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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110194, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148268

RESUMO

This study quantifies the economic potential of cross-border transmission to a decarbonized future Northwestern European power system through the energy model Balmorel. A scenario with modelled optimal transmission capacity at lowest total system costs is compared to the scenario with given capacity level of existing and planned projects. Increased transmission investments decrease total system costs and regional price difference. It benefits particularly wind power deployment and thus, lowers CO2 emissions in the power and heat sector. The impacts are, nevertheless, distributed asymmetrically to northern and western stakeholders. Northern consumers receive higher power prices, but the revenues of wind and hydropower producers also increases. Meanwhile, western consumers receive lower power prices, but gas power producer revenues decrease.


Assuntos
Centrais Elétricas , Vento , Europa (Continente)
2.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(2): 131-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181868

RESUMO

The authors have witnessed an increase in crisis, resulting in significant loss of life and impact on the economy of a given country in recent years. In spite of the efforts and measures of each country's government to reduce the impact of the crisis, this trend has not been avoided. This trend is observed at all levels-in municipalities, in the Czech Republic, but also the world. Extraordinary events or a crisis ordinarily have the so-called cascade effect that causes other extraordinary events. An example of this may be windstorm, resulting in a power outage. Significant power supply outages are observed in hospitals. Here, it is essential for acute care clients to have a regular intake of electrical energy to ensure their life functions. The introduction of this article refers to the authors, which describes the situation with the increasing number of emergencies. Second, there are described possible cascade effect of the crises. The third part of this article is focused on the flood risk affecting hospitals. The aim of this article is to carry out risk mapping for selected hospitals in the Czech Republic, specifically in the Zlín Region.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Emergências , Hospitais , Medição de Risco , República Tcheca , Inundações , Humanos , Vento
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20180425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159584

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Eucalyptus trees in a silvopastoral system on the microclimate and the capacity of that to mitigate the effects of climate change on pasturelands. This study included an open pasture of Piatã palisadegrass and an adjacent pasture that contained both palisadegrass and East-to-West rows of Eucalyptus trees, with 15 m between rows, 2 m between trees within rows. The micrometeorological measurements were collected at several distances from the tree rows and in the open pasture. The silvopastoral system was associated with greater between-row shading when solar declination was high and greater near-tree shading when solar declination was around -22°. Both soil heat flux and temperature were influenced by solar radiation, wind speed, and the ability of tree canopies to reduce radiation losses. Wind speed was consistently lower in the silvopastoral system, owing to the windbreak effect of the Eucalyptus trees. The present study demonstrated that silvopastoral systems can be used to attenuate the effects of climate change, as trees can protect pastureland from intense solar radiation and wind, thereby reducing evapotranspiration and, consequently, improving soil water availability for the understory crop.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Eucalyptus , Agricultura Florestal , Pradaria , Brasil , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Umidade , Microclima , Estações do Ano , Solo , Luz Solar , Vento
4.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109669, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072944

RESUMO

Renewable energy has been prioritised in decarbonising Indonesia's electricity system. Indonesia aims to attain an efficient energy system by applying renewable energy tariffs that are lower than the cost of fossil fuel-generated electricity. However, the effectiveness of this policy is questionable, as renewable energy investments under previous premium feed-in tariffs did not meet expectations. This study aims to estimate generation costs from renewable energy expansions under three scenarios, namely existing power plant planning, and 11% and 14% emission reductions in Indonesia's electricity sector. We develop an agent-based model (ABM) tool called PowerGen-ABM that employs multi-approaches: linear programming and input-output analysis. The optimisation result shows that the emission reduction targets would increase the average electricity generation costs in 2028 from 65.3 USD/ MWh in the existing plan of power plant expansions to 68.3 USD/ MWh. The increased costs are caused by insufficient dispatchable renewables in several regions such as North Maluku. Renewable energy production share in total electricity production and emission reduction achievement of the existing plan in 2025 will be 22.8% and 6.5% below the targets of 23% and 11%, respectively. In contrast, the emission reduction scenarios could achieve those targets due to higher renewables productions, especially with wind energy from 5,268 GWh in the existing plan into anywhere between 64,472 to 75,085 GWh. Several policy implications are discussed based on these findings.


Assuntos
Centrais Elétricas , Energia Renovável , Eletricidade , Meio Ambiente , Indonésia , Vento
5.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110090, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090816

RESUMO

This paper presents deep decarbonization strategies for city-level energy systems. Helsinki city is used as a case in the analysis. The strategies are mainly based on extensive electrification employing renewable electricity, storage, and sector-coupling strategies. We perform energy, economic, and resilience analyses for the different cases. An energy balance model with 1-h resolution is used to optimize the energy system on macro-scale, while a MILP-algorithm is used for micro-level optimization of operation of individual plants against different criteria. The results indicate that a zero-carbon energy system is feasible by 2050, but it would also require coupling to the exogenous energy system (national electricity market) to balance mismatches. Power-to-heat coupling, or storage alone would not be adequate. As an example of system dynamics limitations, with a wind power capacity of 1.5 GW corresponding to 56% of the annual electricity demand in Helsinki, 90% of the wind electricity can be used locally in the different sectors, but the rest needs coupling to the exogenous market due to mismatch and plant limitations. The decarbonization strategies with increasing variable renewable energy production generally improve the resilience of the energy system, but with some concerns to adequacy of peak production and electricity dependency of heating.


Assuntos
Energia Renovável , Vento , Dióxido de Carbono , Cidades , Eletricidade
6.
Biol Lett ; 16(1): 20190797, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964257

RESUMO

Thermal soaring birds extract energy from the atmosphere to achieve energetically low-cost movement. When encountering regions that are energetically costly to fly over, such as open seas, they should attempt to adjust the spatio-temporal pattern of their passage to maximize energy extraction from the atmosphere over these ecological barriers. We applied the concept of energy landscapes to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of energy availability over the open sea for soaring flight. We specifically investigated how the 'energy seascape' may shape age-specific sea-crossing behaviour of European honey buzzards, Pernis apivorus, over the Mediterranean Sea in autumn. We found uplift potential over the sea to be the main determinant of sea-crossing distance, rather than wind conditions. Considering this variable as a proxy for available energy over the sea, we constructed the energy seascape for the autumn migration season using 40 years of temperature data. Our results indicate that early-migrating adult buzzards are likely to encounter adverse energy subsidence over the Mediterranean, whereas late-migrating juveniles face less adverse flight conditions, and even conditions conducive to soaring flight. Our study provides evidence that the dynamics of the energy landscape can explain intra-specific variation in migratory behaviour also at sea.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Voo Animal , Animais , Aves , Mar Mediterrâneo , Vento
7.
J Environ Radioact ; 213: 106138, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983447

RESUMO

Atmospheric air samples were collected at 9 monitoring stations (A1 to A9) less than 2 km from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP) and a background station (B24). The monthly integrated CO2 and total carbon (CO2+hydrocarbons (CnHm)) samples were collected to determine the excess 14C activity at the vicinity of the NPP. The measurements providing the 14C/12C ratio of the monthly integrated samples were carried out on a MICADAS type AMS at HEKAL. Due to the relatively low 14CO2 emission of PWR type Paks reactors and the local Suess effect, there was negligible excess 14C activity at the investigated stations in the pure CO2 fraction during the investigated 2 years period (2015-2016). On the contrary, there was a detectable (although minor) excess at every station in the CnHm fraction. In case of CO2, the average Δ14C excess was 3.8‰ and the highest measured value was 91.2‰ at the A3 station in February 2015. In case of CnHm, the average excess was 31.1‰ and the highest measured value was 319.1‰ at the A4 station in February 2016. We applied PC-CREAM 08 modelling to investigate the observed excess 14C activity at the environmental sampling stations, which depends on the distance from the NPP and the meteorological conditions, such as wind direction and wind speed. Meteorology data was collected at the operating area of the Paks NPP in a meteorology tower. The direct C-14 emission through the 120 m high stacks was measured in the NPP by liquid scintillation counting. These emission data and our model calculations explain the excess activity in the CnHm fraction at the A4 station, which is located only 915 m far from the NPP's stacks in the prevailing wind direction. The excess activity at A3 station (the farthest unit) probably came from the nearby NPP wastewater discharge point. The recently observed average excess and highest excess data is similar to the published data in former studies (Molnár et al., 2007; Veres et al., 1995) on Paks NPP, the highest 14CO2 and 14CnHm excess are just a little higher than it was in the earlier studies, but in these former studies, the A3 station was not equipped with a radiocarbon monitoring unit and the level of radiocarbon emission was almost invisible from the wastewater discharge point.


Assuntos
Centrais Nucleares , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hungria , Vento
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 132, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970535

RESUMO

Direct measurements, models, and risk maps play significant roles in assessment and monitoring of wind erosion cases. Although active and passive traps allow researchers to measure point sediment transports directly, it is also possible to make geostatistical analysis of wind erosion with grid and random sampling at multiple points. Geostatistical models can be used in multi-sample eolian researches to improve model success and update model parameters. The present study was conducted for case-based geostatistical analysis of sediment transport rates (STRs) over two adjacent dunes (plot A and B) with different vegetation cover rates between 22 May and 15 June 2011. The plot A has a vegetative cover ratio of 30%, while the plot B has a vegetation cover ratio of 2% and sand content of the plots is 88%. Actual mass transports were measured with BEST sediment traps. A total of 19 BEST sediment trap assemblies were placed randomly over the plot A and 21 were placed over the plot B. A climate station was installed over the research site to record climate data throughout the experimental period. There were two wind erosion cases during the research period. U test indicated that differences in sediment transport rates of the plots for each case were significant (p < 0.00). Spatial analyses of STRs (kg m-1 h-1) also exhibited case-based differences. While nugget effect was observed in case 1 of the plot B, the other case in both plots were modeled with spherical model. Maximum likelihood distances in plot A and B were respectively identified as 61 m and 1 m in the first case and as 13 m and 30 m in the second case. Total mass transport was measured as 112 kg m-1 in plot A and as 2162 kg m-1 in plot B. Consequently, it was found that 30% vegetation cover reduced the total mass transport dramatically.


Assuntos
Solo , Vento , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 3): 806, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989295

RESUMO

Global climate model (GCM) simulations driven by various emission scenarios are widely used for the projections of future climate change. In this study, an assessment was carried out by using 35 GCMs under Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) in reproducing the present day wind speed changes over six selected regions in the Indian Ocean region based on altimetry-measured merged wind speed product in the Indian Ocean. The relative ranking of the GCMs is performed based on the evaluation of the CMIP5 historical simulations for the period 1993-2005. The skill level of GCMs in representing the various metrics such as annual mean, mean seasonal cycle, linear trend, correlation coefficient, and seasonal standard deviations was accounted for the relative ranking of the GCMs. The models CMCC-CESM, HadGEM2-ES, and GFDL-ESM2G are found to be better for the Arabian Sea region. The GCM products such as HadCM3, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-AO, and MIROC5 were noticed better for the Bay of Bengal (BoB) region. Large bias in wind speed (~ 3 m/s) is observed for the head BoB and the Southern Ocean region. Bias corrections for the present-day Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) simulations (2006-2016) were performed based on quantile mapping (QM) method, and the present-day wind changes are also compared with observations. The findings from study recommend that suitable bias correction for different GCMs is an essential pre-requisite for climate change studies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Previsões , Oceano Índico , Vento
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 3): 810, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989311

RESUMO

Herein, we have examined the seasonal variability and long-term trends in the recent 35 years (1980-2014) of the wind stresses and circulation features in the Equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) using reanalysis and observed data. Annual mean flow of the EIO is eastward along the equator, with the strong current in the upper 80 m and weak below that. The prominent surface currents in the EIO are the eastward Wyrtki Jets (WJs) occurring during spring (April-May) and fall (October-November), with active flows within 2° of the equator between 60° E and 90° E. The fall WJs are stronger than the spring WJs. The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), the prominent subsurface eastward flow with core within 70-150 m, occurs twice annually-February-April and August-October-with the well-developed flow in March-April. Long-term trends reveal that during 1980-2014, the annual mean eastward surface current in the upper 75 m has increased, primarily due to the rise of WJs forced by the westerly wind stresses during November-December. But the subsurface eastward current (below 75 m) has decreased due to the weakening of winter North Equatorial Current (NEC) and EUC during February-April. Consolidation of the westerly wind stresses during November-April results in the strengthening of the wind-driven surface WJs and weakening of the pressure-driven EUCs during 1980-2014. Intensification of WJs are the direct effects of wind forcing. However, strengthening of westerly stresses also results in weakening of the surface westward NEC and thereby restricts the strong eastward gradient of SSH which is required to build up the essential eastward pressure gradient for the EUC. Since WJs and EUCs modulate the hydrographic structure of the eastern part of the EIO, any change in the strength of these flows, in turn, will influence mostly this oceanic region and thereby the local as well as global climate.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água do Mar , Oceano Índico , Estações do Ano , Vento
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0219335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940348

RESUMO

Species introduced outside their natural range threaten global biodiversity and despite greater awareness of invasive species risks at ports and airports, control measures in place only concern anthropogenic routes of dispersal. Here, we use the Harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, an invasive species which first established in the UK from continental Europe in 2004, to test whether records from 2004 and 2005 were associated with atmospheric events. We used the atmospheric- chemistry transport model SILAM to model the movement of this species from known distributions in continental Europe and tested whether the predicted atmospheric events were associated with the frequency of ladybird records in the UK. We show that the distribution of this species in the early years of its arrival does not provide substantial evidence for a purely anthropogenic introduction and show instead that atmospheric events can better explain this arrival event. Our results suggest that air flows which may assist dispersal over the English Channel are relatively frequent; ranging from once a week from Belgium and the Netherlands to 1-2 times a week from France over our study period. Given the frequency of these events, we demonstrate that atmospheric-assisted dispersal is a viable route for flying species to cross natural barriers.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Vento , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bélgica , França , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Países Baixos , Reino Unido
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 71, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894417

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between bioclimatic comfort and land use in Trabzon by using geographical information systems and remote sensing technologies. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the bioclimatic conditions of the years 1985, 1994, 2005, and 2018 with the use of land in the same years in the province of Trabzon in seasonal and annual periods. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index, which takes into consideration the physiological characteristics of humans, was used when determining bioclimatic comfort zones. The meteorological parameters used in the calculation of this index are as follows: daily average temperature values reduced to sea level, daily average relative humidity, and wind speed. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) method was preferred in the calculation of the spatial distribution of the obtained values at sea level. Using DEM data, height-dependent PET values were obtained and bioclimatic comfort maps were generated. According to the years of the bioclimatic comfort maps produced, land use maps were created by using CORINE land cover data. Then, the relationship between bioclimatic comfort zones and land use was examined.


Assuntos
Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente , Vento
14.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125133, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683427

RESUMO

Black carbon (BC) plays a vital role in atmospheric environment and climate change. Temporal variations and transport pathways of BC in Xiamen, China with the impacts of synoptic circulation were investigated in 2014 with Aethalometer. Annual mean BC concentration was 4270 ng m-3. BC exhibited clear diurnal (seasonal) variations, with the maximum of 6182 (4755) ng m-3 at 6:00 (in spring) and minimum of 2847 (3774) ng m-3 at 13:00 (in summer). Conditional probability function analysis indicated that high BC concentrations were associated with northwesterly winds with low wind speed. Air masses originating from the East China Sea and passing along with East China Coast had the highest BC concentrations. Potential source contribution function and concentration weighted trajectory analysis suggested that major sources for BC included the surrounding region, southwestern Fujian and eastern Guangdong to the southwest, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi to the northwest, the East China Sea and the South China Sea. Of the nine synoptic circulation patterns, three cyclone-related patterns were associated with low BC concentrations and small biomass burning (BCbb) contributions. Of the six anticyclone-related patterns, the three cold-high circulations around winter were associated with moderate BC concentrations and large BCbb contributions. The two cold-high patterns in spring and autumn were associated with high BC concentrations and small BCbb contributions, while the warm-high pattern was associated with moderate BC concentration and small BCbb contribution. The findings provide insights into the transport mechanisms of BC with the impacts of synoptic pattern in China.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estações do Ano , Fuligem/análise , Vento , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125064, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683434

RESUMO

The use of naturally occurring epiphytic lichens can be an effective tool for regional monitoring of mercury (Hg) and other potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Nova Scotia, Canada is a hotspot for mercury and other trace metal accumulation in ecosystems; partially attributed to long-range transport of air pollution. The relative contribution of local and international sources of Hg to local air in Nova Scotia is unknown. This study assessed the potential of epiphytic lichens (Usnea spp.) as passive samplers for PTE air pollution in Nova Scotia. Lichens (n = 190) collected across mainland Nova Scotia were analyzed for PTEs. Results indicate that there are 3 distinct clusters of PTEs which suggest patterns and sources for each elemental cluster. Hg was correlated with longitude and prevailing wind direction, and Hg was not significantly different in site-specific hotspot sampling nor year of sampling. Our data support the hypothesis that Hg in lichens is from historical and ongoing long-range transport and diffuse emission patterns rather than localized pollution sources. PTE concentrations were shown to have median values that are similar to other remote regions (such as the Antarctic) however the maximum values were observed to be substantially higher for some elements (e.g. lead, cadmium). This research supports the use of lichens as biomonitors and provides a baseline for future monitoring efforts to identify changes in PTE distribution in Nova Scotia with ongoing industrial activity and a changing climate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Líquens/química , Mercúrio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Regiões Antárticas , Cádmio , Ecossistema , Nova Escócia , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Vento
16.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113419, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706769

RESUMO

Ozone has become a major atmospheric pollutant in China as the pattern of urban energy usage has changed and the number of motor vehicles has grown rapidly. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, also known as the Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration (hereafter, JJJUA), with a precarious balance between protecting the ecological environment and sustaining economic development, is challenged by high levels of ozone pollution. Based on ozone observation data from 13 cities in the JJJUA from 2014 to 2017, the spatio-temporal trends in the evolution of ozone pollution and its associated influencing factors were analyzed using Moran's I Index, hot-spot analysis, and Geodetector using ArcGIS and SPSS software. Five key results were obtained. 1) There was an increase in the annual average ozone concentration, for the period 2014-2017. Comparing the 13 prefecture-level cities, ozone pollution in Chengde and Hengshui decreased, while it worsened in the remaining 11 cities. 2) Ozone pollution was worse in spring and summer than in autumn and winter; the peak ozone pollution season was from May to September; the average ozone concentration on workdays was higher than that on non-workdays, showing a counter-weekend effect. 3) Annual average concentrations were high in the central and southern parts of the study region but low in the north. 4) Prominent positive spatial correlations were observed in ozone concentration, with the best correlations shown in summer and autumn; concentrations were high in Baoding and Xingtai but low in Beijing and Chengde. 5) Concentrations of PM10, NO2, CO, SO2, and PM2.5, as well as average wind speed, sunshine duration, evaporation, precipitation, and temperature, all had significant effects on ozone pollution, and interactions between these influencing factors increased it.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Vento
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135653, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771855

RESUMO

Wetlands are extraordinary ecosystems and important climate regulators that also contribute to reduce natural disaster risk. Unfortunately, wetlands are declining much faster than forests. The safeguarding of the wetlands also needs knowledge of the dynamics that control the water balance of these environments. Therefore, an accurate estimation of evapotranspiration in wetlands is an essential task. When adequate experimental data are available, some algorithms deriving from Artificial Intelligence research represent a promising alternative to the most common estimation techniques. In this study, starting from daily measurements of climatic variables such as net solar radiation, depth to water, wind speed, mean relative humidity, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and mean temperature, using the Random Forest, Additive Regression of Decision Stump, Multilayer Perceptron and k-Nearest Neighbors algorithms, 24 estimation models, different in input variables, have been developed and compared. The data have been provided by USGS. They have been obtained from a measuring site in wetlands of Indian River County, Florida using the eddy-covariance technique. The accuracy of these models based on AI algorithms remains good even if the number of input variables is reduced from 7 to 3. Net solar radiation, mean temperature and mean relative humidity or wind speed measurements allow obtaining a sufficiently accurate estimation model. Random Forest and k-Nearest Neighbors provide slightly better performance than Additive Regression of Decision Stump and Multilayer Perceptron. The analyzed models show in most cases the lowest accuracy in the range 2-4 mm/day, while the highest accuracy is obtained in the ranges 0-2 mm/day and 6-8 mm/day, with the exception of the models based on the Additive Regression, which show similar levels of accuracy in the different considered sub-intervals.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura Ambiente , Movimentos da Água , Vento
18.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 255-258, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411743

RESUMO

The horizontal displacement of the human body resulting from fatal fall from a height is an important variable commonly used to inversely determine the cause or identify other forensic aspects of the fall. When examining the horizontal displacement, the wind effect is generally ignored. This technical note reports analytical modeling of the falling process, utilizing previous measurements of wind force acting on the human body, for determining the functional relationship between the wind speed and the horizontal displacement in the falling process. The result reveals that it does not take extremely rare wind conditions to cause a considerable shift of the human body, highlighting the importance to consider wind as a factor in investigations of fatal falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Vento , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Ambio ; 49(2): 442-459, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140159

RESUMO

Wind farms can help to mitigate increasing atmospheric carbon (C) emissions. However, disturbance caused by wind farm development must not have lasting deleterious impacts on landscape C sequestration. To understand the effects of wind farm development on peatlands, we monitored streamwater at Europe's second largest onshore wind farm (539 MW), Whitelee, Scotland, for 31 months. Using nested catchment sampling to understand impacts on water quality, increasing macronutrient concentrations and exports were associated with wind farm development, particularly forest-felling and borrow pits. Low/poor water quality occurred in small headwater catchments most disturbed by development. At the site exit, dissolved organic C and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations increased during construction, though [SRP] recovery occurred within 2 years. Since C was lost and streamwater quality negatively affected, we propose future good practice measures for wind farm development, including limiting total disturbance within individual catchments and locating borrow pits, where deemed necessary, off site avoiding peatlands.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Nutrientes , Escócia
20.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(2): 265-276, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783761

RESUMO

The EUREQUA project raises the issue of the definition and evaluation of the environmental quality of neighbourhoods. The approach consists of integrating and cross-referencing observable data characterising the physical environment and people's perception of their quality of life. The study area is a neighbourhood in Toulouse (France) with high social and typo-morphological diversity, subject to noise and air pollution nuisances. Three 3-day field campaigns were organised in January, April, and June 2014. Instrumented and commented walks took place three times per day. For each one, measurements of physical environmental parameters and surveys were performed simultaneously at six locations in the neighbourhood. The study focuses on microclimate and thermal comfort issues. It aims to compare in situ meteorological data of air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and mean radiant temperature, with quantitative results rating human perception of heat, humidity, wind, and thermal comfort. The variability in perception and measurements is mainly driven by seasonal effects, especially for heat and humidity, and, to a lesser extent, for wind. Wind perception and measurement also vary spatially, thus highlighting site effects. Linear models indicate a positive link between heat perception and mean radiant temperature, as well as between wind perception and mean and standard deviation of wind speed (with a higher sensitivity of people to wind under winter climate conditions). Finally, it is found that perception of thermal comfort is only slightly linked to the different microclimate dimensions, and is rather driven by other appreciation factors and emotional criteria related to the general environmental quality of the study area.


Assuntos
Microclima , Sensação Térmica , França , Humanos , Umidade , Qualidade de Vida , Temperatura Ambiente , Vento
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