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1.
Cognition ; 230: 105253, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215763

RESUMO

When seeing someone's face or hearing their voice, perceivers routinely infer information about a person's age, sex and social traits. While many experiments have explored how individual person characteristics are perceived in isolation, less is known about which person characteristics are described spontaneously from voices and faces and how descriptions may differ across modalities. In Experiment 1, participants provided free descriptions for voices and faces. These free descriptions followed similar patterns for voices and faces - and for individual identities: Participants spontaneously referred to a wide range of descriptors. Psychological descriptors, such as character traits, were used most frequently; physical characteristics, such as age and sex, were notable as they were mentioned earlier than other types of descriptors. After finding primarily similarities between modalities when analysing person descriptions across identities, Experiment 2 asked whether free descriptions encode how individual identities differ. For this purpose, the measures derived from the free descriptions were linked to voice/face discrimination judgements that are known to describe differences in perceptual properties between identity pairs. Significant relationships emerged within and across modalities, showing that free descriptions indeed encode differences between identities - information that is shared with discrimination judgements. This suggests that the two tasks tap into similar, high-level person representations. These findings show that free description data can offer valuable insights into person perception and underline that person perception is a multivariate process during which perceivers rapidly and spontaneously infer many different person characteristics to form a holistic impression of a person.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Psicológico , Voz , Humanos
2.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103864, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007451

RESUMO

Voice assistants (VA) are virtual agents used to aid information seeking. Cues contained in speech, such as perceived gender and vocal pitch, may influence attitudes towards, and interactions with these agents. Given expansion of telehealth efforts and the potential for VA to advise patients on health-related topics outside of formal healthcare settings, the influence of VA vocal characteristics is examined in the context of medication instructions. Participants rated trust and reliance on VA after viewing medication labels and hearing recommendations from male and female agents with varying pitch. Results suggest agents perceived as female were rated as more trustworthy, while vocal pitch did not significantly influence trust. However, a trend of lower reliance with increasing pitch was observed. Additionally, participants relied significantly more on VA advice than medication labels when making decisions. Post-hoc analyses revealed trust and reliance primarily varied between participants. Pitch and gender explained only a small portion of within-participant variance. We found suggestive evidence for social categorizations distilled from vocal cues influencing interactions with agents delivering health-critical information. Future work should explore additional samples, vocal cues, and participant-level sources of variation.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Voz , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Confiança , Fala , Sinais (Psicologia)
4.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(12): 17-24, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441065

RESUMO

One of the greatest challenges for older, homebound patients receiving health care is accessibility, particularly following a hospitalization. The current study evaluates the effects of using voice-activated technology in the homes of recently discharged patients and its effects on health care outcomes. Voice-based software was embedded in a smart device, which allowed patients to ask questions and receive answers about their own specific care plan. A pre-post study design was used. Forty-eight patients completed the pre and post survey. There was a 63% reduction in emergency department visits and a 26% reduction in physician calls. There was no change in the number of patients requiring hospitalization. More than one half of patients used the smart device daily for their health care needs. More than 70% of patients believed the device was helpful for their general health care needs and assisted in the achievement of care goals. This is the first study of its kind to evaluate patient engagement and outcomes after the use of a smart device with embedded health care directions. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 48(12), 17-24.].


Assuntos
Enfermagem Geriátrica , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Voz , Humanos , Idoso , Tecnologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente
5.
Trials ; 23(1): 966, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443805

RESUMO

It is increasingly recognized that involving patients and the public in the design of clinical trials can lead to better recruitment, retention, and satisfaction. A recent scoping review determined that between 1985 and 2018, just 23 articles meeting quality criteria obtained feedback from clinical trial participants after a trial had been completed. In a timespan that presumably included thousands of trials across hundreds of indications, the paucity of the literature seems surprising, if not outright disappointing. By contrast, practitioners in the life sciences industry are increasingly incorporating patient research into their trial design process before, during, and after trial completion. Examples of approaches used include recruitment of "look alike" participant samples through online communities, surveys, and the use of smartphone apps to directly record participants' spoken reactions to trial materials like recruitment materials, site visit schedules, or informed consent materials. However, commercial organizations tend not to publish their findings, leading to a potential two-tier experience for trial participants depending on whether the trial they participate in will be industry-funded or government-funded. This seems problematic on a number of levels. Increasing regulatory, funder, and publisher interest in improving the inclusivity of clinical trial participants may act as a timely lever to spur patient-centered coproduction of trials. Until continuous feedback processes are the mandated, funded, and published norm, participating in a clinical trial will be more arduous than it needs to be.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Voz , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 494, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446775

RESUMO

Psychopathy is associated with severe deviations in social behavior and cognition. While previous research described such cognitive and neural alterations in the processing of rather specific social information from human expressions, some open questions remain concerning central and differential neurocognitive deficits underlying psychopathic behavior. Here we investigated three rather unexplored factors to explain these deficits, first, by assessing psychopathy subtypes in social cognition, second, by investigating the discrimination of social communication sounds (speech, non-speech) from other non-social sounds, and third, by determining the neural overlap in social cognition impairments with autistic traits, given potential common deficits in the processing of communicative voice signals. The study was exploratory with a focus on how psychopathic and autistic traits differentially influence the function of social cognitive and affective brain networks in response to social voice stimuli. We used a parametric data analysis approach from a sample of 113 participants (47 male, 66 female) with ages ranging between 18 and 40 years (mean 25.59, SD 4.79). Our data revealed four important findings. First, we found a phenotypical overlap between secondary but not primary psychopathy with autistic traits. Second, primary psychopathy showed various neural deficits in neural voice processing nodes (speech, non-speech voices) and in brain systems for social cognition (mirroring, mentalizing, empathy, emotional contagion). Primary psychopathy also showed deficits in the basal ganglia (BG) system that seems specific to the social decoding of communicative voice signals. Third, neural deviations in secondary psychopathy were restricted to social mirroring and mentalizing impairments, but with additional and so far undescribed deficits at the level of auditory sensory processing, potentially concerning deficits in ventral auditory stream mechanisms (auditory object identification). Fourth, high autistic traits also revealed neural deviations in sensory cortices, but rather in the dorsal auditory processing streams (communicative context encoding). Taken together, social cognition of voice signals shows considerable deviations in psychopathy, with differential and newly described deficits in the BG system in primary psychopathy and at the neural level of sensory processing in secondary psychopathy. These deficits seem especially triggered during the social cognition from vocal communication signals.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Voz , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cognição Social , Comunicação , Fala
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19820, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396747

RESUMO

Theories of the origin of musical scales from the ancient Greeks to the present day have assumed that the intervals comprising scales are defined by specific mathematical ratios. Such theories are predicated on pre-tunable instruments, and yet the voice is almost certainly the original musical instrument. Therefore, the analysis of vocal scales offers a more naturalistic approach to understanding the origin of musical scales. In the present study, we conducted a large-scale computational analysis of vocal pitch-class properties and their implications for scale structure. We analyzed 418 field recordings of solo, unaccompanied songs from across 10 principal musical-style regions of the world. The results revealed a mean vocal pitch-class imprecision of approximately 1.5 semitones, and comparable results were obtained across all regions. These results suggest that vocal imprecision is universal and is mainly derived from the physiological limitations of the voice. Such vocal imprecision fundamentally constrains the formation of musical scale structure: it provides a lower limit on the spacing between adjacent scale tones and thus an upper limit on the number of scale tones that an octave can contain. We discuss these results in terms of an Interval Spacing model of the evolution of musical scales.


Assuntos
Música , Voz , Humanos
8.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 166: 281-312, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424095

RESUMO

With the advent of novel advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) for neurodegenerative diseases, their pathway to clinical trials and the therapeutic landscape has highlighted some new challenges, many of which are outlined in other chapters of this volume. The practical considerations of all these aspects from basic research and animal models through to clinical trials and eventual clinical implementation are significant. By and large, the major voices surrounding these challenges are the scientists and clinical teams who both develop the interventions and design and deliver the clinical trials to test these novel ATMPs. Their expertise is of course essential, but there is a key voice that can add considerable benefit to the pipeline, that of the lived experience of the disease being treated and the new intervention being considered. While still in their relative infancy in neurodegenerative disease, some ATMPs are already in clinical application in other disease areas, mainly cancer and inherited disorders. This more advanced status has raised some interesting questions about the role of the patient voice across all aspects of the therapeutic research and clinical delivery pipeline. This chapter highlights what has been learnt from the patient voice in their understanding and perspectives of ATMPs and in their experiences of clinical trials in neurodegenerative diseases to date. We discuss when, and how, including people living with neurodegenerative disease is of value in the development and implementation of ATMPs and the questions this collaborative effort can allow us to answer.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Voz , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Audição , Terapia Genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429380

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has made evident the exclusion to which older people may be subjected for reasons of age. This study delves into the cultural image of older adults during the pandemic from the perspective of people between 60 and 81 years of age. Through a qualitative methodology, the voices of 37 people have been collected through in-depth interviews. Two main themes are derived from the inductive analysis: on the one hand, the devaluation of older people, and on the other hand, the positive image of the older population as older and valid. We conclude that people over 60 years of age in the Basque Country denounce the stigma of low capacity attributed to the older population during the pandemic. They reject the signs of age-based overprotection manifested during the pandemic and highlight the vital experience by which older people could be considered referents in situations of social crisis. They reflect on the initiatives necessary to improve the cultural image of the older population and point out the opportunities for active ageing, education based on values and intergenerational relationships.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Voz , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estigma Social , Escolaridade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429494

RESUMO

Citizen science research that more fully engages the community can systematically involve people from under-resourced groups to create practical health-enhancing improvements across physical, social and food environments. Exemplary health equity-focused outcomes include key health behaviors (e.g., healthy eating or physical activity) and community-level changes (e.g., public transit to food shops) that are central to health promotion while being demonstrably impacted by local environmental contexts. Yet, few examples of this approach are readily available for application within complex, community-based settings. In this paper, we present the Our Voice (OV) four-step method to demonstrate an integrated participatory citizen science approach and its usability for action-focused researchers and community health practitioners. In addition, we present a summary of the major research, processes, and community outcomes, with examples drawn from nutrition and healthy food access areas, among others. Finally, we explore the hallmark features of the OV method that effectively engage citizen scientists, empowering action and fostering solution-building across social and environmental structures impacting community health. Expanding research that marries participatory research philosophies with innovative citizen science methods, supported by systematic data collection, visualization, and delivery technologies, in turn provides a powerful toolkit for tackling local to global health equity challenges.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Equidade em Saúde , Psiquiatria , Voz , Humanos , Filosofia
11.
Behav Processes ; 203: 104755, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191757

RESUMO

In Western cultures, humans tend to use a specific kind of speech when talking to their pets, characterised, from an acoustical point of view, by elevated pitch and greater pitch modulation. Pet-directed speech (PDS), which has been mainly studied in dogs, shares some acoustic features with infant-directed speech (IDS), used when talking to young children. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adult humans also modify characteristics of their voice when talking to a cat. We compared acoustic parameters of speech directed to cats (CDS) and speech directed to adult humans (ADS). In a first experiment, we compared ADS and CDS utterances of male and female participants, addressing cats through video recordings, under controlled laboratory conditions. Both men and women used a higher pitch (mean fundamental frequency, or mean F0) in CDS vs. ADS. The second experiment was conducted under conditions allowing direct cat-human interactions, in a cohort of women. Once again, mean F0 was significantly higher in CDS vs. ADS. Overall, these data confirm our hypothesis that humans change the way they speak when addressing a cat, mainly by increasing the pitch of their voice. Further research is needed to fully investigate specificities of this speech.


Assuntos
Fala , Voz , Lactente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Cães , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Acústica , Idioma , Gravação em Vídeo
12.
Codas ; 35(1): e20210214, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36259820

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop the Videokymographic Index of Glottic Function (VIGF), a composite indicator from digital videokymography parameters, captured by high-speed videolaryngoscopy exams of women with and without laryngeal alterations of behavioral etiology. METHODS: The sample consisted of 92 women aged between 18 and 45 years. Fifty-five (55) women with behavioral dysphonia, presenting with laryngeal and voice alterations, and thirty-seven (37) women without any laryngeal and voice alterations. Voice evaluation was performed by consensus via an auditory-perceptual analysis of the sustained vowel /a/ at a habitual pitch and loudness. Voice classification was obtained by means of a general degree of dysphonia, where G0 indicated neutral voice quality and G1 to G3 indicated altered voice quality. Laryngeal images were captured via digital videokymography analysis of a sustained vowel /i/ at a habitual pitch and loudness. The VIGF was based on the midpoint of the glottal region for analysis. Logistic regression was performed using the MINITAB 19 program. RESULTS: Logistic regression was composed of two stages: Stage 1 consisted of the analysis of all variables, where the maximum opening and closed quotient variables showed statistical significance (p-value <0.05) and the model was well adjusted according to the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p-value=0.794). Stage 2 consisted of the re-analysis of the selected variables, also showing a well-adjusted model (p-value=0.198). The VIGF was defined as follows: VIGF=e^(8.1318-0.2941AbMax-0.0703FechGlo)/1+e^(8.1318-0.2941AbMax-0.0703FechGlo). CONCLUSION: The VIGF demonstrated a cut-off value equal to 0.71. The probability of success was 81.5%, sensitivity 76.4%, and specificity 89.2%.


OBJETIVO: Elaborar um indicador composto denominado Índice Videoquimográfico da Função Glótica ­ IVFG, a partir de parâmetros da videoquimografia digital, captados pelo exame de videolaringoscopia de alta velocidade de mulheres sem e com alterações laríngeas de etiologia comportamental. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por 92 mulheres, destas 55 apresentaram disfonia comportamental, com presença de alterações laríngeas e vocais, e 37 mulheres sem alterações laríngeas e vocais, entre 18 a 45 anos. A avaliação vocal foi realizada por consenso pela análise perceptivo-auditiva da vogal /a/ em frequência e intensidade habituais, e classificação através do grau geral da disfonia, onde G0 indicou qualidade vocal neutra e G1 a 3 qualidade vocal alterada. As imagens laríngeas foram obtidas pela gravação da emissão da vogal /i/, em frequência e intensidade habituais para análise da videoquimografia digital. A construção do IVFG se deu pela escolha do ponto médio da glote para análise e, elaboração foi realizada regressão logística pelo programa MINITAB 19. RESULTADOS: A regressão logística contou com duas etapas, sendo que a etapa 1 constou da análise de todas as variáveis, onde as variáveis abertura máxima e fechamento glótico apresentaram significância estatística (p-valor <0.05) e o modelo se encontrou bem ajustado de acordo com o teste de Hosmer-Lemeshow (p-valor=0,794); na etapa 2, as variáveis selecionadas foram novamente analisadas e o modelo também se mostrou bem ajustado (p-valor=0,198). O IVFG foi definido por IVFG=e


Assuntos
Disfonia , Laringe , Voz , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Voz , Rouquidão
13.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(4): 238-249, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211643

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivos: En la actualidad hay pocos estudios que definan el perfil psicolingüístico de las personas con el síndrome de deleción de 22q11 (S22q11) con el castellano y/o el catalán como lengua materna. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir las características de la voz y el habla de las personas con el S22q11. Método: Se realizó un estudio con una muestra de 30 sujetos de entre 5 y 21 años (12.14±4.20) con S22q11. Se administraron cuestionarios ad hoc a los padres y se evaluó la voz, la ejecución de praxias bucofonatorias, la discriminación auditiva y el habla de los participantes. Resultados: Más de la mitad de los participantes tenían una voz más aguda de lo esperado por sexo y edad, y la mitad mostraba signos de hipofonía, a pesar de que los resultados de intensidad máxima mostraban que podrían utilizar una mayor intensidad. En cuanto al habla, los participantes más jóvenes presentaban un retraso en la adquisición de fonemas (excepto consonantes nasales) en comparación con su grupo normativo, y la mayoría hizo uso del sonido compensatorio ʔ. Los participantes mayores de 8 años producían correctamente los fonemas de adquisición tardía, aunque persistieron dificultades específicas de articulación. Conclusiones: Los participantes mostraron características específicas de voz y habla.(AU)


Background and objectives: Currently there are few studies that define the psycholinguistic profile of people with 22q11 deletion syndrome (S22q11) with Spanish and/or Catalan as their mother tongue. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of the voice and speech of people with S22q11. Method: A study was performed with a sample of 30 subjects aged between 5 and 21 years (12.14±4.20) with S22q11. Ad hoc questionnaires were administered to parents, and participants’ voice, execution of oral praxis, hearing discrimination, and speech were assessed. Results: More than half of the participants had a sharper voice than expected by sex and age, and half showed signs of hypophonia, although the maximum intensity results showed that they could use more intensity. In terms of speech, the younger participants had a delay in the acquisition of phonemes (except nasal consonants) compared to their normative group, and most made use of the compensatory sound ʔ. Participants older than 8 years correctly produced late-acquisition phonemes, although specific articulation difficulties persisted. Conclusions: Participants showed specific voice and speech characteristics.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11 , Voz , Fala , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Comunicação , Fonoaudiologia , Audiologia
14.
JASA Express Lett ; 2(9): 095203, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182345

RESUMO

Most prior research focuses on the reduced amplitude of speech caused by facemasks. This paper argues that the interaction between the acoustic properties of a facemask and the acoustic properties of the vocal tract contributes to speech distortion by changing the formants of the voice. Speech distortion of a number of masks was tested by measuring the increase in damping of the first formant. Results suggest that masks dampen the first formant and that increasing the distance between the mask wall and mouth can reduce this distortion. These findings contribute to the research studying the impact of masks on speech.


Assuntos
Fala , Voz , Acústica , Máscaras , Boca
16.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275721, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206238

RESUMO

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with multiple motor and non-motor characteristics. PD patients commonly face vocal impairments during the early stages of the disease. In this article, the aim is to explain the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) as a measure of the progression of Parkinson's disease using a set of covariates obtained from voice signals. In particular, a Support Vector Regression (SVR) model based on a combination of kernel functions is introduced. Theoretically, this proposal, that relies on a mixed kernel (global and local) produces an admissible kernel function. The optimal fitting was obtained for the combination given by the product of radial and polynomial basis. Important results are the non-linear relationships inferred from the features to the response, as well as a considerable improvement in prediction performance metrics, when compared to other learning approaches. Furthermore, with knowledge on factors such as age and gender, it is possible to describe the dynamics of patients' UPDRS from the data collected during their monitoring. In summary, these advances could expand learning processes and intelligent systems to assist in monitoring the evolution of Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Voz , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
17.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275915, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215311

RESUMO

Cultural context shapes the way that emotions are expressed and socially interpreted. Building on previous research looking at cultural differences in judgements of facial expressions, we examined how listeners recognize speech-embedded emotional expressions and make inferences about a speaker's feelings in relation to their vocal display. Canadian and Chinese participants categorized vocal expressions of emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness) expressed at different intensity levels in three languages (English, Mandarin, Hindi). In two additional tasks, participants rated the intensity of each emotional expression and the intensity of the speaker's feelings from the same stimuli. Each group was more accurate at recognizing emotions produced in their native language (in-group advantage). However, Canadian and Chinese participants both judged the speaker's feelings to be equivalent or more intense than their actual display (especially for highly aroused, negative emotions), suggesting that similar inference rules were applied to vocal expressions by the two cultures in this task. Our results provide new insights on how people categorize and interpret speech-embedded vocal expressions versus facial expressions and what cultural factors are at play.


Assuntos
Idioma , Voz , Canadá , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Humanos
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17144, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229474

RESUMO

Emotional prosody results from the dynamic variation of language's acoustic non-verbal aspects that allow people to convey and recognize emotions. The goal of this paper is to understand how this recognition develops from childhood to adolescence. We also aim to investigate how the ability to perceive multiple emotions in the voice matures over time. We tested 133 children and adolescents, aged between 6 and 17 years old, exposed to 4 kinds of linguistically meaningless emotional (anger, fear, happiness, and sadness) and neutral stimuli. Participants were asked to judge the type and intensity of perceived emotion on continuous scales, without a forced choice task. As predicted, a general linear mixed model analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between age and emotion. The ability to recognize emotions significantly increased with age for both emotional and neutral vocalizations. Girls recognized anger better than boys, who instead confused fear with neutral prosody more than girls. Across all ages, only marginally significant differences were found between anger, happiness, and neutral compared to sadness, which was more difficult to recognize. Finally, as age increased, participants were significantly more likely to attribute multiple emotions to emotional prosody, showing that the representation of emotional content becomes increasingly complex. The ability to identify basic emotions in prosody from linguistically meaningless stimuli develops from childhood to adolescence. Interestingly, this maturation was not only evidenced in the accuracy of emotion detection, but also in a complexification of emotion attribution in prosody.


Assuntos
Emoções , Voz , Adolescente , Ira , Criança , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231165

RESUMO

Safety voice has become a popular research topic in the organizational safety field because it helps to prevent accidents. A good safety climate and psychological safety can motivate employees to actively express their ideas about safety, but the specific mechanisms of safety climate and psychological safety, on safety voice, are not yet clear. Based on the "environment-subject cognition-behavior" triadic interaction model of social cognitive theory, this paper explores the relationship between safety climate and safety voice, and the mediating role of psychological safety. We collected questionnaires and conducted data analysis of the valid questionnaires using analytical methods such as hierarchical regression, stepwise regression, and the bootstrap sampling method. We found that safety climate significantly and positively influenced safety voice, and psychological safety played a mediating role between safety climate and safety voice, which strengthened the positive relationship between them. From the research results, it was clear that to stimulate employees to express safety voice behavior, organizations should strive to create a good safety climate and pay attention to building employees' psychological safety. The findings of this paper provide useful insights for the management of employee safety voice behavior in enterprises.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Voz , Cognição , Humanos , Organizações , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 341: 111499, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283276

RESUMO

Expert testimony is only admissible in common law if it will potentially assist the trier of fact to make a decision that they would not be able to make unaided. The present paper addresses the question of whether speaker identification by an individual lay listener (such as a judge) would be more or less accurate than the output of a forensic-voice-comparison system that is based on state-of-the-art automatic-speaker-recognition technology. Listeners listen to and make probabilistic judgements on pairs of recordings reflecting the conditions of the questioned- and known-speaker recordings in an actual case. Reflecting different courtroom contexts, listeners with different language backgrounds are tested: Some are familiar with the language and accent spoken, some are familiar with the language but less familiar with the accent, and others are less familiar with the language. Also reflecting different courtroom contexts: In one condition listeners make judgements based only on listening, and in another condition listeners make judgements based on both listening to the recordings and considering the likelihood-ratio values output by the forensic-voice-comparison system.


Assuntos
Voz , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Medicina Legal , Prova Pericial , Tecnologia
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