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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1446: 1-14, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625522

RESUMO

Domestic dogs (facultative carnivores) and cats (obligate carnivores) have been human companions for at least 12,000 and 9000 years, respectively. These animal species have a relatively short digestive tract but a large stomach volume and share many common features of physiological processes, intestinal microbes, and nutrient metabolism. The taste buds of the canine and feline tongues can distinguish sour, umami, bitter, and salty substances. Dogs, but not cats, possess sweet receptors. α-Amylase activity is either absent or very low in canine and feline saliva, and is present at low or substantial levels in the pancreatic secretions of cats or dogs, respectively. Thus, unlike cats, dogs have adapted to high-starch rations while also consuming animal-sourced foods. At metabolic levels, both dogs and cats synthesize de novo vitamin C and many amino acids (AAs, such as Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Gly, Pro, and Ser) but have a very limited ability to form vitamin D3. Compared with dogs, cats have higher requirements for AAs, some B-complex vitamins, and choline; greater rates of gluconeogenesis; a higher capacity to tolerate AA imbalances and antagonism; a more limited ability to synthesize arginine and taurine from glutamine/proline and cysteine, respectively; and a very limited ability to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from respective substrates. Unlike dogs, cats cannot convert either ß-carotene into vitamin A or tryptophan into niacin. Dogs can thrive on one large meal daily and select high-fat over low-fat diets, whereas cats eat more frequently during light and dark periods and select high-protein over low-protein diets. There are increasing concerns over the health of skin, hair, bone, and joints (specialized connective tissues containing large amounts of collagen and/or keratin); sarcopenia (age-related losses of skeletal-muscle mass and function); and cognitive function in dogs and cats. Sufficient intakes of proteinogenic AAs and taurine along with vitamins, minerals, and PUFAs are crucial for the normal structures of the skin, hair, bone, and joints, while mitigating sarcopenia and cognitive dysfunction. Although pet owners may have different perceptions about the feeding and management practice of their dogs and cats, the health and well-being of the companion animals critically depend on safe, balanced, and nutritive foods. The new knowledge covered in this volume of Adv Exp Med Biol is essential to guide the formulation of pet foods to improve the growth, development, brain function, reproduction, lactation, and health of the companion animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Feminino , Gatos , Animais , Cães , Vitaminas , Vitamina A , Vitamina K , Taurina
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1446: 55-98, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625525

RESUMO

Domestic dogs and cats have evolved differentially in some aspects of nutrition, metabolism, chemical sensing, and feeding behavior. The dogs have adapted to omnivorous diets containing taurine-abundant meat and starch-rich plant ingredients. By contrast, domestic cats must consume animal-sourced foods for survival, growth, and development. Both dogs and cats synthesize vitamin C and many amino acids (AAs, such as alanine, asparagine, aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, proline, and serine), but have a limited ability to form de novo arginine and vitamin D3. Compared with dogs, cats have greater endogenous nitrogen losses and higher dietary requirements for AAs (particularly arginine, taurine, and tyrosine), B-complex vitamins (niacin, thiamin, folate, and biotin), and choline; exhibit greater rates of gluconeogenesis; are less sensitive to AA imbalances and antagonism; are more capable of concentrating urine through renal reabsorption of water; and cannot tolerate high levels of dietary starch due to limited pancreatic α-amylase activity. In addition, dogs can form sufficient taurine from cysteine (for most breeds); arachidonic acid from linoleic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from α-linolenic acid; all-trans-retinol from ß-carotene; and niacin from tryptophan. These synthetic pathways, however, are either absent or limited in all cats due to (a) no or low activities of key enzymes (including pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, cysteine dioxygenase, ∆6-desaturase, ß-carotene dioxygenase, and quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase) and (b) diversion of intermediates to other metabolic pathways. Dogs can thrive on one large meal daily, select high-fat over low-fat diets, and consume sweet substances. By contrast, cats eat more frequently during light and dark periods, select high-protein over low-protein diets, refuse dry food, enjoy a consistent diet, and cannot taste sweetness. This knowledge guides the feeding and care of dogs and cats, as well as the manufacturing of their foods. As abundant sources of essential nutrients, animal-derived foodstuffs play important roles in optimizing the growth, development, and health of the companion animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Niacina , Gatos , Cães , Animais , Vitaminas , Vitamina A , Arginina , Amido , Taurina
3.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114207, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609209

RESUMO

The worldwide market for vegetable and fruit juices stands as a thriving sector with projected revenues reaching to $81.4 billion by 2024 and an anticipated annual growth rate of 5.27% until 2028. Juices offer a convenient means of consuming bioactive compounds and essential nutrients crucial for human health. However, conventional thermal treatments employed in the juice and beverage industry to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, as well as endogenous enzymes, can lead to the degradation of bioactive compounds and vitamins. In response, non-thermal technologies have emerged as promising alternatives to traditional heat processing, with pulsed electric field (PEF) technology standing out as an innovative and sustainable choice. In this context, this comprehensive review investigated the impact of PEF on the microbiological, physicochemical, functional, nutritional, and sensory qualities of vegetable and fruit juices. PEF induces electroporation phenomena in cell membranes, resulting in reversible or irreversible changes. Consequently, a detailed examination of the effects of PEF process variables on juice properties is essential. Monitoring factors such as electric field strength, frequency, pulse width, total treatment time, and specific energy is important to ensure the production of a safe and chemically/kinetically stable product. PEF technology proves effective in microbial and enzymatic inactivation within vegetable and fruit juices, mitigating factors contributing to deterioration while maintaining the physicochemical characteristics of these products. Furthermore, PEF treatment does not compromise the content of substances with functional, nutritional, and sensory properties, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins. When compared to alternative processing methods, such as mild thermal treatments and other non-thermal technologies, PEF treatment consistently demonstrates comparable outcomes in terms of physicochemical attributes, functional properties, nutritional quality, and overall safety.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Verduras , Humanos , Vitaminas , Vitamina A , Vitamina K , Tecnologia
4.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 453, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609439

RESUMO

The hair follicle (HF) is a self-renewing adult miniorgan that undergoes drastic metabolic and morphological changes during precisely timed cyclic organogenesis. The HF cycle is known to be regulated by steroid hormones, growth factors and circadian clock genes. Recent data also suggest a role for a vitamin A derivative, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the activating ligand of transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors, in the regulation of the HF cycle. Here we demonstrate that ATRA signaling cycles during HF regeneration and this pattern is disrupted by genetic deletion of epidermal retinol dehydrogenases 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and RDHE2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6) that catalyze the rate-limiting step in ATRA biosynthesis. Deletion of RDHEs results in accelerated anagen to catagen and telogen to anagen transitions, altered HF composition, reduced levels of HF stem cell markers, and dysregulated circadian clock gene expression, suggesting a broad role of RDHEs in coordinating multiple signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Epiderme , Vitamina A , Adulto , Humanos , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Cabelo , Catálise , Tretinoína , Células-Tronco
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(4)2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traditionally associated with undernutrition, increasing evidence suggests micronutrient deficiencies can coexist with overnutrition. Therefore, this work aimed to systematically review the associations between iron, zinc and vitamin A (VA) status and weight status (both underweight and overweight) in children and young people. METHODS: Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for observational studies assessing micronutrient status (blood, serum or plasma levels of iron, zinc or VA biomarkers) and weight status (body mass index or other anthropometric measurement) in humans under 25 years of any ethnicity and gender. Risk of bias assessment was conducted using the American Dietetic Association Quality Criteria Checklist. Where possible, random effects restricted maximum likelihood meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: After screening, 83 observational studies involving 190 443 participants from 44 countries were identified, with many studies having reported on more than one micronutrient and/or weight status indicator. Iron was the most investigated micronutrient, with 46, 28 and 27 studies reporting data for iron, zinc and VA status, respectively. Synthesising 16 records of OR from seven eligible studies, overnutrition (overweight and obesity) increased odds of iron deficiency (ID) (OR (95% CI): 1.51 (1.20 to 1.82), p<0.0001, I2=40.7%). Odds appeared to be higher for children living with obesity (1.88 (1.33 to 2.43), p<0.0001, I2=20.6%) in comparison to those with overweight (1.31 (0.98 to 1.64), p<0.0001, I2=40.5%), although between group differences were not significant (p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Overnutrition is associated with increased risk of ID, but not zinc or VA deficiencies, with an inverted U-shaped relationship observed between iron status and bodyweight. Our results highlight significant heterogeneity in the reporting of micronutrient biomarkers and how deficiencies were defined. Inflammation status was rarely adequately accounted for, and the burden of ID may well be under-recognised, particularly in children and young people living with overnutrition. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020221523.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Hipernutrição , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Ferro , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Zinco , Sobrepeso/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/complicações , Vitamina A , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores
6.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(2): 215-222, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the usual vitamin intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes among Chinese adults in 2015, and to provide a scientific basis for developing nutrition intervention strategies and measures for target populations. METHODS: Data was drawn from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2015-2017, a nationally representative cross-sectional study. The multistage stratified whole-group random sampling method was used to draw participants from 298 surveillance sites in 31 provinces(autonomous regions and municipalities). Participants with no available information or abnormal energy intake were excluded, and finally, a total of 72 231 participants aged 18 years and older were included in the current study. The dietary data of the participants were collected by the 24-hour dietary recall method combined with the condiment weighing method for three consecutive days. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distribution of the usual intake of vitamin B_1(thiamine), vitamin B_2(riboflavin), niacin, vitamin C(ascorbic acid), and vitamin E(tocopherol), and the prevalence of inadequate intake was evaluated based on estimated average requirement or adequate intake from the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes 2023. RESULTS: The usual intake of vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin B_1, vitamin B_2 and niacin were 27.93 mg/d, 77.67 mg/d, 0.78 mg/d, 0.62 mg/d and 13.15 mg/d, respectively. The prevalence of inadequate intake was, in descending order, vitamin B_2(95.98%), vitamin B_1(86.73%), vitamin C(63.70%), niacin(39.81%), and vitamin E(21.17%). The prevalence of inadequate vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin B_1 and niacin intake among females was higher than among males(P<0.01). Overall, the prevalence of inadequate vitamin intake increased with age. Rural residents had a higher prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin C, vitamin B_2 and niacin than urban residents(P<0.01). Except for vitamin E, the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamins decreased with increasing education levels. The prevalence of inadequate intake of these five vitamins was higher among participants with lower income levels than those with middle or high income(P<0.01). Participants with normal weight had a higher prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin E than those with overweight or obesity and had a higher prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin C than those with obesity. However, participants with normal weight had a higher prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin E than those with overweight or obesity, with the differences being statistically significant(P<0.01). Except for vitamin E, the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamins decreased with increasing physical activity intensity. CONCLUSION: In 2015, the usual intake of dietary vitamins of Chinese adults was low. There are differences in usual intakes of vitamins and prevalence of inadequate vitamin intake for adults aged 18 years and above in males and females, different age groups, urban and rural areas, education levels, household income levels, body mass index and physical activity intensity.


Assuntos
Niacina , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Sobrepeso , Vitaminas , Dieta , Tiamina , Riboflavina , Vitamina E , Ácido Ascórbico , Vitamina A , Vitamina K , Obesidade , China/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 222, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and blood biochemical indicators in early adolescence, and to provide ideas for early prevention of diseases and explore possible disease-related predictors. METHODS: 3125 participants aged 10 ∼ 14 years were selected from China from the survey of "China Nutrition and Health Surveillance ( 2016 ∼ 2017 ) ". Employing advanced statistical methods, including generalized linear models, heatmaps, hierarchical clustering, and generalized additive models, the study delved into the associations between BMI and various biochemical indicators. RESULTS: In early adolescence, indicators including systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, weight, height, BMI, hemoglobin, blood uric acid, serum creatinine, albumin, vitamin A presented increasing trends with the increase of age ( P < 0.05 ), whereas LDL-C, vitamin D, and ferritin showed decreasing trends with the increase of age ( P < 0.05 ). The increase in hemoglobin and blood uric acid levels with age was more pronounced in males compared to females ( P < 0.05 ). BMI was positively correlated with blood glucose, hemoglobin, triglyceride, LDL-C, blood uric acid, serum creatinine, ferritin, transferrin receptor, hs-CRP, total protein, vitamin A ( P < 0.05 ). There was a significant BMI × age interaction in the correlation analysis with LDL-C, transferrin receptor, serum creatinine, and hs-CRP ( P < 0.05 ). BMI was a risk factor for hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, and metabolic syndrome in all age groups ( OR > 1, P < 0.05 ). CONCLUSIONS: High BMI was a risk factor for hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, and MetS in early adolescents. With the focus on energy intake beginning in early adolescence, the maintenance of a healthy weight warrants greater attention.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Hipertrigliceridemia , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , LDL-Colesterol , Ácido Úrico , Creatinina , Vitamina A , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lipoproteínas HDL , Hemoglobinas/análise , Ferritinas , Receptores da Transferrina
8.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(3): 254-265, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582990

RESUMO

Objective: Studies on the relationship between iodine, vitamin A (VA), and vitamin D (VD) and thyroid function are limited. This study aimed to analyze iodine and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) status and their possible relationships with VA, VD, and other factors in postpartum women. Methods: A total of 1,311 mothers (896 lactating and 415 non-lactating) from Hebei, Zhejiang, and Guangxi provinces were included in this study. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC), TSH, VA, and VD were measured. Results: The median UIC of total and lactating participants were 142.00 µg/L and 139.95 µg/L, respectively. The median TSH, VA, and VD levels in all the participants were 1.89 mIU/L, 0.44 µg/mL, and 24.04 ng/mL, respectively. No differences in the UIC were found between lactating and non-lactating mothers. UIC and TSH levels were significantly different among the three provinces. The rural UIC was higher than the urban UIC. Obese mothers had a higher UIC and a higher prevalence of excessive TSH. Higher UICs and TSHs levels were observed in both the VD deficiency and insufficiency groups than in the VD-sufficient group. After adjustment, no linear correlation was observed between UIC and VA/VD. No interaction was found between vitamins A/D and UIC on TSH levels. Conclusion: The mothers in the present study had no iodine deficiency. Region, area type, BMI, and VD may be related to the iodine status or TSH levels.


Assuntos
Iodo , Tireotropina , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Lactação , China/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas , Vitamina D , Vitamina A , Colecalciferol
9.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612984

RESUMO

In cardiology, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and warfarin are among the most commonly used prophylactic therapies against thromboembolic events. Drug-drug interactions are generally well-known. Less known are the drug-nutrient interactions (DNIs), impeding drug absorption and altering micronutritional status. ASA and warfarin might influence the micronutritional status of patients through different mechanisms such as binding or modification of binding properties of ligands, absorption, transport, cellular use or concentration, or excretion. Our article reviews the drug-nutrient interactions that alter micronutritional status. Some of these mechanisms could be investigated with the aim to potentiate the drug effects. DNIs are seen occasionally in ASA and warfarin and could be managed through simple strategies such as risk stratification of DNIs on an individual patient basis; micronutritional status assessment as part of the medical history; extensive use of the drug-interaction probability scale to reference little-known interactions, and application of a personal, predictive, and preventive medical model using omics.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Vitaminas , Humanos , Varfarina , Aspirina , Vitamina A , Vitamina K , Minerais
10.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(4): 209-215, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light photoages skin. Retinol, a precursor molecule to retinoic acid that causes less irritation, is available as a nonprescription, cosmetic retinoid and improves collagen production, skin elasticity, and signs of photoaging. Advances in formulation science have allowed the production of stabilized bioactive retinol formulations. This integrated analysis aims to build on previous studies and further examine the comprehensive efficacy and tolerability of topical 0.1% stabilized bioactive retinol. METHODS: This analysis included 6 vehicle-controlled studies of 0.1% stabilized bioactive retinol in women with mild-to-moderate signs of photodamage. Across all studies, the same dermatologist investigator assessed overall photodamage; wrinkles on the forehead, cheeks, and undereye area; crow’s feet wrinkles and fine lines; lack of even skin tone; and brown spots at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12 on a numerical scale. Tolerability was also assessed. RESULTS: Participants (retinol, N=237; vehicle, N=234) had a mean (SD) age of 47.4 (6.6) years. Retinol induced greater improvements from baseline in all signs of photoaging vs vehicle as early as week 4 and through 12 weeks of application. Few participants experienced irritation; all events were mild to moderate and transient. The most common signs of irritation were erythema (n=2) and skin scaling/peeling (n=5). CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis of 6 vehicle-controlled clinical studies provides new evidence for the efficacy of 0.1% stabilized bioactive retinol in improving signs of photoaging without causing major irritation. Topical 0.1% stabilized bioactive retinol was well tolerated with only a few reported cases of skin irritation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(4):     doi:10.36849/JDD.8124.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento da Pele , Vitamina A , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tretinoína/efeitos adversos , Retinoides , Método Duplo-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Administração Cutânea
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130756, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462118

RESUMO

The risk of radiation exposure increases with the development of nuclear energy and technology, and radiation protection receives more and more attention from public health and safety. However, the numerous adverse effects and low drug utilization limit the practical applications of radioprotective agents. In this study, we developed a biogenic crocetin-crosslinked chitosan nanoparticle with high stability and drug loading for efficient radioprotection. In detail, the nanoparticles were prepared using the natural antioxidant crocetin as a cross-linking reagent in amidation reactions of chitosan and mPEG-COOH. The nanoparticles exhibit a quick scavenging ability for common reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen in vitro. Meanwhile, cellular experiments demonstrate the good biocompatibility of the nanoparticles and the alleviation of radiation damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species, reducing apoptosis, and inhibiting DNA damage, etc. Importantly, the nanoparticles are effective in mitigating oxidative damage in major organs and maintaining peripheral blood cell content. In addition, they perform better radioprotective properties than free drug due to the significant extension of the blood half-life of crocetin in vivo from 10 min to 5 h. This work proposes a drug-crosslinking strategy for the design of a highly efficient radioprotective agent, which exhibits a promising prospect in the fields of nuclear emergency and public health.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Proteção Radiológica , Protetores contra Radiação , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 101, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition has a primary role for optimum expression of genetic potential, and most of the farmers have limited resources of green fodder. Hence, a fat-soluble vitamin, especially vitamin A and E and trace elements remained most critical in the animal's ration and affects their productive and reproductive performance adversely. Animals cannot be able to produce these vitamins in their bodies; hence, an exogenous regular supply is needed to fulfil the physiological needs and to maintain high production performance. This study elucidated effects of antioxidant vitamins (A, D, E) and trace elements (Cu, Mn, Se, Zn) administration on gene expression, metabolic, antioxidants and immunological parameters in dromedary camels during transition period. RESULTS: At 0 day, there were no appreciable differences in the expression patterns of the metabolic (IGF-I, ACACA, SCD, FASN, LPL, and BTN1A1) genes between the control and treatment groups, despite lower levels. A substantial variation in the mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD3, PRDX2, PRDX3, PRDX4, PRDX6, and AhpC/TSA was observed between the control and treatment groups, according to the antioxidant markers. In comparison to the control group, the treatment group displayed a significant up-regulation at 0 and 21 days. The treatment and control groups exhibited substantial differences in the mRNA values of IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα, as indicated by immunological markers. In comparison to the control group, there was a noticeable down-regulation in the treatment group at 0 and + 21 days. But IL10 produced the opposite pattern. No significant difference was observed in glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, total protein, NEFA, BHBA, cortisol and IGF-1 levels between control and treatment group. The activity of serum GPx, SOD and TAC was significantly affected by time and treatment x time in supplemented groups as compared with control group. IL-1, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF were noticeably greater in the control group and lower in the treatment group. Additionally, in all groups, the concentration of all pro-inflammatory cytokines peaked on the day of delivery and its lowest levels showed on day 21 following calving. The IL-10 level was at its peak 21 days prior to calving and was lowest on calving day. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a beneficial effect of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements on the metabolic, antioxidant and immunological markers in dromedary camels throughout their transition period.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Animais , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Camelus , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Interleucina-6 , Vitamina K , Zinco , RNA Mensageiro , Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-1
13.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(3): 677-684, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Micronutrient deficiencies characterize classical "late-diagnosed" celiac disease (CeD). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies among children with "early-diagnosed" screening-identified CeD to determine the clinical value of routine testing for deficiencies in those patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on screening-identified CeD patients diagnosed during a mass screening study (84 patients, mean age 11.3 ± 2.6 years). The controls (443 children, mean age 10.8 ± 2.5 years) were negative for celiac disease serological screening. Hemoglobin, serum levels of iron, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin E, 25-OH vitamin D, zinc, and selenium were measured. RESULTS: The mean serum levels of hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, vitamin D, zinc, copper, and selenium were significantly lower in CeD patients than in healthy controls (hemoglobin 12.56 vs. 13.02 g/dL [p = 0.04]; iron 10.61 vs. 17.6 µmol/L [p < 0.001], ferritin 25.7 vs. 48.3 µg/L [p < 0.001], vitamin D 29.1 vs. 37.5 nmol/L, zinc 11.9 vs. 21.7 µmol/L, copper 18.9 vs. 32.5 µmol/L, selenium 1.04 vs. 1.36 µmol/L; p < 0.001). Patients with celiac and severe intestinal damage (Marsh IIIb and IIIc) had significantly lower serum ferritin and vitamin A levels than patients with mild intestinal damage (Marsh II and IIIa) (ferritin 15 vs. 22 µg/L, p < 0.025; vitamin A 0.85 vs. 1.35 µmol/L, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Micronutrient deficiencies are still detectable in "early-diagnosed" screening-identified CeD cases, a clinically relevant result that strongly supports efforts for screening and early diagnosis of CeD.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Selênio , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Vitaminas , Vitamina A , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cobre , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes , Ferro , Zinco , Vitamina D , Vitamina K , Ferritinas , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo
14.
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2024: 9979582, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435539

RESUMO

Background: Oxidative stress is involved in pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders. To examine the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we aimed to determine oxidative stress indices, including malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum and red blood cells (RBC) membrane, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum glutathione (GSH) levels, serum antioxidant vitamins (A and E), and Na+/K+-ATPase activity, in patients with the mentioned disorder vs. healthy controls. Method: 39 OCD patients diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) and 39 volunteer healthy subjects were included in this study. MDA levels in serum and RBC membrane were measured using fluorometric method. Serum TAC level, serum GSH level, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity were also measured using spectrophotometric methods. Serum levels of vitamins were calculated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Result: There was a significantly higher MDA level in serum (p < 0.0001) and RBC membrane (p = 0.002) of OCD patients compared with those in controls. A significant reduction in vitamin A (p = 0.001) and vitamin E (p = 0.024) levels was found in OCD patients vs. controls. There was significantly lower activity of erythrocyte membrane Na+/K+-ATPase in RBC membrane of OCD patients vs. controls (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our findings indicate significantly higher levels MDA in both serum and RBC membrane, lower levels of serum vitamins A and E, and lower activity of membrane Na+/K+-ATPase in OCD patients compared to controls. These suggest an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant factors in OCD patients that might play a fundamental role in the etiopathogenesis of OCD.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Vitaminas , Vitamina A , Adenosina Trifosfatases , Glutationa , Íons , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 110, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472488

RESUMO

Some species of Dunaliella produce high levels of ß-carotene, which is the largest natural Vitamin A source. ß-carotene production in Dunaliella is expensive due to low yields obtained under culture conditions used. Since three decades ago synthetic ß-carotene has dominated 98% of world market, even when synthetic is less bioactive than Dunaliella ß-carotene molecule. In vitro experiments have been performed to increase ß-carotene productivity in Dunaliella and some useful results have been obtained. In this review, culture conditions used in those experiments were compared to identify parameters that improved ß-carotene productivity in Dunaliella. Comparison results show that ß-carotene in vitro production can be increased regulating some specific culture conditions.


Assuntos
Vitamina A , beta Caroteno
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473850

RESUMO

Free radicals (FRs) are unstable molecules that cause reactive stress (RS), an imbalance between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the body and its ability to neutralize them. These species are generated by both internal and external factors and can damage cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA. Antioxidants prevent or slow down the oxidation process by interrupting the transfer of electrons between substances and reactive agents. This is particularly important at the cellular level because oxidation reactions lead to the formation of FR and contribute to various diseases. As we age, RS accumulates and leads to organ dysfunction and age-related disorders. Polyphenols; vitamins A, C, and E; and selenoproteins possess antioxidant properties and may have a role in preventing and treating certain human diseases associated with RS. In this review, we explore the current evidence on the potential benefits of dietary supplementation and investigate the intricate connection between SIRT1, a crucial regulator of aging and longevity; the transcription factor NRF2; and polyphenols, vitamins, and selenium. Finally, we discuss the positive effects of antioxidant molecules, such as reducing RS, and their potential in slowing down several diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Selênio , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Vitamina K/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 277-284, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453512

RESUMO

Two female (FL 1, FL 2) and one male (ML) 11-wk-old, intact, captive African lion cubs (Panthera leo leo) were presented with a history of mild vestibular signs. Initial serum vitamin A concentrations were low (140 nmol/L) for ML. Calvarial hyperostosis was confirmed using computed tomography (CT) of the head and cervical vertebrae in each cub. CT measurements were adapted in relation to the skull width. ML showed the most pronounced thickening of the tentorium cerebelli and occipital bone, represented by a tentorium cerebelli to skull width ratio (TCR) of 0.08 (FL 1: 0.06, FL 2: 0.05) and a basisphenoid to skull width ratio (BBR) of 0.07 (FL 1: 0.06, FL 2: 0.04). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebellar herniation and cervical intramedullary T2-weighted hyperintensity from C1, extending caudally for at least two cervical vertebrae in all cubs. Treatment was initiated with subcutaneous vitamin A supplementation and feeding of whole carcasses. Improvement in ataxia was noticed 3 wk later. Follow-up CT and MRI examinations were performed in ML after 3 and 8 mon. The affected bones appeared slightly less thickened and TCR and BBR had decreased to 0.05 after 3 mon. The cerebellum remained mildly herniated, accompanied by amelioration of cervical T2w hyperintensities. After 8 mon, evaluation and diagnostic imaging revealed further improvement regarding the neurologic status and measurements (TCR 0.05, BBR 0.04) despite persistence of a subtle cerebellar herniation. In conclusion, bone remodeling and improvement in clinical signs may be achievable in young lion cubs presented with calvarial hyperostosis and may be attributable to high-dose vitamin A supplementation.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais , Hiperostose , Leões , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina A/veterinária , Encefalocele/complicações , Encefalocele/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalocele/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T
19.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 244, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A and retinoic acid (RA, a metabolite of vitamin A), are inextricably involved to the development of skeletal muscle in animals. However, the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle development by vitamin A remain poorly reported. The current study designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of vitamin A affecting myogenic differentiation of lamb myoblasts through transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and gene function validation experiments. It provides a theoretical basis for elucidating the regulation of vitamin A on skeletal muscle development as well as for improving the economic benefits of the mutton sheep industry. RESULTS: Newborn lambs were injected with 7,500 IU vitamin A, and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle tissue was surgically sampled for RNA-Seq analysis and primary myoblasts isolation at 3 weeks of age. The results showed that a total of 14 down-regulated and 3 up-regulated genes, were identified between control and vitamin A groups. Among them, BHLHE40 expression was upregulated in vitamin A group lambs. Furthermore, BHLHE40 expression is significantly increased after initiation of differentiation in myoblasts, and RA addition during differentiation greatly promoted BHLHE40 mRNA expression. In vitro, RA inhibited myoblasts proliferation and promoted myoblasts myogenic differentiation through BHLHE40. Moreover, BHLHE40 was proved to inhibit the expression of the DNA binding inhibitor 3 (ID3), and meanwhile, ID3 could effectively promote myoblasts proliferation and inhibit myoblasts myogenic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggested that vitamin A inhibited myoblasts proliferation and promoted myoblasts myogenic differentiation by inhibiting ID3 expression through BHLHE40.


Assuntos
Tretinoína , Vitamina A , Animais , Ovinos , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Mioblastos , Músculos Paraespinais
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 60: 102-108, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamins are essential nutrients, taken in very small amounts (0.01-100 mg a day). Associations between vitamin supplement intake or status and the immune system are far from consensual. Our aim was to understand the association between vitamin supplements and the immune system, namely regarding lymphocyte count and immunoglobulin levels against infectious pathogens. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the first follow-up of the CoLaus|PsyCoLaus study (April 2009 to September 2012). Participants were categorized as vitamin users and non-users. Serostatus for 15 viruses, six bacteria, and one parasite was assessed. Data for inflammatory markers (hs-CRP, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and blood elements were also collected. RESULTS: Of the initial 5064 participants, 3769 (74.5 %, mean age 58.3 ± 10.5 years, 53.6 % women) were retained for serostatus. On bivariate analysis, participants taking vitamins presented with higher positivity levels in three markers and lower positivity levels in two, but those differences were no longer statistically significant after multivariable analysis. 4489 participants (88.6 %, mean age 57.7 ± 10.5 years, 53.2 % women) had data for inflammatory markers; no association was found between vitamin supplement use and inflammatory markers both on bivariate and multivariable analysis. Finally, 3349 participants (66.1 %, mean age 57.3 ± 10.3 years, 53.1 % women) had data for blood elements; on bivariate analysis, vitamin supplement users had lower levels of haemoglobin and lymphocytes, but those differences were no longer significant after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional, population-based study, we found no association between vitamin supplement use and markers of immune status.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitaminas , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Vitamina A , Proteína C-Reativa
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