values into their decision-making even if these decisions are contradictory to the recommendations of the medical team.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Pais , Incerteza , Família , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos , Consentimento dos Pais/ética , Prognóstico , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Valores Sociais , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
7.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669462

RESUMO

Human infection challenge studies involving the intentional infection of research participants with a disease-causing agent have recently been suggested as a means to speed up the search for a vaccine for the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Calls for challenge studies, however, rely on the expected social value of these studies. This value represents more than the simple possibility that a successful study will lead to the rapid development and dissemination of vaccines but also some expectation that this will actually occur. I show how this expectation may not be realistic in the current political moment and offer potential ways to make sure that any challenge trials that arise actually achieve their goals.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos , Valores Sociais , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628675

RESUMO

Research studying into student satisfaction has been developing in the light of customer satisfaction theory which considers perceived value and quality as important predictors of student satisfaction. But the importance of value co-creation is very much overlooked. Hence this study intends to examine the relationship between perceived value, perceived quality, value co-creation, student satisfaction, complaint and loyalty to give a picture of how perceived value, perceived quality and value co-creation are important predictors of student satisfaction. Partial least square structural equation modelling is adopted to analyse responses from a survey of international students in a Chinese university. Results indicate that perceived value, perceived quality and value co-creation are determinants of student satisfaction which positively influences loyalty and negatively influences complaint. Finally, the research notes that more resources should be dedicated to engaging international students to participate in on-campus management and service work to improve international student studying experience.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Atitude , China , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Motivação , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Apoio Social , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702026

RESUMO

In decision-making situations individuals rarely have complete information available to select the best option and often show decisional randomness, i.e. given the same amount of knowledge individuals choose different options at different times. Dysfunctional processes resulting in altered decisional randomness can be considered a target process for psychiatric disorders, yet these processes remain poorly understood. Advances in computational modeling of decision-making offer a potential explanation for decisional randomness by positing that decisions are implemented in the brain through accumulation of noisy evidence, causing a generally less preferred option to be chosen at times by chance. One such model, the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA), assumes that individuals accumulate information for each option independently over time and that the first option to reach a threshold will be selected. To investigate the mechanisms of decisional randomness, we applied the LBA to a decision-making task in which risk and expected value (EV) were explicitly signaled prior to making a choice, and estimated separate drift rates for each of the four task stimuli (representing high and low EV and high and low risk). We then used the fitted LBA parameters to predict subject response rates on held-out trials for each of the 6 possible stimulus pairs. We found that choices predicted by LBA were correlated with actual choices across subjects for all stimulus pairs. Taken together, these findings suggest that sequential sampling models can account for decisional randomness on an explicit probabilistic task, which may have implications for understanding decision-making in healthy individuals and in psychiatric populations.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Probabilidade , Assunção de Riscos , Processos Estocásticos , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comportamento de Escolha , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Jogo de Azar , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Econômicos , Satisfação Pessoal , Valores Sociais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(3): 7-8, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596916

RESUMO

Seeking useful ways to respond to the Covid-19 pandemic, bioethicists have been tempted to claim for themselves what Alasdair MacIntyre characterized in After Virtue as the moral fiction of managerial expertise. They have been eager to offer a wide range of policy prescriptions, presenting themselves as bureaucratic managers and suggesting an expertise that bioethics may not in fact be able to offer. This was evident, for example, in the petition published by The Hastings Center in March 2020. The pandemic could foster a more hopeful future for bioethics if it were to focus attention less on policy decisions that belong to all citizens and more on some of the most basic moral questions that life presents and with which bioethics has always dealt-including, surely, the virtues needed in order to live well in a time of pandemic.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Equipamentos Médicos Duráveis/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Equipamentos de Proteção/provisão & distribução , Valores Sociais
13.
J Med Ethics ; 46(8): 495-498, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522813

RESUMO

Key ethical challenges for healthcare workers arising from the COVID-19 pandemic are identified: isolation and social distancing, duty of care and fair access to treatment. The paper argues for a relational approach to ethics which includes solidarity, relational autonomy, duty, equity, trust and reciprocity as core values. The needs of the poor and socially disadvantaged are highlighted. Relational autonomy and solidarity are explored in relation to isolation and social distancing. Reciprocity is discussed with reference to healthcare workers' duty of care and its limits. Priority setting and access to treatment raise ethical issues of utility and equity. Difficult ethical dilemmas around triage, do not resuscitate decisions, and withholding and withdrawing treatment are discussed in the light of recently published guidelines. The paper concludes with the hope for a wider discussion of relational ethics and a glimpse of a future after the pandemic has subsided.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/ética , Ética Clínica , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Equidade em Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Pandemias/ética , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pobreza , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Valores Sociais , Triagem/ética , Populações Vulneráveis , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
14.
J Med Ethics ; 46(8): 499-501, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532826

RESUMO

The urgent drive for vaccine development in the midst of the current COVID-19 pandemic has prompted public and private organisations to invest heavily in research and development of a COVID-19 vaccine. Organisations globally have affirmed the commitment of fair global access, but the means by which a successful vaccine can be mass produced and equitably distributed remains notably unanswered. Barriers for low-income countries include the inability to afford vaccines as well as inadequate resources to vaccinate, barriers that are exacerbated during a pandemic. Fair distribution of a pandemic vaccine is unlikely without a solid ethical framework for allocation. This piece analyses four allocation paradigms: ability to develop or purchase; reciprocity; ability to implement; and distributive justice, and synthesises their ethical considerations to develop an allocation model to fit the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Equidade em Saúde/ética , Pandemias/ética , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Justiça Social , Vacinas Virais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Análise Ética , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pobreza , Valores Sociais , Cobertura Vacinal/ética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234911, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Drug development trials must fulfill social value requirement but no estimates of value provided by pediatric Phase 1 trials in oncology exist. These trials involve a particularly vulnerable population. Our objective was to assess of surrogates of social value of Phase 1 trials performed in pediatric oncology: rates of approval of tested interventions, transition to further phases of testing and citation in subsequent primary research reports. METHODS: We performed an analysis on a subset of eligible trials included in a previous meta-analysis. That study systematically searched EMBASE and PubMed for small sample size, non-randomized, dose escalation pediatric cancer Phase 1 studies of any malignancy, assessing chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy and looked at risk and benefit. The current analysis assessed all studies in that review published between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2013 for predictors of social value. This time range allowed for at least five years of subsequent development activity. Sources of data included FDA and EMA medicine databases (for approval), ClinicalTrials.gov and EU Clinical Trials Register (for transition) and Google Scholar (for citation). RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine trials enrolling 3814 patients met the eligibility criteria. Seven trials (5%) led to drugs being registered for pediatric use in therapy of cancer. Fifty-two (37%) transitioned to later phases of pediatric oncology trials according to ClinicalTrials.gov and/or EU Register. Over 90% of trials were cited by at least one subsequent primary research report or systematic review. Most of the citations were preclinical studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that treatments tested in pediatric Phase 1 trials in oncology have low rates of regulatory approval. However, a large proportion of Phase 1 trials inform further testing and development of tested interventions.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Valores Sociais , Criança , Aprovação de Drogas , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
18.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 618-627, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572981

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses an exceptional challenge for humanity. Because public behaviour is key to curbing the pandemic at an early stage, it is important for social psychological researchers to use their knowledge to promote behaviours that help manage the crisis. Here, we identify human values as particularly important in driving both behavioural compliance to government guidelines and promoting prosocial behaviours to alleviate the strains arising from a prolonged pandemic. Existing evidence demonstrates the importance of human values, and the extent to which they are shared by fellow citizens, for tackling the COVID-19 crisis. Individuals who attach higher importance to self-transcendence (e.g., responsibility) and conservation (e.g., security) values are likely to be more compliant with COVID-19 behavioural guidelines and to help others who are struggling with the crisis. Further, believing that fellow citizens share one's values has been found to elicit a sense of connectedness that may be crucial in promoting collective efforts to contain the pandemic. The abstract nature of values, and cross-cultural agreement on their importance, suggests that they are ideally suited to developing and tailoring effective, global interventions to combat this pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Valores Sociais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Motivação , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
19.
Fam Process ; 59(3): 832-846, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589267

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic brings to the forefront the complex interconnected dilemmas of globalization, health equity, economic security, environmental justice, and collective trauma, severely impacting the marginalized and people of color in the United States. This lack of access to and the quality of healthcare, affordable housing, and lack of financial resources also continue to have a more significant impact on documented and undocumented immigrants. This paper aims at examining these critical issues and developing a framework for family therapists to address these challenges by focusing on four interrelated dimensions: cultural values, social determinants of health, collective trauma, and the ethical and moral responsibility of family therapists. Given the fact that family therapists may unwittingly function as the best ally of an economic and political system that perpetuates institutionalized racism and class discrimination, we need to utilize a set of principles, values, and practices that are not just palliative or after the fact but bring forth into the psychotherapeutic and policy work a politics of care. Therefore, a strong call to promote and advocate for the broader continuum of health and critical thinking preparing professionals to meet the challenges of health equity, as well as economic and environmental justice, is needed. The issues discussed in this paper are specific to the United States despite their relevance to family therapy as a field. We are mindful not to generalize the United States' reality to the rest of the world, recognizing that issues discussed in this paper could potentially contribute to international discourse.


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar/ética , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias/ética , Política , Racismo/ética , Betacoronavirus , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Marginalização Social , Valores Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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