Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22.228
Filtrar
1.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 465-480, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828576

RESUMO

Homelessness is associated with poor health outcomes and early development of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the correlates of incident stroke and its association with mortality among Veterans experiencing housing instability. Using a national sample of Veterans (n=565,608) with incident housing instability between 2014-2018, we compared characteristics of Veterans who did and did not experience incident stroke and conducted logistic regressions to assess two outcomes: incident stroke and mortality. Almost four percent experienced a first stroke and were more frequently male, older than 55 years, Black, and non-Hispanic. A higher rate of mortality was observed among those with a first stroke compared with those with no stroke (17.6% vs. 10.8%), although the difference was not statistically significant. Incident stroke was associated with triple the odds of death among unstably-housed Veterans compared with those who did not have an incident stroke. Implications include the need to screen and monitor for stroke risk among Veterans with experience of housing instability, particularly for those who are older.


Assuntos
Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pessoas Mal Alojadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 532-544, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828580

RESUMO

The Department of Veterans Affairs provides a shallow subsidy (i.e., subsidizing 50% of an individual's rent for two years) to Veterans experiencing housing instability. We sought to describe the characteristics of Veterans who received these subsidies. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Veterans between 10/2019-9/2021. We identified Veteran-level characteristics associated with receiving a shallow subsidy using a multivariable two-part regression model. We also conducted qualitative interviews to identify how shallow subsidies are allocated. Results Black race, higher income, more education, and older age were positively associated with receiving a shallow subsidy; previous homelessness, prior VA outpatient cost, and participating in permanent supportive housing were negatively associated with receiving a shallow subsidy. Interviews revealed that income was the most influential determinant of whether to give shallow subsidies. Discussion Our mixed methods findings were consistent, indicating that socioeconomic stability is an important driver of shallow subsidy allocation decisions.


Assuntos
United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos , Humanos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Idoso , Habitação/economia , Adulto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pessoas Mal Alojadas
3.
Psychol Assess ; 36(6-7): 425-432, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829350

RESUMO

This study evaluates the use of the crosswalk between the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) and PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) designed by Moshier et al. (2019) in a sample of service members and veterans (SM/V; N = 298) who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and were receiving inpatient rehabilitation. The PCL-C and PCL-5 were completed at the same time. Predicted PCL-5 scores for the sample were obtained according to the crosswalk developed by Moshier et al. We used three measures of agreement: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean difference between predicted and observed scores, and Cohen's κ to determine the performance of the crosswalk in this sample. Subgroups relevant to those who have sustained a TBI, such as TBI severity, were also examined. There was strong agreement between the predicted and observed PCL-5 scores (ICC = .95). The overall mean difference between predicted and observed PCL-5 scores was 0.07 and not statistically significant (SD = 8.29, p = .89). Significant mean differences between predicted and observed PCL-5 scores calculated between subgroups were seen in Black participants (MD = -4.09, SD = 8.41, p = .01) and those in the Year 5 follow-up group (MD = 1.77, SD = 7.14, p = .03). Cohen's κ across subgroups had a mean of κ = 0.76 (.57-1.0), suggesting that there was moderate to almost perfect diagnostic agreement. Our results suggest the crosswalk created by Moshier et al. can be applied to SM/V who have suffered a TBI. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lista de Checagem , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Masculino , Adulto , Veteranos/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Adulto Jovem , Militares/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 44(3): e100042, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870449

RESUMO

The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has pioneered teleoncology to address access challenges faced by Veterans requiring cancer care. This ASCO Educational Book highlights the development of teleoncology programs within the VHA: the local VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System (VAPHS) Virtual Cancer Care Center, the National TeleOncology Program (NTO), and the regional Clinical Resource Hub (CRH) Oncology Program. These initiatives provide oncology care using a hub-and-spoke model, which centralizes expertise at hub sites and reaches Veterans at distant spoke sites through synchronous and asynchronous care. The deployment of these teleoncology programs has resulted in significant benefits, such as decreased travel for Veterans, high levels of patient satisfaction, and improved access to specialized treatments. Despite these advancements, disparities in teleoncology utilization and access to clinical trials persist. This educational manuscript highlights the successes and challenges of tele-oncology within the VHA, underscoring the critical role of telehealth in overcoming access barriers.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Telemedicina , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Oncologia/métodos , Saúde dos Veteranos , Neoplasias/terapia , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde
6.
Med Care ; 62(7): 458-463, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential mobility, or a change in residence, can influence health care utilization and outcomes. Health systems can leverage their patients' residential addresses stored in their electronic health records (EHRs) to better understand the relationships among patients' residences, mobility, and health. The Veteran Health Administration (VHA), with a unique nationwide network of health care systems and integrated EHR, holds greater potential for examining these relationships. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine the association of sociodemographics, clinical conditions, and residential mobility. We defined residential mobility by the number of VHA EHR residential addresses identified for each patient in a 1-year period (1/1-12/31/2018), with 2 different addresses indicating one move. We used generalized logistic regression to model the relationship between a priori selected correlates and residential mobility as a multinomial outcome (0, 1, ≥2 moves). RESULTS: In our sample, 84.4% (n=3,803,475) veterans had no move, 13.0% (n=587,765) had 1 move, and 2.6% (n=117,680) had ≥2 moves. In the multivariable analyses, women had greater odds of moving [aOR=1.11 (95% CI: 1.10,1.12) 1 move; 1.27 (1.25,1.30) ≥2 moves] than men. Veterans with substance use disorders also had greater odds of moving [aOR=1.26 (1.24,1.28) 1 move; 1.77 (1.72,1.81) ≥2 moves]. DISCUSSION: Our study suggests about 16% of veterans seen at VHA had at least 1 residential move in 2018. VHA data can be a resource to examine relationships between place, residential mobility, and health.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Feminino , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Neurology ; 102(12): e209417, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a concern for US service members and veterans (SMV), leading to heterogeneous psychological and cognitive outcomes. We sought to identify neuropsychological profiles of mild TBI (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the largest SMV sample to date. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data from SMV with prior combat deployments enrolled in the ongoing Long-term Impact of Military-relevant Brain Injury Consortium-Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium prospective longitudinal study. Latent profile analysis identified symptom profiles using 35 indicators, including physical symptoms, depression, quality of life, sleep quality, postconcussive symptoms, and cognitive performance. It is important to note that the profiles were determined independently of mTBI and probable PTSD status. After profile identification, we examined associations between demographic variables, mTBI characteristics, and PTSD symptoms with symptom profile membership. RESULTS: The analytic sample included 1,659 SMV (mean age 41.1 ± 10.0 years; 87% male); among them 29% (n = 480) had a history of non-deployment-related mTBI only, 14% (n = 239) had deployment-related mTBI only, 36% (n = 602) had both non-deployment and deployment-related mTBI, and 30% (n = 497) met criteria for probable PTSD. A 6-profile model had the best fit, with separation on all indicators (p < 0.001). The model revealed distinct neuropsychological profiles, representing a combination of 3 self-reported functioning patterns: high (HS), moderate (MS), and low (LS), and 2 cognitive performance patterns: high (HC) and low (LC). The profiles were (1) HS/HC: n=301, 18.1%; (2) HS/LC: n=294, 17.7%; (3) MS/HC: n=359, 21.6%; (4) MS/LC: n=316, 19.0%; (5) LS/HC: n=228, 13.7%; and (6) LS/LC: n=161, 9.7%. SMV with deployment-related mTBI tended to be grouped into lower functioning profiles and were more likely to meet criteria for probable PTSD. Conversely, SMV with no mTBI exposure or non-deployment-related mTBI were clustered in higher functioning profiles and had a lower likelihood of meeting criteria for probable PTSD. DISCUSSION: Findings suggest varied symptom and functional profiles in SMV, influenced by injury context and probable PTSD comorbidity. Despite diagnostic challenges, comprehensive assessment of functioning and cognition can detect subtle differences related to mTBI and PTSD, revealing distinct neuropsychological profiles. Prioritizing early treatment based on these profiles may improve prognostication and support efficient recovery.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Militares , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Veteranos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Destacamento Militar/psicologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/psicologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 85(2)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836865

RESUMO

Objectives: Women veterans are more likely than men veterans to receive medications that Department of Veterans Affairs clinical practice guidelines recommend against to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To understand this difference, we examined potential confounders in incident prescribing of guideline discordant medications (GDMs) in veterans with PTSD.Methods: Veterans receiving care for PTSD during 2020 were identified using Veterans Health Administration administrative data. PTSD diagnosis was established by the presence of at least 1 ICD-10 coded outpatient encounter or inpatient hospitalization during the calendar year 2020. Incident GDM prescribing was assessed during 2021, including benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, select anticonvulsants, and select antidepressants. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the difference in risk for GDM initiation between men and women, adjusted for patient, prescriber, and facility-level covariates, and to identify key confounding variables.Results: Of 704,699 veterans with PTSD, 16.9% of women and 10.1% of men initiated a GDM, an increased risk of 67% for women [relative risk (RR) = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.65-1.70]. After adjustment, the gender difference decreased to 1.22 (95% CI, 1.20-1.24) in a fully specified model. Three key confounding variables were identified: bipolar disorder (RR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.57-1.63), age (<40 years: RR = 1.20 [1.18-1.22]; 40-54 years: RR = 1.13 [1.11-1.16]; ≥65 years: RR = 0.64 [0.62-0.65]), and count of distinct psychiatric medications prescribed in the prior year (RR = 1.14; 1.13-1.14).Conclusions: Women veterans with PTSD were 67% more likely to initiate a GDM, where more than half of this effect was explained by bipolar disorder, age, and prior psychiatric medication. After adjustment, women veterans remained at 22% greater risk for an incident GDM, suggesting that other factors remain unidentified and warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos , Humanos , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Sexuais , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Idoso , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico
9.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2353534, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832673

RESUMO

Background: As armed conflict grows increasingly complex, the involvement of children in armed violence across diverse roles is rising. Consequently, military personnel are more likely to encounter children during deployment. However, little is known about deployment-related encounters with children and their impact on the mental health of military personnel and Veterans.Objective: This study qualitatively examines the nature and impacts of deployment-related encounters with children.Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 Canadian Armed Forces Veterans, eliciting rich information on the nature of child encounters on deployment, the psycho-social-spiritual impacts of these encounters, and perceptions of support. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis.Results: Six primary themes were identified: types of encounters (i.e. factual aspects of deployment-related encounters with children), contextual factors (i.e. aspects of the mission, environment, and personal context relevant to one's experience of the encounter), appraisals of encounters (i.e. sensory or sense-making experiences relevant to the encounter), impacts of encounters (i.e. psycho-social, existential, and occupational impacts), coping strategies engaged in both during and after deployment, and support experiences, describing both formal and informal sources of support.Conclusions: Encounters with children are diverse and highly stressful, resulting in impacts pertinent to mental health, including psychological and moral distress, and difficulties with identity, spirituality, and relationships. These impacts are prompted by complex interactions among appraisals, expectations of morality, cultural norms, and professional duties and are amplified by various personal factors (e.g. childhood maltreatment history, parenthood), feelings of unpreparedness, and lack of post-deployment support. Implications for prevention, intervention, and policy are discussed with the aim of informing future efforts to safeguard and support military personnel facing a high likelihood of encounters with children.


Deployment-related encounters with children result in diverse impacts, including psychological and moral distress, along with disruptions in identity, spirituality, and interpersonal relationships.Encounters with children during military deployments are diverse and highly stressful, characterized by complex interactions among appraisals and expectations of morality, cultural norms, and professional duties.Emphasis on feeling unprepared for encounters with children highlights the need for future efforts to safeguard and support military personnel facing such situations.


Assuntos
Militares , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Veteranos , Humanos , Canadá , Veteranos/psicologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Adaptação Psicológica , Destacamento Militar/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2414686, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833250

RESUMO

Importance: Military members and veterans (hereafter, veterans) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increasingly seek psychiatric service dogs as a complementary intervention, yet the effectiveness of service dogs is understudied. Objective: To estimate the associations between psychiatric service dog partnership and self-reported and clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity, depression, anxiety, and psychosocial functioning after 3 months of intervention among veterans. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized controlled trial used standardized and validated assessment instruments completed by participants and administered by blinded clinicians. Recruitment, eligibility screening, and enrollment were conducted between August 2017 and December 2019. Veterans were recruited using the database of an accredited nonprofit service dog organization with constituents throughout the US. Participants were veterans with a PTSD diagnosis; they were allocated to either the intervention group (n = 81) or control group (n = 75). Outcome assessments were performed at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Data analyses were completed in October 2023. Interventions: Participants allocated to the intervention group received a psychiatric service dog for PTSD, whereas those allocated to the control group remained on the waiting list based on the date of application submitted to the service dog organization. Both groups had unrestricted access to usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were PTSD symptom severity, depression, and anxiety after 3 months, and the secondary outcomes were psychosocial functioning, such as quality of life and social health. The self-reported PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was used to measure symptom severity, and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) was used to assess PTSD diagnosis (score range for both instruments: 0-80, with higher scores indicating greater PTSD symptoms). Results: The 156 participants included in the trial had a mean (SD) age of 37.6 (8.3) years and included 117 males (75%), 17 Black or African American individuals (11%), 30 Hispanic individuals (19%), and 117 White individuals (76%). Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly lower PTSD symptom severity based on the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 mean (SD) score (41.9 [16.9] vs 51.7 [16.1]; difference in means, -11.5 [95% CI, -16.2 to -6.6]; P < .001) and the CAPS-5 mean (SD) score (30.2 [10.2] vs 36.9 [10.2]; difference in means, -7.0 [95% CI, -10.8 to -4.5]; P < .001) at 3 months. The intervention group also had significantly lower depression scores (odds ratio [OR], 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23-0.86]; difference in means, -3.3 [95% CI, -6.8 to -0.6]), anxiety (OR, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.13-0.50]; difference in means, -4.4 [95% CI, -6.9 to -2.1]), and most areas of psychosocial functioning (eg, social isolation: OR, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.18-0.64]). Conclusions and Relevance: This nonrandomized controlled trial found that compared with usual care alone, partnership with a trained psychiatric service dog was associated with lower PTSD symptom severity and higher psychosocial functioning in veterans. Psychiatric service dogs may be an effective complementary intervention for military service-related PTSD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03245814.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais , Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Cães , Masculino , Veteranos/psicologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Animais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Assistida com Animais/métodos , Estados Unidos , Ansiedade
11.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13304, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza may contribute to coronary/cerebrovascular events and exacerbate underlying conditions. METHODS: We used self-controlled case series (SCCS) design to analyze data from US Veterans ≥18 years with coronary/cerebrovascular or exacerbation event +/-1 year of lab-confirmed influenza (LCI) during 2010-2018. We estimated the incidence ratio (IR) (95% CI) of the event for risk interval (Days 1-7 post-LCI) versus control interval (all other times +/-1 year of LCI) with fixed-effects conditional Poisson regression. We included biomarker data for mediation analysis. RESULTS: We identified 3439 episodes with coronary/cerebrovascular-related hospitalizations. IRs (95% CI) for LCI risk versus control interval were STEMI 0.6 (0.1, 4.4), NSTEMI 7.3 (5.8, 9.2), ischemic stroke 4.0 (3.0, 5.4), hemorrhagic stroke 6.2 (3.4, 11.5), and coronary spasm 1.3 (0.5, 3.0). IR significantly increased for NSTEMI and ischemic stroke among those ≥ 65 years. IR for NSTEMI and ischemic stroke dropped 26% and 10%, respectively, when white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count were considered. LCI was significantly associated with exacerbation of preexisting asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and congestive heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant association between LCI and hospitalization for NSTEMI, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, the latter possibly due to unaccounted time-varying confounding in SCCS design.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Veteranos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
12.
Trials ; 25(1): 363, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient participation in treatment decision making is a pillar of recovery-oriented care and is associated with improvements in empowerment and well-being. Although demand for increased involvement in treatment decision-making is high among veterans with serious mental illness, rates of involvement are low. Collaborative decision skills training (CDST) is a recovery-oriented, skills-based intervention designed to support meaningful patient participation in treatment decision making. An open trial among veterans with psychosis supported CDST's feasibility and demonstrated preliminary indications of effectiveness. A randomized control trial (RCT) is needed to test CDST's effectiveness in comparison with an active control and further evaluate implementation feasibility. METHODS: The planned RCT is a hybrid type 1 trial, which will use mixed methods to systematically evaluate the effectiveness and implementation feasibility of CDST among veterans participating in a VA Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Recovery Center (PRRC) in Southern California. The first aim is to assess the effectiveness of CDST in comparison with the active control via the primary outcome, collaborative decision-making behavior during usual care appointments between veterans and their VA mental health clinicians, and secondary outcomes (i.e., treatment engagement, satisfaction, and outcome). The second aim is to characterize the implementation feasibility of CDST within the VA PRRC using the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model framework, including barriers and facilitators within the PRRC context to support future implementation. DISCUSSION: If CDST is found to be effective and feasible, implementation determinants gathered throughout the study can be used to ensure sustained and successful implementation at this PRRC and other PRRCs and similar settings nationally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04324944. Registered on March 27, 2020. Trial registration data can be found in Appendix 1.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente , Transtornos Psicóticos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Relações Médico-Paciente , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Estados Unidos , Estudos de Viabilidade , California , Tomada de Decisões , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e57146, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mental health of military personnel has garnered increased attention over the last few decades; however, the impacts of perpetuating, observing, or failing to prevent acts that transgress deeply held moral standards, referred to as moral injuries, are less understood, particularly in relation to encounters with children during deployment. This paper describes a multiphased research protocol that centers around the lived experiences of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) Veterans to understand how encounters with children during military deployments impact the well-being and mental health of military personnel. OBJECTIVE: This study has four objectives: (1) highlight the lived experiences of CAF Veterans who encountered children during military deployments; (2) improve understanding of the nature of experiences that military personnel faced that related to observing or engaging with children during military service; (3) improve understanding of the mental health impacts of encountering children during military service; and (4) use participatory action research (PAR) to develop recommendations for improving preparation, training, and support for military personnel deployed to contexts where encounters with children are likely. METHODS: The research project has 2 main phases where phase 1 includes qualitative interviews with CAF Veterans who encountered children during military deployments and phase 2 uses PAR to actively engage Canadian Veterans with lived experiences of encountering children during military deployments, as well as health professionals and researchers to identify recommendations to better address the mental health effects of these encounters. RESULTS: As of January 26, 2024, a total of 55 participants and research partners have participated in the 2 phases of the research project. A total of 16 CAF Veterans participated in phase 1 (qualitative interviews), and 39 CAF Veterans, health professionals, and researchers participated in phase 2 (PAR). The results for phase 1 have been finalized and are accepted for publication. Data collection and analysis are ongoing for phase 2. CONCLUSIONS: Prioritizing and valuing the experiences of CAF Veterans has deepened our understanding of the intricate nature and impacts of potentially morally injurious events involving children during military deployments. Together with health professionals and researchers, the PAR approach empowers CAF Veterans to articulate important recommendations for developing and improving training and mental health support. This support is crucial not only during the deployment cycle but also throughout the military career, helping lessen the effects of moral injury among military personnel. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/57146.


Assuntos
Militares , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Veteranos , Humanos , Canadá , Veteranos/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Adulto
14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e57341, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Veteran-Directed Care (VDC) program serves to assist veterans at risk of long-term institutional care to remain at home by providing funding to hire veteran-selected caregivers. VDC is operated through partnerships between Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers (VAMCs) and third-party Aging and Disability Network Agency providers. OBJECTIVE: We aim to identify facilitators, barriers, and adaptations in VDC implementation across 7 VAMCs in 1 region: Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) 8, which covers Florida, South Georgia, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. We also attempted to understand leadership and stakeholder perspectives on VDC programs' reach and implementation and identify veterans served by VISN 8's VDC programs and describe their home- and community-based service use. Finally, we want to compare veterans served by VDC programs in VISN 8 to the veterans served in VDC programs across the VA. This information is intended to be used to identify strategies and propose recommendations to guide VDC program expansion in VISN 8. METHODS: The mixed methods study design encompasses electronically delivered surveys, semistructured interviews, and administrative data. It is guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR version 2.0). Participants included the staff of VAMCs and partnering aging and disability network agencies across VISN 8, leadership at these VAMCs and VISN 8, veterans enrolled in VDC, and veterans who declined VDC enrollment and their caregivers. We interviewed selected VAMC site leaders in social work, Geriatrics and Extended Care, and the Caregiver Support Program. Each interviewee will be asked to complete a preinterview survey that includes information about their personal characteristics, experiences with the VDC program, and perceptions of program aspects according to the CFIR (version 2.0) framework. Participants will complete a semistructured interview that covers constructs relevant to the respondent and facilitators, barriers, and adaptations in VDC implementation at their site. RESULTS: We will calculate descriptive statistics including means, SDs, and percentages for survey responses. Facilitators, barriers, number of patients enrolled, and staffing will also be presented. Interviews will be analyzed using rapid qualitative techniques guided by CFIR domains and constructs. Findings from VISN 8 will be collated to identify strategies for VDC expansion. We will use administrative data to describe veterans served by the programs in VISN 8. CONCLUSIONS: The VA has prioritized VDC rollout nationwide and this study will inform these expansion efforts. The findings from this study will provide information about the experiences of the staff, leadership, veterans, and caregivers in the VDC program and identify program facilitators and barriers. These results may be used to improve program delivery, facilitate growth within VISN 8, and inform new program establishment at other sites nationwide as the VDC program expands. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/57341.


Assuntos
United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , Veteranos , Autocuidado/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Cuidadores
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2415842, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869899

RESUMO

Importance: Chronic pain is common and disabling in older adults, and psychological interventions are indicated. However, the gold standard approach, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), produces only modest benefits, and more powerful options are needed. Objectives: To evaluate whether emotional awareness and expression therapy (EAET) is superior to CBT for treatment of chronic pain among predominantly male older veterans and whether higher baseline depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms-key targets of EAET-moderate treatment response. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted from May 16, 2019, to September 14, 2023, in the US Department of Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System. The trial included a racially and ethnically diverse group of veterans aged 60 to 95 years with at least 3 months of musculoskeletal pain. Interventions: Emotional awareness and expression therapy or CBT, conducted concurrently, each presented as one 90-minute individual session followed by eight 90-minute group sessions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was Brief Pain Inventory pain severity (range, 0 to 10) from baseline to posttreatment (week 10, primary end point) and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included Patient Reported Outcomes Institute Measurement System Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, General Life Satisfaction (NIH Toolbox), Pain Interference, and Sleep Disturbance Short Forms, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), and Satisfaction with Therapy and Therapist Scale-Revised. A subset of participants completed the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition). All analyses were for the intention-to-treat population and included all randomized participants. Results: Among 126 randomized participants (66 in the EAET group and 60 in the CBT group; mean [SD] age, 71.9 [5.9] years; 116 [92%] male), 111 (88%) completed posttreatment, and 104 (82%) completed the 6-month follow-up. The EAET was superior to CBT for the primary outcome of reduction in pain severity at posttreatment (estimate, -1.59 [95% CI, -2.35 to -0.83]; P < .001) and follow-up (estimate, -1.01 [95% CI, -1.78 to -0.24]; P = .01). A greater percentage of participants in EAET vs CBT had clinically significant (at least 30%) pain reduction (63% vs 17%; odds ratio, 21.54 [95% CI, 4.66-99.56]; P < .001) at posttreatment. In addition, EAET was superior to CBT on 50% pain reduction (35% vs 7%; odds ratio, 11.77 [95% CI, 2.38-58.25]; P = .002), anxiety (estimate, -2.49 [95% CI, -4.30 to -0.68]; P = .006), depression (estimate, -3.06 [95% CI, -5.88 to -0.25]; P = .03), general life satisfaction (estimate, 1.23 [95% CI, 0.36-2.10]; P = .005), PTSD symptoms (estimate, -4.39 [95% CI, -8.44 to -0.34]; P = .03), PGIC score (estimate, 1.46 [95% CI, 0.77-2.15]; P < .001), and global treatment satisfaction (estimate, 0.28 [95% CI, 0.12-0.45]; P < .001) at posttreatment. Higher baseline depression (estimate, -1.55 [95% CI, -0.37 to 2.73]; P < .001), anxiety (estimate, -1.53 [95% CI, -2.19 to -0.88]; P < .001), and PTSD symptoms (estimate, -1.69 [95% CI, -2.96 to -0.42]; P = .009) moderated greater reduction in pain severity after EAET but not CBT. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this randomized clinical trial suggest that EAET may be a preferred intervention for medically and psychiatrically complex patients with pain. The societal burden of chronic pain could be improved by further incorporating the principles of EAET into mainstream clinical pain medicine. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03918642.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Crônica/terapia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Emoções , Resultado do Tratamento , Conscientização , Ansiedade/terapia , Medição da Dor
16.
Am J Occup Ther ; 78(4)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861552

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Veterans receiving inpatient psychiatric services with limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) benefit from occupational therapy, yet disparities in access are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ADL limitations, an indicator of occupational therapy need, was associated with inpatient psychiatric occupational therapy utilization in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and whether this relationship differs by facility characteristics. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of VHA data. Modified Poisson regression modeled occupational therapy utilization as a function of ADL limitations, facility characteristics, and covariates. Interactions estimated whether the relationship between ADL limitations and occupational therapy utilization differed across facility characteristics. SETTING: VHA inpatient psychiatric setting. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans receiving VHA inpatient psychiatric care from 2015 to 2020 (N = 133,844). OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Occupational therapy utilization. RESULTS: Veterans with ADL limitations were more likely to receive occupational therapy. Veterans receiving care in facilities with higher complexity and greater inpatient psychiatric care quality were more likely to receive occupational therapy. Additionally, Black veterans were less likely to receive occupational therapy relative to their White, non-Hispanic counterparts. Interactions indicated that the extent to which ADL limitations drove access to occupational therapy utilization was weaker within facilities with higher complexity and care quality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Veterans with ADL limitations were more likely to access inpatient psychiatric occupational therapy, suggesting that such services are generally allocated to veterans in need. However, findings indicate disparities in access across patient-level (e.g., Black race) and facility-level (e.g., facility complexity) factors, informing efforts to eliminate barriers to accessing these valuable services. Plain-Language Summary: This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine disparities in access to inpatient psychiatric occupational therapy in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study findings show that access to inpatient psychiatric occupational therapy is partly driven by the needs of the patient. However, nonclinical factors, such as a patient's race and the characteristics of the facility at which they receive care (complexity, number of psychiatric beds available, and the quality of psychiatric care), are also important drivers of access. Identifying factors influencing access to these valuable services is the first step in developing strategies that reduce barriers to access for veterans in need.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Terapia Ocupacional , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Veteranos , Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1086158, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38800485

RESUMO

Background: Gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is a common medical intervention sought by transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals. Initiating GAHT in accordance with clinical guideline recommendations ensures delivery of high-quality care. However, no prior studies have examined how current GAHT initiation compares to recommended GAHT initiation. Objective: This study assessed guideline concordance around feminizing and masculinizing GAHT initiation in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods: The sample included 4,676 veterans with a gender identity disorder diagnosis who initiated feminizing (n=3,547) and masculinizing (n=1,129) GAHT between 2007 and 2018 in VHA. Demographics and health conditions on veterans receiving feminizing and masculinizing GAHT were assessed. Proportion of guideline concordant veterans on six VHA guidelines on feminizing and masculinizing GAHT initiation were determined. Results: Compared to veterans receiving masculinizing GAHT, a higher proportion of veterans receiving feminizing GAHT were older (≥60 years: 23.7% vs. 6.3%), White non-Hispanic (83.5% vs. 57.6%), and had a higher number of comorbidities (≥7: 14.0% vs. 10.6%). A higher proportion of veterans receiving masculinizing GAHT were Black non-Hispanic (21.5% vs. 3.5%), had posttraumatic stress disorder (43.0% vs. 33.9%) and positive military sexual trauma (33.5% vs.16.8%; all p-values<0.001) than veterans receiving feminizing GAHT. Among veterans who started feminizing GAHT with estrogen, 97.0% were guideline concordant due to no documentation of contraindication, including venous thromboembolism, breast cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Among veterans who started spironolactone as part of feminizing GAHT, 98.1% were guideline concordant as they had no documentation of contraindication, including hyperkalemia or acute renal failure. Among veterans starting masculinizing GAHT, 90.1% were guideline concordant due to no documentation of contraindications, such as breast or prostate cancer. Hematocrit had been measured in 91.8% of veterans before initiating masculinizing GAHT, with 96.5% not having an elevated hematocrit (>50%) prior to starting masculinizing GAHT. Among veterans initiating feminizing and masculinizing GAHT, 91.2% had documentation of a gender identity disorder diagnosis prior to GAHT initiation. Conclusion: We observed high concordance between current GAHT initiation practices in VHA and guidelines, particularly for feminizing GAHT. Findings suggest that VHA clinicians are initiating feminizing GAHT in concordance with clinical guidelines. Future work should assess guideline concordance on monitoring and management of GAHT in VHA.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pessoas Transgênero , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adulto , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Disforia de Gênero/tratamento farmacológico , Transexualidade/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde dos Veteranos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1372189, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813415

RESUMO

Introduction: The incorporation of animals into interventions focused on military families is a relatively new concept. Though animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) have been studied in the context of military veterans, few studies incorporate members of the military family or focus on the family members' experiences. Methods: This systematic review investigates the effects of AAIs on the wellbeing of military family members beyond the veteran themselves through three aims: (1) by describing the characteristics of AAIs for military family members, (2) by evaluating the quality of the methodology present within the current literature, and (3) by identifying key concepts and knowledge gaps within the findings reported to date. Results: A total of nine articles met the criteria to be included in the review. Though the inclusion criteria and search terms included all types of animal-assisted interventions, the only interventions represented were service dogs (n = 4) and equine-assisted services (n = 5). Discussion: Findings suggest AAIs could be beneficial in areas such as communication, relational bonds, and psychosocial well-being. Though additional research is necessary, AAIs may be an effective complementary intervention for military families.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais , Família Militar , Humanos , Família Militar/psicologia , Animais , Cães , Militares/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Cavalos , Veteranos/psicologia
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 601, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that documentation of comorbidities differed when Veterans received care within versus outside Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Changes to medical center funding, increased attention to performance reporting, and expansion of Clinical Documentation Improvement programs, however, may have caused coding in VHA to change. METHODS: Using repeated cross-sectional data, we compared Elixhauser-van Walraven scores and Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) severity levels for Veterans' admissions across settings and payers over time, utilizing a linkage of VHA and all-payer discharge data for 2012-2017 in seven US states. To minimize selection bias, we analyzed records for Veterans admitted to both VHA and non-VHA hospitals in the same year. Using generalized linear models, we adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: Following adjustment, VHA admissions consistently had the lowest predicted mean comorbidity scores (4.44 (95% CI 4.34-4.55)) and lowest probability of using the most severe DRG (22.1% (95% CI 21.4%-22.8%)). In contrast, Medicare-covered admissions had the highest predicted mean comorbidity score (5.71 (95% CI 5.56-5.85)) and highest probability of using the top DRG (35.3% (95% CI 34.2%-36.4%)). CONCLUSIONS: More effective strategies may be needed to improve VHA documentation, and current risk-adjusted comparisons should account for differences in coding intensity.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Hospitais de Veteranos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Hospitais de Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/estatística & dados numéricos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...