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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435301

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the relationship between meteorological factors (i.e., daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, temperature range, relative humidity, average wind speed and total precipitation) and COVID-19 transmission is affected by season and geographical location during the period of community-based pandemic prevention and control. COVID-19 infected case records and meteorological data in four cities (Wuhan, Beijing, Urumqi and Dalian) in China were collected. Then, the best-fitting model of COVID-19 infected cases was selected from four statistic models (Gaussian, logistic, lognormal distribution and allometric models), and the relationship between meteorological factors and COVID-19 infected cases was analyzed using multiple stepwise regression and Pearson correlation. The results showed that the lognormal distribution model was well adapted to describing the change of COVID-19 infected cases compared with other models (R2 > 0.78; p-values < 0.001). Under the condition of implementing community-based pandemic prevention and control, relationship between COVID-19 infected cases and meteorological factors differed among the four cities. Temperature and relative humidity were mainly the driving factors on COVID-19 transmission, but their relations obviously varied with season and geographical location. In summer, the increase in relative humidity and the decrease in maximum temperature facilitate COVID-19 transmission in arid inland cities, while at this point the decrease in relative humidity is good for the spread of COVID-19 in coastal cities. For the humid cities, the reduction of relative humidity and the lowest temperature in the winter promote COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Estações do Ano , Pequim , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Umidade , Temperatura , Vento
2.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129065, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261834

RESUMO

New data on the presence of 129I in seawater in the Southern Hemisphere measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is presented. The samples were collected in 2014 along the Namibian coast during a cruise organised by the National Marine Information and Research Centre (NatMIRC), the national laboratories of the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR) in Namibia, and the IAEA Environment Laboratories (IAEA NAEL) in Monaco. The Benguela upwelling system is known as one of the most important marine upwelling regions in the world. Strong winds induce an offshore transport of surface seawater which is substituted by cool subsurface water inshore. As this water is nutrient-rich, which leads to high primary productivity, the Benguela upwelling system has a very important role as a fishing production area. The 129I concentrations in samples were between (0.66 ± 0.14) × 107 and (1.45 ± 0.30) × 107 atoms/kg. The highest 129I concentrations were found in the offshore surface samples. Deep-sea and inshore samples contained lower 129I concentrations, possibly as an effect of the upwelling process. A comparison with previously published studies suggests that the presence of 129I in the northern Benguela upwelling system (nBUS), is mainly due to the impact of nuclear weapons global fallout, without any evident impact of nuclear fuel reprocessing.


Assuntos
Água do Mar , Vento , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Namíbia
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 915-935, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820450

RESUMO

To accelerate the transformation and application of basic research results, the Chinese government has repeatedly mentioned in a government work report that it is necessary to support research and innovation collaborations between knowledge research institutions and enterprises. However, few studies have focused on the evolution of collaborations between these organizations and the impact of collaborations on innovation performance (IP) in the field of renewable energy under the background of government-funded support (GFS). Based on scientific publications, we construct a GFS collaboration network in the wind power field to investigate the evolution of network structure characteristics, attribute proximity variables, and applied research collaboration (ARC), and we study the impact of network evolution on the IP of actors. The results show that the focal actor of the collaboration network prefers to engage in ARC with partners who are familiar and have the same knowledge base in different provinces. This collaboration tendency will reduce geographical proximity and increase the direct ties, indirect ties, technological proximity, and ARC of the ego network. Among them, direct ties have an inverted U-shaped effect on IP, geographical proximity has a significantly negative impact on IP, and the remaining variables have positive impacts on IP. Taken together, when the direct ties is within a certain range, these collaboration tendencies in a GFS collaboration network positively affect the IP of research institutions and enterprises.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Vento , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Governo , Humanos , Organizações
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141663, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866831

RESUMO

Beyond the contact and respiratory transmission of the COVID-19 virus, it has recently been reported in the literature that humidity, temperature, and air pollution may be effective in spreading the virus. However, taking the measurements regionally suspects the accuracy or validity of the data. In this research, climate values (temperature, humidity, number of sunny days, wind intensity) of 81 provinces in Turkey were collected in March 2020. Also, the population, population density of the provinces, and average air pollution data were taken. The findings of the study showed that population density and wind were effective in spreading the virus and both factors explained for 94% of the variance in virus spreading. Air temperature, humidity, the number of sunny days, and air pollution did not affect the number of cases. Besides, population density mediated the effect of wind speed (9%) on the number of COVID-19 cases. The finding that COVID-19 virus, invisible in the air, spreads more in windy weather indicates that the virus in the air is one threatening factor for humans with the wind speed that increases air circulation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vento , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Humanos , Umidade , Densidade Demográfica , Temperatura , Turquia/epidemiologia
5.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111509, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213996

RESUMO

Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) have been ranked as one of the most vulnerable species in terms of collision with offshore wind farm (OWF) turbines, and strong avoidance of OWFs has been documented for this species. Gannets increasingly encounter OWFs within the ranges of their largest breeding colonies along the European coasts. However, information on their actual reactions to OWFs during the breeding season is lacking. We investigated the possible effects of OWFs located 23-35 km north of the colony on Helgoland in the southern North Sea on breeding gannets. GPS tags were applied to 28 adult gannets breeding on Helgoland for several weeks over 2 years. Most gannets (89%) predominantly avoided the OWFs in both years, but 11% frequently entered them when foraging or commuting between the colony and foraging areas. Flight heights inside the OWFs were close to the rotor-blade zone, especially for individuals predominantly avoiding the OWFs. Gannets preferred distances of 250-450 m to the turbines when being inside the OWF. A point process modelling approach revealed that the gannets resource selection of the OWF area compared with the surroundings (outside OWF = up to 15 km from the OWF border) was reduced by 21% in 2015 and 37% in 2016. This study provides the first detailed characterisation of individual reactions of gannets to OWFs during the breeding season and one of the first comprehensive studies of OWF effects on this species based on telemetry data. The documented effects need to be considered during the planning processes for future OWFs, especially those located close to large seabird breeding colonies.


Assuntos
Morus , Animais , Aves , Cruzamento , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Humanos , Mar do Norte , Estações do Ano , Vento
6.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111762, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341727

RESUMO

Offshore wind power generation requires large areas of sea to accommodate its activities, with increasing claims for exclusive access. As a result, pressure is placed on other established maritime uses, such as commercial fisheries. The latter sector has often been taking a back seat in the thrust to move energy production offshore, thus leading to disagreements and conflicts among the different stakeholder groups. In recognition of the latter, there has been a growing international interest in exploring the combination of multiple maritime activities in the same area (multi-use; MU), including the re-instatement of fishing activities within, or in close proximity to, offshore wind farms (OWFs). We summarise local stakeholder perspectives from two sub-national case studies (East coast of Scotland and Germany's North Sea EEZ) to scope the feasibility of combining multiple uses of the sea, such as offshore wind farms and commercial fisheries. We combined a desk-based review with 15 semi-structured qualitative interviews with key knowledge holders from both industries, regulators, and academia to aggregate key results. Drivers, barriers and resulting effects (positive and negative) for potential multi-use of fisheries and OWFs are listed and ranked (57 factors in total). Factors are of economic, social, policy, legal, and technical nature. To date, in both case study areas, the offshore wind industry has shown little interest in multi-use solutions, unless clear added value is demonstrated and no risks to their operations are involved. In contrast, the commercial fishing sector is proactive towards multi-use projects and acts as a driving force for MU developments. We provide a range of management recommendations, based on stakeholder input, to support progress towards robust decision making in relation to multi-use solutions, including required policy and regulatory framework improvements, good practice guidance, empirical studies, capacity building of stakeholders and improvements of the consultation process. Our findings represent a comprehensive depiction of the current state and key stakeholder aspirations for multi-use solutions combining fisheries and OWFs. We believe that the pathways towards robust decision making in relation to multi-use solutions suggested here are transferable to other international locations.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Pesqueiros , Alemanha , Mar do Norte , Escócia
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 143-150, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183691

RESUMO

Phosphorus is a vital nutrient for algal growth, thus, a better understanding of phosphorus availability is essential to mitigate harmful algal blooms in lakes. Wind waves are a ubiquitous characteristic of lake ecosystems. However, its effects on the cycling of organic phosphorus and its usage by phytoplankton remain poorly elucidated in shallow eutrophic lakes. A mesocosm experiment was carried out to investigate the responses of alkaline phosphatase activity fractions to wind waves in large, shallow, eutrophic Lake Taihu. Results showed that wind-driven waves induced the release of alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus from the sediment, and dramatically enhanced phytoplanktonic alkaline phosphatase activity. However, compared to the calm conditions, bacterial and dissolved alkaline phosphatase activity decreased in wind-wave conditions. Consistently, the gene copies of Microcystis phoX increased but bacterial phoX decreased under wind-wave conditions. The ecological effects of these waves on phosphorus and phytoplankton likely accelerated the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus and promoted phytoplankton production in Lake Taihu. This study provides an improved current understanding of phosphorus availability and the phosphorus strategies of plankton in shallow, eutrophic lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Fósforo , Fosfatase Alcalina , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Fósforo/análise , Vento
8.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115823, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099194

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3) emitted into the atmosphere from agricultural sources may affect nearby sensitive ecosystems due to high dry deposition fluxes on vegetation and soil surfaces, contributing to critical load exceedances. Ammonia fluxes near sources are simulated by either short-range atmospheric models or regional models using large grid cell sizes. However, studies are missing on the comparison of the results simulated by these two types of models. This paper presents the effect of model formalism, input factors, especially grid cell size and wind speed and the choice of deposition threshold on the spatial patterns of NH3 dry deposition fluxes and deposition threshold exceedances. We used the Eulerian chemistry-transport model CHIMERE and the Gaussian plume model OPS-ST on two study domains characterised by contrasting land use. We showed that the average annual NH3 dry deposition fluxes over each whole domain are similar for both models. By contrast, NH3 dry deposition fluxes near sources are higher when simulated with OPS-ST that provides analytical solutions that can be sampled with small grid cell sizes (i.e., from 25 to 1600 m in this study), than with CHIMERE, which uses large grid cell sizes (i.e., 800 and 1600 m). As a result, the spatial patterns of deposition threshold exceedance were very different between both models. These patterns depend mainly on grid cell size, the input factors and the choice of the deposition threshold value. We show that the model formalism has a relatively small effect on the results and that the differences result mainly from the spatial resolutions to which they can be applied. Simulation results must therefore be interpreted carefully, taking into account the simulation conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Amônia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Amônia/análise , Atmosfera , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Vento
9.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128426, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022508

RESUMO

Under two wind conditions, a polar coordinated segmented quantification method (PCSQM) taking the easternmost point of Chongming Island (121°59'20″E, 31°29'38″N) as the origin of the coordinate was proposed to quantify wind-induced impacts on the heavy metal footprint emitted from four simulation sites on the main waterway of the Yangtze Estuary. One wind condition was that of a real wind field in 2019 called Case 1; the other one was a combination of monthly maximum wind speed selected from 1989 to 2019 called Case 2. In the comparison of these two conditions, the PCSQM was used to calculate the footprint excursion of four simulation sites mentioned, including three major urban sewage outlets and the upstream pollution source, represented by Xuliujing (XLJ) during the biological sensitive aggregation period of the Yangtze Estuary (BAPYE). The results showed that the Cu footprint was closer to Chongming Island and showed a trend of narrowing its coverage under Case2 compared with Case1. The Southeast section of the XLJ had the broadest width (83.46 km), while the Southwestern section of BLG had the narrowest width (3.52 km). Coincidentally, both the maximum (-29.99%) and the minimum excursion (-0.13%) were derived from XLJ, corresponding to its Southeast section and Southwest section.


Assuntos
Estuários , Metais Pesados , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios , Vento
10.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111488, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070017

RESUMO

Soil wind erosion is an important ecological environmental problem that is widespread in arid and semi-arid regions. Currently, related studies are mainly focused on spatiotemporal characteristics or analysis of effector mechanisms, and they do not facilitate direct servicing of management decisions. In this paper, we used the Xilingol typical steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, as a study site to develop a decision framework for a comprehensive understanding of soil wind erosion and to promote sustainable management of steppes. In this study, we used the Revised Wind Erosion Equation model to simulate soil wind erosion. We combined this model with linear trend analysis to evaluate the ecological effects of soil wind erosion and wind erosion intensity, and delineated the gravity center migration path. We used the constraint line method to reveal the mechanisms by which climatic factors affected soil wind erosion, achieved the spatial visualization of wind-breaking and sand-fixing service flow, and proposed decision-based regional sustainable development suggestions. The results showed that long-term soil wind erosion will lead to soil coarsening and loss of soil nutrients. Soil wind erosion in the study site showed worsening trends and risks, and as such, ecological environment conservation and management are urgently required. The study framework promotes a clear understanding of the complex relationship of human-earth systems. The study results will aid in the ecological remediation of steppe landscapes and the prevention of desertification and will provide a foundation for win-win management of ecological conservation and economic development in arid and semi-arid regions.


Assuntos
Solo , Vento , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Humanos
11.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127745, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805654

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) in airborne fine particles (PM2.5) play a vital role in the formation of heavy air pollution in northern China. In particular, the increasing contribution of NO3- to PM2.5 has attracted worldwide attention. In this study, a highly time-resolved analyzer was used to measure water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 in one of the fastest-developing megacities, Tianjin, China, from November 15 to March 15 (wintertime heating period) in 2014-2019. Severe PM2.5 pollution episodes markedly decreased during the heating period from 2014 to 2019. The highest concentrations of NO3- and SO42- were recorded in the heating period of 2015/2016. Afterwards, NO3- decreased from 2015/2016 (20.2 ± 23.8 µg/m3) to 2017/2018 (11.6 ± 14.8 µg/m3) but increased with increasing NOx concentrations during the heating period of 2018/2019. A continuous decrease in the SO2 concentration led to a decrease in SO42- from 2015/2016 (16.8 ± 21.8 µg/m3) to 2018/2019 (6.5 ± 8.9 µg/m3). The NO3- and SO42- concentrations increased as the air quality deteriorated. However, the proportion of NO3- and SO42- in PM2.5 slightly increased when the air quality deteriorated from moderate pollution (MP) to severe pollution (SP) levels. The average molar ratios of NH4+ to [NO3-+2 × (SO42-)] were 1.7, 0.9, 1.2, 1.2 and 1.5 for the heating periods of 2014/2015, 2015/2016, 2016/2017, 2017/2018 and 2018/2019, respectively, most of which were higher than 1.0, thus revealing an overall excess of NH4+ during the heating periods. However, the molar equivalent ratios of [NH4+] to [NO3-+2 × (SO42-)] were less than 1 under increasing PM2.5 pollution. The molar equivalent ratios of [NO3-]/[SO42-] were positively correlated with those of [NH4+]/[SO42-]. When the molar equivalent ratios of [NH4+]/[SO42-] were more than 1.5, those of [NO3-]/[SO42-] increased from close to 1 to higher values, indicating that the dominance of NO3- formation played an important role. The results of nonparametric wind regression exhibited distinct hot spots of NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ (higher concentrations) in the wind sectors between NE and SE at wind speeds of approximately 6-21 km/h. The southern areas in the North China Plain and parts of the western areas of China contributed more NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ than other areas to the study site. The abovementioned areas were also characterized by a higher contribution of NO3- than of SO42- to the study site and by NH4+-rich conditions. In summary, more efforts should be made to reduce NOx in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. This study provides observational evidence of the increasingly important role of nitrate as well as scientific support for formulating effective control strategies for regional haze in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Nitratos/análise , Sulfatos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Transportes , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Água/química , Vento
12.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128002, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846290

RESUMO

Air pollution in metropolises is one of the serious problems of human life. Tehran is one of the cities facing air pollution problem. Urban managers concern about choosing different management methods to control air pollution. In this study, a combination of fuzzy systems and neural networks has been used to select the most suitable scenario for controlling SO2 pollution. According to the method presented in this paper, 8 input data categories such as wind speed, precipitation, temperature, pressure, humidity, gas oil consumption, gasoline consumption and urban green space levels have been used as independent parameters and SO2 pollutant concentration has been considered as the dependent parameter. The contribution of each meteorological station to the meteorological data was determined by Thiessen Polygon Method. Then, using adaptive neural fuzzy inference systems, modeling was done in Sugeno Method and the least root mean square error (3.19) was determined for the model. Then, by changing each of the independent parameters, the effect of each of these independent parameters on SO2 pollutant was measured. The results showed that the parameters of pressure, urban green space, gasoline consumption, gas oil consumption, temperature, wind speed and humidity, respectively, had the greatest effect on reducing the SO2 concentration. Since the parameters of gasoline and gas oil consumption as well as the area of green space are changeable by different policies and by human decisions, the concentration of SO2 pollutant can be controlled by reducing the consumption of gasoline and gas oil and increasing the green space in Tehran.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Humanos , Umidade , Irã (Geográfico) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura , Vento
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111228, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890952

RESUMO

Atmospheric heavy metals have important environmental and health threats. To investigate atmospheric deposition and contamination of heavy metal elements in the glaciers of the eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP), we collected the surface snow (cryoconites) samples in the Lenglongling Glacier (LG), the Gannan Snowpack (GS), the Dagu Glacier (DG), the Hailuogou Glacier (HG) and Yulong Snow-mountain Glacier (YG) in summer 2017. Samples were analyzed for concentrations and enrichment factors (EFs) of Al and trace elements (Pb, Co, Cd, Ba, Mn, Ga, Sc, V, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sb, Cs, As, Mo, Li) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that the concentrations and EFs of heavy metals (e.g. Sb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, Mo) were generally high value in YG, GS and LG, while were relatively low value in DG and HG, implying that ETP glaciers may have been affected by atmospheric anthropogenic pollutants deposition to varying degrees. Comparing the heavy metal concentrations in the glaciers with those in the precipitation of middle/eastern China cities and also the South Asian cities, we find that the glacial heavy metal concentrations were generally low level, though the anthropogenic pollutants were still significantly enriched. Taking the spatial distribution of As and Ni concentration/EFs in the glaciers and surrounding urban precipitation as an example, we find that the heavy metal pollutants were probably transported to the glaciers through three routes from the surrounding densely populated area of Asia. The MODIS AOD and NCEP/NCAR wind vector also demonstrated that the atmospheric pollutants originated from anthropogenic emissions of urban areas of both South Asia, and northwest and east China, mainly caused by the large scale atmospheric circulation (e.g. the South Asian Monsoon, westerlies and Eastern Asian Summer Monsoon). Therefore, control of these potential pollution emission sources of the surrounding densely populated areas in Asia could be important to ETP glaciers in future perspectives.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Camada de Gelo/química , Metais Pesados/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Estações do Ano , Neve/química , Tibet , Oligoelementos/análise , Vento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382709

RESUMO

The high rates of bat mortality caused by operating wind turbines is a concern for wind energy and wildlife stakeholders. One theory that explains the mortality is that bats are not only killed by impact trauma, but also by barotrauma that results from exposure to the pressure variations caused by rotating turbine blades. To date, no published research has calculated the pressure changes that bats may be exposed to when flying near wind turbines and then used these data to estimate the likelihood that turbines cause barotrauma in bats. To address this shortcoming, we performed computational fluid dynamics simulations of a wind turbine and analytical calculations of blade-tip vortices to estimate the characteristics of the sudden pressure changes bats may experience when flying near a utility-scale wind turbine. Because there are no data available that characterize the pressure changes that cause barotrauma in bats, we compared our results to changes in pressure levels that cause barotrauma and mortality in other mammals of similar size. This comparison shows that the magnitude of the low-pressures bats experience when flying near wind turbines is approximately 8 times smaller than the pressure that causes mortality in rats, the smallest mammal for which data are available. The magnitude of the high-pressures that bats may experience are approximately 80 times smaller than the exposure level that causes 50% mortality in mice, which have a body mass similar to several bat species that are killed by wind turbines. Further, our results show that for a bat to experience the largest possible magnitude of low- and high-pressures, they must take very specific and improbable flight paths that skim the surface of the blades. Even a small change in the flight path results in the bat being hit by the blade or experiencing a much smaller pressure change. Accordingly, if bats have a physiological response to rapid low- and high-pressure exposure that is similar to other mammals, we conclude that it is unlikely that barotrauma is responsible for a significant number of turbine-related bat fatalities, and that impact trauma is the likely cause of the majority of wind-turbine-related bat fatalities.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Modelos Estatísticos , Centrais Elétricas/ética , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Animais , Barotrauma , Camundongos , Ratos , Vento
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1940): 20202121, 2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290676

RESUMO

Terrestrial species on islands often show reduced dispersal abilities. For insects, the generality of explanations for island flight loss remains contentious. Although habitat stability is considered the most plausible explanation, others are frequently highlighted. Adopting a strong inference approach, we examined the hypotheses proposed to account for the prevalence of flightlessness in island insect assemblages, for a region long suspected to be globally unusual in this regard-the Southern Ocean Islands (SOIs). Combining comprehensive faunal inventories, species' morphological information, and environmental variables from 28 SOIs, we provide the first quantitative evidence that flightlessness is exceptionally prevalent among indigenous SOI insect species (47%). Prevalence among species which have evolved elsewhere is much lower: Arctic island species (8%), species introduced to the SOIs (17%), and globally (estimated as approx. 5%). Variation in numbers of flightless species and genera across islands is best explained by variation in wind speed, although habitat stability (thermal seasonality proxy) may play a role. Variables associated with insularity, such as island size, are generally poor predictors of flightlessness. The outcomes redirect attention to Darwin's wind hypothesis. They suggest, however, that wind selects for flightlessness through an energy trade-off between flight and reproduction, instead of by displacement from suitable habitats.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Insetos , Ilhas , Vento , Animais
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(11): 3786-3794, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300729

RESUMO

The concentration of pollutants and pathogens in the air directly affects human health. When the pollution source remains unchanged, effective ventilation determines air quality. It is therefore critically needed to establish a quantitative determination index for effective ventilation, which can be used for real-time evaluation of air quality in specific areas, so as to guide residents to choose healthy outdoor activity places. In this study, Reynolds average Navier-Stokes (RANS) method was used to establish urban air pollution simulation system by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. The correlations among wind speed, pollutant concentration, and pollutant diffusion efficiency were analyzed. With real-time meteorological data, wind field simulation and air quality evaluation were carried out for different periods of urban square space. The results showed that the critical wind speed value at pedestrian height (1.5 m) for the effective diffusion of pollutants was 1.0 m·s-1, which could be used as an air quality evaluation standard. With reference to this judgment index and the real-time weather system link, the pedestrian height wind speed distribution could be obtained through simulation. Therefore, the spatial variation of air quality could be visually displayed in real time, which help realize fair, efficient and reasonable use of urban space resources. This work could provide guidelines for choosing healthy outdoor venues, and provide technologies and means for public disease prevention and health promotion.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Vento
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(10): 3489-3498, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314839

RESUMO

Based on data of daily precipitation, temperature, sunshine hours, relative humidity, wind speed and vapor pressure of 70 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2019 in Shanxi Province, the Penman-Monteith model was applied to calculate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 as well as the ET0 in different climatic zones and at different altitudes were quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that the mean annual ET0 decreased from west to east in 1960-2019. A jumping point was detected in 1982, with the mean annual ET0 increased both in 1960-1982 and 1983-2019. The monthly and ten-day changes of ET0 showed single peak curves. The variation of ET0 in different climatic zones was as follows: ET0 in temperate and semi-arid areas was higher than that in warm temperate and semi-humid areas and warm temperate and semi-arid areas in spring, summer, autumn and the whole year, while in winter, the highest ET0 was in warm temperate and semi-humid areas. ET0 varied with altitudes, with ET0 in <660 m altitude areas being higher than that in other altitudes in summer, autumn, winter and the whole year.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Transpiração Vegetal , China , Temperatura , Vento
18.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(4): 123-135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320326

RESUMO

Frostbite can occur during cold-weather operations when the temperature is <0°C (<32°F). When skin temperature is =-4°C (=25°F), ice crystals form in the blood, causing mechanical damage, inflammation, thrombosis, and cellular death. Lower temperatures, higher wind speeds, and moisture exacerbate the process. The frozen part or area should not be rewarmed unless the patient can remain in a warm environment; repeated freeze/thaw cycles cause further injury. Treatment involves rapid rewarming in a warm, circulating water bath 37°C to 39°C (99°F-102°F) or, if this is not possible, then contact with another human body. Thrombolytics show promise in the early treatment of frostbite. In the field, the depth and severity of the injury can be determined with laser Doppler ultrasound devices or thermography. In hospital settings, bone scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 2 to 4 days postinjury provides detailed information on the depth of the injury. Prevention is focused primarily on covering exposed skin with proper clothing and minimizing exposure to wind and moisture. The Generation III Extended Cold Weather Clothing System is an interchangeable 12-piece clothing ensemble designed for low temperatures and is compatible with other military systems. The Extreme Cold Vapor Barrier Boot has outer and inner layers composed of seamless rubber with wool insulation between, rated for low temperatures. The Generation 3 Modular Glove System consists of 11 different gloves and mitts with design features that assist in enhancing grip, aid in the use of mobile devices, and allow shooting firearms. Besides clothing, physical activity also increases body heat, reducing the risk of frostbite.


Assuntos
Congelamento das Extremidades , Temperatura Baixa , Congelamento das Extremidades/diagnóstico , Congelamento das Extremidades/epidemiologia , Congelamento das Extremidades/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Temperatura Cutânea , Vento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143315

RESUMO

(1) Background: Inconsistencies were observed in studies on the relationship between short-term exposure to meteorological factors and the risk of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). This systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to assess the overall effects of meteorological factors on the incidence of HFMD to help clarify these inconsistencies and serve as a piece of evidence for policy makers to determine relevant risk factors. (2) Methods: Articles published as of 24 October 2020, were searched in the four databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and MEDLINE. We applied a meta-analysis to assess the impact of ambient temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and sunshine duration on the incidence of HFMD. We conducted subgroup analyses by exposure metrics, exposure time resolution, regional climate, national income level, gender, and age as a way to seek the source of heterogeneity. (3) Results: Screening by the given inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 28 studies were included in the analysis. We observed that the incidence of HFMD based on the single-day lag model is significantly associated with ambient temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed. In the cumulative lag model, ambient temperature and relative humidity significantly increased the incidence of HFMD as well. Subgroup analysis showed that extremely high temperature and relative humidity significantly increased the risk of HFMD. Temperate regions, high-income countries, and children under five years old are major risk factors for HFMD. (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that various meteorological factors can increase the incidence of HFMD. Therefore, the general public, especially susceptible populations, should pay close attention to weather changes and take protective measures in advance.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Clima , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Vento
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5601, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154374

RESUMO

The extent to which species can balance out the loss of suitable habitats due to climate warming by shifting their ranges is an area of controversy. Here, we assess whether highly efficient wind-dispersed organisms like bryophytes can keep-up with projected shifts in their areas of suitable climate. Using a hybrid statistical-mechanistic approach accounting for spatial and temporal variations in both climatic and wind conditions, we simulate future migrations across Europe for 40 bryophyte species until 2050. The median ratios between predicted range loss vs expansion by 2050 across species and climate change scenarios range from 1.6 to 3.3 when only shifts in climatic suitability were considered, but increase to 34.7-96.8 when species dispersal abilities are added to our models. This highlights the importance of accounting for dispersal restrictions when projecting future distribution ranges and suggests that even highly dispersive organisms like bryophytes are not equipped to fully track the rates of ongoing climate change in the course of the next decades.


Assuntos
Briófitas/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Dispersão Vegetal/fisiologia , Briófitas/classificação , Briófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Extinção Biológica , Previsões , Modelos Teóricos , Vento
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