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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 404, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513507

RESUMO

The vulnerability of the power generation industries vulnerability to the availability of water is widespread and growing. In this regard, water footprint (WF) is one method to assess this challenge. The present study conducts the WF of a naphtha-fired combined cycle power plant (CCPP) and a coal-fired steam power plant (CSPP). For carrying out WF, it is prudent to look after water consumption during operations and the supply chain stages. Hence, in this regard, two methods have been adopted to investigate the WF of both power plants. The first method deals with the water balance mass diagram (direct WF), and the second method deals with the water supply chain (indirect WF). Evaporation loss appears to be a significant contributing factor to the direct WF. On the other hand, operational WF seems to be an essential contributing factor to indirect WF. Furthermore, the result also shows that specific water consumption in CSPP is 3.54 m3/h, whereas, in CCPP, it is 0.9 m3/h. Finally, some methods have also been suggested to reduce WF in both power plants.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Vapor , Alcanos , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Centrais Elétricas , Água
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 288: 119371, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450633

RESUMO

Herein, a facile strategy was proposed for preparing a high-strength and super-hydrophobic packaging paper with improved moisture and air barrier properties, which was derived from cellulosic pulps, micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC), and nano-silica (n-SiO2). Owning to the laminated process followed by spraying approach, MFC and n-SiO2 were assembled onto two surfaces of the cellulose paper base, respectively, endowing the mechanical behaviors and superhydrophobic performance of this biodegradable composite papers as packaging material. The as-obtained multilayered papers demonstrated impressive dry tensile strength and remarkable wet tensile strength of 6542.5 N/m and 5875 N/m, which were increased by 56% and 2277%, respectively. In addition, the multilayered paper with rational mechanical properties possessed low permeabilities of air (3.17 × 10-3 µm·Pa-1·s-1), oxygen (9.687 cm3·m-2·day-1·atm), and water vapor (378.24 g·m-2·day-1), respectively, as well as a superhydrophobic performance with the contact angle of ~151.2°. Overall, the feasibility of large-scale production of biodegradable packaging materials in the paper-making industry is demonstrated by the fact that the micro/nanostructures and hydrophobic surfaces could be directly constructed on cellulosic paperboard.


Assuntos
Celulose , Dióxido de Silício , Celulose/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Papel , Vapor , Resistência à Tração
3.
Can J Urol ; 29(2): 11075-11079, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429425

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This analysis reported outcomes of treating catheter-dependent urinary retention with Rezum water vapor therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective registry was established at two high-volume Canadian centers. Patients had baseline medical and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) history documented. The subgroup of patients with refractory, catheter-dependent urinary retention was analyzed. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who were spontaneously voiding and catheter-free at 6 months. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (age: 68.7 years) with catheter-dependent urinary retention were treated with Rezum. Average prostate volume was 84.4 mL and 75% had median lobe. All patients had at least one recent failed trial without catheter (TWOC) and 87.5% were on BPH oral therapy. Mean number of vapor injections was 14.5. Visibility and bleeding during procedure were assessed using a 5-point scale, and were rated as 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. Anesthesia was either intravenous propofol sedation (n = 13) or self-administered methoxyflurane inhaler (n = 3). Mean catheter duration until first planned TWOC was 28.4 days. Three patients needed catheter replacement due to initial failed TWOC. One patient was lost to follow up, one patient did not return at 1 month, and one patient did not return at 3 months. At 1 month, 13/14 patients were spontaneously voiding and catheter-free. At 3 months, 14/14 patients were spontaneously voiding, and at 6 months, 15/15 patients were spontaneously voiding and catheter-free (1 patient was lost to follow up). CONCLUSIONS: Rezum water vapor therapy can successfully treat catheter-dependent urinary retention after initial failed TWOC in an outpatient setting.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática , Retenção Urinária , Idoso , Canadá , Cateteres , Feminino , Gases , Humanos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Vapor , Resultado do Tratamento , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Retenção Urinária/terapia
4.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443518

RESUMO

The recent second wave of COVID-19 cases in India has been marked by an unexpected increase in cases of mucormycosis reported in the context of COVID illness. Herein we aim to identify risk factors that may explain the sudden surge of cases and help develop preventive strategies. MATERIAL: We performed a case-control study comparing cases diagnosed with CAM and those who had recovered from COVID-19 without developing mucormycosis (controls). Information on comorbidities, glycemic control, and practices related to COVID-19 treatment was recorded. OBSERVATION: 100 patients of CAM (cases) and 150 patients of COVID-19 without mucormycosis (controls) were included in the study. The spectrum of involvement of CAM cases included rhino-sinus (n=98, 98%), rhino orbital (n=58, 58%), rhino-orbito-cerebral (n=29, 29%). In CAM group symptoms of mucormycosis began a mean of 13.46 days after onset of COVID-19. The mean age of the CAM study group was 51.16 years with 69 males (69%) and 31 females (31.0). The most frequent comorbidities seen in our study population was diabetes (n=113, 45.2%) and hypertension (n=54, 21.6%). Diabetes was significantly more frequent among cases than controls (89% vs 24%, p <0.001). 31% of patients in CAM case group showed a common practise of steam inhalation during covid illness. Most common symptom reported in CAM was related to the eye which included eye pain (58%), lid swelling (54%), eye swelling (47%). Sino-nasal symptoms were nasal discharge (25%), nasal stuffiness (21%), and epistaxis (4%). Other common symptoms were headache (51%) and facial pain (36%). On examination of nasal cavity, crusting and ulceration were present in 83% patients. Eye involvement was present in 60% of cases, of which 27% of cases had vision loss. For definitive diagnosis of CAM, Potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount was positive for aseptate hyphae in 31 patients (31%). Use of systemic steroids for the management of COVID-19, was more frequent in CAM case group than control group (n=70, 70%). The CAM case group showed mean Hba1c of 10.7 ± 2.45, mean Serum Iron levels was 49.01 ± 18.69, mean ferritin was 913.37, mean CRP was 131.56 and mean LDH was 428.70. CONCLUSION: Overzealous use of steroids, uncontrolled sugars and repeated steam inhalation provided a favourable environment for the growth of mucormycosis. Judicious use of steroids and stringent glycemic control are vital to preventing mucormycosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormicose , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Mucormicose/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vapor
5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(16): 9492-9508, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388842

RESUMO

This study aims to identify the kinetic features of individual reaction steps of the multistep thermal dehydration of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CS-DH) to anhydride via a hemihydrate (CS-HH) intermediate by achieving the universal kinetic description of each reaction step under different heating and water vapor pressure (p(H2O)) conditions. The mass loss processes of the thermal dehydration of CS-DH were systematically traced via humidity-controlled thermogravimetry under isothermal and linear nonisothermal conditions at various atmospheric p(H2O) values. After reconfirming the variation in the thermal dehydration pathway from a single-step dehydration to anhydride to a multistep process via the CS-HH intermediate with an increase in the p(H2O) value, the kinetic curves for each component reaction step were obtained by separating each component process from the partially overlapping mass-loss curves by kinetic deconvolution analysis as required. The induction period (IP) and the mass-loss processes of the thermal dehydrations of CS-DH to anhydride and CS-HH intermediate were compared, wherein more significant retardation effects of water vapor were observed for the IP process followed by direct dehydration to anhydride and for the mass-loss process from CS-DH to the CS-HH intermediate. The universal kinetic behavior of the thermal dehydration of the CS-HH intermediate to anhydride was compared with that of the CS-HH reagent; thus, comparable universal kinetic behaviors were observed except the reaction geometry. Based on the universal kinetic results, the key kinetic phenomenon for regulating the variation of the thermal dehydration pathway of CS-DH was discussed.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cálcio , Vapor , Anidridos , Desidratação , Calefação , Humanos
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(14): 16546-16557, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362947

RESUMO

Solar steam generation provides a promising and low-cost solution for freshwater production in energy scarcity areas. However, in real-world applications, evaporators are easily affected by microorganism contamination in source water, causing surface corrosion, structural damage, or even invalidation. Developing anti-biofouling and antibacterial evaporators is significant for long-term stable freshwater production. Herein, a composite polyelectrolyte photothermal hydrogel consisting of sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA), [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (METAC), and polypyrrole (PPy) with anti-biofouling and antibacterial properties is developed. Crediting sufficient ammonium groups and zwitterionic segments, the optimized polyelectrolyte hydrogel exhibits an ∼90% antibacterial ratio against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and effectively controls biological contamination. Under 1.0 kW m-2 solar irradiation, a rapid water evaporation rate of ∼1.690 kg m-2 h-1 and a high solar-to-evaporation efficiency of ∼95.94% are achieved with the photothermal hydrogel. We show that a lab-made setup integrated with the hydrogel can realize ∼0.455 kg m-2 h-1 freshwater production from seawater under natural sunlight. Moreover, the hydrogel exhibits excellent durability with a stable evaporation rate of ∼1.617 kg m-2 h-1 in real seawater for over 6 weeks, making it fullhearted in the real-world application of solar steam generation.


Assuntos
Luz Solar , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Polieletrólitos , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Pirróis , Staphylococcus aureus , Vapor , Água/química
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408904

RESUMO

Three-dimensionally-printed aortic templates are increasingly being used to aid in the modification of stent grafts in the treatment of urgent, complex aortic disorders, often of an emergency nature. The direct contact between the aortic template and the stent graft implies the necessity of complete sterility. Currently, the efficacy of sterilizing aortic templates and the effect of sterilization on the geometry of tubular aortic models are unknown. A complex case of aortic arch dissection was selected to prepare a 3D-printed aortic arch template, which was then manufactured in six popular printing materials: polylactic acid (PLA), nylon, polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), and a rigid and flexible photopolymer resin using fused deposition modeling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). The 3D models were contaminated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus broth and Bacillus atrophaeus. The sterilization was performed using three different methods: heat (105 °C and 121 °C), hydrogen peroxide plasma, and ethylene oxide gas. Before and after sterilization, the aortic templates were scanned using computed tomography to detect any changes in their morphology by comparing the dimensions. All sterilization methods were effective in the elimination of microorganisms. Steam sterilization in an autoclave at 121 °C caused significant deformation of the aortic templates made of PLA, PETG, and PP. The other materials had stable geometries, and changes during mesh comparisons were found to be submillimeter. Similarly, plasma, gas, and heat at 105 °C did not change the shapes of aortic templates observed macroscopically and using mesh analysis. All mean geometry differences were smaller than 0.5 mm. All sterilization protocols tested in our study were equally effective in destroying microorganisms; however, differences occurred in the ability to induce 3D object deformation. Sterilization at high temperatures deformed aortic templates composed of PLA, PETG, and PP. This method was suitable for nylon, flexible, and rigid resin-based models. Importantly, plasma and gas sterilization were appropriate for all tested printing materials, including PLA, PETG, PP, nylon, flexible and rigid resins. Moreover, sterilization of all the printed models using our novel protocol for steam autoclaving at 105 °C was also 100% effective, which could represent a significant advantage for health centers, which can therefore use one of the most popular and cheap methods of medical equipment disinfection for the sterilization of 3D models as well.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Médicos , Desinfecção , Humanos , Nylons , Poliésteres , Impressão Tridimensional , Vapor , Stents , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
8.
Small ; 18(15): e2108034, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419992

RESUMO

Surface oxygen vacancies (Vo ) regulation is an effective strategy to improve the electrochemical CO2  reduction reaction (CO2 RR) performance by lowering the activation energy barrier of CO2 ; however, the lack of precise control over the local atomic structures severely hinders the large-scale application of Vo -activated electrocatalyst for CO2 RR. Herein, an efficient strategy to facilitate CO2  activation is developed by introducing Vo into transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) with a steam-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. With the steam process, abundant surface Vo are introduced into the assembled Ni-Fe bimetallic NPs composite (H-NiFe/NG), which adjust surface Ni/Fe atoms to low-valent coordinatively unsaturated Ni (+1)/Fe (+2) sites, serving as electron-rich centers to adsorb and activate inert CO2  molecules. The as-prepared H-NiFe/NG composite exhibits excellent catalytic performance with a maximum Faradaic efficiency of 94% at -0.80 V (vs RHE) for CO production with remarkable stability. The density function theory calculations corroborate that the Ni atoms around surface Vo significantly lower the energy barrier for COOH* intermediate formation, which gives a low overpotential for reducing CO2  to CO, exhibiting superior CO2 RR performance. This general synthetic strategy provides a new insight to introduce surface Vo on transition metal for efficient CO2  reduction.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Vapor , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Catálise , Oxigênio
9.
Food Chem ; 383: 132547, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413753

RESUMO

Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is a source of diverse nutrients such as dietary fibers and betalains. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) has gained popularity in recent years. Red beetroot powder (RBP) was added (up to 70%) in wheat flour to make nutritionally fortified CSB. RBP addition greatly decreased specific volume (1.39 to 0.53 mL/g) and staling rate (4.14 to 2.59%), while increasing hardness (2882 to 15056 g) and chewiness (1923 to 3174 g) since RBP affected gluten secondary structure and weakened dough strength. More importantly, CSB containing RBP exhibited improved in vitro antioxidant potential and reduced estimated glycemic index (70.8 to 60.7). The betalains were largely degraded during steaming due to the isomerization of betanin to isobetanin. Sensory analysis showed that wheat flour could be substituted by RBP up to 10% without compromising the eating quality of the CSB. The findings indicated the feasibility of formulating beetroot-fortified foods with enhanced nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Pão , Farinha , Betalaínas , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Pós , Vapor/análise , Triticum/química
10.
Food Chem ; 387: 132835, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398681

RESUMO

Highland barley (HB) has become popular due to nutritional benefits, and thermal treatment could broaden its application. In this study, superheated steam (SS) as a novel commercially thermal treatment was compared with other traditional heating (steam and roasting). The physiochemical properties of treated HB kernels and subsequent produced flour were investigated. After thermal treatments, gelatinization enthalpy was decreased by 38.39% and the degree of gelatinization was increased by 38.40%. SS at 180 °C (SS-180) induced the highest thermal stability, lowest viscoelasticity gel and delayed the starch retrogradation compared to other treatments. Meanwhile, SS-180 caused lowest short-range order and relative crystallinity of starch along with changes in protein secondary structure. Particularly, SS-180 decreased damaged starch content by 6.44% due to starch granules closely wrapped by glue-like protein, while steam and roasting increased it by 32.92% and 21.40%, respectively. Overall, SS treatment is most effective to improve the physiochemical properties of HB.


Assuntos
Farinha , Hordeum , Farinha/análise , Amido/química , Vapor , Viscosidade
11.
Food Chem ; 386: 132819, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366635

RESUMO

Superheated steam (SST) at different moisture contents (10% ∼ 30%) was used to prevent the agglomeration of kudzu starch during rapid pasting with hot water. Changes in pasting-related properties and multi-scale structures were investigated. At moisture content of 20%, SST dramatically reduced the agglomeration rate from 42.20% to 2.97% without destroying the microstructure of kudzu starch or deteriorating the rheological properties of kudzu starch paste, which was superior to the conventional pre-gelatinization treatment. The agglomeration was prevented mainly by decreasing the swelling power and increasing the pasting temperature of kudzu starch. The slight disruption of multi-scale structures may facilitate faster water absorption by kudzu starch, but it was not the primary prevention mechanism. Moreover, the solubility of kudzu starch was not related to the agglomeration, since it was significantly decreased by SST. Our findings could provide new insights into the rapid pasting of starchy powders or flours with hot water.


Assuntos
Pueraria , Amido , Temperatura Alta , Pueraria/química , Amido/química , Vapor , Viscosidade , Água/química
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(9): 5775-5785, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465657

RESUMO

Despite increasing sustainable water purification, current desalination membranes still suffer from insufficient permeability and treatment efficiency, greatly hindering extensive practical applications. In this work, we provide a new membrane design protocol and molecule-level mechanistic understanding of vapor transport for the treatment of hypersaline waters via a membrane distillation process by rationally fabricating more robust metal-based carbon nanotube (CNT) network membranes, featuring a superhydrophobic superporous surface (80.0 ± 2.3% surface porosity). With highly permeable ductile metal hollow fibers as substrates, the construction of a superhydrophobic (water contact angle ∼170°) CNT network layer endows the membranes with not only almost perfect salt rejection (over 99.9%) but a promising water flux (43.6 L·m-2·h-1), which outperforms most existing inorganic distillation membranes. Both experimental and molecular dynamics simulation results indicate that such an enhanced water flux can be ascribed to an ultra-low liquid-solid contact interface (∼3.23%), allowing water vapor to rapidly transport across the membrane structure via a combined mechanism of Knudsen diffusion (more dominant) and viscous flow while efficiently repelling high-salinity feed via forming a Cassie-Baxter state. A more hydrophobic surface is more in favor of not only water desorption from the CNT outer surface but superfast and frictionless water vapor transport. By constructing a new superhydrophobic triple-phase interface, the conceptional design strategy proposed in this work can be expected to be extended to other membrane material systems as well as more water treatment applications.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Purificação da Água , Destilação , Gases , Membranas , Vapor
13.
Waste Manag ; 144: 421-430, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452950

RESUMO

The study aimed to propose an efficient and eco-friendly strategy to improve the utilization of feather waste and converting it into high-valued antimicrobial products. Under the synergistic effect of instant catapult steam explosion (ICSE) (1.5 MPa-120 s), over 90% of chicken feather powder (CFP) was degraded into soluble peptides via keratinolysis within 3 h, about 90% of which were smaller than 3 kDa, indicating an overwhelming advantage than general proteolysis. Importantly, the keratinolysis hydrolysate of CFP was able to inhibit E. coli growth, among which the fraction < 3 kDa exhibited highest antimicrobial activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 30 mg/mL. Compared to other fractions, the fraction < 3 kDa contained higher content of hydrophobic amino acids (364.11 mg/g), in which about 79% of peptides had more than 60% hydrophobic ratio, potentially contributing to its antimicrobial activity. ICSE-keratinolysis process holds potential in reducing both protein resource waste and environmental pollution by valorizing feathers into antimicrobial product.


Assuntos
Plumas , Queratinas , Animais , Escherichia coli , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pós/metabolismo , Reciclagem , Vapor
14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 619: 322-330, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398763

RESUMO

The emerging of solar-driven interfacial evaporation provides new opportunities to alleviate the shortage of fresh water resource. Nevertheless, in practical solar desalination, salt precipitation will lead to the decrease of evaporation rate due to reduced light absorption and blocked evaporation channels of evaporator. It still remains a challenge to eliminate salt accumulation and simultaneously maintain high-efficient evaporation. In this work, a solar evaporator was prepared based on reduced graphene oxide and chitosan coated honeycomb-structured fabric (rCHF). The rCHF showed a high light absorbance of 97.2% due to enhanced light trapping of the honeycomb structure and ultra-low thermal conductivity of 0.044 W m-1 K-1. Furthermore, the temperature gradient generated inside the honeycomb unit can induce the Marangoni effect, which led to the site-specific salt crystallization on rCHF in seawater evaporation. As a result, the rCHF realized an excellent solar evaporation rate of 2.02 kg m-2h-1 under one sun irradiation (1 kW m-2). The site-specific salt crystallization on the surface of rCHF ensured stable evaporation even in 20% brine, and the isolated salt can be removed by natural dissolution owing to the excellent hydrophilicity of rCHF. This work provides a new perspective for the design of solar evaporator for practical solar seawater desalination.


Assuntos
Vapor , Purificação da Água , Cristalização , Cloreto de Sódio , Luz Solar
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 114: 149-159, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459480

RESUMO

Despite the heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on mineral dust particles significantly affects the atmospheric environment, the effect of acidic gases on the formation of sulfite and sulfate from this reaction is not particularly clear. In this work, using the in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) technique, we employed a mineral dust particle model (CaCO3) combined with NO2 and acetic acid to investigate their effects on the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on CaCO3 particles. It was found that water vapor can promote the formation of sulfite and simulated radiation can facilitate the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. The addition of NO2 or acetic acid to the reaction system altered the production of sulfate and sulfite accordingly. There was a synergistic effect between NO2 and SO2 that promoted the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, and a competitive effect between acetic acid and SO2 that inhibited the formation of sulfite. Moreover, light and water vapor can also affect the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 with the coexistence of multiple gases. These findings improve our understanding of the effects of organic and inorganic gases and environmental factors on the formation of sulfite and sulfate in heterogeneous reactions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Sulfatos , Ácido Acético , Poeira , Minerais , Vapor , Sulfitos , Dióxido de Enxofre/química , Óxidos de Enxofre
16.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111070, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400448

RESUMO

Nine steaming nine sun-drying is a traditional processing technology for food or medicinal materials. The dynamic changes of the proximate composition, protein structure and volatile compounds during nine-time steaming and sun-drying of black soybeans (BS) were studied. The proximate composition results showed that the content of protein, carbohydrate and fat of BS decreased after processing, whereas the relative content of amino acids remained basically unchanged. Protein structure was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (UV) and Fluorescence spectroscopy. FT-IR result revealed that the relative contents of ß-sheet and ß-turn of the secondary structure of black soybean protein isolate (BSPI) decreased but the relative contents of α-helix and random coil increased after steaming and sun-drying. The results of UV and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed changes in the protein conformation. In addition, SPME-GCMS analysis demonstrated that hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds. The relative contents of 1-octen-3-ol and hexanal, which are the main sources of beany flavor decreased significantly compared with raw BS. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the volatile compounds of nine steamed and nine sun-dried BS could be well distinguished during the process. These findings may therefore provide a scientific basis for the application of nine-time steamed and sun-dried BS in food industry and contribute to the understanding of process-induced chemical transformations in this ancient processing technique.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Soja , Aminoácidos/análise , Dessecação/métodos , Soja/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vapor/análise
17.
Low Urin Tract Symptoms ; 14(3): 140-154, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233955

RESUMO

Water vapor thermal therapy (Rezum) is a novel, minimally invasive surgical technology used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the latest efficacy and safety profile of Rezum in patients with LUTS secondary to BPH. PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched, in accordance with the PRISMA statement, for relevant articles in the English language till 1 August 2021. Randomized and nonrandomized studies that evaluated urinary outcomes and/or adverse events were deemed eligible. Nineteen studies (N = 1942), published in 25 articles, were included. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) significantly improved as early as 1 month postoperatively and remained durable for up to 5 years. Significant median percent improvements in IPSS, QoL, and Qmax at 3 months were 51%, 51%, and 66%, respectively. Patients with obstructive median lobes, large prostates (>80 g), small prostates (<30 g), and urinary retention also experienced significant relief in LUTS, with 83% of urinary retention patients becoming catheter independent at a median of 14 days. Most adverse events were transient and nonserious and occurred in 0% to 76% of patients (median 29%), with de novo erectile dysfunction rates ranging between 0% and 3.1%. Surgical retreatment rate ranged between 4.4% and 7.5% at 5 years postoperatively. Rezum provides durable improvements in symptoms, irrespective of prostate volume and urinary retention status, and has low rates of sexual dysfunction.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior , Hiperplasia Prostática , Retenção Urinária , Feminino , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/complicações , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Vapor , Resultado do Tratamento , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Retenção Urinária/terapia
18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 616: 709-719, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247809

RESUMO

Bilayer solar evaporator combines high photothermal conversion capacity and low heat loss, has become the new darling in interfacial solar steam generation (ISSG). However, the bilayer structure generally achieved by introducing a photothermal coating on the substrate is not conducive to long-term use due to the poor stability of coating. Herein, a fully biomass-based bilayer evaporator is all-in-one designed, using chitosan (CS) as building blocks and CS derived N, S - doped porous carbon (NSPC) as fillers via pre-freezing and freeze-drying. This facile method could realise the quantitative addition of photothermal materials and controllably regulate the structure of the bilayer evaporator, making the structural optimisation readily available. The optimised evaporator exhibits a remarkable evaporation rate of 2.51 kg m-2h-1. After 1000 times of pressing, it still maintains at 2.42 kg m-2h-1. Additionally, the evaporator displays outstanding long-lasting stability, excellent salt-resistant and degradability. More importantly, a solar desalination device is fabricated for harvesting freshwater outdoor. The daily water production per unit area (4.55 kg) meets the consumption of two adults. This work provides a controllable synthesis strategy of bilayer evaporators for handling global freshwater shortages.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Água do Mar , Cloreto de Sódio , Vapor , Luz Solar
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(12): 14654-14667, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302368

RESUMO

Bio-based and biodegradable packaging combined with chemical sensors and indicators has attracted great attention as they can provide protection combined with information on the actual freshness of foodstuffs. In this study, we present an effective, biodegradable, mostly bio-sourced material ideal for sustainable packaging that can also be used as a smart indicator of ammonia (NH3) vapor and food spoilage. The developed material comprises a blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) loaded with curcumin (CCM), which is fabricated via the scalable techniques of melt extrusion and compression molding. Due to the structural similarity of PLA and PPC, they exhibited good compatibility and formed hydrogen bonds within their blends, as proven by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis confirmed that the blends were thermally stable at the used processing temperature (180 °C) with minimal crystallinity. The rheological and mechanical properties of the PLA/PPC blends were easily tuned by changing the ratio of the biopolymers. Supplementing the PLA/PCC samples with CCM resulted in efficient absorption of UV radiation, yet the transparency of the films was preserved (T700 ∼ 68-84%). The investigation of CCM extract in ethanol with the DPPH• assay demonstrated that the samples could also provide effective antioxidant action, due to the tunable release of the CCM. Analyses for water vapor and oxygen permeability showed that the PPC improved the barrier properties of the PLA/PPC blends, while the presence of CCM did not hinder barrier performance. The capacity for real-time detection of NH3 vapor was quantified using the CIELab color space analysis. A change in color of the sample from a yellowish shade to red was observed by the naked eye. Finally, a film of PLA/PPC/CCM was successfully applied as a sticker indicator to monitor the spoilage of shrimps over time, demonstrating an evident color change from yellow to light orange, particularly for the PPC-containing blend. The developed system, therefore, has the potential to serve as a cost-effective, easy-to-use, nondestructive, smart indicator for food packaging, as well as a means for NH3 gas monitoring in industrial and environmental applications.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Poliésteres/química , Vapor
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4403, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292701

RESUMO

Water evaporation systems with solar energy as the primary driving energy have received extensive attention in recent years. This work studies the preparation method and performance of hydrogel evaporators using chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a framework and carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) as the photothermal material. The evaporation rate of CPC (chitosan/PVA and CNPs) hydrogel obtained reaches 2.28 kg m-2 h-1. Simultaneously, a three-dimensional structure is designed based on the two-dimensional double-layer evaporation system in this study. An evaporator with a tiny-pool structure and a hydrogel with a dome-arrayed structure is designed. These two structures achieve highly efficient evaporation rates of 2.28 kg m-2 h-1 and 3.80 kg m-2 h-1, respectively. These optimized designs improve the evaporation rate of the overall system by ~ 66.7%. The developed evaporation devices provide a promising pathway for developing the double-layer evaporators, which promote the new development of water purification with a solar-driven evaporation system.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Vapor , Hidrogéis , Álcool de Polivinil , Luz Solar
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