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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279997, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595543

RESUMO

Researchers conduct post-construction fatality monitoring (PCFM) to determine a wind energy facility's direct impacts on wildlife. Results of PCFM can be used to evaluate compliance with permitted take, potentially triggering adaptive management measures or offsetting mitigation; reducing uncertainty in fatality rates benefits wind companies, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders. As part of PCFM, investigators conduct carcass persistence trials to account for imperfect detection during carcass surveys. In most PCFM studies, pen-raised game birds and other non-raptor surrogates have been used to estimate persistence of all large birds, including raptors. However, there is a growing body of evidence showing carcass persistence varies by bird type; raptor fatality estimates based on game bird carcass persistence may therefore be biased high. We conducted raptor and game bird carcass persistence field trials for 1 year at 6 wind energy facilities. Raptor carcass persistence varied by habitat and season, whereas the best-supported game bird model only included habitat. Raptor persistence probabilities were higher than corresponding game bird persistence probabilities for 13 of the 16 habitat and season combinations. Analysis of a curated large bird persistence meta-dataset showed that raptor carcass persistence varied by season, habitat, and region. The probability of persisting through a 30-day search interval ranged from 0.44 to 0.99 for raptors and from 0.16 to 0.79 for game birds. Raptor persistence was significantly higher than game bird persistence for 95% of the sampled strata. We used these carcass persistence estimates to develop linear mixed-effects models that predict raptor persistence probabilities based on estimated game bird persistence probabilities. Our scaling model provides an important statistical method to address gaps in raptor persistence data at sites in a broad range of landscape contexts in the continental United States and should be used to inform fatality estimation when site-specific raptor persistence data are limited or absent.


Assuntos
Aves Predatórias , Animais , Aves , Animais Selvagens , Vento , Probabilidade , Cadáver
2.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279818, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595545

RESUMO

Scenario models of a moving subway train can help investigate the influence of different fire locations on smoke propagation characteristics in curved tunnels. To this end, this study adopts the three-dimensional Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations method and the renormalization group k-ε two-equation turbulence model with buoyancy correction for numerical analysis. The motion of the train is replicated using the slip grid technique. The results indicate that when a fire breaks out on a moving train in tunnels, the piston wind leads the longitudinal movement of the smoke. If a fire erupts in the head or middle car of a moving train, the time of smoke backflow is delayed by 30 s or 17 s, respectively, compared to that for the tail car. The obtained results provide a theoretical basis for reasonably controlling the smoke flow in subway tunnels and reducing casualties in fire accidents.


Assuntos
Ferrovias , Fumaça , Fumaça/análise , Vento
3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 101, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609508

RESUMO

Forest mortality caused by convective storms (windthrow) is a major disturbance in the Amazon. However, the linkage between windthrows at the surface and convective storms in the atmosphere remains unclear. In addition, the current Earth system models (ESMs) lack mechanistic links between convective wind events and tree mortality. Here we find an empirical relationship that maps convective available potential energy, which is well simulated by ESMs, to the spatial pattern of large windthrow events. This relationship builds connections between strong convective storms and forest dynamics in the Amazon. Based on the relationship, our model projects a 51 ± 20% increase in the area favorable to extreme storms, and a 43 ± 17% increase in windthrow density within the Amazon by the end of this century under the high-emission scenario (SSP 585). These results indicate significant changes in tropical forest composition and carbon cycle dynamics under climate change.


Assuntos
Florestas , Aquecimento Global , Árvores , Mudança Climática , Vento
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 340, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611056

RESUMO

Amid its massive increase in energy demand, Southeast Asia has pledged to increase its use of renewable energy by up to 23% by 2025. Geospatial technology approaches that integrate statistical data, spatial models, earth observation satellite data, and climate modeling can be used to conduct strategic analyses for understanding the potential and efficiency of renewable energy development. This study aims to create the first spatial model of its kind in Southeast Asia to develop multi-renewable energy from solar, wind, and hydropower, further broken down into residential and agricultural areas. The novelty of this study is the development of a new priority model for renewable energy development resulting from the integration of area suitability analysis and the estimation of the amount of potential energy. Areas with high potential power estimations for the combination of the three types of energy are mostly located in northern Southeast Asia. Areas close to the equator, have a lower potential than the northern countries, except for southern regions. Solar photovoltaic (PV) plant construction is the most area-intensive type of energy generation among the considered energy sources, requiring 143,901,600 ha (61.71%), followed by wind (39,618,300 ha; 16.98%); a combination of solar PV and wind (37,302,500 ha; 16%); hydro (7,665,200 ha; 3.28%); a combination of hydro and solar PV (3,792,500 ha; 1.62%); and a combination of hydro and wind (582,700 ha; 0.25%). This study is timely and important because it will inform policies and regional strategies for transitioning to renewable energy, with consideration of the different characteristics present in Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Vento , Energia Renovável , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Clima , Tecnologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2212105120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623184

RESUMO

Windthrow, or the uprooting of trees by extreme wind gusts, is a natural forest disturbance that creates microhabitats, turns over soil, alters hydrology, and removes carbon from the above-ground carbon stock. Long recurrence intervals between extreme wind events, however, make direct observations of windthrow rare, challenging our understanding of this important disturbance process. To overcome this difficulty, we present an approach that uses the geomorphic record of hillslope topographic roughness as a proxy for the occurrence of windthrow. The approach produces a probability function of the number of annual windthrow events for a maximum wind speed, allowing us to explore how windthrow or tree strengths may change due to shifting wind climates. Slight changes to extreme wind speeds may drive comparatively large changes in windthrow production rates or force trees to respond and change the distribution. We also highlight that topographic roughness has the potential to serve as an important archive of extreme wind speeds.


Assuntos
Florestas , Vento , Clima , Carbono
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 256, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595082

RESUMO

The present investigation outlines the crucial factors that influence the black carbon (BC) concentrations over a polluted metropolis, Kolkata (22.57° N, 88.37° E), India. Located in the eastern part of the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) outflow region and close to the land-ocean boundary, Kolkata is subject to contrasting seasonal maritime airflow from the Bay of Bengal and continental air mass from the IGP and Tibetan plateau region, which modulates the local concentration of BC. The origin of aerosol transport and associated atmospheric dynamics with high and low BC activities over Kolkata are examined during 2012-2015 using data from multi-technique sources which include measurements of ground-based instruments of aethalometer and multi-frequency microwave radiometer, reanalysis data from ERA-5 and MEERA-2, and model outputs from HYPSLIT back trajectory model simulations. The study highlights the control of IGP wind inflow on the occurrence of anomalous enhancements in BC concentration during weekends and holidays when local emissions are low. High BC events are associated with enhanced atmospheric heating below the boundary layer (2000 m) and significant negative surface radiative forcing. The response of the boundary layer to high and low BC episodes, shown in the diurnal variation in comparison with the seasonal mean, is investigated. Dominant suppression of morning and night-time boundary layer height is observed on high BC days. During the daytime in pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons, boundary layer height peaks are found to be strongly controlled by high BC episode occurrences as obtained from the hourly data of ERA-5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estações do Ano , Vento , Fuligem/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Índia , Carbono/análise
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679432

RESUMO

The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power generation has led to more and more installation of renewable energies such as wind and solar power. However, the high intermittency of these generators poses a threat to electrical grid stability. The power output of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations, for instance, depends on the solar irradiance, and consequently on weather conditions. In order to mitigate the adverse effects of solar intermittency, storage such as batteries can be deployed. However, the cost of a stationary energy storage system (SESS) is high, particularly for large PV installations. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are an alternative to SESS. With increasing number of BEVs, more and more storage capacity becomes available while these vehicles are charging. In this paper, we compare stationary batteries to mobile batteries of battery electric buses (BEBs) in a public bus terminus for balancing fluctuations of solar PV installations. Public buses have been chosen due to their large batteries and because they are more easily manageable than private cars. An optimisation model has been developed considering both the bus operator's and the PV operator's objectives. Cycle ageing of batteries is included in the investigation. Our analysis reveals that utilising public BEBs with high battery capacity to balance solar PV fluctuations can present a positive financial case.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Energia Solar , Energia Renovável , Vento , Veículos Automotores
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679722

RESUMO

A low-cost smart sensor GNSS system has been developed to provide accurate real-time position and orientation measurements on a floating offshore wind platform. The approach chosen to offer a viable and reliable solution for this application is based on the use of the well-known advantages of the GNSS system as the main driver for enhancing the accuracy of positioning. For this purpose, the data reported in this work are captured through a GNSS receiver operating over multiple frequency bands (L1, L2, L5) and combining signals from different constellations of navigation satellites (GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS), and they are processed through the precise point positioning (PPP) and real-time kinematic (RTK) techniques. Furthermore, aiming to improve global positioning, the processing unit fuses the results obtained with the data acquired through an inertial measurement unit (IMU), reaching final accuracy of a few centimeters. To validate the system designed and developed in this proposal, three different sets of tests were carried out in a (i) rotary table at the laboratory, (ii) GNSS simulator, and (iii) real conditions in an oceanic buoy at sea. The real-time positioning solution was compared to solutions obtained by post-processing techniques in these three scenarios and similar results were satisfactorily achieved.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Vento , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Laboratórios
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280644, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656824

RESUMO

We simulated the spatial distribution and dynamics of macro plastic in the Baltic Sea, using a new Lagrangian approach called the dynamical renormalization resampling scheme (DRRS). This approach extends the super-individual simulation technique, so the weight-per-individual is dynamic rather than fixed. The simulations were based on a mapping of the macro plastic sources along the Baltic coast line, and a five year time series of realistic wind, wave and current data to resolve time-variability in the transport and spatial distribution of macro plastics in the Baltic Sea. The model setup has been validated against beach litter observations and was able to reproduce some major spatial trends in macroplastic distributions. We also simulated plastic dispersal using Green's functions (pollution plumes) for individual sources. e.g. rivers, and found a significant variation in the spatial range of Green's functions corresponding to different pollution sources. We determined a significant temporal variability (up to 7 times the average) in the plastic concentration locally, which needs to be taken into account when assessing the ecological impact of marine litter. Accumulation patterns and litter wave formation were observed to be driven by an interplay between positive buoyancy, coastal boundaries and varying directions of physical forcing. Finally we determined the range of wind drag coefficients for floating plastic, where the dynamics is mostly directly wind driven, as opposed to indirectly by surface currents and waves. This study suggests that patterns of litter sorting by transport processes should be observable in many coastal and off-shore environments.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Vento
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673672

RESUMO

This paper presents a meteorological approach to identify local and remote sources driving the variability of surface daily radon concentrations. To this purpose, hourly 222Rn concentration and surface meteorological measurements, and air mass trajectories at Bilbao station (northern Iberian Peninsula) during the period 2017-2018 have been taken as reference. To investigate the potential transport pathways and potential 222Rn sources, the backward trajectory cluster analysis, trajectory sector analysis (TSA), and potential source contribution function (PSCF) are applied. On average, the diurnal 222Rn cycle shows the expected behaviour, with larger concentrations during the night and minimum concentrations during the daylight hours, with differences in the seasonal amplitudes. According to daily differences between maximum and baseline values, 222Rn daily cycles were grouped into six groups to identify meteorological conditions associated with each amplitude, and potential source areas and transport routes of 222Rn over Bilbao. The trajectory cluster and the TSA method show that the main airflow pathways are from the south, with small displacement, and the northeast, while the analysis of surface wind speed and direction indicates that the highest amplitudes of 222Rn concentrations are registered under the development of sea-land breezes. The PSCF method identified south-western and north-eastern areas highly contributing to the 222Rn concentration. These areas are confirmed by comparing with the radon flux map and the European map of uranium concentration in soil. The results have demonstrated the need in combining the analysis of local and regional/synoptic factors in explaining the origin and variability of 222Rn concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Radônio , Radônio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Solo , Vento , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 304, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648588

RESUMO

PM10, one of the air pollutants, occurs regularly in Istanbul during the winter months, namely in December, January, and February. PM10 pollutant is affected by numerous factors. Among these factors are various meteorological variables and climatological factors. This article aims to determine the relationship between PM10 and meteorological variables (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity) and to interpret these results. PM10 and meteorological data were examined between 2011 and 2018. To determine the relationship, multiple linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC), Spearman's rank correlation, Kendall Tau correlation, autocorrelation function (ACF), cross-correlation function (CCF), and visuals were determined using the R program (open-air) packages. In the study, the relationship between wind, temperature, and relative humidity with PM10 was determined, and it was observed that the PM10 concentration was maximum between January and February. PM10 concentrations have a positive relationship with relative humidity and wind direction, while a negative relationship with wind speed and temperature was observed. The correlation values for relative humidity and temperature were found to be 0.01 and - 0.15, respectively. Furthermore, the relationship between wind speed and PM10 was calculated from multiple linear regression model, and the estimated value was - 0.12 while looking at the wind direction value, it was approximately 0.03.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Vento , Estações do Ano , Cidades , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/análise
12.
PeerJ ; 11: e14664, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691483

RESUMO

Background: Performing back trajectory and forward trajectory using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) is a reliable approach for assessing particle transport after release among mid-field atmospheric models. HYSPLIT has an externally facing online interface that allows non-expert users to run the model trajectories without requiring extensive training or programming. However, the existing HYSPLIT interface is limited if simulations have a large amount of meteorological data and timesteps that are not coincident. The objective of this study is to design and develop a more robust tool to rapidly evaluate hazard transport conditions and to perform risk analysis, while still maintaining an intuitive and user-friendly interface. Methods: HYSPLIT calculates forward and backward trajectories of particles based on wind speed, wind direction, and the corresponding location, timestamp, and Pasquill stability classes of the regions of the atmosphere in terms of the wind speed, the amount of solar radiation, and the fractional cloud cover. The computed particle transport trajectories, combined with the online Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) data (https://figshare.com/articles/dataset/ARL_Data_from_PROS_station_at_Hanford_site/19993964), can be used to identify and quantify the sources and affected area of the hazardous chemicals' emission using the potential source distribution function (PSDF). PSDF is an improved statistical function based on the well-known potential source contribution function (PSCF) in establishing the air pollutant source and receptor relationship. Performing this analysis requires a range of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements to be statistically meaningful. The existing HYSPLIT graphical user interface (GUI) does not easily permit computations of trajectories of a dataset of meteorological data in high temporal frequency. To improve the performance of HYSPLIT computations from a large dataset and enhance risk analysis of the accidental release of material at risk, a geospatial risk analysis tool (GRAT-GUI) is created to allow large data sets to be processed instantaneously and to provide ease of visualization. Results: The GRAT-GUI is a native desktop-based application and can be run in any Windows 10 system without any internet access requirements, thus providing a secure way to process large meteorological datasets even on a standalone computer. GRAT-GUI has features to import, integrate, and convert meteorological data with various formats for hazardous chemical emission source identification and risk analysis as a self-explanatory user interface. The tool is available at https://figshare.com/articles/software/GRAT/19426742.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Vento , Medição de Risco , Atmosfera/análise
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 44(1): 85-93, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635798

RESUMO

The problem of urban ozone (O3) pollution has become prominent in recent years. However, the meteorological factors associated with O3 pollution remain unclear. Analyzing the characteristics of O3 pollution in Suzhou, as a typical urban city, and exploring the high-impact meteorological factors with O3 pollution are crucial to the prevention and control of air pollution in this region. This study used correlation analysis and machine learning methods to analyze the variation in O3 concentration and the relationship between meteorological driving factors in Suzhou based on the O3 concentration data provided by Suzhou Environmental Monitoring Center and the contemporaneous meteorological observation data in Suzhou from April to September in 2015 to 2020. The results showed that: ① O3 pollution exceeding the standard rate was more than 20% in ozone seasons during the past six years; further, pollution days of O3 and the number of pollution days of O3 as the primary pollutant increased yearly. Evidently, the problem of O3 pollution has become increasingly prominent. ② The diurnal variations in O3 were unimodal with the valley point at 07:00 and the highest peak between 15:00 and 16:00. Similar trends were found in diurnal variations of both air temperature and solar radiation, but the daily highest peak came earlier than that of O3. The results also showed an apparent weekend effect of O3 concentration in 2017 and 2019 and a significant correlation between O3 concentration and solar irradiance during the week. In addition, the monthly variation in O3 concentration and pollution exceeding the standard rate was bimodal. ③The occurrence of ozone pollution was affected by various meteorological conditions. The maximum number of days appeared when daily sunshine hours lasted longer than 7 hours, with a daily maximum air temperature around 30℃, solar irradiance ranging from 350 to 440 kW·m-2, and relative humidity ranging from 50% to 75%, at which time the intensity of pollution was the strongest. When the wind speed of easterly wind was less than 1.5 m·s-1, or the wind speed of southwest wind was less than 3.5 m·s-1, moderate ozone pollution occurred. ④ An optimal prediction model of O3 concentration was established based on machine learning, which had good predictive ability for O3 concentration in April, May, July, and September but did not perform well when O3 concentration exceeded 200 µg·m-3. Meanwhile, it was found that solar radiation had the most obvious effect on O3 concentration, followed by relative humidity, whereas the temperature and wind were less important than the former two factors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Ozônio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estações do Ano , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Vento , China
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 44(1): 104-117, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635800

RESUMO

Accurate meteorological fields and applicable air quality models are important ways to optimize air pollution simulations. To improve the accuracy of winter air pollution models in the Sichuan basin, we conducted a meteorological field simulation using 25 sets of parameterized scheme combinations in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Based on the optimal parameters, the air pollution levels were simulated using AERMOD and CALPUFF models in a local large steel plant, and the data were verified by comparing the data from four National Ambient Air Monitoring Stations (NAAMS). The results indicated that the WRF model parameters had substantial effects on the simulation of the ground wind field, high-altitude wind field, and ground humidity field. In contrast, the parameters had no significant effect on the simulation of the ground temperature field, high-altitude temperature field, and high-altitude humidity field. The combination of the SLAB land surface process scheme and Dudhia shortwave radiation scheme with four boundary layer schemes, namely YSU, ACM2, BouLac, and MRF, could well-simulate the trends of winter surface wind, temperature, and humidity fields in Sichuan basin. The simulation results were analyzed by combining the statistical parameters of high-altitude wind, temperature, and humidity. The group 1 parameter scheme was applicable to simulate the meteorological field of Dazhou. Group 13 and Group 17 parameters were applicable to simulate the meteorological fields in Chengdu during the day and night, respectively. The correlation between CALPUFF simulation and monitoring value was better than that for AERMOD. CALPUFF was more accurate than AERMOD when referring to the monitoring data from NAAMS No.3. In addition, the simulation quality of CALPUFF was slightly better than that of AERMOD with reference to data from NAAMS No.2. Using air pollutant monitoring data from NAAMS as a reference, the simulated results of CALPUFF on NOx and PM10 were improved compared to AERMOD at all four stations. Data from the Q-Q diagram indicated that the simulated results of CALPUFF on SO2, NOx, and PM10 were closer to the monitored values compared to those of AERMOD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Vento , Estações do Ano , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Environ Pollut ; 317: 120824, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493938

RESUMO

Atom ratio between 235U and 238U is often used as an indicator of U contamination as the isotopic signature of products generated by the nuclear and military industry significantly vary from the natural isotopic ratio of U. In this study, surface soils and glaciers samples were collected in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surrounding areas and analyzed for U isotopic composition. Results show that the 235U/238U atom ratios in the surface soils of the TP ranges from 0.007122 to 0.007615, with an average value of 0.007378 ± 0.00011; while in the snow/ice dust from high-altitude glaciers it ranges from 0.007254 to 0.007687, with an average value of 0.007345 ± 0.000128. These ratios are slightly higher than the typical crustal value, indicating that the TP was affected by an anthropogenic input of 235U, especially in its northeast and southwest sectors. The variability of our results suggests that the spatial distribution of this contamination is not uniform, pointing to differences in the potential sources and transmission paths of radioactive particles. Combining the knowledge of past tests and activities conducted in the geographic areas around the TP with the knowledge of prevailing winds, we hypothesize that the observed 235U contamination in the TP surface soils and glaciers may have originated mainly from the previous nuclear related activities in surrounding areas (e.g., north Gobi Desert and South Asia). In addition, the horizontal and vertical wind field around the Tibetan Plateau, as well as the atmospheric aerosol optical thickness data also demonstrated the possible transport paths of the radionuclides, that is, originated from in northern Gobi desert and South Asia and reached the TP crossing the Himalayas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Camada de Gelo , Tibet , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Vento , Radioisótopos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 161040, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572311

RESUMO

The dissemination of bioaerosols in the westerly wind from the Asian continent to the northwestern Pacific constantly links the land and marine ecosystems. Several observation campaigns targeting bioaerosols were conducted in the coastal city Qingdao of China (QD), at a coast site of Kumamoto in southwestern Japan (KM), and in the northwestern Pacific (NP) between 2014 and 2016. We compared the concentration of bioaerosols in the range of 1.1-7.0 µm obtained in those campaigns to investigate their variation in the westerly wind. The substantial influence of westerlies on bioaerosol concentration was confirmed in the three areas. In the case of non-dust air, the arrival of the continental air led to a 29 % decrease of bioaerosols at KM while a 57 % increase at NP, indicating that the concentration in non-dust air was lower than the local level in the island air while higher than that in the remote marine air. In case of dust occurrence, bioaerosols in the air decreased with the distance from the Asian continent at KM and NP consecutively, and the arrival of the air caused a 2-fold increase at KM and a 1.7-fold increase at NP. The relative concentration increase rate of bioaerosols (IRRC), defined as the ratio of the increment of bioaerosols caused by long-distance transported air to the local level in each area, decreased rapidly after the air left the continent in the dust cases, which is similar to the decrease of the dry deposition flux of dust reported in the literature. This result indicates that the reduction of bioaerosols in the dusty air was likely dominated by the removal of bioaerosols attached to dust particles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Humanos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poeira/análise , Vento , Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160730, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496027

RESUMO

Offshore wind farms (OWFs) and their associated cables, foundations and scour protection are often constructed in soft-sediment environments. This introduction of hard substrate has been shown to have similar effects as artificial reefs by providing food resources and offering increased habitat complexity, thereby aggregating fish around the turbines and foundations. However, as most studies have focused their efforts on fish species that are typically associated with reef structures, knowledge on how soft sediment species are affected by OWFs is still largely lacking. In this study, we analysed the trophic ecology and condition of plaice, a flatfish species of commercial interest, in relation to a Belgian OWF. The combination of a stomach and intestine content analysis with the use of biomarkers (i.e. fatty acids and stable isotopes) identified a clear shift in diet with increased occurrences of typical hard-substrate prey species for fish in the vicinity of the foundations and this both on the short and the long term. Despite some condition indices suggesting that the hard substrate provides increased food availability, no clear increases of overall plaice condition or fecundity were found. Samples from within the wind farm, however, contained larger fish and had a higher abundance of females compared to control areas, potentially indicating a refuge effect caused by the cessation of fisheries activities within the OWF. These results suggest that soft-sediment species can potentially benefit from the presence of an OWF, which could lead to fish production. However, more research is still needed to further elucidate the behavioral ecology of plaice within OWFs to make inferences on how they can impact fish populations on a larger spatial scale.


Assuntos
Linguado , Animais , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Ecossistema , Estado Nutricional , Peixes
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160829, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509272

RESUMO

Wind erosion can cause desertification and sandstorms in arid and semiarid areas. However, quantitative studies of the dynamic changes in wind erosion over long time periods are relatively rare, and this knowledge gap hinders our understanding of desertification under the conditions of a changing climate. Here, we selected the Mongolian Plateau as the study area. Using the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) model, we assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics of wind erosion on the Mongolian Plateau from 1982 to 2018. Our results showed that the wind erosion intensity on the Mongolian Plateau increased from northeast to southwest. The annual mean wind erosion modulus was 46.5 t·ha-1 in 1982-2008, with a significant decline at a rate of -5.1 t·ha-1·10 yr-1. The intensity of wind erosion was the strongest in spring, followed by autumn and summer, and was weakest in winter. During 1982-2018, wind erosion showed a significant decreasing trend in all seasons except winter. The wind erosion contribution of spring to the total annual wind erosion significantly increased, while that of summer significantly decreased. These results can help decision-makers identify high-risk areas of soil erosion on the Mongolian Plateau and take effective measures to adapt to climate change.


Assuntos
Solo , Vento , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , China
20.
J Sci Med Sport ; 26(1): 46-51, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main goal of this study was to compare the aerodynamic optimization level in echelon-formation strategy for riders fighting against a crosswind from the best (echelon or diagonal paceline) to the worst riders' configuration (guttered riders). DESIGN: The case reported herein concerned a group of 5 cyclists riding at 30 km/h with a 30 km/h crosswind oriented at 40° to the direction of travel. The effects of the wind, expressed in terms of aerodynamic resistance or pressure, were determined for each cyclist in the different configurations. METHODS: The 3D numerical simulations were performed using a calculation code based on the finite volume method and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model k-kl-ω. RESULTS: The results showed that the lateral force savings, averaged over the whole five-riders group, ranged from 50% in the echelon-optimized configuration to 11% in the guttered straight-line one, compared to a solo rider in the same velocity and windy conditions. Individually, the rider with the best aerodynamic shelter is the 4th rider in the "4 rider echelon + 1 guttered rider" formation (- 53.6% in drag force and - 69.8% in lateral force), while the rider with the worst aerodynamic situation is the leader of the straight paceline (- 0.1% in drag force and - 0.2% in lateral force). CONCLUSIONS: The analysis showed how the spatial management of riders significantly influences drag and lateral forces and supported the idea that avoiding being guttered is the best way to save energy in windy races.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Vento , Humanos , Motivação
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