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1.
HNO ; 69(1): 22-25, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691089

RESUMO

Tracheostoma valves have proven to be very effective for voice restoration in patients with a tracheotomy or laryngectomy. Nevertheless, in recent years there have been a number of reports about life-threatening incidents with tracheostoma valves. An analysis of these incidents and the commercially available tracheostoma valves, their functions and limitations enables typical risk situations to be derived. The most reported incidents were caused by inadvertently filling the cuff of the tracheostomy tube while the tracheostoma valve was in place and by confusing a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) filter with a tracheostoma valve. These mistakes caused a complete obstruction of the expiratory airway leading to a barotrauma of the lungs with pneumothorax and asphyxia. Another typical risk in mechanically ventilated patients is insufficient monitoring during the use of the tracheostoma valve. Clear marking of tracheostoma valves and a specific training of hospital personnel with respect to the typical risks of tracheostoma valves could effectively reduce the associated dangers.


Assuntos
Laringectomia , Voz , Expiração , Humanos , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos
3.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(6): 3663, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379881

RESUMO

With the COVID-19 pandemic, the wearing of face masks covering mouth and nose has become ubiquitous all around the world. This study investigates the impact of typical face masks on voice radiation. To analyze the transmission loss caused by masks and the influence of masks on directivity, this study measured the full-spherical voice directivity of a dummy head with a mouth simulator covered with six masks of different types, i.e., medical masks, filtering facepiece respirator masks, and cloth face coverings. The results show a significant frequency-dependent transmission loss, which varies depending on the mask, especially above 2 kHz. Furthermore, the two facepiece respirator masks also significantly affect speech directivity, as determined by the directivity index (DI). Compared to the measurements without a mask, the DI deviates by up to 7 dB at frequencies above 3 kHz. For all other masks, the deviations are below 2 dB in all third-octave frequency bands.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Acústica da Fala , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Voz , Humanos
4.
Codas ; 32(5): e20180052, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the association between laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) with age, gender, vocal deviation and voice complaints. METHODS: The study included patients between 18 and 70 years old, referred to the Otorhinolaryngology service for complaints of voice or reflux, of both sexes. Endolaryngeal findings were classified using the Reflux Finding Score (RFS) scale. The presence or absence of vocal and reflux complaints was verified and correlated with the RFS classification. On the same date, they were submitted to sustained vowel voice recording and chained speech. The auditory-perceptual assessment was performed by a speech therapist, classifying the general degree of vocal deviation based on the GRBASI scale. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 42. 6 years, 62. 3% female, and mean RFS scores of 6. 26 points. Among the patients, 48 subjects had vocal complaints, 34 women with a mean age of 44. 9 years and an average RFS score of 6. 94 points. The other 49 individuals had no vocal complaints, and of these 27 were women, with a mean age of 41. 2 years and a mean RFS score of 5. 5 points. The variables "reflux complaint", "vocal complaint" and age were the ones that most correlated with the RFS scale scores. CONCLUSION: There is a relationship among reflux complaints, laryngeal findings and vocal complaint.


Assuntos
Refluxo Laringofaríngeo , Voz , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/complicações , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242018, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166341

RESUMO

Children acquire vowels earlier than consonants, and the former are less vulnerable to speech disorders than the latter. This study explores the hypothesis that a similar contrast exists later in life and that consonants are more vulnerable to ageing than vowels. Data was obtained with two experiments comparing the speech of Younger Adults (YAs) and Middle-aged Adults (MAs). In the first experiment an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system was trained with a balanced corpus of 29 YAs and 27 MAs. The productions of each speaker were obtained in a Spanish language word (W) and non-word (NW) repetition task. The performance of the system was evaluated with the same corpus used for training using a cross validation approach. The ASR system recognized to a similar extent the Ws of both groups of speakers, but it was more successful with the NWs of the YAs than with those of the MAs. Detailed error analysis revealed that the MA speakers scored below the YA speakers for consonants and also for the place and manner of articulation features; the results were almost identical in both groups of speakers for vowels and for the voicing feature. In the second experiment a group of healthy native listeners was asked to recognize isolated syllables presented with background noise. The target speakers were one YA and one MA that had taken part in the first experiment. The results were consistent with those of the ASR experiment: the manner and place of articulation were better recognized, and vowels and voicing were worse recognized, in the YA speaker than in the MA speaker. We conclude that consonant articulation is more vulnerable to ageing than vowel articulation. Future studies should explore whether or not these early and selective changes in articulation accuracy might be caused by changes in speech perception skills (e.g., in auditory temporal processing).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Fala , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Espanha , Percepção da Fala , Voz
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3666-3669, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018796

RESUMO

This study has investigated the efficiency of voice features in estimating the motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A total of 26 PD patients (mean age = 72) and 22 control subjects (mean age = 66.91) were recruited for the study. The sustained phonation /a/, /u/ and /m/ were collected in both off-state and on-state of Levodopa medication. The average motor UPDRS for PD off-state patients was 27.31, on-state was 20.42 and that of controls was 2.63. Voice features were extracted from the phonation tasks and were reduced to the most relevant 6 features for each phonation task using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) feature ranking method. The correlation between the reduced features and motor UPDRS was tested using the Spearman correlation coefficient test. AdaBoost regression learner was trained and used for automatically estimating the motor UPDRS score using the voice features. The results show that the vocal features for /m/ performed best by estimating the motor UPDRS score for PD off-state with the mean absolute error (MAE) of 3.52 and 5.90 for PD on-state. This study shows that assessment of voice can be used for day to day remote monitoring of PD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Voz , Humanos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Fonação
7.
Exp Psychol ; 67(4): 246-254, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111655

RESUMO

Visual input of a face appears to influence the ability to selectively attend to one voice over another simultaneous voice. We examined this crossmodal effect, specifically the role face gender may have on selective attention to male and female gendered simultaneous voices. Using a within-subjects design, participants were presented with a dynamic male face, female face, or fixation cross, with each condition being paired with a dichotomous audio stream of male and female voices reciting different lists of concrete nouns. In Experiment 1a, the female voice was played in the right ear and the male voice in the left ear. In Experiment 1b, both voices were played in both ears with differences in volume mimicking the interaural intensity difference between disparately localized voices in naturalistic situations. Free recall of words spoken by the two voices immediately following stimulus presentation served as a proxy measure of attention. In both sections of the experiment, crossmodal congruity of face gender enhanced same-gender word recall. This effect indicates that crossmodal interaction between voices and faces guides auditory attention. The results contribute to our understanding of how humans navigate the crossmodal relationship between voices and faces to direct attention in social interactions such as those in the cocktail party scenario.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Codas ; 32(5): e2019022, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053081

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Analyze the measures of the fundamental frequency, electroglotographic jitter, contact quotient and periodicity of the electroglotographic waves of the singers in habitual voice. METHOD: A cross-sectional observational study, which selected individuals from singing schools in the central region of the municipality of Belo Horizonte. The sample was non-probabilistic, for convenience consisted of 60 singers aged between 18 and 55 years, 30 males and 30 females. For the electroglotographic record collection, the Kay Pentax ™ CSL program, model 6103, the Electroglotographic module was used. The participants were placed in a seated position, and after cleaning the skin of the neck with 70% alcohol, two electrodes were placed on the wings of the thyroid cartilage at the level of the vocal folds. Subsequently, the participants were instructed to emit the vowel/a/sustained in a habitual way. The measurements of the fundamental frequency (f0), contact quotient (QC), electroglotographic jitter and periodicity of the electroglotographic wave were analyzed. The data were statistically analyzed using Minitab 17. RESULTS: The parameters analyzed were statistically significant. The fundamental frequency (f0) was higher in females (226.91Hz) when compared to males (166.54Hz). The measure of contact quotient and periodicity was also higher in women (40.46% and 15.51% respectively) when compared to men (27.45% and 7.82, respectively). The jitter parameter was higher in men when compared to women. CONCLUSION: Women presented higher values in the fundamental frequency (f0), contact quotient (QC) and periodicity of the wave compared to men. The men presented the jitter value higher than that of the women.


Assuntos
Canto , Voz , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acústica da Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto Jovem
9.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190079, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053084

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the self-perception by individuals on the immediate effects of three semi-occluded vocal tract exercises (SOVTE), that is, phonation into a latex tube, finger kazoo and phonation into a high-resistance straw, and to compare the self-perception results between the high and low voice groups. METHOD: The study participants consisted of 26 choristers (seven sopranos, seven altos, six tenors, and six basses) subdivided into high and low voices with ages ranging from 18 to 58 years. Voice samples of each subject were recorded before and after performing the exercises randomly for three subsequent weeks. A self-assessment questionnaire was applied. RESULTS: All exercises had a statistically significant improvement, according to the participants' self-perception. Latex tube phonation was the preferred technique for 11 (84.62%) participants in the low voice group; while the high-resistance straw was reported as the less beneficial exercise by 10 (79.92%) participants in the same group. On the other hand, the high-resistance straw (9; 69.2%) was the preferred exercise for the high voice group; while finger kazoo (6; 46.15%) and latex tube (5; 38.4%) were the least beneficial exercises. CONCLUSION: The study showed that the effects of these exercises are different and should be suited for each type of voice, such as the latex tube, which was the most preferred by low voice participants and also rated as less beneficial by high voice participants, and the high-resistance straw, which was the most preferred by the high voice participants and also rated as less beneficial by low voice participants.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Voz , Voz , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonação , Autoimagem , Treinamento da Voz , Adulto Jovem
10.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of shyness in university students and to analyze among the sociodemographic and public communication factors, those that are most related to their presence. METHOD: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out with 1124 university students aged between 17 and 63 years old. It was used a questionnaire with questions related to sociodemographic characteristics; frequency of participation in public speaking activities; self-report of fear of speaking; self-perception of non-verbal aspects of oral communication: tone of voice, speed of speech, voice intensity, vocal projection, eye contact with the audience during the speech, use hands in public presentations; self-assessment of public speaking (Scale for Self-Assessment in Public Speaking) and self-perception of shyness (Revised Shyness Scale). The analysis of factors associated with shyness and with the other variables was performed by Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The majority of the university population self-reported traces of shyness and fear of speaking in public. There was an association of shyness with the age of 17 to 30 years, fear of speaking in public, little participation in public speaking activities, negative self-perception of speech and with non-verbal communication aspects. CONCLUSION: Shyness is prevalent in young university students, who participate in few public speaking activities, who are afraid to speak in public, self-report speaking at low intensity and who are unable to use their hands naturally during public presentations.


Assuntos
Fala , Voz , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Timidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 952-955, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018142

RESUMO

In this paper, a dual-channel speech enhancement (SE) method is proposed. The proposed method is a combination of minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamformer and a super-Gaussian joint maximum a posteriori (SGJMAP) based SE gain function. The proposed SE method runs on a smartphone in real-time, providing a portable device for hearing aid (HA) applications. Spectral Flux based voice activity detector (VAD) is used to improve the accuracy of the beamformer output. The efficiency of the proposed SE method is evaluated using speech quality and intelligibility measures and compared with that of other SE techniques. The objective and subjective test results show the capability of the proposed SE method in three different noisy conditions at low signal to noise ratios (SNRs) of -5, 0, and +5 dB.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Smartphone , Voz , Humanos , Ruído , Inteligibilidade da Fala
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6111-6114, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019365

RESUMO

This study describes a fully automated method of expressive language assessment based on vocal responses of children to a sentence repetition task (SRT), a language test that taps into core language skills. Our proposed method automatically transcribes the vocal responses using a test-specific automatic speech recognition system. From the transcriptions, a regression model predicts the gold standard test scores provided by speech-language pathologists. Our preliminary experimental results on audio recordings of 104 children (43 with typical development and 61 with a neurodevelopmental disorder) verifies the feasibility of the proposed automatic method for predicting gold standard scores on this language test, with averaged mean absolute error of 6.52 (on a observed score range from 0 to 90 with a mean value of 49.56) between observed and predicted ratings.Clinical relevance-We describe the use of fully automatic voice-based scoring in language assessment including the clinical impact this development may have on the field of speech-language pathology. The automated test also creates a technological foundation for the computerization of a broad array of tests for voice-based language assessment.


Assuntos
Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Voz , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 998-1001, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018153

RESUMO

Voice command is an important interface between human and technology in healthcare, such as for hands-free control of surgical robots and in patient care technology. Voice command recognition can be cast as a speech classification task, where convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have demonstrated strong performance. CNN is originally an image classification technique and time-frequency representation of speech signals is the most commonly used image-like representation for CNNs. Various types of time-frequency representations are commonly used for this purpose. This work investigates the use of cochleagram, utilizing a gammatone filter which models the frequency selectivity of the human cochlea, as the time-frequency representation of voice commands and input for the CNN classifier. We also explore multi-view CNN as a technique for combining learning from different time-frequency representations. The proposed method is evaluated on a large dataset and shown to achieve high classification accuracy.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Voz , Humanos , Fala
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240682, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091043

RESUMO

In present-day Seoul Korean, the primary phonetic feature for the lenis-aspirated stop distinction is shifting from VOT to F0. Some previous studies have considered this sound change to be a tonogenesis, whereby the low-level F0 perturbation has developed into tonal features (L for the lenis and H for the aspirated) in the segmental phonology. They, however, have examined the stop distinction only at a phrase- or utterance-initial position. We newly explore the sound change in relation to various prosodic structural factors (position and prominence). Apparent-time production data were recorded from four speaker groups: young female, young male, old female, old male. The way the speakers use VOT versus F0 indeed varies as a function of position and prominence. Crucially, in all groups, VOT is still used for the lenis-aspirated distinction phrase-medially due to the lenis stop voicing. This role of VOT, however, is found only in the non-prominent (unfocused) condition, in which the F0 difference is reduced to a low-level perturbation effect. In the prominent (focused) context in which tones come into play, the role of VOT diminishes, led by young female speakers. These can be interpreted as a prosodically-conditioned, complementary use of the features to maintain sufficient contrast. Importantly, however, the tonal difference under focus is not bidirectionally polarized, so that F0 is not lowered for the lenis stop. A lack of direct enhancement of the distinctive L tone weakens a possibility that F0 is transphonologized to the phonemic feature system of the language. As an alternative to the view that tonal features are newly introduced in the segmental phonology, we propose a prosodic account: the sound change is best characterized as a prosodically-conditioned change in the use of the segmental voicing feature (implemented by VOT) versus already available post-lexical tones in the intonational phonology of Korean.


Assuntos
Fonética , Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Voz , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seul , Adulto Jovem
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23223-23224, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967065
18.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(8): 3973-3992, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935292

RESUMO

Correctly assessing the emotional state of others is a crucial part of social interaction. While facial expressions provide much information, faces are often not viewed in isolation, but occur with concurrent sounds, usually voices, which also provide information about the emotion being portrayed. Many studies have examined the crossmodal processing of faces and sounds, but results have been mixed, with different paradigms yielding different results. Using a psychophysical adaptation paradigm, we carried out a series of four experiments to determine whether there is a perceptual advantage when faces and voices match in emotion (congruent), versus when they do not match (incongruent). We presented a single face and a crowd of voices, a crowd of faces and a crowd of voices, a single face of reduced salience and a crowd of voices, and tested this last condition with and without attention directed to the emotion in the face. While we observed aftereffects in the hypothesized direction (adaptation to faces conveying positive emotion yielded negative, contrastive, perceptual aftereffects), we only found a congruent advantage (stronger adaptation effects) when faces were attended and of reduced salience, in line with the theory of inverse effectiveness.


Assuntos
Emoções , Voz , Atenção , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Percepção Visual
19.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(10): 1281, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989264

Assuntos
Voz
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The concept of dysphagia/aspiration-related structures (DARS) was developed against the background of severe late side effects of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). DARS can be delineated on CT scans, but with a better morphological discrimination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Swallowing function was analyzed by use of patient charts and prospective investigations and questionnaires. METHOD: Seventeen HNC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) ± chemotherapy between 5/2012 - 8/2015 were included. Planning CT (computed tomography) scans and MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging) prior, during 40 Gray (Gy) radiotherapy and posttreatment were available and co-registered to delineate DARS. The RT dose of each DARS was calculated. Five patients were investigated posttreatment for swallowing function and assessed by means of various questionnaires for quality of life (QoL), swallowing, and voice function. RESULTS: By retrospective comparison of DARS volume, a significant change in four of eight DARS was detected over time. Three increased and one diminished. The risk of posttreatment dysphagia rose by every 1Gy above the mean dose (D mean) of RT to DARS. 7.5 was the risk factor for dysphagia in the first 6 months, reducing to 4.7 for months 6-12 posttreatment. For all five patients of the prospective part of swallowing investigations, a function disturbance was detected. These results were in contrast to the self-assessment of patients by questionnaires. There was neither a dose dependency of D mean DARS volume changes over time nor of dysphonia and no correlation between volume changes, dysphagia or dysphonia. CONCLUSION: Delineation of DARS on MRI co-registered to planning CT gave the opportunity to differentiate morphology better than by CT alone. Due to the small number of patients with complete MRI scans over time, we failed to detect a dose dependency of DARS and swallowing and voice disorder posttreatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Deglutição/radioterapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Sucção , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voz , Adulto Jovem
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