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1.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 171, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the dynamic viscosity of the lacrimal sac wall in patients with various origins of lacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: The study was performed in 35 cases: 21 cases with primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) and 14 cases with secondary nasolacrimal duct obstruction after radioiodine therapy (SALDO). The study of biomechanical properties of the lacrimal sac was carried out using a test bench. The principle of the study was to indent the sample at a given speed and record the data obtained from the sensor of the force transmitted to the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) and the peak viscosity were calculated. A qualitative characteristic of the obtained curve was given. RESULTS: Median AUC in patients with PANDO was 17 × 106 [6 × 106; 19 × 106] N/m2 × s, in patients with SALDO 21 × 106 [13 × 106; 25 × 106] N/m2 × s. Intergroup differences were statistically significant (p = 0,048). The median peak viscosity in PANDO patients was 29 × 106 [25 × 106; 35 × 106] N/m2, in patients with SALDO 32 × 106 [21 × 106; 41 × 106] N/m2. The qualitative characteristics of the obtained curves differed. CONCLUSION: Biomechanical properties of the lacrimal sac may vary depending on the cause of obliteration of the lacrimal ducts. The integrated dynamic viscosity is significantly higher in SALDO patients due to exposure to radioiodine compared to that in PANDO patients.


Assuntos
Aparelho Lacrimal , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais , Ducto Nasolacrimal , Humanos , Obstrução dos Ductos Lacrimais/diagnóstico , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Viscosidade
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1302: 342506, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitophagy plays indispensable roles in maintaining intracellular homeostasis in most eukaryotic cells by selectively eliminating superfluous components or damaged organelles. Thus, the co-operation of mitochondrial probes and lysosomal probes was presented to directly monitor mitophagy in dual colors. Nowadays, most of the lysosomal probes are composed of groups sensitive to pH, such as morpholine, amine and other weak bases. However, the pH in lysosomes would fluctuate in the process of mitophagy, leading to the optical interference. Thus, it is crucial to develop a pH-insensitive probe to overcome this tough problem to achieve exquisite visualization of mitophagy. RESULTS: In this study, we rationally prepared a pH-independent lysosome probe to reduce the optical interference in mitophagy, and thus the process of mitophagy could be directly monitored in dual color through cooperation between IVDI and MTR, depending on Förster resonance energy transfer mechanism. IVDI shows remarkable fluorescence enhancement toward the increase of viscosity, and the fluorescence barely changes when pH varies. Due to the sensitivity to viscosity, the probe can visualize micro-viscosity alterations in lysosomes without washing procedures, and it showed better imaging properties than LTR. Thanks to the inertia of IVDI to pH, IVDI can exquisitely monitor mitophagy with MTR by FRET mechanism despite the changes of lysosomal pH in mitophagy, and the reduced fluorescence intensity ratio of green and red channels can indicate the occurrence of mitophagy. Based on the properties mentioned above, the real-time increase of micro-viscosity in lysosomes during mitophagy was exquisitely monitored through employing IVDI. SIGNIFICANCE AND NOVELTY: Compared with the lysosomal fluorescent probes sensitive to pH, the pH-inert probe could reduce the influence of pH variation during mitophagy to achieve exquisite visualization of mitophagy in real-time. Besides, the probe could monitor the increase of lysosomal micro-viscosity in mitophagy. So, the probe possesses tremendous potential in the visualization of dynamic changes related to lysosomes in various physiological processes.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Mitofagia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Viscosidade , Células HeLa , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Lisossomos/química
3.
J Texture Stud ; 55(2): e12829, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581147

RESUMO

Tribology is the science of measuring friction between surfaces. While it has been widely used to investigate texture sensations of food applications, it is seldom applied in pure edible oil systems. In this research, we measured friction, viscosity, and solid fat content (SFC) of nine vegetable oils at 30 and 60°C. Polarized static microscopy was used to assess crystal formation between 60 and 30°C. Descriptive sensory analysis and quantification of oral oil coatings were performed on the oils at 60°C. Expressing the friction factor of oil over the Hersey number (calculated using high sheer-viscosity values) showed no differences in friction between 30 and 60°C, except for shea stearin. Static microscopy revealed crystallization occurred at 30°C for shea stearin, whereas no or few crystals were present for other oils. At 30°C, friction at 1 × 10-2 m/s showed an inverse correlation with SFC (R = -0.95) and with high shear rate viscosity (R = -0.84), as well as an inverse correlation (R = -0.73) with "oily mouthcoating" perception. These results suggest that friction could be a predictor of fat-related perceptions of simple oil systems. Additionally, we hypothesize that the presence of crystals in oils could lower friction via a ball-bearing lubrication mechanism.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Óleos de Plantas , Lubrificação , Viscosidade , Percepção
4.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474877

RESUMO

In this study, the roles of kiwifruit soluble/insoluble dietary fiber (SDF/IDF, respectively) in the pasting characteristics and in vitro digestibility of wheat starch were explored. According to RVA and rheological tests, the IDF enhanced the wheat starch viscosity, decreased the gelatinization degree of the starch granules, and exacerbated starch retrogradation. The addition of SDF in high quantities could reduce the starch gelatinization level, lower the system viscosity, and exacerbate starch retrogradation. Through determining the leached amylose content and conducing scanning electron microscopy, the IDF and SDF added in high quantities was combined with the leached amylose wrapped around the starch granules, which reduced the leached amylose content and decreased the gelatinization degree of the starch granules. The Fourier transform infrared results showed that the addition of both the IDF and SDF resulted in an enhancement in hydrogen bonding formed by the hydroxyl groups of the system. The in vitro digestion results strongly suggested that both the IDF and SDF reduced the wheat starch digestibility. The above findings are instructive for the application of both IDF and SDF in starchy functional foods.


Assuntos
Amilose , Amido , Triticum , Fibras na Dieta , Viscosidade
5.
Am J Dent ; 37(1): 53-56, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate flow profile and non-Newtonian behavior of 10 different silicone lining materials. METHODS: Ten commercially available silicone lining materials were selected for evaluation. The flow profile and non-Newtonian behavior of each material was measured using a shark fin testing method. Fin height and resultant base thickness were measured with a digital caliper and compared with one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test and fin base by Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA on ranks with Dunn post hoc test with significance at P< 0.05 for both. RESULTS: Shark fin heights ranged from 9.62 ± 0.86 mm [Reline II (Soft)] to 25.54 ± 0.43 mm [Sofreliner (Medium)]. Shark fin bases ranged from 2.57 ± 0.51 mm [Sofreliner (Medium)] to 10.31 ± 0.57 mm [Reline II (Soft)]. Statistically significant differences were found between certain samples' shark fin heights as well as resultant bases (P< 0.05) indicating different rheological properties. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Silicone liner materials differ significantly with respect to flow profile and non-Newtonian behavior. While a high flow profile (low viscosity) of an elastomeric impression material improves accuracy, it may be a detriment to a denture lining material that must achieve a critical minimum thickness to provide resilience. Likewise, a low flow profile (high viscosity) material may also pose a disadvantage, requiring excessive compression and possible tissue distortion to achieve the same critical thickness. The results of this study should be considered when selecting the appropriate material for clinical application. Additional studies are indicated to further quantify rheological properties as well as correlate them to physical properties after the complete cure of the material.


Assuntos
Reembasadores de Dentadura , Silicones , Humanos , Viscosidade , Teste de Materiais , Bases de Dentadura , Elastômeros de Silicone , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299296, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452005

RESUMO

Stressed soft materials commonly present viscoelastic signatures in the form of power-law or exponential decay. Although exponential responses are the most common, power-law time dependencies arise peculiarly in complex soft materials such as living cells. Understanding the microscale mechanisms that drive rheologic behaviors at the macroscale shall be transformative in fields such as material design and bioengineering. Using an elastic network model of macromolecules immersed in a viscous fluid, we numerically reproduce those characteristic viscoelastic relaxations and show how the microscopic interactions determine the rheologic response. The macromolecules, represented by particles in the network, interact with neighbors through a spring constant k and with fluid through a non-linear drag regime. The dissipative force is given by γvα, where v is the particle's velocity, and γ and α are mesoscopic parameters. Physically, the sublinear regime of the drag forces is related to micro-deformations of the macromolecules, while α ≥ 1 represents rigid cases. We obtain exponential or power-law relaxations or a transitional behavior between them by changing k, γ, and α. We find that exponential decays are indeed the most common behavior. However, power laws may arise when forces between the macromolecules and the fluid are sublinear. Our findings show that in materials not too soft not too elastic, the rheological responses are entirely controlled by α in the sublinear regime. More specifically, power-law responses arise for 0.3 ⪅ α ⪅ 0.45, while exponential responses for small and large values of α, namely, 0.0 ⪅ α ⪅ 0.2 and 0.55 ⪅ α ⪅ 1.0.


Assuntos
Engenharia Biomédica , Viscosidade , Reologia
7.
MAbs ; 16(1): 2303781, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475982

RESUMO

Early identification of antibody candidates with drug-like properties is essential for simplifying the development of safe and effective antibody therapeutics. For subcutaneous administration, it is important to identify candidates with low self-association to enable their formulation at high concentration while maintaining low viscosity, opalescence, and aggregation. Here, we report an interpretable machine learning model for predicting antibody (IgG1) variants with low viscosity using only the sequences of their variable (Fv) regions. Our model was trained on antibody viscosity data (>100 mg/mL mAb concentration) obtained at a common formulation pH (pH 5.2), and it identifies three key Fv features of antibodies linked to viscosity, namely their isoelectric points, hydrophobic patch sizes, and numbers of negatively charged patches. Of the three features, most predicted antibodies at risk for high viscosity, including antibodies with diverse antibody germlines in our study (79 mAbs) as well as clinical-stage IgG1s (94 mAbs), are those with low Fv isoelectric points (Fv pIs < 6.3). Our model identifies viscous antibodies with relatively high accuracy not only in our training and test sets, but also for previously reported data. Importantly, we show that the interpretable nature of the model enables the design of mutations that significantly reduce antibody viscosity, which we confirmed experimentally. We expect that this approach can be readily integrated into the drug development process to reduce the need for experimental viscosity screening and improve the identification of antibody candidates with drug-like properties.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Viscosidade , Imunoglobulina G/química , Mutação , Ponto Isoelétrico
8.
Anal Chem ; 96(11): 4570-4579, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441542

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, as a new form of regulated cell death, is implicated in various physiological and pathological processes. Developing a single probe for an independent analysis of multiple analytes related to ferroptosis can provide more accurate information and simplify the detection procedures, but it faces great challenges. In this work, we develop a fluorescent probe for the simultaneous detection of GSH through ratiometric fluorescence response and microviscosity via a fluorescence lifetime model. Based on the reversible Michael addition reaction between GSH and unsaturated C═C bond, the probe responds reversibly to GSH with a ratiometric fluorescence variation and a fast response time (t1/2 = 4.7 s). At the same time, the probe is sensitive to environmental viscosity by changing its fluorescence lifetimes. The probe was applied to monitor the drug-induced ferroptosis process through both the classical Xc-/GSH/GPX4- and DHODH-mediated defense mechanisms. We hope that the probe will provide a useful molecular tool for the real-time live-cell imaging of GSH dynamics, which is benefit to unveiling related physiological and pathological processes.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Viscosidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Óptica , Glutationa/análise
9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1299: 342422, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferroptosis, as a novel form of cell death, is becoming one of the hot topics in cancer treatment research. It differs from necrosis and autophagy in that it involves the accumulation of lipid peroxides and is triggered by iron dependency. Recent studies have suggested that this mechanism may alter the viscosity or structure of lipid droplets (LDs). The relationship between LDs viscosity and ferroptosis remains an active area of research with limited reports at present. Additionally, there is a lack of effective anticancer drugs targeting the ferroptosis pathway to promote ferroptosis in tumour cells. Therefore, the development of tools to detect viscosity changes during ferroptosis and targeted therapeutic strategies is of great significance. RESULTS: By coupling 1,3-indandione with naphthalimide, including decamethylamine as a LDs recognition group, we designed and synthesized an environmental fluorescent probe that induces intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) effects. Notably, the diffusion and transport of intracellular substances may be affected in highly viscous environments. Under such conditions, intracellular iron ions may accumulate, leading to peroxide production and cellular damage, which can trigger ferroptosis. Therefore, WD-1 achieved excellent in situ bioimaging of LDs targeting and its viscosity during ferroptosis in HeLa cells and zebrafish. Furthermore, it was observed that WD-1 effectively differentiated between malignant and normal cells during this process, highlighting its potential significance in distinguishing cellular states. In addition, we used the antitumour drug paclitaxel to study ferroptosis in cancer cells. These findings not only provide an excellent tool for the development of the ferroptosis response, but also are crucial for understanding the biological properties of LDs during the ferroptosis response. SIGNIFICANCE AND NOVELTY: Based on a powerful tool of fluorescent probe with in vivo bioimaging, we developed WD-1 to track the impact of paclitaxel on the process of ferroptosis in living cells. Therefore, we preliminarily believe that paclitaxel may affect the occurrence of ferroptosis and control apoptosis in cancer cells. These findings not only serve as an exceptional tool for advancing our understanding of the ferroptosis response, but furthermore play a vital role in comprehending the biological characteristics of LDs in relation to ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Gotículas Lipídicas , Humanos , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes , Células HeLa , Viscosidade , Peixe-Zebra , Ferro , Paclitaxel/farmacologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2149, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459041

RESUMO

It has been proposed that the concentration of proteins in the cytoplasm maximizes the speed of important biochemical reactions. Here we have used Xenopus egg extracts, which can be diluted or concentrated to yield a range of cytoplasmic protein concentrations, to test the effect of cytoplasmic concentration on mRNA translation and protein degradation. We find that protein synthesis rates are maximal in ~1x cytoplasm, whereas protein degradation continues to rise to a higher optimal concentration of ~1.8x. We show that this difference in optima can be attributed to a greater sensitivity of translation to cytoplasmic viscosity. The different concentration optima could produce a negative feedback homeostatic system, where increasing the cytoplasmic protein concentration above the 1x physiological level increases the viscosity of the cytoplasm, which selectively inhibits translation and drives the system back toward the 1x set point.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Animais , Viscosidade , Proteínas/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo
11.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 32: e20230278, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present in vitro study incorporated niobium oxyhydroxide fillers into an experimental high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composite to improve its mechanical performance and provide it a bioactive potential. METHODOLOGY: Scanning electron microscopy synthesized and characterized 0.5% niobium oxyhydroxide fillers, demonstrating a homogeneous morphology that represented a reinforcement for the feature. Fillers were weighed, gradually added to the experimental resin composite, and homogenized for one minute, forming three groups: BF (experimental high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composite; control), BF0.5 (experimental high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composite modified with 0.5% niobium oxyhydroxide fillers), and BFC (commercial bulk-fill resin composite Beautifil Bulk U, Shofu; positive control). In total, 10 specimens/groups (8 × 2 × 2 mm) underwent flexural strength (FS) tests in a universal testing machine (Instron) (500N). Resin composites were also assessed for Knoop hardness (KH), depth of cure (DoC), degree of conversion (DC), elastic modulus (E), and degree of color change (ΔE). The bioactive potential of the developed resin composite was evaluated after immersing the specimens into a simulated body fluid in vitro solution and assessing them using a Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscope with an attenuated total reflectance accessory. One-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey's test (p<0.05), determined FS, DC, KH, and ΔE. For DoC, ANOVA was performed, which demonstrated no significant difference between groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composite with 0.5% niobium oxyhydroxide fillers showed promising outcomes as reinforcement agents and performed well for bioactive potential, although less predictable than the commercial resin composite with Giomer technology.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Nióbio , Viscosidade , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização , Materiais Dentários
12.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 149, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our previous study revealed that the viscosity of fibrinogen could influence the effectiveness of ventilation and anchoring (V/A) methods for controlling air leakages. Here, we examined the association between the viscosity of fibrinogen and effectiveness using an ex vivo pig model. METHODS: The fibrin glue used in this study was BOLHEAL® (KM Biologics Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan). We prepared three types of fibrinogen with different viscosities (higher and lower than normal), including one without additives. Using an ex vivo pig model, a pleural defect was made, and the defect was repaired using three different viscosities of fibrinogen through the V/A method. We measured the rupture pressure at the repair site (N = 10) and histologically evaluated the depth of fibrin infiltration into the lung parenchyma at the repair sites. RESULTS: The median rupture pressure was 51.5 (40-73) cmH2O in Group 1 (lower viscosity), 47.0 (47-88) cmH2O in Group 2 (no change in viscosity), and 35.5 (25-61) cmH2O in Group 3 (higher viscosity). There was no statistically significant difference between Groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.819), but the rupture pressure was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 3 (p = 0.0136). Histological evaluation revealed deep infiltration of fibrin into the lung parenchyma in Groups 1 and 2, but no such infiltration was observed in the higher-viscosity group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this experiment suggested that the V/A method using fibrin glue containing low-viscosity fibrinogen was more effective in controlling air leakage due to pleural defects.


Assuntos
Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina , Hemostáticos , Animais , Suínos , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/farmacologia , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/uso terapêutico , Viscosidade , Fibrinogênio/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/patologia
13.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 104: 106847, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503060

RESUMO

High-concentration soy protein isolate was subjected to ultrasonication for viscosity reduction to assist the process of limited enzymatic hydrolysis. Ultrasonication (20 kHz, 10 min, 160 W/L) effectively reduced the viscosity of soy protein isolate at a comparatively high concentration of 14 % (w/v) and promoted the limited enzymatic hydrolysis (controlled degree of hydrolysis of 12 %) with a higher peptide yield than that of the conventional method. The correlations between substrate viscosity and peptide yield, as well as the viscosities of the resulting hydrolysates, were studied. The findings revealed positive correlations between the viscosities of the substrate and hydrolysate, underscoring the potential impact of altering substrate viscosity on the final product. Furthermore, the utilization of ultrasonic viscosity reduction-assisted proteolysis has shown its capability to improve the functional and physicochemical properties, as well as the protein structure of the hydrolysate, while maintaining the same level of hydrolysis. It is worth noting that there were significant alterations in particle size (decrease), ß-sheet content (increase), ß-turn content (increase), and random coil content (increase). Interestingly, ultrasonication unexpectedly impeded the degradation of molecular mass in proteins during proteolysis, while increasing the hydrophobic properties of the hydrolysate. These findings aligned with the observed reduction in bitterness and improvement in emulsifying properties and water-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Proteínas de Soja , Proteínas de Soja/química , Hidrólise , Proteólise , Viscosidade
14.
Anal Chem ; 96(14): 5437-5445, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529794

RESUMO

The research on fluorescent rotors for viscosity has attracted extensive interest to better comprehend the close relationships of microviscosity variations with related diseases. Although scientists have made great efforts, fluorescent probes for cellular viscosity with both aggregation-induced emissions (AIEs) and large Stokes shifts to improve sensing properties have rarely been reported. Herein, we first report four new meso-C═N-substituted BODIPY-based rotors with large Stokes shifts, investigate their viscosity/AIE characteristics, and perform cellular imaging of the viscosity in subcellular organelles. Interestingly, the meso-C═N-phenyl group-substituted probe 6 showed an obvious 594 nm fluorescence enhancement in glycerol and a moderate 650 nm red AIE emission in water. Further, on attaching CF3 to the phenyl group, a similar phenomenon was observed for 7 with red-shifted emissions, attributed to the introduction of a phenyl group, which plays a key role in the red AIE emissions and large Stokes shifts. Comparatively, for phenyl-group-free probes, both the meso-C═N-trifluoroethyl group and thiazole-substituted probes (8 and 9) exhibited good viscosity-responsive properties, while no AIE was observed due to the absence of phenyl groups. For cellular experiments, 6 and 9 showed good lysosomal and mitochondrial targeting properties, respectively, and were further successfully used for imaging viscosity through the preincubation of monensin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), indicating that C═N polar groups potentially work as rotatable moieties and organelle-targeting groups, and the targeting difference might be ascribed to increased charges of thiazole. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the structural relationships of four meso-C═N BODIPY-based rotors with respect to their viscosity/AIE characteristics, subcellular-targeting ability, and cellular imaging for viscosity, potentially serving as AIE fluorescent probes with large Stokes shifts for subcellular viscosity imaging.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro , Corantes Fluorescentes , Organelas , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Viscosidade , Tiazóis
15.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 664: 533-538, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484521

RESUMO

The correct measurement of the resonance frequency and shell properties of coated microbubbles (MBs) is essential in understanding and optimizing their response to ultrasound (US) exposure parameters. In diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound, MBs are typically surrounded by blood; however, the influence of the medium charges on the MB resonance frequency has not been systematically studied using controlled measurements. This study aims to measure the medium charge interactions on MB behavior by measuring the frequency-dependent attenuation of the same size MBs in mediums with different charge densities. In-house lipid-coated MBs with C3F8 gas core were formulated. The MBs were isolated to a mean size of 2.35 µm using differential centrifugation. MBs were diluted to ≈8×105 MBs/mL in distilled water (DW), Phosphate-Buffered Saline solution (PBS1x) and PBS10x. The frequency-dependent attenuation of the MBs solutions was measured using an aligned pair of PVDF transducers with a center frequency of 10MHz and 100% bandwidth in the linear oscillation regime (7 kPa pressure amplitude). The MB shell properties were estimated by fitting the linear equation to experiments. Using a pendant drop tension meter, the surface tension at the equilibrium of ≈6 mm diameter size drops of the same MB shell was measured inside DW, PBS1x and PBS10x. The surface tension at the C3F8/solution interface was estimated by fitting the Young-Laplace equation from the recorded images. The frequency of the peak attenuation at different salinity levels was 13, 7.5 and 6.25 MHz in DW, PBS1x and PBS-10x, respectively. The attenuation peak increased by ≈140% with increasing ion density. MBs' estimated shell elasticity decreased by 64% between DW and PBS-1x and 36% between PBS-1x and PBS-10x. The drop surface tension reduced by 10.5% between DW and PBS-1x and by 5% between PBS-1x and PBS-10x, respectively. Reduction in the shell stiffness is consistent with the drop surface tension measurements. The shell viscosity was reduced by ≈40% between DW and PBS-1x and 42% between PBS-1x and PBS-10x. The reduction in the fitted stiffness and viscosity is possibly due to the formation of a densely charged layer around the shell, further reducing the effective surface tension on the MBs. The changes in the resonance frequency and estimated shell parameters were significant and may potentially help to better understand and explain bubble behavior in applications.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Microbolhas , Viscosidade , Lipídeos , Concentração Osmolar
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 254: 116233, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518563

RESUMO

Intracellular microenvironment (viscosity and polarity) and peroxynitrite ions (ONOO-) are involved in maintaining cell morphology, cell function, and signaling so that it is crucial to explore their level changes in vitro and vivo. In this work, we designed and synthesized a mitochondria-targeted fluorescence probe XBL for monitoring the dynamic changes of viscosity, polarity, and ONOO- based on TICT and ICT mechanism. The fluorescence spectra showed obvious changes for polarity at 500 nm as well as ONOO- and viscosity at 660 nm, respectively. The XBL can image simultaneously viscosity, polarity, and ONOO- in cells, and the results showed excess ONOO- leaded to the increase of viscosity in mitochondrial. The ferroptosis process was accompanied by increase of intracellular viscosity and ONOO- levels (or decrease of polarity), which allowed us to better understand the relevant physiological and pathological processes. The XBL can distinguish normal cells and cancerous cells by the fluorescence intensity changes in green and red channels, and image viscosity in inflamed mice. Thus, XBL can provided the chemical tool to understand the physiological and pathological mechanisms of disease by simultaneous detection of viscosity, polarity and ONOO-.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Corantes Fluorescentes , Camundongos , Animais , Viscosidade , Células RAW 264.7 , Mitocôndrias , Ácido Peroxinitroso
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301138, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547107

RESUMO

The rheological properties of asphalt can well reflect its road performance, but the rheological properties of warm mix high viscosity asphalt (HVA) are unclear. In order to study the effect of warm mixing agent on rheological properties of HVA, two kinds of warm mixing agent EC120 (EC) and Evotherm M1 (M1) were selected to prepare warm mix HVA. The rheological properties of warm mix HVA at high temperature (135~195°C), medium temperature (0~80°C) and low temperature (-6~18°C) were studied by Brinell rotary viscosity test, dynamic shear rheological test (including temperature scanning, frequency scanning, linear amplitude scanning) and bending beam rheological test. The test results show that both EC and M1 have good viscosity reduction effect on HVA at high temperature, and can effectively reduce the construction temperature. At medium temperature, M1 can effectively improve the fatigue resistance of HVA, and the fatigue life can be increased by about 30% when the dosage is 0.6%. EC can increase the rutting factor of HVA and improve its resistance to deformation, but it will reduce its fatigue performance. When the dosage is 4%, the fatigue life will be reduced by about 9%. At low temperature, M1 can reduce the creep stiffness S, increase the creep rate m, and improve the low temperature performance of HVA, while EC has the opposite effect, weakening the low temperature performance of HVA. The results are helpful to understand the rheological properties of warm mix HVA and promote its application.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Hidrocarbonetos , Temperatura , Viscosidade
18.
Cell Rep ; 43(3): 113917, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446665

RESUMO

Embryonic genome activation (EGA) marks the transition from dependence on maternal transcripts to an embryonic transcriptional program. The precise temporal regulation of gene expression, specifically the silencing of the Dux/murine endogenous retrovirus type L (MERVL) program during late 2-cell interphase, is crucial for developmental progression in mouse embryos. How this finely tuned regulation is achieved within this specific window is poorly understood. Here, using particle-tracking microrheology throughout the mouse oocyte-to-embryo transition, we identify a surge in cytoplasmic viscosity specific to late 2-cell interphase brought about by high microtubule and endomembrane density. Importantly, preventing the rise in 2-cell viscosity severely impairs nuclear reorganization, resulting in a persistently open chromatin configuration and failure to silence Dux/MERVL. This, in turn, derails embryo development beyond the 2- and 4-cell stages. Our findings reveal a mechanical role of the cytoplasm in regulating Dux/MERVL repression via nuclear remodeling during a temporally confined period in late 2-cell interphase.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Retrovirus Endógenos , Camundongos , Animais , Viscosidade , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Cromatina , Citoplasma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130461, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428767

RESUMO

This paper investigated the effects of twin-screw extrusion treatment on the formation, structure and properties of yam starch-gallic acid complexes. Yam starch and gallic acid were extruded. The microstructure, gelatinization characteristics, and rheological properties of the samples were determined. The microstructure of extruded yam starch-gallic acid complexes presented a rough granular morphology, low swelling, and high solubility. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the extruded yam starch-gallic acid complexes exhibited A + V-type crystalline structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that the extrusion treatment could destroy the internal orderly structure of yam starch, and the addition of gallic acid could further reduce its molecular orderliness. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed a decrease in the enthalpy of gelatinization of the sample. Dynamic rheological analysis showed that the storage modulus and loss modulus of the extruded yam starch-gallic acid complexes were significantly reduced, exhibiting a weak gel system. The results of viscosity showed that extrusion synergistic gallic acid reduced the peak viscosity and setback value of starch. In addition, extrusion treatment had an inhibitory effect on the digestibility of yam starch, and enhanced the interaction of gallic acid with yam starch or hydrolytic enzymes. Therefore, extrusion synergistic gallic acid has improved the structure and properties of yam starch-related products, which can provide new directions and new ideas for the development of yam starch.


Assuntos
Dioscorea , Amido , Amido/química , Dioscorea/química , Solubilidade , Hidrólise , Viscosidade
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130522, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428777

RESUMO

Kudzu, a plant known for its medicinal value and health benefits, is typically consumed in the form of starch. However, the use of native kudzu starch is limited by its high pasting temperature and low solubility, leading to a poor consumer experience. In this study, kudzu starch was treated using six modification techniques: ball milling, extrusion puffing, alcoholic-alkaline, urea-alkaline, pullulanase, and extrusion puffing-pullulanase. The results of the Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed that the intensity ratio of 1047/1022 cm-1 for the modified starches (1.02-1.21) was lower than that of the native kudzu starch (1.22). The relative crystallinity of modified kudzu starch significantly decreased, especially after ball milling, extrusion puffing, and alcoholic-alkaline treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed significant changes in the granular structures of the modified starches. After modification, the pasting temperature of kudzu starch decreased (except for the urea-alkaline treatment), and the apparent viscosity of kudzu starch decreased from 517.95 Pa·s to 0.47 Pa·s. The cold-water solubility of extrusion-puffing and extrusion puffing-pullulanase modified kudzu starch was >70 %, which was significantly higher than that of the native starch (0.11 %). These findings establish a theoretical basis for the potential development of instant kudzu powder.


Assuntos
Pueraria , Amido , Amido/química , Solubilidade , Pueraria/química , Viscosidade , Água/química , Ureia
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