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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12734, 2024 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830969

RESUMO

The early screening of depression is highly beneficial for patients to obtain better diagnosis and treatment. While the effectiveness of utilizing voice data for depression detection has been demonstrated, the issue of insufficient dataset size remains unresolved. Therefore, we propose an artificial intelligence method to effectively identify depression. The wav2vec 2.0 voice-based pre-training model was used as a feature extractor to automatically extract high-quality voice features from raw audio. Additionally, a small fine-tuning network was used as a classification model to output depression classification results. Subsequently, the proposed model was fine-tuned on the DAIC-WOZ dataset and achieved excellent classification results. Notably, the model demonstrated outstanding performance in binary classification, attaining an accuracy of 0.9649 and an RMSE of 0.1875 on the test set. Similarly, impressive results were obtained in multi-classification, with an accuracy of 0.9481 and an RMSE of 0.3810. The wav2vec 2.0 model was first used for depression recognition and showed strong generalization ability. The method is simple, practical, and applicable, which can assist doctors in the early screening of depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Voz , Humanos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Feminino , Inteligência Artificial , Adulto
2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2358681, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837122

RESUMO

Background: Research has shown that potential perpetrators and individuals high in psychopathic traits tend to body language cues to target a potential new victim. However, whether targeting occurs also by tending to vocal cues has not been examined. Thus, the role of voice in interpersonal violence merits investigation.Objective: In two studies, we examined whether perpetrators could differentiate female speakers with and without sexual and physical assault histories (presented as rating the degree of 'vulnerability' to victimization).Methods: Two samples of male listeners (sample one N = 105, sample two, N = 109) participated. Each sample rated 18 voices (9 survivors and 9 controls). Listener sample one heard spontaneous speech, and listener sample two heard the second sentence of a standardized passage. Listeners' self-reported psychopathic traits and history of previous perpetration were measured.Results: Across both samples, history of perpetration (but not psychopathy) predicted accuracy in distinguishing survivors of assault.Conclusions: These findings highlight the potential role of voice in prevention and intervention. Gaining a further understanding of what voice cues are associated with accuracy in discerning survivors can also help us understand whether or not specialized voice training could have a role in self-defense practices.


We examined whether listeners with history of perpetration could differentiate female speakers with and without assault histories (presented as rating the degree of 'vulnerability' to victimization).Listeners' higher history of perpetration was associated with higher accuracy in differentiating survivors of assault from non-survivors.These findings highlight that voice could have a crucial role in prevention and intervention.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes , Voz , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13132, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849382

RESUMO

Voice production of humans and most mammals is governed by the MyoElastic-AeroDynamic (MEAD) principle, where an air stream is modulated by self-sustained vocal fold oscillation to generate audible air pressure fluctuations. An alternative mechanism is found in ultrasonic vocalizations of rodents, which are established by an aeroacoustic (AA) phenomenon without vibration of laryngeal tissue. Previously, some authors argued that high-pitched human vocalization is also produced by the AA principle. Here, we investigate the so-called "whistle register" voice production in nine professional female operatic sopranos singing a scale from C6 (≈ 1047 Hz) to G6 (≈ 1568 Hz). Super-high-speed videolaryngoscopy revealed vocal fold collision in all participants, with closed quotients from 30 to 73%. Computational modeling showed that the biomechanical requirements to produce such high-pitched voice would be an increased contraction of the cricothyroid muscle, vocal fold strain of about 50%, and high subglottal pressure. Our data suggest that high-pitched operatic soprano singing uses the MEAD mechanism. Consequently, the commonly used term "whistle register" does not reflect the physical principle of a whistle with regard to voice generation in high pitched classical singing.


Assuntos
Canto , Prega Vocal , Humanos , Feminino , Canto/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Adulto , Som , Voz/fisiologia , Fonação/fisiologia
4.
Math Biosci Eng ; 21(5): 5947-5971, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872565

RESUMO

The technology of robot-assisted prostate seed implantation has developed rapidly. However, during the process, there are some problems to be solved, such as non-intuitive visualization effects and complicated robot control. To improve the intelligence and visualization of the operation process, a voice control technology of prostate seed implantation robot in augmented reality environment was proposed. Initially, the MRI image of the prostate was denoised and segmented. The three-dimensional model of prostate and its surrounding tissues was reconstructed by surface rendering technology. Combined with holographic application program, the augmented reality system of prostate seed implantation was built. An improved singular value decomposition three-dimensional registration algorithm based on iterative closest point was proposed, and the results of three-dimensional registration experiments verified that the algorithm could effectively improve the three-dimensional registration accuracy. A fusion algorithm based on spectral subtraction and BP neural network was proposed. The experimental results showed that the average delay of the fusion algorithm was 1.314 s, and the overall response time of the integrated system was 1.5 s. The fusion algorithm could effectively improve the reliability of the voice control system, and the integrated system could meet the responsiveness requirements of prostate seed implantation.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Realidade Aumentada , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Próstata , Neoplasias da Próstata , Robótica , Humanos , Masculino , Robótica/instrumentação , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Voz , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Holografia/métodos , Holografia/instrumentação , Braquiterapia/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(6): 3822-3832, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874464

RESUMO

This study proposes the use of vocal resonators to enhance cardiac auscultation signals and evaluates their performance for voice-noise suppression. Data were collected using two electronic stethoscopes while each study subject was talking. One collected auscultation signal from the chest while the other collected voice signals from one of the three voice resonators (cheek, back of the neck, and shoulder). The spectral subtraction method was applied to the signals. Both objective and subjective metrics were used to evaluate the quality of enhanced signals and to investigate the most effective vocal resonator for noise suppression. Our preliminary findings showed a significant improvement after enhancement and demonstrated the efficacy of vocal resonators. A listening survey was conducted with thirteen physicians to evaluate the quality of enhanced signals, and they have received significantly better scores regarding the sound quality than their original signals. The shoulder resonator group demonstrated significantly better sound quality than the cheek group when reducing voice sound in cardiac auscultation signals. The suggested method has the potential to be used for the development of an electronic stethoscope with a robust noise removal function. Significant clinical benefits are expected from the expedited preliminary diagnostic procedure.


Assuntos
Auscultação Cardíaca , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Estetoscópios , Humanos , Auscultação Cardíaca/instrumentação , Auscultação Cardíaca/métodos , Auscultação Cardíaca/normas , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Ruídos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Espectrografia do Som , Desenho de Equipamento , Voz/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Voz , Vibração , Ruído
6.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 711, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862808

RESUMO

Deepfakes are viral ingredients of digital environments, and they can trick human cognition into misperceiving the fake as real. Here, we test the neurocognitive sensitivity of 25 participants to accept or reject person identities as recreated in audio deepfakes. We generate high-quality voice identity clones from natural speakers by using advanced deepfake technologies. During an identity matching task, participants show intermediate performance with deepfake voices, indicating levels of deception and resistance to deepfake identity spoofing. On the brain level, univariate and multivariate analyses consistently reveal a central cortico-striatal network that decoded the vocal acoustic pattern and deepfake-level (auditory cortex), as well as natural speaker identities (nucleus accumbens), which are valued for their social relevance. This network is embedded in a broader neural identity and object recognition network. Humans can thus be partly tricked by deepfakes, but the neurocognitive mechanisms identified during deepfake processing open windows for strengthening human resilience to fake information.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2405588121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861607

RESUMO

Many animals can extract useful information from the vocalizations of other species. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced areas sensitive to conspecific vocalizations in the cerebral cortex of primates, but how these areas process heterospecific vocalizations remains unclear. Using fMRI-guided electrophysiology, we recorded the spiking activity of individual neurons in the anterior temporal voice patches of two macaques while they listened to complex sounds including vocalizations from several species. In addition to cells selective for conspecific macaque vocalizations, we identified an unsuspected subpopulation of neurons with strong selectivity for human voice, not merely explained by spectral or temporal structure of the sounds. The auditory representational geometry implemented by these neurons was strongly related to that measured in the human voice areas with neuroimaging and only weakly to low-level acoustical structure. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms involved in auditory expertise and the evolution of communication systems in primates.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neurônios , Vocalização Animal , Voz , Animais , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Masculino , Macaca mulatta , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13813, 2024 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877028

RESUMO

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a prevalent neurological condition characterized by motor and cognitive impairments, typically manifesting around the age of 50 and presenting symptoms such as gait difficulties and speech impairments. Although a cure remains elusive, symptom management through medication is possible. Timely detection is pivotal for effective disease management. In this study, we leverage Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques, specifically K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Feed-forward Neural Network (FNN) models, to differentiate between individuals with PD and healthy individuals based on voice signal characteristics. Our dataset, sourced from the University of California at Irvine (UCI), comprises 195 voice recordings collected from 31 patients. To optimize model performance, we employ various strategies including Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) for addressing class imbalance, Feature Selection to identify the most relevant features, and hyperparameter tuning using RandomizedSearchCV. Our experimentation reveals that the FNN and KSVM models, trained on an 80-20 split of the dataset for training and testing respectively, yield the most promising results. The FNN model achieves an impressive overall accuracy of 99.11%, with 98.78% recall, 99.96% precision, and a 99.23% f1-score. Similarly, the KSVM model demonstrates strong performance with an overall accuracy of 95.89%, recall of 96.88%, precision of 98.71%, and an f1-score of 97.62%. Overall, our study showcases the efficacy of ML and DL techniques in accurately identifying PD from voice signals, underscoring the potential for these approaches to contribute significantly to early diagnosis and intervention strategies for Parkinson's Disease.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Doença de Parkinson , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Redes Neurais de Computação , Voz , Aprendizado Profundo
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299140, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809807

RESUMO

Non-random exploration of infant speech-like vocalizations (e.g., squeals, growls, and vowel-like sounds or "vocants") is pivotal in speech development. This type of vocal exploration, often noticed when infants produce particular vocal types in clusters, serves two crucial purposes: it establishes a foundation for speech because speech requires formation of new vocal categories, and it serves as a basis for vocal signaling of wellness and interaction with caregivers. Despite the significance of clustering, existing research has largely relied on subjective descriptions and anecdotal observations regarding early vocal category formation. In this study, we aim to address this gap by presenting the first large-scale empirical evidence of vocal category exploration and clustering throughout the first year of life. We observed infant vocalizations longitudinally using all-day home recordings from 130 typically developing infants across the entire first year of life. To identify clustering patterns, we conducted Fisher's exact tests to compare the occurrence of squeals versus vocants, as well as growls versus vocants. We found that across the first year, infants demonstrated clear clustering patterns of squeals and growls, indicating that these categories were not randomly produced, but rather, it seemed, infants actively engaged in practice of these specific categories. The findings lend support to the concept of infants as manifesting active vocal exploration and category formation, a key foundation for vocal language.


Assuntos
Fala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Fala/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Voz/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Fonética
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 67(6): 1731-1751, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754028

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study examined whether participants respond to unperturbed parameters while experiencing specific perturbations in auditory feedback. For instance, we aim to determine if speakers adjust voice loudness when only pitch is artificially altered in auditory feedback. This phenomenon is referred to as the "accompanying effect" in the present study. METHOD: Thirty native Mandarin speakers were asked to sustain the vowel /ɛ/ for 3 s while their auditory feedback underwent single shifts in one of the three distinct ways: pitch shift (±100 cents; coded as PT), loudness shift (±6 dB; coded as LD), or first formant (F1) shift (±100 Hz; coded as FM). Participants were instructed to ignore the perturbations in their auditory feedback. Response types were categorized based on pitch, loudness, and F1 for each individual trial, such as Popp_Lopp_Fopp indicating opposing responses in all three domains. RESULTS: The accompanying effect appeared 93% of the time. Bayesian Poisson regression models indicate that opposing responses in all three domains (Popp_Lopp_Fopp) were the most prevalent response type across the conditions (PT, LD, and FM). The more frequently used response types exhibited opposing responses and significantly larger response curves than the less frequently used response types. Following responses became more prevalent only when the perturbed stimuli were perceived as voices from someone else (external references), particularly in the FM condition. In terms of isotropy, loudness and F1 tended to change in the same direction rather than loudness and pitch. CONCLUSION: The presence of the accompanying effect suggests that the motor systems responsible for regulating pitch, loudness, and formants are not entirely independent but rather interconnected to some degree.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Percepção da Altura Sonora , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Acústica da Fala
11.
Cortex ; 176: 1-10, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723449

RESUMO

Recognizing talkers' identity via speech is an important social skill in interpersonal interaction. Behavioral evidence has shown that listeners can identify better the voices of their native language than those of a non-native language, which is known as the language familiarity effect (LFE). However, its underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore investigated how the LFE occurs at the neural level by employing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Late unbalanced bilinguals were first asked to learn to associate strangers' voices with their identities and then tested for recognizing the talkers' identities based on their voices speaking a language either highly familiar (i.e., native language Chinese), or moderately familiar (i.e., second language English), or completely unfamiliar (i.e., Ewe) to participants. Participants identified talkers the most accurately in Chinese and the least accurately in Ewe. Talker identification was quicker in Chinese than in English and Ewe but reaction time did not differ between the two non-native languages. At the neural level, recognizing voices speaking Chinese relative to English/Ewe produced less activity in the inferior frontal gyrus, precentral/postcentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and superior temporal sulcus/gyrus while no difference was found between English and Ewe, indicating facilitation of voice identification by the automatic phonological encoding in the native language. These findings shed new light on the interrelations between language ability and voice recognition, revealing that the brain activation pattern of the LFE depends on the automaticity of language processing.


Assuntos
Idioma , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Percepção da Fala , Voz , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Voz/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Multilinguismo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 360: 112048, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733653

RESUMO

Expert testimony is only admissible in common-law systems if it will potentially assist the trier of fact. In order for a forensic-voice-comparison expert's testimony to assist a trier of fact, the expert's forensic voice comparison should be more accurate than the trier of fact's speaker identification. "Speaker identification in courtroom contexts - Part I" addressed the question of whether speaker identification by an individual lay listener (such as a judge) would be more or less accurate than the output of a forensic-voice-comparison system that is based on state-of-the-art automatic-speaker-recognition technology. The present paper addresses the question of whether speaker identification by a group of collaborating lay listeners (such as a jury) would be more or less accurate than the output of such a forensic-voice-comparison system. As members of collaborating groups, participants listen to pairs of recordings reflecting the conditions of the questioned- and known-speaker recordings in an actual case, confer, and make a probabilistic consensus judgement on each pair of recordings. The present paper also compares group-consensus responses with "wisdom of the crowd" which uses the average of the responses from multiple independent individual listeners.


Assuntos
Ciências Forenses , Voz , Humanos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Prova Pericial , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Interface para o Reconhecimento da Fala , Comportamento Cooperativo , Identificação Biométrica/métodos
13.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 142: 107574, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel and scalable psychotherapies are urgently needed to address the depression and anxiety epidemic. Leveraging artificial intelligence (AI), a voice-based virtual coach named Lumen was developed to deliver problem solving treatment (PST). The first pilot trial showed promising changes in cognitive control measured by functional neuroimaging and improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms. METHODS: To further validate Lumen in a 3-arm randomized clinical trial, 200 participants with mild-to-moderate depression and/or anxiety will be randomly assigned in a 2:1:1 ratio to receive Lumen-coached PST, human-coached PST as active treatment comparison, or a waitlist control condition where participants can receive Lumen after the trial period. Participants will be assessed at baseline and 18 weeks. The primary aim is to confirm neural target engagement by testing whether compared with waitlist controls, Lumen participants will show significantly greater improvements from baseline to 18 weeks in the a priori neural target for cognitive control, right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex engaged by the go/nogo task (primary superiority hypothesis). A secondary hypothesis will test whether compared with human-coached PST participants, Lumen participants will show equivalent improvements (i.e., noninferiority) in the same neural target from baseline to 18 weeks. The second aim is to examine (1) treatment effects on depression and anxiety symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life outcomes, and (2) relationships of neural target engagement to these patient-reported outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers potential to improve the reach and impact of psychotherapy, mitigating access, cost, and stigma barriers for people with depression and/or anxiety. CLINICALTRIALS: gov #: NCT05603923.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Inteligência Artificial , Depressão , Humanos , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Voz , Resolução de Problemas , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Aconselhamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Psicoterapia/métodos , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos
14.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 247: 104317, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743984

RESUMO

Whether or not self-face and self-voice are processed more accurately than others' remains inconclusive. Most previous studies asked participants to judge the presented stimulus as their own or as others', and compared response accuracy to discuss self-advantage. However, it is possible that participants responded correctly in the "other" trials not by identifying "other" but rather by rejecting "self." The present study employed an identity-irrelevant discrimination task, in which participants detected the odd stimulus among the three sequentially presented stimuli. We measured the discrimination thresholds for the self, friend, and stranger conditions. In Experiment 1 (face), the discrimination thresholds for self and friends' faces were lower than those for strangers' faces. This suggests that self-face may not be perceived as special or unique, and facial representation may become more accurate due to increased familiarity through repetitive exposure. Whereas, in Experiment 2 (voice), the discrimination thresholds did not differ between the three conditions, suggesting that the sensitivity to changes is the same regardless of identity. Overall, we found no evidence for self-advantage in identification accuracy, as we observed a familiarity-advantage rather than self-advantage in face processing and a null difference in voice processing.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica , Reconhecimento Facial , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Voz , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção Social
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12407, 2024 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811832

RESUMO

Many lecturers develop voice problems, such as hoarseness. Nevertheless, research on how voice quality influences listeners' perception, comprehension, and retention of spoken language is limited to a small number of audio-only experiments. We aimed to address this gap by using audio-visual virtual reality (VR) to investigate the impact of a lecturer's hoarseness on university students' heard text recall, listening effort, and listening impression. Fifty participants were immersed in a virtual seminar room, where they engaged in a Dual-Task Paradigm. They listened to narratives presented by a virtual female professor, who spoke in either a typical or hoarse voice. Simultaneously, participants performed a secondary task. Results revealed significantly prolonged secondary-task response times with the hoarse voice compared to the typical voice, indicating increased listening effort. Subjectively, participants rated the hoarse voice as more annoying, effortful to listen to, and impeding for their cognitive performance. No effect of voice quality was found on heard text recall, suggesting that, while hoarseness may compromise certain aspects of spoken language processing, this might not necessarily result in reduced information retention. In summary, our findings underscore the importance of promoting vocal health among lecturers, which may contribute to enhanced listening conditions in learning spaces.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Realidade Virtual , Qualidade da Voz , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Rouquidão/etiologia , Voz/fisiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10488, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714709

RESUMO

Vocal attractiveness influences important social outcomes. While most research on the acoustic parameters that influence vocal attractiveness has focused on the possible roles of sexually dimorphic characteristics of voices, such as fundamental frequency (i.e., pitch) and formant frequencies (i.e., a correlate of body size), other work has reported that increasing vocal averageness increases attractiveness. Here we investigated the roles these three characteristics play in judgments of the attractiveness of male and female voices. In Study 1, we found that increasing vocal averageness significantly decreased distinctiveness ratings, demonstrating that participants could detect manipulations of vocal averageness in this stimulus set and using this testing paradigm. However, in Study 2, we found no evidence that increasing averageness significantly increased attractiveness ratings of voices. In Study 3, we found that fundamental frequency was negatively correlated with male vocal attractiveness and positively correlated with female vocal attractiveness. By contrast with these results for fundamental frequency, vocal attractiveness and formant frequencies were not significantly correlated. Collectively, our results suggest that averageness may not necessarily significantly increase attractiveness judgments of voices and are consistent with previous work reporting significant associations between attractiveness and voice pitch.


Assuntos
Beleza , Voz , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adolescente
17.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 540, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714798

RESUMO

The genetic influence on human vocal pitch in tonal and non-tonal languages remains largely unknown. In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, pitch changes differentiate word meanings, whereas in non-tonal languages, such as Icelandic, pitch is used to convey intonation. We addressed this question by searching for genetic associations with interindividual variation in median pitch in a Chinese major depression case-control cohort and compared our results with a genome-wide association study from Iceland. The same genetic variant, rs11046212-T in an intron of the ABCC9 gene, was one of the most strongly associated loci with median pitch in both samples. Our meta-analysis revealed four genome-wide significant hits, including two novel associations. The discovery of genetic variants influencing vocal pitch across both tonal and non-tonal languages suggests the possibility of a common genetic contribution to the human vocal system shared in two distinct populations with languages that differ in tonality (Icelandic and Mandarin).


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idioma , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Islândia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Voz/fisiologia , Percepção da Altura Sonora , Povo Asiático/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302739, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) reliably ameliorates cardinal motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). However, the effects of DBS on speech, voice and language have been inconsistent and have not been examined comprehensively in a single study. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic analysis of literature by reviewing studies that examined the effects of DBS on speech, voice and language in PD and ET. METHODS: A total of 675 publications were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, CINHAL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases. Based on our selection criteria, 90 papers were included in our analysis. The selected publications were categorized into four subcategories: Fluency, Word production, Articulation and phonology and Voice quality. RESULTS: The results suggested a long-term decline in verbal fluency, with more studies reporting deficits in phonemic fluency than semantic fluency following DBS. Additionally, high frequency stimulation, left-sided and bilateral DBS were associated with worse verbal fluency outcomes. Naming improved in the short-term following DBS-ON compared to DBS-OFF, with no long-term differences between the two conditions. Bilateral and low-frequency DBS demonstrated a relative improvement for phonation and articulation. Nonetheless, long-term DBS exacerbated phonation and articulation deficits. The effect of DBS on voice was highly variable, with both improvements and deterioration in different measures of voice. CONCLUSION: This was the first study that aimed to combine the outcome of speech, voice, and language following DBS in a single systematic review. The findings revealed a heterogeneous pattern of results for speech, voice, and language across DBS studies, and provided directions for future studies.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Idioma , Doença de Parkinson , Fala , Voz , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Tremor Essencial/terapia , Tremor Essencial/fisiopatologia
19.
Multisens Res ; 37(2): 125-141, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714314

RESUMO

Trust is an aspect critical to human social interaction and research has identified many cues that help in the assimilation of this social trait. Two of these cues are the pitch of the voice and the width-to-height ratio of the face (fWHR). Additionally, research has indicated that the content of a spoken sentence itself has an effect on trustworthiness; a finding that has not yet been brought into multisensory research. The current research aims to investigate previously developed theories on trust in relation to vocal pitch, fWHR, and sentence content in a multimodal setting. Twenty-six female participants were asked to judge the trustworthiness of a voice speaking a neutral or romantic sentence while seeing a face. The average pitch of the voice and the fWHR were varied systematically. Results indicate that the content of the spoken message was an important predictor of trustworthiness extending into multimodality. Further, the mean pitch of the voice and fWHR of the face appeared to be useful indicators in a multimodal setting. These effects interacted with one another across modalities. The data demonstrate that trust in the voice is shaped by task-irrelevant visual stimuli. Future research is encouraged to clarify whether these findings remain consistent across genders, age groups, and languages.


Assuntos
Face , Confiança , Voz , Humanos , Feminino , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Face/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Adolescente
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301786, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the evidence for the reliability, sensitivity and specificity of existing measures of vowel-initial voice onset. METHODS: A literature search was conducted across electronic databases for published studies (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed Central, IEEE Xplore) and grey literature (ProQuest for unpublished dissertations) measuring vowel onset. Eligibility criteria included research of any study design type or context focused on measuring human voice onset on an initial vowel. Two independent reviewers were involved at each stage of title and abstract screening, data extraction and analysis. Data extracted included measures used, their reliability, sensitivity and specificity. Risk of bias and certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE as the data of interest was extracted. RESULTS: The search retrieved 6,983 records. Titles and abstracts were screened against the inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer responsible for conflict resolution. Thirty-five papers were included in the review, which identified five categories of voice onset measurement: auditory perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic, physiological and visual imaging. Reliability was explored in 14 papers with varied reliability ratings, while sensitivity was rarely assessed, and no assessment of specificity was conducted across any of the included records. Certainty of evidence ranged from very low to moderate with high variability in methodology and voice onset measures used. CONCLUSIONS: A range of vowel-initial voice onset measurements have been applied throughout the literature, however, there is a lack of evidence regarding their sensitivity, specificity and reliability in the detection and discrimination of voice onset types. Heterogeneity in study populations and methods used preclude conclusions on the most valid measures. There is a clear need for standardisation of research methodology, and for future studies to examine the practicality of these measures in research and clinical settings.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Voz
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