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1.
Food Chem ; 338: 128003, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932083

RESUMO

UV-C treatment is a commonly known technique to inactivate microorganisms. The objective of this work was to investigate the impact of UV-C treatment of grape must on the sensory characteristics of the resulting wine and on the profile of volatile compounds of grape must and wine. Different UV-C doses were applied to Riesling must and compared with thermal pasteurization. The sensory off-flavor "ATA" and a content of 0.5 µg/L 2-aminoacetophenone were determined in the grape must and in the resulting wine after UV-C treatment with a high dose of 21 kJ/L. Sensory off-flavors did neither occur after thermal pasteurization nor after UV-C treatment with a dose of 2 kJ/L, which is sufficient for the inactivation of microorganisms. Minor changes in the volatiles' profiles of grape must and wine, involving e.g. terpenes and C13-norisoprenoids, occurred in musts treated with thermal pasteurization as well as with a UV-C dose of 2 kJ/L.


Assuntos
Pasteurização , Vitis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho , Acetofenonas/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Norisoprenoides/análise , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar , Terpenos/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 340: 127905, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882474

RESUMO

Studies regarding composition and evolution of oligomeric proanthocyanidin-anthocyanin adducts in red wines have often focused only on a limited number of small dimers. Now, a group-specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was utilized to measure two-dimensional (2D) chromatographic fingerprints of three different types of oligomeric adducts in commercial red wines. A new protocol was developed to visualize and summarize the chromatographic data. The 2D fingerprints showed how the compositions of the oligomeric adducts had typically only minor differences between wine varieties in young wines, excluding the Pinot Noir wines. Major quantitative differences were found between the wine varieties despite the lack of major compositional differences. The evolution of the concentrations differed between the three structural sub-groups, while similar general patterns were observed in the compositional evolution. Via statistical modelling, several characteristics in the polyphenolic starting material composition were tentatively suggested to affect the formation of the oligomeric adducts.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Cor , Visualização de Dados , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glicosídeos/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Food Chem ; 340: 127906, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890857

RESUMO

Wine quality and character are defined in part by the terroir in which the grapes are grown. Metabolomic techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), are used to characterise wines and to detect wine fraud in other countries but have not been extensively trialled in Australia. This paper describes the use of ICP-MS and NMR to characterise a selection of Pinot noir wines. Wines from varying terroirs could be somewhat distinguished by their mineral content using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA was able to separate wines by their Australian states more clearly than by region. Metabolomic analysis of the wines using NMR did not find any correlations with climate/daytime temperatures, or region. An analysis of coinertia suggested that the two datasets were not redundant, and it is proposed that ICP-MS data is the most useful for determining regionality.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Vinho/análise , Austrália , Clima , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metabolômica , Nova Zelândia , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 340: 127573, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032144

RESUMO

Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged for 15 months in used and new French 225 L oak barrels, followed by a period of 3 months in bottle. In addition to control barrels (3 years old), three bending/toasting protocols, including fire bent and fire toasted (fire-bent); water bent and fire toasted (water-bent); and a hybridized method based on fire bending and toasting followed by a 12 h fill with water at 80 °C (fire-bent + hot water), were trialed in triplicate. Parameters such as acetic acid and alcohol content (higher in control wines), and anthocyanins, color and polymeric pigments (higher in wines aged in the new barrels), were more affected by barrel use (new versus neutral) than by bending/toasting protocols. At the end of the study (day 602), only 4-vinyl-guaiacol, eugenol and cis-lactone showed odor activity values (OAV's) above 1, with the latter being the most relevant odor active compound across treatments whereas eugenol was 10-fold higher in the water-bent wines. Principal component analysis (PCA) including phenolics and volatile compounds suggested differences between wines aged in control and new barrels, but less clear-cut differences within wines aged in barrels produced with the different bending/toasting protocols.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Quercus , Vitis , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Cor , Eugenol/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Guaiacol/análise , Lactonas/análise , Odorantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 334: 127593, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711276

RESUMO

ß-Glucosidases play an important role in food industry. Oenococcus oeni are typical lactic acid bacteria that initiate malolactic fermentation of wines. 35 ß-glucosidases from O. oeni were selected and their conserved domains and evolutionary relationships were further explored in this study. The homology analysis results indicated that 35 ß-glucosidases were basically derived from GH1 and GH3 family. A novel ß-glucosidase was successfully expressed and characterized. The recombinant protein, referred to as BGL0224, consisted of a total 480 amino acids with an apparent molecular weight of 55.15 kDa and was classified as GH1 family. It achieved the highest activity at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. The activity and stability were significantly increased when 12% ethanol was supplemented to the enzyme. Using p-NPG as substrate, the Km, Vmax and Kcat of BGL0224 were 0.34 mM, 382.81 U/mg and 351.88 s-1, respectively. In all, BGL0224 has good application prospects in food industry.


Assuntos
Oenococcus/enzimologia , Vinho/microbiologia , beta-Glucosidase/química , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Etanol/química , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Peso Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , beta-Glucosidase/genética
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 127827, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822900

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite that is widely distributed in food products. Herein, we proposed a new fluorescent aptasensor for OTA detection by using cascade strand displacement reaction. The binding of OTA and OTA aptamer on magnetic beads surface inhibited its hybridization with complementary DNA, and subsequently initiated the strand displacement reaction that induced amplified fluorescence signal. By tracing fluorescence response, our method demonstrated an improved detection limit of 0.63 ng/mL, a short assay time of 110 min, and a satisfactory detection specificity by using ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, and zearalenone as control toxins. Recovery studies were conducted by spiking OTA in real food samples, including white wine, red wine, cereal drink, coffee beverage and tea beverage, and confirmed desirable accuracy and practical applicability of our method. Therefore, our method may have a great potential use in the food quality control in the future.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Bebidas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ocratoxinas/análise , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , DNA Complementar , Fluorescência , Limite de Detecção , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vinho/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 338: 127840, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822903

RESUMO

In bottled wines, haze and turbidity are phenomena to be avoided. Since bentonite fining is a common process to clarify wines removing heat unstable proteins, a theoretical study on the adsorption of three Charged Model Molecules (CMMs, egg albumin, polyphenols and riboflavin) was carried out to deep comprehend this chemical phenomenon. Four bentonites were adopted and finely characterized together with the potential release of Na+ and Ca2+ cations, revealing suitable for RT albumin removal within 120 min. Better results in terms of adsorbed quantity were achieved by adopting 12%v/v EtOH/H2O solvent and by swelling bentonites for 24 h before use. With the most performing sample (Na/Ca_0.27), a comprehensive study on simultaneous adsorption of the three CMMs was performed, resulting in polyphenols adsorption increase due to their interactions with albumin. Notwithstanding the majority of albumin and riboflavin was successfully removed, ca. 40-50% of tested polyphenols was preserved.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Vinho/análise , Adsorção , Cálcio/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Ovalbumina/química , Polifenóis/química , Riboflavina/química , Sódio/química , Sódio/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 339: 127795, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836023

RESUMO

Anthocyanin derivatives and chromatic characteristics of 234 different-vintage red wine were investigated based on a targeted HPLC-MS/MS and CIELAB approach. The K-means cluster analysis showed that the evolution pattern varies amongst anthocyanin derivative classes. Their stabilities are: pinotins > flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins, vitisin A > monomeric anthocyanin, direct anthocyanin-flavan-3-ols condensation products > vitisin B, anthocyanin ethyl-linked flavan-3-ols products. The proportion of most pyranoanthocyanins becomes more significant among all detected anthocyanin derivatives during wine aging, whereas flavanols-related anthocyanin derivatives (except for flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins) decreased drastically. PLSR showed that aging tawny characteristics is related to pyranoanthocyanins except for vitisin B, especially pinotins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavanol-related derivates (except for flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins) contribute to red violet color. But aging color density is more associated with the content of vitisin A and flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins. Two predictive models based on random forest and support vector machine modeling showed good performance in predicting the extent of wine aging.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Vinho/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Food Chem ; 339: 127760, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860996

RESUMO

Origin verification of 240 French wines from four regions of France was undertaken using isotope and elemental analyses. Our aim was to identify and differentiate the geographical origin of these red wines, and more importantly, to build a classification tool that can be used to verify geographic origin of French red wines using machine learning models. Multivariate analyses of the isotopic and elemental data revealed that it is possible to determine the geographical origin of French wines with a high level of confidence for most regions analyzed in this study. The wine verification accuracy of four French wine producing regions of Bordeaux, Burgundy, Languedoc-Roussillon and Rhone using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method was 98.2%. The results also show that ANN is more suitable than Discriminant Analysis for this verification purpose. The most important variables for French wine regional traceability were Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Ti and Rb.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/análise , Vinho/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , França , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Redes Neurais de Computação , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 338: 127623, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861132

RESUMO

Grape controlled dehydration of "Cesanese" and "Sangiovese" wine grapes, followed by an innovative vinification protocol, was studied. Fresh grapes of both varieties were processed into basic wines (IW = initial wine). 'Cesanese' must from pressed dehydrated grapes (solid and liquid) was directly added (15 and 30% v/v) into the IW activating a refermentation. 'Sangiovese' must (solid and liquid) from pressed dehydrated grapes was fermented and, when the wine reached 5% alcohol concentration, every day, the IW was added until a final concentration of 40 or 60% (v/v). The produced "blended wines" (BW) had significantly higher alcohol, glycerol, extract, and polyphenol concentration. Malolactic fermentation was completely ended in all BW with no malic acid and formation of lactic acid (0.5-1 g/L). All wines showed a significant higher concentration in 4-vinylguaiacol, acetovanillone, and 3-oxo-α-ionol, providing spicy and fruity notes at the sensory analyses, and being appreciated for their body balance, less acidity, and flavor intensity.


Assuntos
Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Dessecação , Análise Discriminante , Etanol/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Vitis/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 334: 127386, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712494

RESUMO

Elemental composition was used to characterize and differentiate 14 wines made from the identical clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir (clone 667). The vineyards span distances which range from several hundred meters to 1540 km and their elevations vary from near sea level to nearly 500 m. Twenty-seven elements were observed above the limit of quantitation by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the wines from at least half of the 14 sites. Concentrations of several elements, including Mo, Er, Na, Li, Cs and Pb, varied by 10-fold across the 14 wines. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) of elemental composition with juice chemistry and site characterization show associations consistent with expectations, such as high Ca with high clay content. These results demonstrate that even when grapevine clone and winemaking protocol are controlled, composition differences in wines produced from sites are mediated by diverse soil and microclimate conditions.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Vitis , Vinho/análise , California , Fazendas , Espectrometria de Massas , Microclima , Solo/química , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Food Chem ; 335: 127592, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750629

RESUMO

With the increased risk of wine fraud, a rapid and simple method for wine authentication has become a necessity for the global wine industry. The use of fluorescence data from an absorbance and transmission excitation-emission matrix (A-TEEM) technique for discrimination of wines according to geographical origin was investigated in comparison to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The two approaches were applied to commercial Cabernet Sauvignon wines from vintage 2015 originating from three wine regions of Australia, along with Bordeaux, France. Extreme gradient boosting discriminant analysis (XGBDA) was examined among other multivariate algorithms for classification of wines. Models were cross-validated and performance was described in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. XGBDA classification afforded 100% correct class assignment for all tested regions using the EEM of each sample, and overall 97.7% for ICP-MS. The novel combination of A-TEEM and XGBDA was found to have great potential for accurate authentication of wines.


Assuntos
Geografia , Vinho/análise , Austrália , Modelos Estatísticos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
13.
Food Chem ; 337: 127720, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777572

RESUMO

The sensorial and chemical differences among Pinot noir wines from different vineyard locations were investigated. Grapes of a single Pinot noir clone were grown on twelve different vineyard sites along the U.S. West Coast. Wines from a single vintage (2015) were made using a standardized protocol and equipment. Sensorial (i.e. aroma, taste, and mouthfeel) and chemical (i.e. polyphenolic and volatile) differences were observed among these wines at two aging time points (8- and 20- months). Vineyard location (i.e. latitude and longitude) was one of the main factors describing the major differences between the wines, while other details (i.e. soil type (60 cm), rootstock age, soil pH, rootstock type, and vines/acres) were possibly important for defining unique aging characteristics of certain vineyards. Overall, single clone Pinot noir grapes grown in different regions but made under standardized winemaking produced wines with unique chemical and sensorial profiles, which generally persisted throughout aging.


Assuntos
Paladar , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vinho/análise , Fazendas , Solo , Estados Unidos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 338: 128025, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927200

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acid esters are important flavor chemicals in Chinese traditional fermented Baijiu. Monascus purpureus was recognized as an important microorganism contributing to ester synthesis. However, the molecular basis for ester synthesis was still lacking. The present work combined genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, gene library construction, and enzyme engineering to discover a novel catalyst from M. purpureus (isolated from Baijiu fermentation starter). Enzyme LIP05, belonging to the α/ß hydrolase family, was identified to synthesize short-chain fatty acid esters under aqueous phase. After deleting the lid domain of LIP05, the synthesis of ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, or ethyl decanoate was achieved. Ethyl octanoate with the highest conversion ratio of 93.7% was obtained with the assistance of ultrasound. The study reveals the molecular basis for synthesizing short-chain fatty acid esters by M. purpureus and will promote the application of the species or the enzyme in food industry.


Assuntos
Hidrolases/metabolismo , Monascus/genética , Água/química , Vinho/análise , Biocatálise , Caproatos/química , Caproatos/metabolismo , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrolases/genética , Monascus/metabolismo , Sonicação , Temperatura
15.
Food Chem ; 338: 128030, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932090

RESUMO

A liquid chromatography method coupling diode-array and fluorescence detectors (DAD and FLD, respectively) has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of 32 phenolic compounds (PCs) in winemaking products. With the combination of both detectors it was possible to determine phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols, stilbenes and other PCs in the matrices under study. An excitation wavelength of 290 nm was selected and three different emission wavelengths (315, 360 and 400 nm) were recorded. The method provided detection and quantification limits (LODs and LOQs) within the ranges of 0.01-1.46 mg/L and 0.03-4.9 mg/L, respectively. The LODs and LOQs using FLD for flavanols, stilbenes and phenyl ethanol analogues were improved between 65 and 1000% as compared with DAD. The combination of DAD with FLD increased both, sensitivity and the ability to reduce interfering signals. The developed method was applied for the characterization of PCs of wines, bunch stems and grape canes.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Vinho/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Estilbenos/análise , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 338: 127975, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950865

RESUMO

A completely new electroanalytical method for the determination of fenhexamid (FNX) residues in fruit samples has been developed. This method is based on anodic oxidation of fungicide in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 4) containing 10% (v/v) methanol using square-wave voltammetry when five different carbon-based electrodes were tested. An electrochemical behaviour of FNX was studied on a glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry, while glassy carbon paste electrode was selected for analytical purposes. Linear range for FNX from 3.96 to 49.50 µmol L-1 characterized by coefficient of determination of 0.9964, sensitivity of 0.176 µA L µmol-1, and detection limit of 1.32 µmol L-1 were calculated. Results acquired from analyses of blueberries and wine grapes were compared to those obtained by a reference chromatographic method, and a satisfactory agreement has been reached. Finally, it seems that the present voltammetric approach could find its application in food quality control as screening assay.


Assuntos
Amidas/análise , Carbono/química , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Eletrodos , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Oxirredução , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108954, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202298

RESUMO

Non-Saccharomyces yeasts have increasingly been used in vinification recently. This is particularly true of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are inoculated before S. cerevisiae, to complete a sequential alcoholic fermentation. This paper aims to study the effects of these two non-Saccharomyces yeasts on malolactic fermentation (MLF) carried out by two strains of Oenococcus oeni, under cellar conditions. Oenological parameters, and volatile and phenolic compounds were analysed in wines. The wines were tasted, and the microorganisms identified. In general, non-Saccharomyces created more MLF friendly conditions, largely because of lower concentrations of SO2 and medium chain fatty acids. The most favourable results were observed in wines inoculated with T. delbrueckii, that seemed to promote the development of O. oeni and improve MLF performance.


Assuntos
Metschnikowia/metabolismo , Oenococcus/metabolismo , Torulaspora/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Oenococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 334: 127574, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721835

RESUMO

Effect of yeast inoculation format (F), temperature (T), and "on lees" ageing time (t) factors were evaluated on the composition of sparkling wines by a quantitative fingerprint obtained from volatile metabolites and the response of an electronic nose (E-nose). Wines elaborated according the traditional method at 10 and 14 °C, free cells and yeast biocapsules formats were monitored at 15 and 24 months of ageing time. Sixty-six volatiles identified and quantified in the eight sampling lots were subjected to a pattern recognition technique. A dual criterion based on univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA) through the variable importance projection (VIP) values, allowed to identify ten volatiles as potential markers for T factor, eleven for t and twelve for F factors. The discriminant models based on E-nose dataset enable a 100% correct classification of samples, in relation with t and F factors and the 83% for T factor.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Food Chem ; 340: 127910, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882475

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to monitor the evolution of the principal phenolic compounds throughout the fermentation stage of white wines treated with different enzymes. The effect of five commercial enzymes on the evolution of the phenolic profile during the alcoholic fermentation of white wines obtained from Feteasca regala and Sauvignon blanc varieties was evaluated. Physicochemical properties of resulted wine samples have been analyzed according to OIV standards and regulations. The evolution of the principal phenolic compounds was carried out using HPLC method. Enzymatic treatments did not significantly affect the physicochemical composition of the obtained wines. The analyzed samples showed different variations on the phenolic compound content, depending on the type of added enzyme and grape variety. The statistical analysis confirms that enzymes significantly contributed to the enrichment of the wines with phenolic compounds, especially with p-coumaric, gentisic, caftaric, and protocatechuic acids.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Enzimas/química , Fermentação , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
20.
Food Chem ; 340: 128179, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007693

RESUMO

This study is sought to identify the components in greengage wine that predict the sensory properties. Taste-active compounds and aroma-active compounds of 20 commercially available greengage wines from different regions were characterized. The relationship between these compounds, wine samples and sensory attributes was modeled by partial least squares regression. The regression analysis indicated the taste-active compounds, alanine, leucine, proline, glutamic acid, lysine, malic acid, citric acid, sucrose, glucose, gallic acid, caffeic acid and tannin made a great contribution to the characteristic taste or mouthfeel of greengage wine. Meanwhile, the aroma-active compounds, including ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, 3-methylbutanol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, octanoic acid and benzaldehyde, modeled well with the flavor characteristic of greengage wine. The study revealed new insights into the relationship between chemistry and wine sensory characters, which has implications for developing an objective measurement system for determining greengage wine quality.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Vinho/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Taninos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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