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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100490], jul.-sept2024. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231868

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of anti-suppression exercises in children with small-angle esotropia in achieving binocular vision. Methods: A retrospective review of patients aged 3–8 years who underwent anti-suppression exercises for either monocular or alternate suppression between January 2016 and December 2021 was conducted. Patients with esotropia less than 15 prism diopters (PD) and visual acuity ≥ 6/12 were included. Patients with previous intra-ocular surgery or less than three-month follow-up were excluded. Success was defined as the development of binocular single vision (BSV) for distance, near, or both (measured clinically with either the 4 prism base out test or Worth four dot test) and maintained at two consecutive visits. Qualified success was defined as the presence of diplopia response for both distance and near. Additionally, improvement in near stereo acuity was measured using the Stereo Fly test. Results: Eighteen patients with a mean age of 5.4 ± 1.38 years (range 3–8 years) at the time of initiation of exercises were included in the study. The male female ratio was 10:8. The mean best corrected visual acuity was 0.18 LogMAR unit(s) and the mean spherical equivalent was +3.8 ± 0.14 diopters (D). The etiology of the esotropia was fully accommodative refractive esotropia (8), microtropia (1), post–operative infantile esotropia (4), partially accommodative esotropia (1), and post-operative partially accommodative esotropia (4). Patients received either office-based, home-based, or both modes of treatment for an average duration of 4.8 months (range 3–8). After therapy, BSV was achieved for either distance or near in 66.6 % of patients (95 % CI = 40.03–93.31 %). Binocular single vision for both distance and near was seen in 50 % of children. Qualified success was observed in 38.46% of patients. Persistence of suppression was observed in one patient (5.5 %)... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Supressão , Visão Binocular , Esotropia , Acuidade Visual , Terapêutica
2.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100505], jul.-sept2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231869

RESUMO

Purpose: This study explored whether retinoscopy (RET) provides comparable results of relative peripheral refraction (RPR) to open–field autorefractometry (AR) in myopic subjects.Methods: Peripheral refraction was measured in 20 myopic and 20 control adult subjects. Both central and peripheral refraction (20° nasal and temporal eccentricity) were measured using RET and open-field AR. Differences in the median central spherical equivalent (SE), median RPR, and median J45/J180 power vectors between the RET and AR techniques were analyzed. Moreover, Bland – Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between RET and AR methods for RPR measurements in MG. Results: For MG, the median RPR values were positive (hyperopic shift), and no significant differences were observed between the RET and AR techniques with respect to RPR measurement. In addition, we did not observe any significant differences in the RPR values between the nasal and temporal eccentricities for either the RET or AR technique for myopic subjects. There was also a significant correlation and agreement between the RET and AR technique for RPR measurements. With respect to central refraction, the median SE was slightly more positive for the RET than for the AR technique. Inside the CG, we also found significant correlation between the RET and AR technique for RPR measurements, and we observed a myopic shift in peripheral eccentricities. Conclusion: Our results show that retinoscopy may be a useful tool for objective measurements of RPR in myopic subjects and may be used interchangeably with the open-field AR method in everyday clinical practice. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Retinoscopia , Miopia , Refração Ocular , Visão Ocular , Visão Binocular , Oftalmologistas
3.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100510], jul.-sept2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231872

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the association between visual symptoms and use of digital devices considering the presence of visual dysfunctions. Methods: An optometric examination was conducted in a clinical sample of 346 patients to diagnose any type of visual anomaly. Visual symptoms were collected using the validated SQVD questionnaire. A threshold of 6 hours per day was used to quantify the effects of digital device usage and patients were divided into two groups: under and above of 35 years old. A multivariate logistic regression was employed to investigate the association between digital device use and symptoms, with visual dysfunctions considered as a confounding variable. Crude and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated for each variable. Results: 57.02 % of the subjects reported visual symptoms, and 65.02% exhibited some form of visual dysfunction. For patients under 35 years old, an association was found between having visual symptoms and digital device use (OR = 2.10, p = 0.01). However, after adjusting for visual dysfunctions, this association disappeared (OR = 1.44, p = 0.27) and the association was instead between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 6.52, p < 0.001), accommodative (OR = 10.47, p < 0.001), binocular (OR = 6.68, p < 0.001) and accommodative plus binocular dysfunctions (OR = 46.84, p < 0.001). Among patients over 35 years old, no association was found between symptoms and the use of digital devices (OR = 1.27, p = 0.49) but there was an association between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 3.54, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Visual symptoms are not dependent on the duration of digital device use but rather on the presence of any type of visual dysfunction: refractive, accommodative and/or binocular one, which should be diagnosed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais , Campos Visuais , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Visão Binocular , Inquéritos e Questionários , Optometria
4.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100491], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231873

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The invention described herein is a prototype based on computer vision technology that measures depth perception and is intended for the early examination of stereopsis. Materials and methods: The prototype (software and hardware) is a depth perception measurement system that consists on: (a) a screen showing stereoscopic models with a guide point that the subject must point to; (b) a camera capturing the distance between the screen and the subject's finger; and (c) a unit for recording, processing and storing the captured measurements. For test validation, the reproducibility and reliability of the platform were calculated by comparing results with standard stereoscopic tests. A demographic study of depth perception by subgroup analysis is shown. Subjective comparison of the different tests was carried out by means of a satisfaction survey. Results: We included 94 subjects, 25 children and 69 adults, with a mean age of 34.2 ± 18.9 years; 36.2 % were men and 63.8 % were women. The DALE3D platform obtained good repeatability with an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.94 and 0.87, and coefficient of variation (CV) between 0.1 and 0.26. Threshold determining optimal and suboptimal results was calculated for Randot and DALE3D test. Spearman's correlation coefficient, between thresholds was not statistically significant (p value > 0.05). The test was considered more visually appealing and easier to use by the participants (90 % maximum score). Conclusions: The DALE3D platform is a potentially useful tool for measuring depth perception with optimal reproducibility rates. Its innovative design makes it a more intuitive tool for children than current stereoscopic tests. Nevertheless, further studies will be needed to assess whether the depth perception measured by the DALE3D platform is a sufficiently reliable parameter to assess stereopsis.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Visão Binocular , Percepção de Profundidade , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais
5.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100514], jul.-sept2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231876

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze binocular vision of individuals aged 18 to 35 years diagnosed with keratoconus, utilizing spectacles and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Research was led by the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, México and Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina Pereira, Colombia. Methods: A single center, prospective non-randomized, comparative, interventional, open-label study, in which the differences in binocular vision performance with both spectacles and RGP contact lenses was carried out from December 2018 to December 2019. Sampling was performed according to consecutive cases with keratoconus that met the inclusion criteria until the proposed sample size was reached. Results: Rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses notably enhanced distance and near visual acuity in keratoconus patients compared to spectacles. Visual alignment analysis shows exophoria at both distances and is slightly higher with RGP contact lenses. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05), with 82.5 % presenting compensated phoria with spectacles and pnly 42.50% with RGP contact lenses. Stereoscopic vision improved while wearing RGP contact lenses (42.59 %), although accommodation and accommodative flexibility remained within normal ranges. Conclusions: Patients with keratoconus fitted with RGP contact lenses have improved binocular vision skills such as visual acuity, stereopsis, and accommodative flexibility. However, even when the vergence and motor system is decompensated with respect to normal ranges, the range between break and recovery points for both fusional reserves and the near point of convergence (NPC) improves with the use of RGP contact lenses, giving indications of an adaptive condition of the motor system from the medium to the long term.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Ceratocone , Óculos , Lentes de Contato , Visão Binocular , Testes Visuais , Colômbia , México , Oftalmologia , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 170, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the results of the Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system, that measures objective and subjective ocular refraction in one unit, to objective findings obtained from a conventional autorefractometer and a conventional subjective ocular refraction using a trial-frame in real space. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (21.2 ± 1.5 years old) were included in this study. Objective ocular refraction was measured using two tests: the Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under binocular conditions and a conventional autorefractometer under monocular conditions. Subjective ocular refraction was measured using three tests: Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under binocular, monocular conditions, and trial-frame in the real space under monocular conditions. The measurement distance was set to 5.0 m for each test. All ocular refractions were converted into spherical equivalents (SEs). RESULTS: The objective SE was significantly more negative with Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under binocular condition (- 4.08 ± 2.76 D) than with the conventional autorefractometer under monocular condition (- 3.85 ± 2.66 D) (P = 0.002). Although, the subjective SE was significantly more negative with Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under binocular condition (- 3.55 ± 2.67 D) than with the trial-frame in the real space under monocular condition (- 3.33 ± 2.75 D) (P = 0.002), Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under monocular condition (- 3.17 ± 2.57 D) was not significantly different from that in trial-frame in real space under monocular condition (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system, which can complete both objective and subjective ocular refraction tests in a single unit, is suitable for screening ocular refraction, although it produces slightly more myopic results. Furthermore, subjective ocular refraction testing accuracy in Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system can be equivalent to trial-frame in real-space testing by switching from binocular to monocular condition.


Assuntos
Refração Ocular , Visão Binocular , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Acuidade Visual , Testes Visuais , Olho
7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 169, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Convergence insufficiency is a common issue in the field of binocular vision. Various treatment options have been suggested for managing this condition, but their efficacy in individuals with presbyopia remains unclear. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of home-based vision therapy and prism prescription, in presbyopic patients with convergence insufficiency. METHODS/DESIGN: It is a randomized, prospective, double-blind clinical trial, with total of 150 participants randomly assigned to the three groups. The Control Group will receive a new near glasses as a conventional prescription, along with aimless and random eye movement exercises that do not have any convergence or accommodation effects. The Home Vision Therapy Group will receive new near glasses with accommodative and convergence eye exercises. The Prism Group will receive a near prismatic glasses prescribed using the Sheard's criterion. All treatments will be administered for a period of 2 months, and measurements of the modified convergence insufficiency symptoms survey (CISS), near point convergence, near phoria, and positive fusional vergence will be taken at baseline, one month later, and at the end of the treatment. DISCUSSION: We aim to identify which component - either the prism prescription or the home vision therapy - is more effective in improving binocular abilities and reducing patients' symptom scores. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05311917 with last update on 04/22/2023.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular , Estrabismo , Humanos , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estrabismo/terapia , Movimentos Oculares , Ortóptica/métodos , Visão Binocular , Acomodação Ocular , Convergência Ocular , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
J Refract Surg ; 40(4): e270-e277, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593255

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of age on visual outcomes after the bilateral implantation of trifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS: A total of 290 patients (580 eyes) who underwent bilateral implantation of a trifocal IOL were enrolled in this retrospective case-control study. Patients were divided into five age groups: 45 to 49, 50 to 54, 55 to 59, 60 to 64, and 65 years and older. Postoperative monocular uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA, respectively), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA), binocular distance-corrected defocus curve, spectacle dependence for near and distance vision, and patient satisfaction scores were compared among the five groups. RESULTS: The 45 to 49 years group had significantly better mean UDVA (0.02 ± 0.05 logMAR) and UNVA (0.02 ± 0.04 logMAR) than the 65 years and older group (0.06 ± 0.09 and 0.09 ± 0.09 logMAR; P = .029 and P < .001; respectively). However, no significant differences were observed in the mean CDVA among the groups. Binocular visual performance of the 45 to 49 years group was better than that of the 65 years and older age group at defocuses of +1.00, +0.50, -1.00, and -3.00 D. No significant differences were observed in spectacle dependence for near and distance vision or in patient satisfaction scores among the five groups. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral implantation of trifocal IOLs can provide excellent near and distance vision in both young and older patients. However, UDVA and UNVA revealed considerably worse results in the older group, although no significant difference was observed in CDVA and postoperative refractive errors by age. [J Refract Surg. 2024;40(4):e270-e277.].


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Refração Ocular , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Óculos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Visão Binocular , Satisfação do Paciente , Desenho de Prótese
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300222, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558003

RESUMO

Locomotion has been shown to impact aspects of visual processing in both humans and animal models. In the current study, we assess the impact of locomotion on the dynamics of binocular rivalry. We presented orthogonal gratings, one contrast-modulating at 0.8 Hz (matching average step frequency) and the other at 3.2 Hz, to participants using a virtual reality headset. We compared two conditions: stationary and walking. We continuously monitored participants' foot position using tracking devices to measure the step cycle. During the walking condition, participants viewed the rivaling gratings for 60-second trials while walking on a circular path in a virtual reality environment. During the stationary condition, observers viewed the same stimuli and environment while standing still. The task was to continuously indicate the dominant percept via button press using handheld controllers. We found no significant differences between walking and standing for normalized dominance duration distributions, mean normalized dominance distributions, mean alternation rates, or mean fitted frequencies. Although our findings do not align with prior research highlighting distinctions in normalized dominance distributions between walking and standing, our study contributes unique evidence indicating that alternation rates vary across the step cycle. Specifically, we observed that the number of alternations is at its lowest during toe-off phases and reaches its peak at heel strike. This novel insight enhances our understanding of the dynamic nature of alternation patterns throughout the step cycle.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Visão Binocular , Humanos , Disparidade Visual , Percepção Visual , Caminhada , Estimulação Luminosa
10.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 60(4): 312-315, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583053

RESUMO

Infantile esotropia is a common ophthalmic disease in children. A lot of clinical and basic research evidence suggests that early surgery enhances sensory and ocular motor development. However, the proper timing of surgery has been debated for decades. In addition, there is more likely instability of deviation in the preoperative evaluation of infants, and even if the patient achieved alignment after surgery, the defects in binocular vision may accompany for a lifetime. This article analyzes the difficulties and key points of early intervention for infantile esotropia, aiming to provide scientific ideas for the early treatment of children with infantile esotropia in China.


Assuntos
Esotropia , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Esotropia/cirurgia , Visão Ocular , Visão Binocular , China , Face , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia
11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(4): 2, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558094

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between unilateral metamorphopsia, characterized by visual distortions in one eye, and impaired stereopsis. Methods: Utilizing both near and distance measurements through advanced testing systems, including 4K smartphones and an active shutter three-dimensional system, we simulated varying degrees of unilateral metamorphopsia in 30 healthy young adults aged between 21 and 29 years. Two types of contour-based stereotest symbols, lines and squares, were developed. Distortions were classified into six distinct patterns, each further divided into eight grades of severity. Participants were tasked with identifying visual targets, and their stereothresholds were determined under different conditions of induced distortion. Stereopsis was measured within a range of 2.9 to 1.0 log arcsec, at 0.2 log arcsec intervals. Stereopsis changes under different distortion scenarios were analyzed using the generalized estimating equations, with a sequential Bonferroni adjustment applied for pairwise comparisons. Results: A direct and quantifiable correlation was observed between the severity of metamorphopsia and reductions in stereopsis. As the degree of visual distortion increased, notably in both frequency and amplitude, there was a corresponding decline in stereopsis. This relationship held true in both near and distance measurements of stereopsis. Statistical analyses further reinforced these findings, highlighting a significant detrimental effect of distortion components on stereoacuity. Conclusions: The findings highlight the clinical significance of understanding the interplay between unilateral metamorphopsia and stereopsis. Early interventions in conditions leading to metamorphopsia might be critical to maintaining optimal stereopsis.


Assuntos
Percepção de Profundidade , Visão Binocular , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Acuidade Visual , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Nível de Saúde
12.
Elife ; 132024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568729

RESUMO

Primates rely on two eyes to perceive depth, while maintaining stable vision when either one eye or both eyes are open. Although psychophysical and modeling studies have investigated how monocular signals are combined to form binocular vision, the underlying neuronal mechanisms, particularly in V1 where most neurons exhibit binocularity with varying eye preferences, remain poorly understood. Here, we used two-photon calcium imaging to compare the monocular and binocular responses of thousands of simultaneously recorded V1 superficial-layer neurons in three awake macaques. During monocular stimulation, neurons preferring the stimulated eye exhibited significantly stronger responses compared to those preferring both eyes. However, during binocular stimulation, the responses of neurons preferring either eye were suppressed on the average, while those preferring both eyes were enhanced, resulting in similar neuronal responses irrespective of their eye preferences, and an overall response level similar to that with monocular viewing. A neuronally realistic model of binocular combination, which incorporates ocular dominance-dependent divisive interocular inhibition and binocular summation, is proposed to account for these findings.


Assuntos
Dominância Ocular , Olho , Animais , Visão Binocular , Macaca , Neurônios
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6863, 2024 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514715

RESUMO

The precision of stereopsis and vergence are ultimately limited by internal binocular disparity noise. Here we propose an equivalent noise model with both global and local internal disparity noises to provide a unified explanation of both absolute and relative disparity thresholds. To test this model, we developed a psychophysical procedure to measure the equivalent internal disparity noise by adding external disparity noise to random-Gabor-patch stereograms. We used the method of constant stimuli to measure the minimum and maximum disparity thresholds (Dmin and Dmax) for both absolute and relative disparity. Consistent with previous studies, we found that Dmin thresholds are substantially worse for absolute disparity than for relative disparity. We tested three relative disparity mechanisms: (1) the difference between the monocular separations of targets projecting to the two eyes; (2) the direct measurement of relative disparity; and (3) the difference of absolute disparities of targets. Computing the difference of absolute disparities when detecting relative disparity, Mechanism 3 cancels global noise, resulting in a much lower relative Dmin threshold, and provides a reasonable fit to the experimental data. We also found that the presence of as much as 2400 arcsec of external disparity noise does not appear to affect the Dmax threshold. This observation suggests that Dmax is implicated in a mechanism that disregards the disparity variance of individual items, relying instead on the average disparity across all items, supporting the depth model proposed in our previous study (Ding & Levi, 2021), which posits distinct mechanisms governing Dmin and Dmax thresholds.


Assuntos
Percepção de Profundidade , Disparidade Visual , Ruído , Inventário de Personalidade , Visão Binocular
14.
J AAPOS ; 28(2): 103871, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze and compare the outcome of two different surgical procedures in patients with complete oculomotor nerve palsy with large-angle exotropia. METHODS: The medical records of patients with total oculomotor nerve palsy and large-angle exotropia operated on at a single center from January 2006 to June 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. One group underwent lateral rectus deactivation with medial rectus resection (resection group); the other group underwent lateral rectus deactivation with medial rectus fixation to the medial palpebral ligament (fixation group). Surgical outcomes on the first postoperative day and at 6 months postoperatively were analyzed, including alignment and postoperative complications. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 14. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients were included. There was a trend toward greater surgical success in the fixation group (93%) than in the resection group (65%), but these results were not statistically significant. Postoperative exotropic drifts were noted in both the procedures but tended to be more with patients in the resection group. Postoperative complications were noted only in the fixation group. CONCLUSIONS: Lateral rectus deactivation with medial rectus fixation to the medial palpebral ligament requires more time and greater surgical expertise but appears to better prevent postoperative exotropic drift compared with lateral rectus deactivation combined with medial rectus resection.


Assuntos
Exotropia , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor , Humanos , Exotropia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Ligamentos/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular/fisiologia
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 139, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recovery of binocular stereopsis recovery and its influencing factors in children with intermittent exotropia after successful correction of eye position. METHODS: Prospective clinical study. A total of 178 patients, aged 9 ∼ 14 (10.8 ± 1.7) years, who were successfully corrected after intermittent exotropia surgery at the Beijing Tongren Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from October 2023 to September 2023 were collected, the follow-up duration was six-month or longer. Paired t test, Pearson correlation analysis and multivariable linear regression analysis were used to probe preoperative clinical features that may predict the stereopsis six months after surgery. RESULTS: Six months after surgery, the angle of deviation of the patients met the orthotopic standard, and there was significant difference compared with that before surgery (distant: -2.7△±3.2△ vs. -30.5△±8.4△, t=-25.3, P < 0.001. Near:-3.7△±4.1△ vs. -33.7△±8.0△, t=-26.1, P < 0.001). Distant stereopsis (3.0 ± 0.6 vs. 3.9 ± 0.4, t = 4.9, P < 0.05) and near stereopsis (2.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.6 ± 0.4, t = 3.8, P < 0.05) were both significantly improved compared with that of before surgery. 17% and 22% patients rebuilt normal distant stereopsis and normal near stereopsis, respectively. Preoperative distant stereopsis (r=-0.26, P = 0.004) and near stereopsis (r=-0.23, P = 0.011) was significantly negatively correlated with convergence reserve. Multivariable analysis showed that patients' age (ß = 0.003, p = 0.037), anisometropia (ß = 0.015, p = 0.043), and preoperative distant stereopsis (ß = 0.456, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with postoperative distant stereopsis. Patients' age (ß = 0.005, p = 0.044), anisometropia (ß = 0.127, p = 0.034), angle of deviation (ß=-0.230, p = 0.020), and preoperative near stereopsis (ß = 0.136, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with postoperative near stereopsis. CONCLUSION: IXT patients could get eye position fixed after surgery, about 20% patients benefited from stereopsis improvement. Patient's age, binocular anisometropia, angle of deviation and preoperative stereopsis were independent factors influencing postoperative stereopsis.


Assuntos
Anisometropia , Exotropia , Criança , Humanos , Exotropia/cirurgia , Visão Binocular , Anisometropia/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Percepção de Profundidade , Doença Crônica , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos
16.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 137, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38444009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Klippel-Feil syndrome is a rare congenital bone disorder characterized by an abnormal fusion of two or more cervical spine vertebrae. Individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome exhibit diverse clinical manifestations, including skeletal irregularities, visual and hearing impairments, orofacial anomalies, and anomalies in various internal organs, such as the heart, kidneys, genitourinary system, and nervous system. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report describes a 12-year-old Pashtun female patient who presented with acute bilateral visual loss. The patient had Klippel-Feil syndrome, with the typical clinical triad symptoms of Klippel-Feil syndrome, along with Sprengel's deformity. She also exhibited generalized hypoalgesia, which had previously resulted in widespread burn-related injuries. Upon examination, bilateral optic disc swelling was observed, but intracranial pressure was found to be normal. Extensive investigations yielded normal results, except for hypocalcemia and low vitamin D levels, while parathyroid function remained within the normal range. Visual acuity improved following 2 months of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, suggesting that the visual loss and optic nerve swelling were attributed to hypocalcemia. Given the normal parathyroid function, it is possible that hypocalcemia resulted from low vitamin D levels, which can occur after severe burn scarring. Furthermore, the patient received a provisional diagnosis of congenital insensitivity to pain on the basis of the detailed medical history and the findings of severe and widespread loss of the ability to perceive painful stimuli, as well as impaired temperature sensation. However, due to limitations in genetic testing, confirmation of the congenital insensitivity to pain diagnosis could not be obtained. CONCLUSION: This case highlights a rare presentation of transient binocular vision loss and pain insensitivity in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, emphasizing the importance of considering unusual associations in symptom interpretation.


Assuntos
Hipocalcemia , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil , Insensibilidade Congênita à Dor , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/complicações , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/diagnóstico , Visão Binocular , Dor , Vértebras Cervicais , Vitamina D
17.
Cesk Slov Oftalmol ; 80(2): 93-102, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare objective quality of vision in patients undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a bilateral segmented multifocal intraocular lens (SMIOL). METHODS: A retro-prospective study included 110 eyes of 55 patients who underwent cataract surgery with bilateral SMIOL implantation. Patients were divided according to the type of implanted intraocular lens into group 1 (SBL-2, 62 eyes) and group 2 (SBL-3, 48 eyes). Postoperatively, monocular and binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UCIVA, at 66 cm), uncorrected near visual acuity (UCNVA, at 40 cm), corrected near visual acuity (BCNVA) and defocus curve were measured and evaluated. The follow-up period was 6 months. RESULTS: Mean UCDVA in group 1 (SBL-2) was 0.010 ±0.15 LogMAR monocularly, 0.01 ±0.10 LogMAR binocularly, and in group 2 (SBL-3) was 0.02 ±0.11 LogMAR monocularly and -0.07 ±0.09 LogMAR binocularly. Binocular defocus curves showed that the SBL-3 group performed better than the SBL-2 lens at a vergence of -1.50 D corresponding to 66 cm (center distance), averaging 0.03 ±0.11 LogMAR, while the SBL-2 group averaged 0.12 ±0.14 LogMAR (p = 0.01). The -2.50 D vergence characterizing near vision (40 cm) was achieved by the SBL-2 lens in our study at 0.33 ±0.15 LogMAR and by the SBL-3 lens at 0.00 ±0.11 LogMAR (p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: Both SMIOLs provided very good vision at all tested distances 6 months postoperatively. The SBL-2 lens performed better in UCIVA, while the SBL-3 lens excelled in UCDVA and UCNVA.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Acuidade Visual , Desenho de Prótese , Visão Binocular
18.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 162, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to identify ocular comorbidities and reasons of blindness in monocular patients and to compare visual outcomes of cataract surgery between monocular and binocular patients. METHODS: A single-center case-control study was conducted between November 2011 and May 2019 to compare consecutive series of patients needing cataract surgery in Strasbourg University Hospitals, France. Cases were patients with permanent monocular vision loss. Controls were binocularly sighted patients. All patients underwent cataract surgery using phacoemulsification technique. Chart analysis included demographic data, medical history, and surgical determinants data. Student's t tests and Fisher's exact tests were the main methods used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Each group included 80 patients. The mean age at the time of surgery was significantly higher in monocular than binocular patients (77 vs. 71 years, p < 0.001). Thirty-two monocular patients (40%) had ocular comorbidities, compared to only 19 (23%) in the control group (p < 0.05). The leading cause of monocular status was amblyopia caused by strabismus (22 patients, 27.5%). Age-related macular degeneration, open-angle glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy were the three main ocular comorbidities that were observed in the monocular group. Monocular patients had significantly lower visual acuity than the control group (p < 0.01) before and after cataract surgery. Conversely, improvement in visual acuity after surgery was not statistically different between groups (p = 0.054). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of surgical complications between groups (p = 0.622). CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that cataract surgery in monocular patients is not more complicated than in binocular patients, but that it is significantly delayed.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catarata/complicações , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Cegueira , Visão Binocular
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5879, 2024 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467774

RESUMO

Traditional vision screenings in schools are limited to simple visual tasks, yet students in their daily learning face more complex visual environments. Binocular rivalry tasks can partially simulate the visual challenges of real visual environments and activate advanced visual processing mechanisms that simple visual tasks cannot. Therefore, by superimposing binocular rivalry-state tasks onto simple visual tasks, we have developed an innovative vision screening program to rapidly and extensively assess students' visual performance in complex environments. This is a cross-sectional study in which we investigated the performance of 1126 grade 1-6 students from a primary school in Wuxi, China, in rivalry-state stereoscopic vision tasks. The correlation between the screening results of 1044 students and their academic achievements was also statistically analyzed. The study results revealed pass rates of 53.5-60.5% across various visual tests. Specifically, for first-grade students, there was a statistically significant difference in standardized Chinese scores between the group that failed and the group that passed the rivalry-state stereoscopic vision test (- 0.49 ± 3.42 vs. 0.22 ± 0.58, t = - 2.081, P = 0.04). This result underscores the importance of focusing on the visual adaptability of first graders in complex environments.Trail registration: Ethics Committee of Affiliated Children's Hospital of Jiangnan University-Certificate number: WXCH2022-04-027.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Estudantes , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Visão Binocular/fisiologia
20.
J Vis ; 24(2): 1, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300556

RESUMO

The intricate interrelationships between visual acuity (VA) and stereopsis depend on an array of factors, incorporating the nature of vision impairment, its manifestation (monocular versus binocular), and the classification of stereopsis test symbols used. The objectives of this study were to methodically dissect these multifaceted interactions by simulating a diverse range of vision loss conditions. Thirty medical students with normal vision were subjected to simulated vision loss through opacification and blurring methodologies. Stereopsis was assessed at a distance using both contour-based and random-dot-based symbols under equal binocular and varied monocular VA conditions. In this study, opacification consistently affected stereopsis more than blurring at equivalent VA reductions. However, this difference was absent in contour-based symbols under binocular vision impairment conditions. Significant differences in stereopsis emerged between monocular and binocular vision within the opacification contour-based groups. These differences were less evident in the opacification and blurring groups using random-dot-based patterns. In terms of symbols, the contour-based test demonstrated superior results to the random-dot-based test, particularly under decreased VA. In sum, the method of VA reduction and the choice of stereogram significantly impact distance stereopsis outcomes. This understanding can guide clinical assessments of stereopsis in individuals with varying visual impairments.


Assuntos
Baixa Visão , Humanos , Percepção de Profundidade , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
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