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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100505], jul.-sept2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231869

RESUMO

Purpose: This study explored whether retinoscopy (RET) provides comparable results of relative peripheral refraction (RPR) to open–field autorefractometry (AR) in myopic subjects.Methods: Peripheral refraction was measured in 20 myopic and 20 control adult subjects. Both central and peripheral refraction (20° nasal and temporal eccentricity) were measured using RET and open-field AR. Differences in the median central spherical equivalent (SE), median RPR, and median J45/J180 power vectors between the RET and AR techniques were analyzed. Moreover, Bland – Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between RET and AR methods for RPR measurements in MG. Results: For MG, the median RPR values were positive (hyperopic shift), and no significant differences were observed between the RET and AR techniques with respect to RPR measurement. In addition, we did not observe any significant differences in the RPR values between the nasal and temporal eccentricities for either the RET or AR technique for myopic subjects. There was also a significant correlation and agreement between the RET and AR technique for RPR measurements. With respect to central refraction, the median SE was slightly more positive for the RET than for the AR technique. Inside the CG, we also found significant correlation between the RET and AR technique for RPR measurements, and we observed a myopic shift in peripheral eccentricities. Conclusion: Our results show that retinoscopy may be a useful tool for objective measurements of RPR in myopic subjects and may be used interchangeably with the open-field AR method in everyday clinical practice. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Retinoscopia , Miopia , Refração Ocular , Visão Ocular , Visão Binocular , Oftalmologistas
2.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100497], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231871

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the eye defocus curves (DCs) obtained with stimuli on red, green, and white backgrounds and to investigate the applicability of the duochrome test (DT) in different age groups. Methods: 12 elderly (ELD: 59.3 ± 3.9 years) and 8 young (YG: 22.1 ± 1.1 years) subjects were recruited. An optometric assessment with the DT was carried out to obtain the subjective refraction at distance. DCs at distance on green, white, and red backgrounds were measured and the following parameters were deduced: dioptric difference between red-green, green-white, red-white focal positions (minima of the DCs), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and widths of the DCs for red, green, and white. Results: The DC difference between the green-white focal positions (mean ± standard deviation) was -0.12±0.17 diopters (D) (ELD, p = 0.012) and -0.11±0.12 D (YG, p = 0.039), while the red-white difference was not statistically significant. The DC red-green difference was 0.20±0.16 D (ELD, p = 0.002) and 0.18±0.18 D (YG, p = 0.008). The ELD BCVA with green background was significantly worse than BCVA with red (p = 0.007) and white (p = 0.007). The mean value of the DC's width in ELD for green (1.01±0.36 D) was higher than for red (0.77±0.21 D) and for white (0.84±0.35 D), but with no statistical significance. Conclusion: Both age groups showed a slight focusing preference for red when using white light. Moreover, ELD showed a worse BCVA with a green compared to a red background. Despite these results deduced by DC analyses, these aspects do not compromise the possibility of using the DT in clinical practice both in the young and in the elderly. Furthermore, the difference of about 0.20 D between red-green DC in both groups confirms the clinical appropriateness of the widespread use of 0.25 D step as the standard minimum difference in power between correcting lenses.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Visão Ocular , Acuidade Visual , Fundo de Olho , Lentes de Contato , Testes Visuais
3.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100510], jul.-sept2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231872

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the association between visual symptoms and use of digital devices considering the presence of visual dysfunctions. Methods: An optometric examination was conducted in a clinical sample of 346 patients to diagnose any type of visual anomaly. Visual symptoms were collected using the validated SQVD questionnaire. A threshold of 6 hours per day was used to quantify the effects of digital device usage and patients were divided into two groups: under and above of 35 years old. A multivariate logistic regression was employed to investigate the association between digital device use and symptoms, with visual dysfunctions considered as a confounding variable. Crude and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated for each variable. Results: 57.02 % of the subjects reported visual symptoms, and 65.02% exhibited some form of visual dysfunction. For patients under 35 years old, an association was found between having visual symptoms and digital device use (OR = 2.10, p = 0.01). However, after adjusting for visual dysfunctions, this association disappeared (OR = 1.44, p = 0.27) and the association was instead between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 6.52, p < 0.001), accommodative (OR = 10.47, p < 0.001), binocular (OR = 6.68, p < 0.001) and accommodative plus binocular dysfunctions (OR = 46.84, p < 0.001). Among patients over 35 years old, no association was found between symptoms and the use of digital devices (OR = 1.27, p = 0.49) but there was an association between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 3.54, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Visual symptoms are not dependent on the duration of digital device use but rather on the presence of any type of visual dysfunction: refractive, accommodative and/or binocular one, which should be diagnosed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais , Campos Visuais , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Visão Binocular , Inquéritos e Questionários , Optometria
4.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100491], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231873

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The invention described herein is a prototype based on computer vision technology that measures depth perception and is intended for the early examination of stereopsis. Materials and methods: The prototype (software and hardware) is a depth perception measurement system that consists on: (a) a screen showing stereoscopic models with a guide point that the subject must point to; (b) a camera capturing the distance between the screen and the subject's finger; and (c) a unit for recording, processing and storing the captured measurements. For test validation, the reproducibility and reliability of the platform were calculated by comparing results with standard stereoscopic tests. A demographic study of depth perception by subgroup analysis is shown. Subjective comparison of the different tests was carried out by means of a satisfaction survey. Results: We included 94 subjects, 25 children and 69 adults, with a mean age of 34.2 ± 18.9 years; 36.2 % were men and 63.8 % were women. The DALE3D platform obtained good repeatability with an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.94 and 0.87, and coefficient of variation (CV) between 0.1 and 0.26. Threshold determining optimal and suboptimal results was calculated for Randot and DALE3D test. Spearman's correlation coefficient, between thresholds was not statistically significant (p value > 0.05). The test was considered more visually appealing and easier to use by the participants (90 % maximum score). Conclusions: The DALE3D platform is a potentially useful tool for measuring depth perception with optimal reproducibility rates. Its innovative design makes it a more intuitive tool for children than current stereoscopic tests. Nevertheless, further studies will be needed to assess whether the depth perception measured by the DALE3D platform is a sufficiently reliable parameter to assess stereopsis.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Visão Binocular , Percepção de Profundidade , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais
5.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100508], jul.-sept2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231874

RESUMO

Purpose: To report the visual and refractive characteristics and the prevalence of amblyopia in patients with different types of Duane's Retraction Syndrome (DRS). Method: This retrospective study was performed on hospital records of 582 DRS patients at Farabi Hospital, Iran, from 2012 to March 2022. Results: The mean age of patients was 19.4 ± 11.9 (range, 3–70) years [335 (57.6 %) females and 247 (42.4 %) males (P < .001)]. DRS type I, II, III, and IV were presented in 347 (59.6 %), 148 (25.4 %), 82 (14.1 %), and 5 (0.9 %) patients, respectively. There were 530 (91.1 %) patients with unilateral and 52 (8.9 %) with bilateral involvement. In the unilateral patients, the DRS eyes' corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and astigmatism were significantly worse than the Non-DRS Eyes (P < .001). The mean amount of all refractive and visual parameters in bilateral patients' right or left eyes was significantly lower than in unilateral patients' non-DRS eyes (all P < .05). Anisometropia was observed in 75(12.9 %) of the patients. Amblyopia was observed in 18.5 % (98 patients) and 36.5 % (19 patients) of unilateral and bilateral DRS patients, respectively (P < .001). In unilateral patients, amblyopia was found in 57 (16.4 %) patients with Type I, 22 (14.9 %) patients with Type II, 16 (19.5 %) patients with Type III, and 3 (60 %) patients with Type IV. Forty-four (37.6 %) of patients with amblyopia had anisometropia. Conclusion: This large-scale study indicates that DRS types differ in terms of refractive error, visual acuity, and the prevalence of amblyopia and anisometropia. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical features associated with different types of DRS.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Visão Ocular , Ambliopia , Síndrome da Retração Ocular , Erros de Refração , Anisometropia
6.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100512], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231875

RESUMO

Purpose: In children under 20 years, refractive development targets a cycloplegic refractive error of +0.5 to +1.5D, while presbyopes over 40 years generally have non-cycloplegic errors of ≥ +1D. Some papers suggest these periods are separated by a period of myopic refractive error (i.e., ≤ –0.50D), but this remains unclear. Hence, this work investigates the mean cycloplegic refractive error in adults aged between 20 – 40 years. Methods: In 2002 a cross-sectional study with stratified cluster sampling was performed on the population of Tehran, providing cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error data for the right eyes of 3,576 participants, aged 30.6 ± 18.6 years (range: 1–86 years). After grouping these data into age groups of 5 years, the refractive error histogram of each group was fitted to a Bigaussian function. The mean of the central, emmetropized peak was used to estimate the mean refractive error without the influence of myopia. Results: The mean cycloplegic refractive error at the emmetropized peak decreased from +1.10 ± 0.11D (95 % confidence interval) to +0.50 ± 0.04D before 20 years and remains stable at that value until the age of 50 years. The non-cycloplegic refractive error also sees a stable phase at 0.00 ± 0.04D between 15 – 45 years. After 45 – 50 years both cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error become more hypermetropic over time, +1.14 ± 0.12D at 75 years. Conclusions: The cycloplegic refractive error in adults is about +0.50D between 20 – 50 years, disproving the existence of the myopic period at those ages.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais , Erros de Refração , Emetropia , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico)
10.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100485], Abr-Jun, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231620

RESUMO

Purpose: To study topographic epithelial and total corneal thickness changes in myopic subjects undergoing successful orthokeratology treatment in connection with the objective assessment of contact lens decentration. Methods: A prospective-observational and non-randomized study in 32 Caucasian myopic eyes undergoing Ortho-k for 3 months. Total, epithelial, and stromal thicknesses were studied before and after Ortho-k treatment, using optical coherence tomography with anterior segment application software. Central, paracentral, and mid-peripheral values are taken along 8 semi-meridians. Results: The central average total corneal thickness was 4.72 ± 1.04 μm thinner after Ortho-K. The paracentral corneal thickness showed no significant changes (p = 0.137), while the mid-peripheral corneal thickness was increased by 3.25 ± 1.6 μm associating this increase exclusively to the epithelial plot (p<0.001). When lens centration was assessed, a lens fitting decentration less than 1.0 mm was found for the whole sample, predominantly horizontal-temporal (87.5%) and vertical-inferior (50%) decentring. Corneal topographical analysis revealed a horizontal and vertical epithelial thickness asymmetric change profile with paracentral temporal thinnest values, and mid-peripheral nasal thickest values. Conclusions: The present study found a central corneal thinning induced by Ortho-k lenses in subjects with moderate myopia, only associated with a change in epithelial thickness, as well as mid-peripheral thickening, that seems to be mainly epithelial in origin. The authors also found a tendency of contact lens decentration toward temporal and inferior areas conditioning an asymmetric epithelial redistribution pattern.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Visão Ocular , Miopia , Cristalino , Procedimentos Ortoceratológicos , Substância Própria , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Optometria , Oftalmologia , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100492], Abr-Jun, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231621

RESUMO

Purpose: Given the increase in demand for optometry services by society and the importance of the Optometry profession in Portugal and Spain, the objective of this study was to determine job satisfaction and important factors related to this satisfaction in a sample of Portuguese and Spanish optometrists. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study was carried out from June to December 2021. An adaptation of the 15-item job satisfaction in eye-care personnel (JSEP) questionnaire validated by Paudel et al. was administered to Portuguese and Spanish optometrists. The questionnaire was shared through different social media (Facebook, LinkedIn, WhatsApp, etc.) in a Google form during the months of June to December 2021 in Portugal and Spain. Results: A total of 530 surveys were collected in Portugal (42.3%; n = 224) and Spain (57.7%; n = 306). The factors that most influence overall job satisfaction are salary, career development opportunities, recognition/prestige in society, good work-life balance (all p<0.001), workplace equipment and facilities, and encouragement reward positive feedback (both p = 0.002). When comparing the determinants of job satisfaction of optometrists, it was found that Portuguese professionals were generally more satisfied than Spanish ones (p<0.001). However, Spanish optometrists reported feeling more supported by their colleagues (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study has shown that the level of job satisfaction was higher in Portugal than in Spain. The most important factors influencing job satisfaction were salary, job stability, and support from colleagues.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Satisfação no Emprego , Visão Ocular , Optometristas , Optometria , Espanha , Portugal , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100489], Abr-Jun, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231622

RESUMO

Purpose: The impact of visual outcomes of cataract surgery can be measured using a questionnaire. The aim of our study was to evaluate how patient quality of life changes after cataract surgery and if there are differences between the responses of patients with nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataracts, which has not been studied before. Method: We studied 210 cataract patients who were divided into 3 cataract groups based on their cataract type: nuclear (n = 80), cortical (n = 70), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) (n = 60). The patients completed the Visual Function Index (VF-14) questionnaire before, 2 weeks and 1 month after bilateral cataract surgery. The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA (significance level 5 %) and were compared over time and between the cataract groups. Results: Before the cataract surgery, cortical cataract patients had the lowest questionnaire score compared to nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract groups (p = 0.08). After cataract surgery, cortical cataract patients experienced the greatest improvement in near distance daily activities, while PSC cataract patients experienced the greatest improvement in far distance daily activities (p = 0.38). Before surgery, nuclear cataract patients had the highest questionnaire scores compared to the other cataract groups (p = 0.08). Conclusion: At the 1 month follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences in questionnaire scores between the cataract groups for any of the questions. Overall, cortical cataract patients showed a trend to experience the greatest subjective improvement in quality of life after cataract removal, followed by nuclear and posterior subcapsular patients.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Catarata/reabilitação , Extração de Catarata , Visão Ocular , Qualidade de Vida , Catarata/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Optometria
13.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100488], Abr-Jun, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231623

RESUMO

Purpose: As ocular dryness and glaucoma are more prevalent with increasing age, understanding how the tear film affects tonometry is important. The present study aims to understand the impact that changes in the tear film have on intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal hysteresis, and corneal resistance factor measurements. Methods: Cross-sectional research was conducted and 37 patients were assessed. The tear film lipid layer and the non-invasive break-up time (NIBUT) were evaluated using the Tearscope Plus (Keeler, Windsor, UK). Dry eye symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. IOP was measured using rebound tonometry and the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, Reichert). Corneal biomechanical properties were measured using ORA. Results: It was found that an increase in the IOP measured with the iCare was directly correlated with the subclass that evaluated symptomatology associated with environmental factors (r = 0.414, p<0.05, Spearman). Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg) and Corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) values were statistically significantly different between the various interferometric patterns (p<0.05). It was also found that an increase in the corneal biomechanical properties measured with ORA was directly correlated with the overall scores obtained when using the OSDI and some of its subclasses. Conclusions: Tear film interferometric patterns were shown to have some impact on the IOP measured using ORA. The IOP measured with iCare seems to be related to the symptomatology obtained from OSDI. Corneal biomechanical properties were related to the OSDI total score and some of its subclasses. An increase in symptomatology was associated with an increase in the measured biomechanical properties of the cornea.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Optometria , Aparelho Lacrimal , Visão Ocular , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Glaucoma , Pressão Intraocular
14.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100500], Abr-Jun, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231624

RESUMO

Purpose: Visual snow syndrome (VSS) is a complex neurological condition presenting with an array of sensory, motor, and perceptual dysfunctions and related visual and non-visual symptoms. Recent laboratory studies have found subtle, basic, saccadic-based abnormalities in this population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine if saccadic-related problems could be confirmed and extended using three common clinical reading-related eye movement tests having well-developed protocols and normative databases. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 32 patients (ages 16–56 years) diagnosed with VSS in the first author's optometric practice. There was a battery of three reading-related tests: the Visagraph Reading Eye Movement Test, the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test, and the RightEye Dynamic Vision Assessment Test, all performed using their standard documented protocols and large normative databases. Results: A high frequency of oculomotor deficits was found with all three tests. The greatest percentage was revealed with the Visagraph (56%) and the least with the RightEye (23%). A total of 77% of patients failed at least one of the three tests. Conclusion: The present findings confirm and extend earlier investigations revealing a high frequency of saccadic-based oculomotor problems in the VSS population, now including reading-related tasks. This is consistent with the more general oculomotor/motor problems found in these individuals.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Visão Ocular , Oftalmoplegia , Optometria , Movimentos Oculares
15.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100502], Abr-Jun, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231625

RESUMO

Background: Silicone oil is used as endotamponade following vitreoretinal surgery to maintain the retina reattached when indicated. This study investigates the hypothesis that silicone oil causes insulation effects on the retina by affecting its response to light. Methods: Electrophysiological responses to a flash stimulus were recorded using full-field electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Recordings were performed in 9 patients who underwent surgery for retinal detachment, before (1–2 days) and after (2–3 weeks) silicone oil removal (SOR) in both the study and the control eye. Flash ERG and VEP recordings were performed according to the ISCEV standard protocol. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the study eye in the amplitudes of the ERG responses and their corresponding ratios, i.e. the amplitude after SOR over the amplitude before SOR, in all conditions tested. No differences were observed in the control eye. The mean ratio of photopic ERG response was 3.4 ± 2.4 for the study and 1.0 ± 0.3 for the control eye (p<0.001). The mean ratio of ERG flicker response was 3.1 ± 2.4 and 1.0 ± 0.3, respectively (p = 0.003). Scotopic flash ERG ratio was 5.0 ± 4.4 for the study and 1.3 ± 0.6 for the control eye (p = 0.012). No differences were observed for the amplitude and latency of flash VEP response after SOR. Conclusions: Silicone oil causes a reduction in flash ERG responses; no effect was found on flash VEP responses. ERGs in eyes filled with silicone oil should not be considered representative of retinal functionality, in contrast to VEPs, which are not affected by silicone oil presence.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Óleos de Silicone/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Silicone/efeitos adversos , Eletrorretinografia , Cirurgia Vitreorretiniana , Optometria , Visão Ocular , Retina/cirurgia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2310291121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564641

RESUMO

Humans blink their eyes frequently during normal viewing, more often than it seems necessary for keeping the cornea well lubricated. Since the closure of the eyelid disrupts the image on the retina, eye blinks are commonly assumed to be detrimental to visual processing. However, blinks also provide luminance transients rich in spatial information to neural pathways highly sensitive to temporal changes. Here, we report that the luminance modulations from blinks enhance visual sensitivity. By coupling high-resolution eye tracking in human observers with modeling of blink transients and spectral analysis of visual input signals, we show that blinking increases the power of retinal stimulation and that this effect significantly enhances visibility despite the time lost in exposure to the external scene. We further show that, as predicted from the spectral content of input signals, this enhancement is selective for stimuli at low spatial frequencies and occurs irrespective of whether the luminance transients are actively generated or passively experienced. These findings indicate that, like eye movements, blinking acts as a computational component of a visual processing strategy that uses motor behavior to reformat spatial information into the temporal domain.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Visão Ocular
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3086, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600063

RESUMO

Bioinspired bionic eyes should be self-driving, repairable and conformal to arbitrary geometries. Such eye would enable wide-field detection and efficient visual signal processing without requiring external energy, along with retinal transplantation by replacing dysfunctional photoreceptors with healthy ones for vision restoration. A variety of artificial eyes have been constructed with hemispherical silicon, perovskite and heterostructure photoreceptors, but creating zero-powered retinomorphic system with transplantable conformal features remains elusive. By combining neuromorphic principle with retinal and ionoelastomer engineering, we demonstrate a self-driven hemispherical retinomorphic eye with elastomeric retina made of ionogel heterojunction as photoreceptors. The receptor driven by photothermoelectric effect shows photoperception with broadband light detection (365 to 970 nm), wide field-of-view (180°) and photosynaptic (paired-pulse facilitation index, 153%) behaviors for biosimilar visual learning. The retinal photoreceptors are transplantable and conformal to any complex surface, enabling visual restoration for dynamic optical imaging and motion tracking.


Assuntos
Próteses Visuais , Biônica , Retina , Visão Ocular , Percepção Visual
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296115, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568883

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Presbyopia, the leading cause of vision impairment globally, is common during working years. However, no trials have assessed presbyopia's impact on income. METHODS: In April 2017, we conducted a census among 59 Bangladesh villages to identify persons aged 35 to 65 years with presbyopia (presenting distance vision > = 6/12 bilaterally and correctable inability to see 6/13 at 40 cm with both eyes), who never had owned glasses. Participants were randomized (1:1) to receive immediate free reading glasses (intervention) or glasses delivered 8 months later (control). Visual demand of different jobs was stratified into three levels. Outcomes were between-group differences in the 8 month change in: self-reported monthly income (primary) and Near Vision Related Quality of Life (NVRQOL, secondary). RESULTS: Among 10,884 census participants, 3,655 (33.6%) met vision criteria and 863 (23.6%) comprised a sample enriched for near vision-intensive jobs, but 39 (4.52%) could not be reached. All participants allocated to intervention (n = 423, 51.3%) and control (n = 401, 48.7%) received the appropriate intervention, and follow-up was available for 93.4% and 96.8% respectively. Groups were similar at baseline in all characteristics: mean age was 47 years, 50% were male, 35% literate, and about half engaged in "most near vision-intensive" occupations. Glasses wear at 8-month follow-up was 88.3% and 7.81% in intervention and control respectively. At baseline, both the intervention and control groups had a self-reported median monthly income of US$35.3. At endline, the median income for the intervention group was US$47.1 compared with US$35.3 for control, a difference of 33.4%. Predictors of greater income increase in multivariate models included intervention group allocation (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.12, 1.88, P = 0.005), male sex (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.84, 3.16, P <0.001), and not engaging in income-producing work at baseline (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.69, 3.26, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Provision of reading glasses increases income in near vision-intensive occupations, and may facilitate return to work for those currently unemployed.


Assuntos
Miopia , Presbiopia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Bangladesh , Visão Ocular
19.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 41, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested that cavefish populations of Astyanax mexicanus settled during the Late Pleistocene. This implies that the cavefish's most conspicuous phenotypic changes, blindness and depigmentation, and more cryptic characters important for cave life, evolved rapidly. RESULTS: Using the published genomes of 47 Astyanax cavefish from la Cueva de El Pachón, El Sótano de la Tinaja, La Cueva Chica and El Sótano de Molino, we searched for putative loss-of-function mutations in previously defined sets of genes, i.e., vision, circadian clock and pigmentation genes. Putative non-functional alleles for four vision genes were identified. Then, we searched genome-wide for putative non-functional alleles in these four cave populations. Among 512 genes with segregating putative non-functional alleles in cavefish that are absent in surface fish, we found an enrichment in visual perception genes. Among cavefish populations, different levels of shared putative non-functional alleles were found. Using a subset of 12 genes for which putative loss-of-function mutations were found, we extend the analysis of shared pseudogenes to 11 cave populations. Using a subset of six genes for which putative loss-of-function mutations were found in the El Sótano del Toro population, where extensive hybridization with surface fish occurs, we found a correlation between the level of eye regression and the amount of putative non-functional alleles. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that very few putative non-functional alleles are present in a large set of vision genes, in accordance with the recent origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish. Furthermore, the genome-wide analysis indicates an enrichment of putative loss-of-function alleles in genes with vision-related GO-terms, suggesting that visual perception may be the function chiefly impacted by gene losses related to the shift from a surface to a cave environment. The geographic distribution of putative loss-of-function alleles newly suggests that cave populations from Sierra de Guatemala and Sierra de El Abra share a common origin, albeit followed by independent evolution for a long period. It also supports that populations from the Micos area have an independent origin. In El Sótano del Toro, the troglomorphic phenotype is maintained despite massive introgression of the surface genome.


Assuntos
Characidae , Animais , Alelos , Characidae/genética , Mutação , Cegueira/genética , Visão Ocular
20.
Curr Biol ; 34(7): R269-R270, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593767

RESUMO

High-resolution object vision - the ability to separate, classify, and interact with specific objects in the environment against the visual background - has only been conclusively shown to have evolved in three of the thirty-five animal phyla: chordates, arthropods, and mollusks (cephalopods)1. However, alciopid polychaetes (Phyllodocidae, Alciopini), which possess a pair of bulbous camera-type eyes, have also been hypothesized to achieve high acuity. In this study, we examined three species of night-active pelagic alciopids from the Mediterranean Sea. Our optical, morphological, and electrophysiological investigations show that their eyes have high spatial acuity and temporal resolution, supporting the notion that they are capable of active, high-resolution object vision. These results encourage interesting hypotheses about the visual ecology of these enigmatic polychaetes.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Visão Ocular , Animais , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Moluscos , Ecologia
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