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1.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337645

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to assess whether malnutrition may increase the incidence of oral cancer. Following the PRISMA statement, the research was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE via OVID without any time restrictions. The risk of bias was assessed, and the quality of evidence for each performed meta-analysis was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Sixty-one articles met the inclusion criteria and seven studies underwent quantitative evaluation. For our meta-analysis on hypovitaminosis B, three studies with a total of 90,011 patients were included. An odds ratio of 2.22 was found. Our meta-analysis on the correlation between vitamin C and oral cancer included one study with a total of 866 patients and the derived odds ratio was 1.06. Our meta-analysis on the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the incidence of oral cancer included three studies with a total of 12,087 patients and the odds ratio was -2.58. The GRADE system showed a moderate strength of evidence due to the presence of studies with a high risk of bias and high indirectness of the data given. The present findings suggest that an inadequate intake of vitamins, particularly vitamin D, poses a risk for the onset of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Neoplasias Bucais , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vitaminas , Vitamina D
2.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337664

RESUMO

Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining bone density, building the immune system, and regulating cell growth alongside other key biological functions. Limited data are available about the seasonal variation in vitamin D levels in the pediatric population in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal influence on the pediatric circulating levels of 25(OH)D. A total of 1790 pediatric outpatients who visited the University healthcare centre were included in this study. Overall, there was a noticeably high prevalence (69%) of both combined 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency. The highest mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D was recorded in summer (29 ng/mL) and autumn (27 ng/mL). The deficient and insufficient categories were predominant, accounting for 33% and 36%, respectively. Comparable patterns were recorded during autumn, winter, and spring. Interestingly, the 25(OH)D level was significantly associated with the four seasons (p = 0.001), with females having a higher prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency in the spring and summer than males. Furthermore, only in autumn and winter, we found a significant association between gender and 25(OH)D status (p < 0.001 for both). Another association between nationality and the circulating levels 25(OH)D was found during autumn and winter (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01), respectively. In all seasons, age had a negative impact on serum (OH)D levels. However, this relationship was statistically significant (p < 0.05) only in summer, autumn, and winter. Gender was a significant predictor, with 25(OH)D levels in autumn and winter and an odds ratio of 1.67 in autumn and 2 in winter, indicating that being men had a positive influence on circulating 25(OH)D levels. There were highly significant differences in 25(OH)D concentrations among different age categories. The Saudi population experiences low levels of vitamin D, particularly in autumn and winter periods. This study showed that seasonality, age category, nationality, and gender influence vitamin D status, suggesting the need for tailored intervention and monitoring of 25(OH)D status to reach adequate levels of vitamin D. Healthcare practitioners and policymakers may consider the interplay between age, nationality, gender, and seasonal variations when addressing vitamin D status and a targeted supplementation approach for high-risk groups that may develop health issues.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Estações do Ano , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Calcifediol
3.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337676

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is considered a public health problem due to its worldwide high prevalence and adverse clinical consequences regarding musculoskeletal health. In addition, vitamin D may also be crucial for the prevention of certain extraskeletal diseases. Despite decades of intensive scientific research, several knowledge gaps remain regarding the precise definition of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency, the health benefits of improving vitamin D status, and the required vitamin D intakes. Consequently, various societies and expert groups have released heterogeneous recommendations on the dosages for vitamin D supplementation. In this brief narrative review, we outline and discuss recent advances regarding the scientific evidence arguing for a daily vitamin D supplementation with 2000 international units (IU) (50 µg) of vitamin D3 to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency. According to data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), such a dose may improve some health outcomes and is sufficient to raise and maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) and above 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL) in >99% and >90% of the general adult population, respectively. According to large vitamin D RCTs, there are no significant safety concerns in supplementing such a dose for several years, even in individuals with an already sufficient vitamin D status at baseline. A daily vitamin D supplementation with 2000 IU (50 µg) may be considered a simple, effective, and safe dosage to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency in the adult general population.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Adulto , Humanos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle
4.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337682

RESUMO

The pro-hormone vitamin D3 is an important modulator of both innate and adaptive immunity since its biologically active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates via the transcription factor VDR (vitamin D receptor) the epigenome and transcriptome of human immune cells and controls in this way the expression of hundreds of vitamin D target genes. Since the myeloid linage of hematopoiesis is epigenetically programmed by VDR in concert with the pioneer factors PU.1 (purine-rich box 1) and CEBPα (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α), monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells are the most vitamin D-sensitive immune cell types. The central role of the immune system in various aging-related diseases suggests that immunocompetence describes not only the ability of an individual to resist pathogens and parasites but also to contest non-communicative diseases and the process of aging itself. In this review, we argue that the individual-specific responsiveness to vitamin D relates to a person's immunocompetence via the epigenetic programming function of VDR and its ligand 1,25(OH)2D3 during hematopoiesis as well as in the periphery. This may provide a mechanism explaining how vitamin D protects against major common diseases and, in parallel, promotes healthy aging.


Assuntos
Receptores de Calcitriol , Vitamina D , Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Colecalciferol , Vitaminas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337681

RESUMO

Serum 25(OH)D deficiency consistently demonstrated molecular mechanisms through which chronic inflammation is associated with the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D and NPC. A matched case-control study was conducted at two local hospitals. A total of 300 histologically confirmed NPC cases were matched with controls for age, gender, and ethnicity, and assessed for vitamin D status and other nutritional factors. Mean Vitamin D concentration was significantly lower among cases compared to controls (63.17 ± 19.15 nmol/L and 67.34 ± 23.06 nmol/L) (t = -2.41, p = 0.016). Multiple conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that higher levels of serum 25(OH)D were associated with reduced odds of NPC (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.94, p = 0.016) controlling for confounders including BMI, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, consumption of food high in vitamin D, salted fish consumption, and family history of NPC. There was a significant association between inadequate serum 25(OH)D status with accumulation of four risk factors and increased odds of getting NPC using polynomial regression analysis. Increased NPC odds ratios were observed after sequential accumulation of additional risk factors with the presence of inadequate serum 25(OH)D status (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.27, 4.77, p = 0.322, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.64, 1.72, p = 0.267, OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.73, 1.80, p = 0.067, OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.13, 3.31, p = 0.022, and OR = 5.55, 95% CI = 1.67, 10.3, p < 0.001 respectively). Future research in Malaysia should involve both prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials to confirm and further clarify the role of vitamin D in NPC outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Malásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Calcifediol , Fatores de Risco , Vitaminas , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
6.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337687

RESUMO

(1) Vitamin D deficiency is associated with mortality in the general population and has been observed in one rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. Here, we investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels before methotrexate (MTX) therapy initiation in patients with RA and the subsequent all-cause mortality in a national Veterans Affairs (VA) cohort. (2) This is a retrospective study on RA patients time-oriented around the initial MTX prescription and 25(OH)D levels before starting MTX. We examined survival in patients with 25(OH)D levels > 50 nmol/L and ≤50 nmol/L using the Cox Proportional Hazard Model and fully adjusted for risk factors. (3) In total, 15,109 RA patients were included in the nationwide cohort. RA patients with 25(OH)D levels > 50 nmol/L before starting MTX had a 28% reduced risk of mortality when compared to those with levels ≤ 50 nmol/L (HR: 0.72, CI: 0.64-0.80, p < 0.001) after adjusting for traditional risk factors. (4) In this national RA cohort receiving standard-of-care MTX, patients with 25(OH)D levels > 50 nmol/L have a lower subsequent mortality when compared to those with 25(OH)D levels ≤ 50 nmol/L. It remains to be determined whether increasing Vitamin D levels in RA patients initially found to be Vitamin D deficient impacts their all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Humanos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitamina D , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Vitaminas , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337692

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated a beneficial effect of high-dose vitamin D in pregnancy on offspring bone and dental health. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy on the risk of bone fractures, bone mineralization and enamel defects until age 6 years in the offspring. Further, the influence of diet on the effect of high-dose vitamin D was analyzed in the COPSAC2010 mother-child cohort including 623 mother-child pairs. A weighted network analysis on FFQs revealed three specific maternal dietary patterns that associated (Bonferroni p < 0.05) with both offspring bone and dental health. The effect of prenatal high-dose (2800 IU/day) vs. standard-dose (400 IU/day) vitamin D on offspring bone mineral content (adjusted mean difference (aMD): 33.29 g, 95% CI: 14.48-52.09, p < 0.001), bone mineral density (aMD: 0.02 g/cm2 (0.01-0.04), p < 0.001), fracture risk (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 0.36 (0.16-0.84), p = 0.02), and enamel defects in primary (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.13 (0.03-0.58), p < 0.01) and permanent molars (aOR: 0.25; (0.10-0.63), p < 0.01) was most pronounced when mothers had lower intake of fruit, vegetables, meat, eggs, sweets, whole grain, offal and fish. This study suggests that prenatal dietary patterns influence offspring bone and dental development, and should be considered in order to obtain the full benefits of vitamin D to enhance personalized supplementation strategy.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Vitamina D , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Humanos , Criança , Calcificação Fisiológica , Dieta , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Densidade Óssea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Esmalte Dentário
8.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337700

RESUMO

The definition of "Vitamin D" encompasses a group of fat-soluble steroid compounds of different origins with similar chemical structures and the same biological effects. Vitamin D deficiency and/or a defect in the process of its synthesis or transport predispose individuals to several types of rickets. In addition to cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, and vitamins D3 and D2, there are also active metabolites for the treatment of this condition which are commercially available. Calcitriol and aphacalcidiol are active metabolites that do not require the renal activation step, which is required with calcifediol, or hepatic activation. The purpose of this review is to summarize current approaches to the treatment of rickets for generalist physicians, focusing on the best vitamin D form to be used in each type, or, in the case of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), on both conventional and innovative monoclonal antibody treatments.


Assuntos
Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar , Raquitismo , Humanos , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Raquitismo/tratamento farmacológico , Raquitismo/metabolismo , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/metabolismo , Vitaminas
9.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337732

RESUMO

Sustainable healthy diets are promoted, and consequently vegetarian diets are currently increasing. However, scientific information on their effects on bone health is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed in adults (66% women) classified into three groups: omnivores (n = 93), lacto-ovo vegetarians (n = 96), and vegans (n = 112). Nutrient intake, body composition, physical activity, vitamin D status (25-hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-OHD), parathormone (PTH), and bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, BAP) and resorption (N-telopeptides of type I collagen, NTx) markers were determined. Lacto-ovo vegetarians and especially vegans showed lower protein, fat, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, retinol, iodine, and zinc intakes, and higher carbohydrate, fibre, carotenes, magnesium, and vitamin K intakes compared to omnivores. Body composition was similar in the three groups that performed vigorous physical activity regularly. Body bone mass and muscle mass were positively correlated with BAP, and time performing physical activity with 25-OHD. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (25-OHD < 75 nmol/L) was 93.7% in the studied population, and vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD < 25 nmol/L) was significantly higher in vegans. Vegetarians of both groups had increased PTH and NTx with vegans showing significantly higher PTH and NTx than omnivores. Conclusion: Adult vegetarians, especially vegans, should reduce the risk of bone loss by appropriate diet planning and vitamin D supplementation.


Assuntos
Veganos , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Vitamina D , Estudos Transversais , Vitaminas , Dieta Vegetariana , Dieta , Vegetarianos , Dieta Vegana , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Remodelação Óssea
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339178

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease with different types of mutations that mainly affect the respiratory-digestive system. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and vitamin D (Vit-D) are essential nutrients for maintaining adequate growth and development, as well as key components in crucial metabolic pathways. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and response are decisive components of precision medicine. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate Ca, P, and Vit-D levels along with health and nutritional indicators, regarding their non-skeletal functions, in a series of CF patients. Anthropometric and clinical evaluation, biochemical analysis, dietary survey, and respiratory and pancreatic status were performed. Even though the results showed that all patients had normal dietary and serum Ca levels, 47% of patients had deficient Vit-D intake, 53% of patients had hypovitaminosis D, 35% had insufficient Vit-D levels, 18% had hypophosphatemia, 76% had elevated alkaline phosphate levels, 29% had hypercalciuria, and 65% had hyperphosphaturia. There were no significant differences between homozygous and compound heterozygous patients. Ca, P, and Vit-D levels were associated with body mass index; body composition; physical activity; diet; growth hormones; and the immune, liver, and kidney systems. We suggest a periodically evaluation of Ca and P losses.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Humanos , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Cálcio , Estudos Transversais , Fósforo , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Cálcio da Dieta , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
11.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(2): 143-149, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230310

RESUMO

Background Vitamin D deficiency associates with the risk of developing many diseases, including cancer. At the molecular level, vitamin D appears to have an antineoplastic effect. However, the role of vitamin D deficiency in cancer pathogenesis remains unelucidated and numerous studies have resulted in discordant results. This study aimed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency during melanoma diagnosis increases the risk of developing non-cutaneous second primary cancers (SPC). Materials and methods A retrospective study on 663 patients diagnosed with melanoma between 1 January 2011 and 31 October 2022. The effect of each variable on the development of a subsequent non-cutaneous cancer was performed using Kaplan–Meier curves and differences were assessed by log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazard univariate and multivariate models were used to quantify the effect of each variable in the time to develop a non-cutaneous neoplasia. Results Out of 663 patients, 34 developed a non-cutaneous SPC. There was no statistically significant association between vitamin D levels and non-cutaneous SPC development (log-rank, p=0.761). Age>60 years, stage III/IV, and nodular melanoma subtype were significantly associated with the development of a SPC. After multivariate analysis, only age>60 years (HR 3.4; HR CI 95%: 1.5–7.6) and nodular melanoma subtype (HR 2.2; HR CI 95%: 1.0–4.8) were included in the final model. Conclusions Our results suggest that vitamin D deficiency is not associated with an increased risk of developing non-cutaneous SPC in melanoma patients. However, age over 60 years and nodular melanoma subtype increase the risk for non-cutaneous SPC development (AU)


Antecedentes El déficit de vitamina D se asocia con un mayor riesgo de padecer varias enfermedades, incluido el cáncer. Molecularmente, esta parece tener un efecto antineoplásico. Sin embargo, el papel que juega en la patogénesis del cáncer no está bien esclarecido y hay resultados dispares en los estudios publicados. El objetivo del presente fue determinar si unos niveles de vitamina D deficientes en el momento del diagnóstico del melanoma aumentaba el riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer no cutáneo (CNC). Material y método Se diseñó un estudio retrospectivo de 663 pacientes diagnosticados de melanoma entre el 1 de enero de 2011 y el 31 de octubre de 2022. El efecto de cada una de las variables seleccionadas en el desarrollo de un CNC durante el seguimiento tras el diagnóstico del melanoma se realizó mediante el estudio de supervivencia con el método de Kaplan-Meier y las diferencias se evaluaron con la prueba de los rangos logarítmicos. Se elaboraron modelos uni y multivariados de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para cuantificar el efecto de cada valor de las variables de estudio en el tiempo para desarrollar un CNC. Resultados De los 663 pacientes, 34 desarrollaron un CNC tras el melanoma. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos definidos por los niveles de vitamina D (log-rank, p = 0,761). Sin embargo, una edad > 60, el estadio III/IV, y el tipo nodular se asociaron significativamente al desarrollo de un CNC. Tras el análisis multivariado, solo la edad > 60 (hazard ratio [HR] 3,4; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% HR:1,5-7,6) y el subtipo nodular de melanoma (HR 2,2; IC 95% HR:1,0-4,8) se mantuvieron en el modelo predictivo final. Conclusiones Nuestros resultados sugieren que unos niveles de vitamina D deficientes en el diagnóstico de melanoma no se asocian a un mayor riesgo de desarrollar un CNC. Sin embargo, en una edad > 60 y el subtipo nodular sí que aumentan el riesgo de desarrollar un CNC (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias Cutâneas/sangue , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Melanoma/sangue , Melanoma/patologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco
12.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(2): t143-t149, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-230311

RESUMO

Antecedentes El déficit de vitamina D se asocia con un mayor riesgo de padecer varias enfermedades, incluido el cáncer. Molecularmente, esta parece tener un efecto antineoplásico. Sin embargo, el papel que juega en la patogénesis del cáncer no está bien esclarecido y hay resultados dispares en los estudios publicados. El objetivo del presente fue determinar si unos niveles de vitamina D deficientes en el momento del diagnóstico del melanoma aumentaba el riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer no cutáneo (CNC). Material y método Se diseñó un estudio retrospectivo de 663 pacientes diagnosticados de melanoma entre el 1 de enero de 2011 y el 31 de octubre de 2022. El efecto de cada una de las variables seleccionadas en el desarrollo de un CNC durante el seguimiento tras el diagnóstico del melanoma se realizó mediante el estudio de supervivencia con el método de Kaplan-Meier y las diferencias se evaluaron con la prueba de los rangos logarítmicos. Se elaboraron modelos uni y multivariados de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para cuantificar el efecto de cada valor de las variables de estudio en el tiempo para desarrollar un CNC. Resultados De los 663 pacientes, 34 desarrollaron un CNC tras el melanoma. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos definidos por los niveles de vitamina D (log-rank, p = 0,761). Sin embargo, una edad > 60, el estadio III/IV, y el tipo nodular se asociaron significativamente al desarrollo de un CNC. Tras el análisis multivariado, solo la edad > 60 (hazard ratio [HR] 3,4; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% HR:1,5-7,6) y el subtipo nodular de melanoma (HR 2,2; IC 95% HR:1,0-4,8) se mantuvieron en el modelo predictivo final. Conclusiones Nuestros resultados sugieren que unos niveles de vitamina D deficientes en el diagnóstico de melanoma no se asocian a un mayor riesgo de desarrollar un CNC. Sin embargo, en una edad > 60 y el subtipo nodular sí que aumentan el riesgo de desarrollar un CNC (AU)


Background Vitamin D deficiency associates with the risk of developing many diseases, including cancer. At the molecular level, vitamin D appears to have an antineoplastic effect. However, the role of vitamin D deficiency in cancer pathogenesis remains unelucidated and numerous studies have resulted in discordant results. This study aimed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency during melanoma diagnosis increases the risk of developing non-cutaneous second primary cancers (SPC). Materials and methods A retrospective study on 663 patients diagnosed with melanoma between 1 January 2011 and 31 October 2022. The effect of each variable on the development of a subsequent non-cutaneous cancer was performed using Kaplan–Meier curves and differences were assessed by log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazard univariate and multivariate models were used to quantify the effect of each variable in the time to develop a non-cutaneous neoplasia. Results Out of 663 patients, 34 developed a non-cutaneous SPC. There was no statistically significant association between vitamin D levels and non-cutaneous SPC development (log-rank, p=0.761). Age>60 years, stage III/IV, and nodular melanoma subtype were significantly associated with the development of a SPC. After multivariate analysis, only age>60 years (HR 3.4; HR CI 95%: 1.5–7.6) and nodular melanoma subtype (HR 2.2; HR CI 95%: 1.0–4.8) were included in the final model. Conclusions Our results suggest that vitamin D deficiency is not associated with an increased risk of developing non-cutaneous SPC in melanoma patients. However, age over 60 years and nodular melanoma subtype increase the risk for non-cutaneous SPC development (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias Cutâneas/sangue , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Melanoma/sangue , Melanoma/patologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco
13.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 132(2): 91-97, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373702

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a major regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney, and its higher levels in plasma are associated with poorer outcomes in kidney and cardiovascular diseases. It is produced by bone cells upon enhanced oxidative stress and inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and calcitriol (active form of vitamin D) production. Bilirubin, the final product of the heme catabolic pathway in the vascular bed, has versatile biological functions, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study explored whether bilirubin alters FGF23 production. METHODS: Experiments were performed using UMR106 osteoblast-like cells. Fgf23 transcript levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, C-terminal and intact FGF23 protein levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cellular oxidative stress was assessed by CellROX assay. RESULTS: Unconjugated bilirubin down-regulated Fgf23 gene transcription and FGF23 protein abundance; these effects were paralleled by lower cellular oxidative stress levels. Also, conjugated bilirubin reduced Fgf23 mRNA abundance. CONCLUSION: Bilirubin down-regulates FGF23 production in UMR106 cells, an effect likely to be dependent on the reduction of cellular oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina , Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos 23 , Bilirrubina/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Osteoblastos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Vitamina D
14.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(2): 1260-1270, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315019

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common retinal disorder, developed in 35% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Lower serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with the increased risk of developing DR. High doses of the active form of vitamin D (VD), on the contrary, for a long period of time may lead to hypercalcemia and an imbalance in the regulation of bone metabolism. Herein, we studied the efficacy of dextran-gated carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA)-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for glucose-sensitive delivery of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to modulate cellular oxidative stress and inflammation for managing DR. The physical adsorption technique was employed to load VD onto nanoparticles (263.63 µg/mg (w/w)). In the presence of glucose, the dextran molecules detach from pores, allowing VD to release since glucose has 1,2-cis diol groups which have very high affinity to CPBA. Approximately 75% of VD was released upon exposure to 25 mM glucose at a time point of 10 h, demonstrating glucose-responsive delivery. Furthermore, MSN-CPBA was able to deliver VD in a glucose-dependent manner and improve the bioavailability of VD. In high-glucose-supplemented human retinal cells, MSN-CPBA increased the bioavailability of VD and reduced cellular oxidative stress and inflammation. The results suggested that the VD-loaded nanocarrier exerted remarkable therapeutic capacity in reducing the risk of developing DR. By using MSN-CPBA as a delivery platform with dextran gating, the research proposes an effective treatment approach for improving the bioavailability and effectiveness of a hydrophobic molecule in the treatment of DR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Dextranos , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Dióxido de Silício/química , Glucose , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Inflamação
15.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 95, 2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368573

RESUMO

Myopia is a worldwide public health problem of vision disorder caused by multiple factors, which has posed a huge socioeconomic burden, raising concerns about sight-threatening ocular complications. Vitamin D, as a kind of fat-soluble vitamin, related to time-spent-outdoors, has been considered by extensive studies to have potential relationship with myopia. We reviewed studies published in a decade which estimated the association of blood vitamin D status with myopia and summarized the universality and individuality of all research articles. Several research articles suggested the known environmental risk factors of myopia, including age, gender, ethnicity, education level, parental and school conditions, time-spent-outdoors, and sunlight exposure, and recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that increased vitamin D levels, by virtue of the extended outdoor time, may be an important modifiable factor and a protective effect that delay the progression of myopia in children and adolescents rather than in adults. The genetic studies have been conducted to get access to the evidence of gene polymorphism for explaining the association of serum vitamin D status and myopia, but the precise genetic interpretation of vitamin D and myopia remains unclear so far; on the other hand, the possible mechanisms are various like copolymerization mechanism, calcium homeostasis and imbalance of ciliary muscle function regulation, but nearly all of the investigators are inclined to remain skeptical. This article reviews the age-related epidemiological proofs, existent genetics correlations, possible underlying biological mechanisms and further values for the protective association between vitamin D and myopia, providing the possibility of prevention or postponement for myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Vitamina D , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Vitaminas , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Corpo Ciliar , Escolaridade
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 115, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in infants. As this food allergy indicates a wide range of clinical syndromes due to immunological reactions to cow's milk proteins, we aimed to evaluate the status of micronutrients in infants suffering from cow's milk allergy. METHODS: In this historical cohort study, infants with CMA were divided into two equal groups: breastfeeding and diet formula feeding. Data were gathered by a form, including the micronutrients such as iron, selenium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and vitamin D. Groups were compared and data were analyzed by the IBM SPSS version 21. RESULTS: This study involved 60 six-month-old infants, and the findings revealed no significant difference between the two groups concerning magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, and vitamin D. However, infants in the formula-feeding group exhibited significantly elevated mean serum levels of iron and selenium, whereas breastfed infants displayed higher levels of calcium. CONCLUSION: The findings of this research revealed a significant difference in calcium, selenium, and iron levels between formula-fed and breastfed infants, even though all variables were within the normal range for both groups. In light of these results, conducting further studies with a larger sample size and extended follow-up periods becomes imperative.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Selênio , Lactente , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Leite Humano , Estudos de Coortes , Micronutrientes , Cálcio , Dieta , Aleitamento Materno , Vitamina D , Ferro , Fósforo , Zinco
17.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0287125, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354201

RESUMO

Serum vitamin D levels were linked to lipid metabolism in observational studies, but the exact mechanism was unclear. Several studies have attempted to decipher the relationship between 25(OH)D and lipid levels. Conventional observational studies are vulnerable to confounding. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis can better control for confounding factors and reverse causality, allowing for the inference of causal association. We, therefore, sought to use MR to investigate the possible causal relationship between 25(OH)D and blood lipid levels (HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol). A bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was performed on data primarily from European ancestors. In addition, the potential causal effect of lipids on 25(OH)D was assessed by regressor-based multivariate magnetic resonance (MVMR). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to 25(OH)D were selected from a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) database named IEU GWAS, and the SNPs associated with the four blood lipids were chosen from UK Biobank (UKB) lipid GWAS. When blood lipids were the outcome, the results of bidirectional two-sample MR demonstrated that 25(OH)D exhibited a negative causal association with TG, TC, and LDL-C: ß = - 0.23, 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19, P<0.001; ß = - 0.16, 95% CI: - 0.30 to-0.03, P < 0.05; ß = - 0.11, 95% CI: - 0.23 to 0, P < 0.05. There was no causal relationship between 25(OH)D and HDL-C (ß = 0.05, 95% CI: - 0.11 to 0.20, P = 0.56). When setting blood lipids as exposure, TG and 25(OH)D, ß = -0.13, 95% CI: - 0.15 to -0.10, P < 0.05; TC and 25(OH)D, ß = -0.11, 95% CI: - 0.15 to -0.07, P < 0.05; HDL-C and 25(OH)D, ß = 0.02, 95% CI: 0 to 0.03, P = 0.07; LDL-C and 25(OH)D, ß = -0.08, 95% CI: - 0.11 to -0.05, P < 0.05). Our MVMR study also showed a significant relationship between genetically determined lipid traits and 25(OH)D levels (TG and 25(OH)D, P < 0.05; TC and 25(OH)D, P < 0.05). In all MR analyses, there was no horizontal pleiotropy (all P > 0.05), or statistical heterogeneity. The "Leave-one-out" sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of our results. MR Studies have shown a bidirectional causal relationship between genetically-determined 25(OH)D levels and serum TG and TC levels. The findings have potential implications for etiological understanding and disease prevention.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , LDL-Colesterol , Calcifediol , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 97(4): 1939-1950, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339931

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D has neuroprotective and immunomodulating functions that may impact glial cell function in the brain. Previously, we reported molecular and behavioral changes caused by deficiency and supplementation of vitamin D in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. Recent studies have highlighted reactive astrocytes as a new therapeutic target for AD treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of vitamin D on the glial cells of AD remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the potential association between vitamin D deficiency/supplementation and the pathological progression of AD, including amyloid-ß (Aß) pathology and reactive astrogliosis. Methods: Transgenic hemizygous 5XFAD male mice were subjected to different dietary interventions and intraperitoneal vitamin D injections to examine the effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on AD. Brain tissue was then analyzed using immunohistochemistry for Aß plaques, microglia, and astrocytes, with quantifications performed via ImageJ software. Results: Our results demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency exacerbated Aß plaque formation and increased GABA-positive reactive astrocytes in AD model mice, while vitamin D supplementation ameliorated these effects, leading to a reduction in Aß plaques and GABA-positive astrocytes. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the significant impact of vitamin D status on Aß pathology and reactive astrogliosis, underscoring its potential role in the prevention and treatment of AD. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of the association between vitamin D and reactive astrogliosis in AD model mice, indicating the potential for targeting vitamin D levels as a novel therapeutic approach for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Gliose/tratamento farmacológico , Gliose/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Transgênicos , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico , Modelos Animais de Doenças
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1327623, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362274

RESUMO

Background: Elderly people are at high risk of falls due to decreased muscle strength. So far, there is currently no officially approved medication for treating muscle strength loss. The active vitamin D analogues are promising but inconsistent results have been reported in previous studies. The present study was to meta-analyze the effect of active vitamin D analogues on muscle strength and falls in elderly people. Methods: The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (record number: CRD42021266978). We searched two databases including PubMed and Cochrane Library up until August 2023. Risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the effects of active vitamin D analogues on muscle strength or falls. Results: Regarding the effects of calcitriol (n= 1), alfacalcidol (n= 1) and eldecalcitol (n= 1) on falls, all included randomized controlled trials (RCT) recruited 771 participants. Regarding the effects of the effects of calcitriol (n= 4), alfacalcidol (n= 3) and eldecalcitol (n= 3) on muscle strength, all included RCTs recruited 2431 participants. The results showed that in the pooled analysis of three active vitamin D analogues, active vitamin D analogues reduced the risk of fall by 19%. Due to a lack of sufficient data, no separate subgroup analysis was conducted on the effect of each active vitamin D analogue on falls. In the pooled and separate analysis of active vitamin D analogues, no significant effects were found on global muscle, hand grip, and back extensor strength. However, a significant enhancement of quadriceps strength was observed in the pooled analysis and separate analysis of alfacalcidol and eldecalcitol. The separate subgroup analysis on the impact of calcitriol on the quadriceps strength was not performed due to the lack to sufficient data. The results of pooled and separate subgroup analysis of active vitamin D analogues with or without calcium supplementation showed that calcium supplementation did not affect the effect of vitamin D on muscle strength. Conclusions: The use of active vitamin D analogues does not improve global muscle, hand grip, and back extensor strength but improves quadriceps strength and reduces risk of falls in elderly population.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Calcitriol , Humanos , Idoso , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Cálcio , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitamina D , Força Muscular
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