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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 246, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms in response to drought stress are important for the genetic improvement of maize. In our previous study, nine ZmLAZ1 members were identified in the maize genome, but the function of ZmLAZ1 was largely unknown. RESULTS: The ZmLAZ1-3 gene was cloned from B73, and its drought-tolerant function was elucidated by expression analysis in transgenic Arabidopsis. The expression of ZmLAZ1-3 was upregulated by drought stress in different maize inbred lines. The driving activity of the ZmLAZ1-3 promoter was induced by drought stress and related to the abiotic stress-responsive elements such as MYB, MBS, and MYC. The results of subcellular localization indicated that the ZmLAZ1-3 protein localized on the plasma membrane and chloroplast. The ectopic expression of the ZmLAZ1-3 gene in Arabidopsis significantly reduced germination ratio and root length, decreased biomass, and relative water content, but increased relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content under drought stress. Moreover, transcriptomics analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes between the transgenic lines and wild-type were mainly associated with response to abiotic stress and biotic stimulus, and related to pathways of hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and plant-pathogen interaction. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that the ZmLAZ1-3 gene is a negative regulator in regulating drought tolerance and can be used to improve maize drought tolerance via its silencing or knockout.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Seca , Zea mays/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299483, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457466

RESUMO

In Nebraska USA, many populations of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, now exhibit some level of resistance to all corn rootworm-active Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins expressed in commercial hybrids. Therefore, a study was conducted in northeast Nebraska from 2020-2022 to reevaluate current corn rootworm management options in continuous maize (consecutive planting for ≥2 years). Results from on-farm experiments to evaluate a standard soil-applied insecticide (Aztec® 4.67G) in combination with non-rootworm Bt or rootworm-active Bt pyramided maize (Cry3Bb1 + Gpp34Ab1/Tpp35Ab1) are reported within the context of WCR Bt resistance levels present. Corrected survival from Bt pyramid single-plant bioassays (<0.3, 0.3-0.49, >0.5) was used to place populations into 3 resistance categories. Variables evaluated included root injury, adult emergence, proportion lodged maize, and grain yield. Key results: A composite analysis of all populations across resistance levels indicated that addition of soil insecticide to Bt pyramid significantly reduced adult emergence and lodging but did not significantly increase root protection or yield. Within and among resistance category analyses of root injury revealed that the Bt pyramid remained highly efficacious at any non-rootworm Bt root injury level when resistance was absent or low. When corrected survival was >0.3, mean Bt pyramid root injury tracked more closely in a positive linear fashion with mean non-rootworm Bt root injury (rootworm density x level of resistance interaction). Similar trends were obtained for adult emergence but not yield. Mean Bt pyramid root injury rating was <0.75 in most populations with Bt resistance, which contributed to no significant yield differences among categories. Results are discussed within the context of IPM:IRM tradeoffs and the need to reduce WCR densities in this system to decrease the impact of the density x resistance interaction to bridge use of current pyramids with new technologies introduced over the next decade.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Besouros/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Solo , Larva/metabolismo
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 257, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456919

RESUMO

Sorghum forage was ensiled for 90 days at two dry matter (DM) contents (27 vs. 39%) without or with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum inoculation. On day 90 of fermentation, silages were sampled to assess the microbial community dynamics and metabolome profile. L. plantarum inoculation improved silage quality, as shown by a lower pH and greater acetic acid concentration. Loss of DM remained unaffected by L. plantarum inoculation but was greater in low- vs. high-DM sorghum silages (14.4 vs. 6.62%). The microbiome analysis revealed that Pseudomonas congelans represented the dominant species of the epiphytic microbiota in both low- and high-DM sorghum forage before ensiling. However, L. buchneri represented the dominant species at the end of ensiling. Ensiling fermentation resulted in distinct metabolic changes in silages with varying DM content. In low-DM silages, ensiling fermentation led to the accumulation of 24 metabolites and a reduction in the relative concentration of 13 metabolites. In high-DM silages, ensiling fermentation resulted in an increase in the relative concentration of 26 metabolites but a decrease in the concentration of 8 metabolites. Compared to non-inoculated silages, L. plantarum inoculation resulted in an increased concentration of 3 metabolites and a reduced concentration of 5 metabolites in low-DM silages. Similarly, in high-DM silages, there was an elevation in the relative concentration of 3 metabolites, while a decrease in 7 other metabolites. Ten metabolites with bio-functional activity were identified, including chrysoeriol, isorhamnetin, petunidin 3-glucoside, apigenin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-cinnamic acid, herniarin, and 3,4-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of microbiome and metabolome profiling of sorghum forage during ensiling as a function of DM content and L. plantarum inoculation, with a particular emphasis on identifying metabolites that may possess bio-functional properties. KEY POINTS: • DM loss was not different by L. plantarum but higher in low- vs. high-DM silage. • L. buchneri dominated ensiling, regardless of DM level. • 10 metabolites with bio-functional activity were identified.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sorghum , Silagem , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Fermentação
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2028, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459051

RESUMO

Copine proteins are highly conserved and ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, and their indispensable roles in different species were proposed. However, their exact function remains unclear. The phytohormone brassinosteroids (BRs) play vital roles in plant growth, development and environmental responses. A key event in effective BR signaling is the formation of functional BRI1-SERK receptor complex and subsequent transphosphorylation upon ligand binding. Here, we demonstrate that BONZAI (BON) proteins, which are plasma membrane-associated copine proteins, are critical components of BR signaling in both the monocot maize and the dicot Arabidopsis. Biochemical and molecular analyses reveal that BON proteins directly interact with SERK kinases, thereby ensuring effective BRI1-SERK interaction and transphosphorylation. This study advances the knowledge on BR signaling and provides an important target for optimizing valuable agronomic traits, it also opens a way to study steroid hormone signaling and copine proteins of eukaryotes in a broader perspective.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Transporte , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474103

RESUMO

Maize ranks as the second most widely produced crop globally, yielding approximately 1.2 billion tons, with corn cob being its primary byproduct, constituting 18 kg per 100 kg of corn. Agricultural corn production generates bioactive polysaccharide-rich byproducts, including xylan (Xyl). In this study, we used the redox method to modify corn cob xylan with gallic acid, aiming to enhance its antioxidant and protective capacity against oxidative stress. The conjugation process resulted in a new molecule termed conjugated xylan-gallic acid (Xyl-GA), exhibiting notable improvements in various antioxidant parameters, including total antioxidant capacity (1.4-fold increase), reducing power (1.2-fold increase), hydroxyl radical scavenging (1.6-fold increase), and cupric chelation (27.5-fold increase) when compared with unmodified Xyl. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, Xyl-GA demonstrated no cytotoxicity, significantly increased fibroblast cell viability (approximately 80%), and effectively mitigated intracellular ROS levels (reduced by 100%) following oxidative damage induced by H2O2. Furthermore, Xyl-GA exhibited non-toxicity toward zebrafish embryos, offered protection against H2O2-induced stress, and reduced the rate of cells undergoing apoptosis resulting from H2O2 exposure. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Xyl-GA possesses potential therapeutic value in addressing oxidative stress-related disturbances. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the molecular structure of this novel compound and establish correlations with its pharmacological activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido Gálico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Xilanos/farmacologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
6.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14249, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472657

RESUMO

The potential of fulvic acid (FA) to improve plant growth has been acknowledged, but its effect on plant growth and nutrient uptake under nutrient stress remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of different FA application rates on maize growth and nitrogen utilization under low nitrogen stress. The results showed that under low nitrogen stress, FA significantly stimulated maize growth, particularly root development, biomass, and nitrogen content. The enhanced activity levels of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism were observed, along with differential gene expression in maize, which enriched nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism and plant hormone metabolism. The application of FA regulated the hormones' level, reduced abscisic acid content in leaves and Me-JA content in roots, and increased auxin and zeatin ribose content in leaves. This study concludes that, by promoting root development, nitrogen metabolism, and hormone metabolism, an appropriate concentration of FA can enhance plant tolerance to low nitrogen conditions and improve nitrogen use efficiency.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos , Nitrogênio , Zea mays , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14251, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472740

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for plant growth, and most plants absorb it as nitrate. AtNRG2 has been reported to play an important role in nitrate regulation. In this study, we investigated the functions of AtNRG2 family members of Arabidopsis thaliana and maize in nitrate signalling and metabolism. Our results showed that both AtNRG2.10 and AtNRG2.15 regulated nitrate signalling and metabolism. Overexpression of AtNRG2.11 (AtNRG2) could promote plant growth and improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). In addition, the maize genome harbors 23 ZmNRG2 members. We detected the expression of these genes treated with nitrate and the expression of four genes was strongly induced with ZmNRG2.7 having the highest levels. Overexpression of ZmNRG2.7 in the atnrg2 mutant could restore the defects of atnrg2, suggesting that ZmNRG2.7 is involved in nitrate signalling and metabolism. Moreover, the overexpression lines of ZmNRG2.7 showed increased biomass and NUE. These findings demonstrate that at least a part of NRG2 family genes in Arabidopsis and maize regulate nitrate signalling and provide a molecular basis for improving the NUE of crops.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
8.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14243, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467539

RESUMO

Seed priming with beneficial endophytic fungi is an emerging sustainable strategy for enhancing plant resistance against insect pests. This study examined the effects of Beauvaria bassiana Bb20091317 and Metarhizium rileyi MrCDTLJ1 fungal colonization on maize growth, defence signalling, benzoxazinoid levels and gene expression. The colonization did not adversely affect plant growth but reduced larval weights of Spodoptera frugiperda. Maize leaves treated with M. rileyi exhibited higher levels of jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-Isoleucine, salicylic acid, and indole acetic acid compared to control. B. bassiana and M. rileyi accelerated phytohormone increase upon S. frugiperda herbivory. Gene expression analysis revealed modulation of benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes. We further elucidated the immune regulatory role of the transcription factor zmWRKY36 using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in maize. zmWRKY36 positively regulates maize immunity against S. frugiperda, likely by interacting with defense-related proteins. Transient overexpression of zmWRKY36 in tobacco-induced cell death, while silencing in maize reduced chitin-triggered reactive oxygen species burst, confirming its immune function. Overall, B. bassiana and M. rileyi successfully colonized maize, impacting larval growth, defense signalling, and zmWRKY36-mediated resistance. This sheds light on maize-endophyte-insect interactions for sustainable plant protection.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas , Zea mays , Animais , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Herbivoria , Larva/fisiologia , Fungos
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 398: 130531, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447620

RESUMO

Glycolic acid is widely employed in chemical cleaning, the production of polyglycolic acid-lactic acid, and polyglycolic acid. Currently, the bottleneck of glycolate biosynthesis lies on the imbalance of metabolic flux and the deficiency of NADPH. In this study, a dynamic regulation system was developed and optimized to enhance the metabolic flux from glucose to glycolate. Additionally, the knockout of transhydrogenase (sthA), along with the overexpression of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase (pntAB) and the implementation of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, were performed to further increase the production of the NADPH, thereby increasing the titer of glycolate to 5.6 g/L. To produce glycolate from corn stover hydrolysate, carbon catabolite repression was alleviated and glucose utilization was accelerated. The final strain, E. coli Mgly10-245, is inducer-free, achieving a glycolate titer of 46.1 g/L using corn stover hydrolysate (77.1 % of theoretical yield). These findings will contribute to the advancement of industrial glycolate production.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , NADP Trans-Hidrogenases , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Glicolatos/metabolismo , NADP Trans-Hidrogenases/metabolismo , Ácido Poliglicólico/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 192, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491471

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), being a heavy metal, tends to accumulate in soils primarily through industrial activities, agricultural practices, and atmospheric deposition. Maize, being a staple crop for many regions, is particularly vulnerable to Cd contamination, leading to compromised growth, reduced yields, and potential health risks for consumers. Biochar (BC), a carbon-rich material derived from the pyrolysis of organic matter has been shown to improve soil structure, nutrient retention and microbial activity. The choice of biochar as an ameliorative agent stems from its well-documented capacity to enhance soil quality and mitigate heavy metal stress. The study aims to contribute to the understanding of the efficacy of biochar in combination with GA3, a plant growth regulator known for its role in promoting various physiological processes, in mitigating the adverse effects of Cd stress. The detailed investigation into morpho-physiological attributes and biochemical responses under controlled laboratory conditions provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of these interventions. The experimental design consisted of three replicates in a complete randomized design (CRD), wherein soil, each containing 10 kg was subjected to varying concentrations of cadmium (0, 8 and 16 mg/kg) and biochar (0.75% w/w base). Twelve different treatment combinations were applied, involving the cultivation of 36 maize plants in soil contaminated with Cd (T1: Control (No Cd stress; T2: Mild Cd stress (8 mg Cd/kg soil); T3: Severe Cd stress (16 mg Cd/kg soil); T4: 10 ppm GA3 (No Cd stress); T5: 10 ppm GA3 + Mild Cd stress; T6: 10 ppm GA3 + Severe Cd stress; T7: 0.75% Biochar (No Cd stress); T8: 0.75% Biochar + Mild Cd stress; T9: 0.75% Biochar + Severe Cd stress; T10: 10 ppm GA3 + 0.75% Biochar (No Cd stress); T11: 10 ppm GA3 + 0.75% Biochar + Mild Cd stress; T12: 10 ppm GA3 + 0.75% Biochar + Severe Cd stress). The combined application of GA3 and BC significantly enhanced multiple parameters including germination (27.83%), root length (59.53%), shoot length (20.49%), leaf protein (121.53%), root protein (99.93%), shoot protein (33.65%), leaf phenolics (47.90%), root phenolics (25.82%), shoot phenolics (25.85%), leaf chlorophyll a (57.03%), leaf chlorophyll b (23.19%), total chlorophyll (43.77%), leaf malondialdehyde (125.07%), root malondialdehyde (78.03%) and shoot malondialdehyde (131.16%) across various Cd levels compared to the control group. The synergistic effect of GA3 and BC manifested in optimal leaf protein and malondialdehyde levels indicating induced tolerance and mitigation of Cd detrimental impact on plant growth. The enriched soils showed resistance to heavy metal toxicity emphasizing the potential of BC and GA3 as viable strategy for enhancing maize growth. The application of biochar and gibberellic acid emerges as an effective means to mitigate cadmium-induced stress in maize, presenting a promising avenue for sustainable agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Giberelinas , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Solo/química , Malondialdeído/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6176, 2024 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486015

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is a heavy metal that is toxic to both plants and animals. Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) can alleviate the detrimental effects of heavy metals on plants, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The study aims to synthesize SiNPs and reveal how they promote plant health in Arsenic-polluted soil. 0 and 100% v/v SiNPs were applied to soil, and Arsenic 0 and 3.2 g/ml were applied twice. Maize growth was monitored until maturity. Small, irregular, spherical, smooth, and non-agglomerated SiNPs with a peak absorbance of 400 nm were synthesized from Pycreus polystachyos. The SiNPs (100%) assisted in the development of a deep, prolific root structure that aided hydraulic conductance and gave mechanical support to the maize plant under As stress. Thus, there was a 40-50% increase in growth, tripled yield weights, and accelerated flowering, fruiting, and senescence. SiNPs caused immobilization (As(III)=SiNPs) of As in the soil and induced root exudates Phytochelatins (PCs) (desGly-PC2 and Oxidized Glutathione) which may lead to formation of SiNPs=As(III)-PCs complexes and sequestration of As in the plant biomass. Moreover, SiNPs may alleviate Arsenic stress by serving as co-enzymes that activate the antioxidant-defensive mechanisms of the shoot and root. Thus, above 70%, most reactive ROS (OH) were scavenged, which was evident in the reduced MDA content that strengthened the plasma membrane to support selective ion absorption of SiNPs in place of Arsenic. We conclude that SiNPs can alleviate As stress through sequestration with PCs, improve root hydraulic conductance, antioxidant activity, and membrane stability in maize plants, and could be a potential tool to promote heavy metal stress resilience in the field.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Nanopartículas , Animais , Arsênio/metabolismo , Silício/farmacologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Solo
12.
Sci Prog ; 107(1): 368504241239447, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511725

RESUMO

Since the environmentally friendly reuse of corn stalks attracts more and more attention, it is an efficient and feasible way to reuse corn stalks as forage. However, whether the cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose within corn stalks can be effectively decomposed becomes a key to reusing corn stalks as forage. Orthogonal test was designed by five different degradation temperatures (22°C, 24°C, 26°C, 28°C, 30°C), five different pH values (4, 5, 6, 8, 10), and five different degradation time durations (5, 15, 25, 30, and 35 days) to examine 25 kinds of different degradation conditions. It was found that the decomposition effect of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, of group 25 (26°C, pH = 5, 25 days) was stronger compared with other groups, with the contents calculated as 8.22%, 31.55%, and 22.55% individually (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). Group 19 (22°C, pH = 4, 5 days) revealed the worst degradation effect of cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose compared to other groups, with contents calculated as 15.48%, 38.85%, and 29.57%, individually (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). The research data deliver a basis for ideal degradation conditions for corn stalks degradation in combination with the digestive enzymes of P. chrysosporium and O. furnacalis larva. Aiming to explore a highly efficient and environmentally friendly corn stalk degradation method.


Assuntos
Lignina , Zea mays , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2565, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519520

RESUMO

Dent and flint kernel architectures are important characteristics that affect the physical properties of maize kernels and their grain end uses. The genes controlling these traits are unknown, so it is difficult to combine the advantageous kernel traits of both. We found mutation of ARFTF17 in a dent genetic background reduces IAA content in the seed pericarp, creating a flint-like kernel phenotype. ARFTF17 is highly expressed in the pericarp and encodes a protein that interacts with and inhibits MYB40, a transcription factor with the dual functions of repressing PIN1 expression and transactivating genes for flavonoid biosynthesis. Enhanced flavonoid biosynthesis could reduce the metabolic flux responsible for auxin biosynthesis. The decreased IAA content of the dent pericarp appears to reduce cell division and expansion, creating a shorter, denser kernel. Introgression of the ARFTF17 mutation into dent inbreds and hybrids improved their kernel texture, integrity, and desiccation, without affecting yield.


Assuntos
Sementes , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Sementes/genética , Mutação , Flavonoides/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(12): 6360-6371, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489847

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most prevalent type of chronic liver disease, spanning from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Corn oligopeptide (CP) is a functional peptide known for its diverse pharmacological effects on metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the protective activity of CP against fatty liver disease. Oral administration of CP significantly reduced body weight gain by 2.95%, serum cholesterol by 22.54%, and liver injury, as evidenced by a reduction of 32.19% in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and 49.10% in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in mice subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD). In a streptozotocin/HFD-induced NASH mouse model, CP attenuated body weight gain by 5.11%, liver injury (with a 34.15% decrease in AST and 11.43% decrease in ALT), and, to some extent, liver inflammation and fibrosis. Proteomic analysis revealed the modulation of oxidative phosphorylation and sirtuin (SIRT) signaling pathways by CP. Remarkably, CP selectively inhibited the hepatic expression of mitochondrial SIRT3 and SIRT5 in both HFD and NASH models. In summary, CP demonstrates a preventive effect against metabolic-stress-induced NAFLD progression by modulating oxidative stress and the SIRT signaling pathway, suggesting the potential of CP as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of NAFLD and advanced-stage NASH.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Sirtuínas , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Proteômica , Fígado/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Aumento de Peso , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540348

RESUMO

High temperatures are increasingly becoming a prominent environmental factor accelerating the adverse influence on the growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.). Therefore, it is critical to identify the key genes and pathways related to heat stress (HS) tolerance in maize. Great challenges have been faced in dissecting genetic mechanisms and uncovering master genes for HS tolerance. Here, Z58D showed more thermotolerance than AF171 at the seedling stage with a lower wilted leaf rate and H2O2 accumulation under HS conditions. Transcriptomic analysis identified 3006 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in AF171 and 4273 DEGs in Z58D under HS treatments, respectively. Subsequently, GO enrichment analysis showed that commonly upregulated genes in AF171 and Z58D were significantly enriched in the following biological processes, including protein folding, response to heat, response to temperature stimulus and response to hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the comparison between the two inbred lines under HS showed that response to heat and response to temperature stimulus were significantly over-represented for the 1234 upregulated genes in Z58D. Furthermore, more commonly upregulated genes exhibited higher expression levels in Z58D than AF171. In addition, maize inbred CIMBL55 was verified to be more tolerant than B73, and more commonly upregulated genes also showed higher expression levels in CIMBL55 than B73 under HS. These consistent results indicate that heat-resistant inbred lines may coordinate the remarkable expression of genes in order to recover from HS. Additionally, 35 DEGs were conserved among five inbred lines via comparative transcriptomic analysis. Most of them were more pronounced in Z58D than AF171 at the expression levels. These candidate genes may confer thermotolerance in maize.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Zea mays , Zea mays/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542154

RESUMO

Leaf angle (LA) is one of the core agronomic traits of maize, which controls maize yield by affecting planting density. Previous studies have shown that the KN1 gene is closely related to the formation of maize LA, but its specific mechanism has not been fully studied. In this study, phenotype investigation and transcriptomic sequencing were combined to explore the mechanism of LA changes in wild type maize B73 and mutant kn1 under exogenous auxin (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The results showed that the effect of exogenous phytohormones had a greater impact on the LA of kn1 compared to B73. Transcriptome sequencing showed that genes involved in IAA, gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs) showed different differential expression patterns in kn1 and B73. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of KN1 involved in the formation of maize LA, and provides a theoretical basis for breeding maize varieties with suitable LA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542329

RESUMO

As a plant-specific endoreplication regulator, the SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) plays an important role in plant growth and development and resistance to stress. Although the genes of the maize (Zea mays) SMR family have been studied extensively, the ZmSMR10 (Zm00001eb231280) gene has not been reported. In this study, the function of this gene was characterized by overexpression and silencing. Compared with the control, the transgenic plants exhibited the phenotypes of early maturation, dwarfing, and drought resistance. Expression of the protein in prokaryotes demonstrates that ZmSMR10 is a small protein, and the results of subcellular localization suggest that it travels functionally in the nucleus. Unlike ZmSMR4, yeast two-hybrid experiments demonstrated that ZmSMR10 does not interact strongly with with some cell cycle protein-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family members ZmCDKA;1/ZmCDKA;3/ZmCDKB1;1. Instead, it interacts strongly with ZmPCNA2 and ZmCSN5B. Based on these results, we concluded that ZmSMR10 is involved in the regulation of endoreplication through the interaction of ZmPCNA2 and ZmCSN5B. These findings provide a theoretical basis to understand the mechanism of the regulation of endoreplication and improve the yield of maize through the use of molecular techniques.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Endorreduplicação , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Secas
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542340

RESUMO

Auxin plays a crucial role in regulating root growth and development, and its distribution pattern under environmental stimuli significantly influences root plasticity. Under K deficiency, the interaction between K+ transporters and auxin can modulate root development. This study compared the differences in root morphology and physiological mechanisms of the low-K-tolerant maize inbred line 90-21-3 and K-sensitive maize inbred line D937 under K-deficiency (K+ = 0.2 mM) with exogenous NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA = 0.01 mM) treatment. Root systems of 90-21-3 exhibited higher K+ absorption efficiency. Conversely, D937 seedling roots demonstrated greater plasticity and higher K+ content. In-depth analysis through transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed that 90-21-3 and D937 seedling roots showed differential responses to exogenous NAA under K-deficiency. In 90-21-3, upregulation of the expression of K+ absorption and transport-related proteins (proton-exporting ATPase and potassium transporter) and the enrichment of antioxidant-related functional genes were observed. In D937, exogenous NAA promoted the responses of genes related to intercellular ethylene and cation transport to K-deficiency. Differential metabolite enrichment analysis primarily revealed significant enrichment in flavonoid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and hormone signaling pathways. Integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis is a crucial pathway, with core genes (related to peroxidase enzyme) and core metabolites upregulated in 90-21-3. The findings suggest that under K-deficiency, exogenous NAA induces substantial changes in maize roots, with the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway playing a crucial role in the maize root's response to exogenous NAA regulation under K-deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Potássio , Plântula , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Deficiência de Potássio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(13): 7533-7545, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527761

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are crucial regulators of gene expression in maize. However, the mechanisms through which miRNAs control internode elongation remain poorly understood. This study engineered varying levels of internode elongation inhibition, revealing that dwarfing treatments diminished gibberellin levels, curtailed cell longitudinal growth, and slowed the rate of internode elongation. Comprehensive transcriptome and miRNA profiling of the internode elongation zone showed gene expression changes that paralleled the extent of the internode length reduction. We identified 543 genes and 29 miRNAs with significant correlations to internode length, predominantly within families, including miR164 and miR396. By incorporating target gene expression levels, we pinpointed nine miRNA-mRNA pairs that are significantly associated with the regulation of the internode elongation. The inhibitory effects of these miRNAs on their target genes were confirmed through dual-luciferase reporter assays. Overexpression of miR164h in maize resulted in increased internode and cell length, suggesting a novel genetic avenue for manipulating plant stature. These miRNAs may also serve as precise spatiotemporal regulators for in vitro plant development.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2314261121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513094

RESUMO

By releasing specialized metabolites, plants modify their environment. Whether and how specialized metabolites protect plants against toxic levels of trace elements is not well understood. We evaluated whether benzoxazinoids, which are released into the soil by major cereals, can confer protection against arsenic toxicity. Benzoxazinoid-producing maize plants performed better in arsenic-contaminated soils than benzoxazinoid-deficient mutants in the greenhouse and the field. Adding benzoxazinoids to the soil restored the protective effect, and the effect persisted to the next crop generation via positive plant-soil feedback. Arsenate levels in the soil and total arsenic levels in the roots were lower in the presence of benzoxazinoids. Thus, the protective effect of benzoxazinoids is likely soil-mediated and includes changes in soil arsenic speciation and root accumulation. We conclude that exuded specialized metabolites can enhance protection against toxic trace elements via soil-mediated processes and may thereby stabilize crop productivity in polluted agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Arsênio/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
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