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1.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116432, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274337

RESUMO

Maintaining humidification and inhibiting nitrogen losses during vermicomposting process have emerged to be key factors for high-quality productions. Previous data have showed outstanding functions of biochar addition in improving vermicomposting quality. In this study, the influence of bamboo biochar (BB) and rice husk biochar (RHB) addition on compost maturity, humification and nitrogen loss was evaluated in the vermicomposting of cattle manure and maize straw. Results revealed that BB or RHB amendment improved organic matter decomposition, enhanced humification and maturity of compost, particularly in the 10% BB treatment, which exerted the highest humic acids content and GI value. Furthermore, BB or RHB addition significantly reduced nitrogen losses, in which the volatilization of NH3 and N2O were reduced by 24.93%-66.23% and 14.91%-55.12%. The fewest nitrogen loss was detected in the treatment of 10% BB. Biochar inhibited nirK, nirS but promoted AOB-amoA, nosZ expression; fewer N2O producing bacteria (Pseudomonas, Devosia, Luteimonas genus) were observed in the biochar treatment, and thereby decreased the N2O emission. Therefore, 10% BB addition for co-vermicomposting cattle manure and maize straw is an efficient way to increase humification, maturity, and reduce nitrogen loss, and future applications following this strategy is believed to generate better productions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , Sasa , Bovinos , Animais , Esterco , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Solo , Oryza/metabolismo
2.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116694, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343400

RESUMO

Poor management of crop residues leads to environmental pollution and composting is a sustainable practice for addressing the challenge. However, knowledge about composting with pure crop straw is still limited, which is a novel and feasible composting strategy. In this study, pure corn straw was in-situ composted for better management. Community structure of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms during composting was deciphered using high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that the compost was mature with organic matter content of 37.83% and pH value of 7.36 and pure corn straw could be composted successfully. Cooling phase was major period for cellulose degradation with the highest ß-glucosidase activity (476.25 µmol·p-Nitr/kg·dw·min) and microbial diversity (Shannon index, 3.63; Chao1 index, 500.81). Significant compositional succession was observed in the functional communities during composting with Streptomyces (14.32%), Trichoderma (13.85%) and Agromyces (11.68%) as dominant genera. ß-Glucosidase-producing bacteria and fungi worked synergistically as a network to degrade cellulose with Streptomyces (0.3045**) as the key community revealed by multi-interaction analysis. Organic matter (-0.415***) and temperature (-0.327***) were key environmental parameters regulating cellulose degradation via influencing ß-glucosidase-producing communities, and ß-glucosidase played a key role in mediating this process. The above results indicated that responses of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms to cellulose degradation were reflected at both network and individual levels and multi-interaction analysis could better explain the relationship between variables concerning composting cellulose degradation. The work is of significance for understanding cellulose degradation microbial communities and process during composting of pure corn straw.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Streptomyces , Trichoderma , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Solo , Celulose/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Esterco
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 521, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The root systems of higher plants play an important role in plant growth and development. In our present study, it was found that poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), an environmentally friendly biomacromolecule, significantly improved root development in maize. RESULTS: After treatment with γ-PGA for 7 days, the fresh weight of maize roots was significantly increased and the differences between γ-PGA treated group and control group were mainly caused by the number (higher by 71.87% compared to the control) and length of lateral roots. RNAseq and RT-PCR analyses showed that γ-PGA treatment upregulated the expression of genes related to the synthesis of auxins and auxin signal in maize roots. In addition, γ-PGA promoted the accumulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria, such as Azospirillum, Azohydromonas, Ramlibacter, and Sphingobium (Proteobacteria), Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), Parasegetibacter (Bacteroidetes), and Gemmatimonas (Gemmatimonadetes) in rhizosphere soil and the secretion of auxins. The results of this study deepened our understanding of the effects and mechanism of γ-PGA on maize root development, and as well as highlighted the possibility of using γ-PGA to improve crop growth and soil environment. CONCLUSIONS: γ-PGA promotes early growth and development of maize roots by inducing the secretion and accumulation of auxin in roots and in rhizosphere soil, and increasing the abundance of plant growth promoting bacteria.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277283, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355765

RESUMO

Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. ceratina Kulesh) is used in the food and textile sectors, amylopectin has an important place in the adhesive and paper sectors as well. These sectors have to buy waxy maize from abroad because there is no waxy maize variety registered yet in Turkey. In vivo maternal haploid technique was applied to obtain doubled haploid (DH) waxy lines in a short time. RWS, RWK-76, and their hybrid RWS × RWK-76 maternal haploid inducers were used as male parents in vivo maternal haploid. SSRs markers were used to identify the genetic similarity between the number of 17 DH waxy lines. Similarity ratio ranged from 12% to 68% between DH waxy lines. DH waxy lines were used in crossbreeding and created 24 hybrids. Iodine tests were made on DH waxy lines and their hybrids and analyzed some quality parameters of hybrids. Candidate waxy hybrids were selected from the progeny nursery trial. Several 16 waxy and 3 check hybrids were experimented within three locations and the average grain yield of waxy and check hybrids ranged from 8.4-12.7 t/ha and 12.7-16.2 t/ha respectively. PCA biplot analysis using the data of the average of three locations and genotype × environment interaction was determined. PC1 and PC2 variation percentages were found to be 18.32% and 75.22%, respectively. ADAX-14, ADAX-13R, ADAX-13, and ADAX-19 waxy varieties are more stable in terms of yield than other hybrids. The difference between varieties was found statistically significant for protein, oil, starch, hectoliter, and 1000 grain weight.


Assuntos
Ceras , Zea mays , Masculino , Animais , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Haploidia , Ceras/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Amilopectina/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361583

RESUMO

Histone methylation, as one of the important epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, plays a significant role in growth and developmental processes and stress responses of plants, via altering the methylation status or ratio of arginine and lysine residues of histone tails, which can affect the regulation of gene expression. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been revealed to be responsible for histone methylation of specific arginine residues in plants, which is important for maintaining pleiotropic development and adaptation to abiotic stresses in plants. Here, for the first time, a total of eight PRMT genes in maize have been identified and characterized in this study, named as ZmPRMT1-8. According to comparative analyses of phylogenetic relationship and structural characteristics among PRMT gene family members from several representative species, all maize 8 PRMT proteins were categorized into three distinct subfamilies. Further, schematic structure and chromosome location analyses displayed evolutionarily conserved structure features and an unevenly distribution on maize chromosomes of ZmPRMT genes, respectively. The expression patterns of ZmPRMT genes in different tissues and under various abiotic stresses (heat, drought, and salt) were determined. The expression patterns of ZmPRMT genes indicated that they play a role in regulating growth and development and responses to abiotic stress. Eventually, to verify the biological roles of ZmPRMT genes, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmPRMT1 gene was constructed as a typical representative. The results demonstrated that overexpression of ZmPRMT1 can promote earlier flowering time and confer enhanced heat tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Taken together, our results are the first to report the roles of ZmPRMT1 gene in regulating flowering time and resisting heat stress response in plants and will provide a vital theoretical basis for further unraveling the functional roles and epigenetic regulatory mechanism of ZmPRMT genes in maize growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Arginina/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361955

RESUMO

There is a rising interest in bioethanol production from lignocellulose such as corn stover to decrease the need for fossil fuels, but most research mainly focuses on how to improve ethanol yield and pays less attention to the biorefinery of corn stover. To realize the utilization of different components of corn stover in this study, different pretreatment strategies were used to fractionate corn stover while enhancing enzymatic digestibility and cellulosic ethanol production. It was found that the pretreatment process combining dilute acid (DA) and alkaline sodium sulfite (ASS) could effectively fractionate the three main components of corn stover, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, that xylose recovery reached 93.0%, and that removal rate of lignin was 85.0%. After the joint pretreatment of DA and ASS, the conversion of cellulose at 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis reached 85.4%, and ethanol concentration reached 48.5 g/L through fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) process when the final concentration of substrate was 18% (w/v). Pretreatment with ammonium sulfite resulted in 83.8% of lignin removal, and the conversion of cellulose and ethanol concentration reached 86.6% and 50 g/L after enzymatic hydrolysis of 72 h and fed-batch S-SSF, respectively. The results provided a reference for effectively separating hemicellulose and lignin from corn stover and producing cellulosic ethanol for the biorefinery of corn stover.


Assuntos
Etanol , Lignina , Animais , Lignina/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Zea mays/metabolismo , Fermentação , Celulose , Ácidos , Equidae
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361983

RESUMO

As a staple food crop, maize is widely cultivated worldwide. Sex differentiation and kernel development are regulated by auxin, but the mechanism regulating its synthesis remains unclear. This study explored the influence of the growth stage of maize on the secondary metabolite accumulation and gene expression associated with auxin synthesis. Transcriptomics and metabonomics were used to investigate the changes in secondary metabolite accumulation and gene expression in maize leaves at the jointing, tasseling, and pollen-release stages of plant growth. In total, 1221 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and 4843 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened. KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of the DEGs and DAMs revealed that plant hormone signal transduction, tryptophan metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were highly enriched. We summarized the key genes and regulatory effects of the tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathways, giving new insights into this type of biosynthesis. Potential MSTRG.11063 and MSTRG.35270 and MSTRG.21978 genes in auxin synthesis pathways were obtained. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified five candidate genes, namely TSB (Zm00001d046676 and Zm00001d049610), IGS (Zm00001d020008), AUX2 (Zm00001d006283), TAR (Zm00001d039691), and YUC (Zm00001d025005 and Zm00001d008255), which were important in the biosynthesis of both tryptophan and auxin. This study provides new insights for understanding the regulatory mechanism of auxin synthesis in maize.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Zea mays , Zea mays/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Triptofano/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362140

RESUMO

Osmotic stress caused by drought and high salinity is the key factor limiting plant growth. However, its underlying molecular regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found the stress-related gene Zm00001d019704 (ZmSRG7) based on transcriptome sequencing results previously obtained in the laboratory and determined its biological function in maize. We found that ZmSRG7 was significantly expressed in both roots and leaves under 10% PEG6000 or 150 mM NaCl. Subcellular localization showed that the gene was localized in the nucleus. The germination rate and root length of the ZmSRG7 overexpressing lines were significantly increased under drought or salt stress compared with the control. However, after drought stress, the survival rate and relative water content of maize were increased, while the water loss rate was slowed down. Under salt stress, the Na+ concentration and Na+: K+ ratio of maize was increased. In addition, the contents of antioxidant enzymes and proline in maize under drought or salt stress were higher than those in the control, while the contents of MDA, H2O2 and O2- were lower than those in the control. The results showed that the ZmSRG7 gene played its biological function by regulating the ROS signaling pathway. An interaction between ZmSRG7 and the Zmdhn1 protein was found using a yeast two-hybrid experiment. These results suggest that the ZmSRG7 gene can improve maize tolerance to drought or salt by regulating hydrogen peroxide homeostasis.


Assuntos
Secas , Tolerância ao Sal , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362446

RESUMO

Hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channels (OSCA) are characterized as an osmosensor in plants; they are able to recognize and respond to exogenous and endogenous osmotic changes, and play a vital role in plant growth and adaptability to environmental stress. To explore the potential biological functions of OSCAs in maize, we performed a bioinformatics and expression analysis of the ZmOSCA gene family. Using bioinformatics methods, we identified twelve OSCA genes from the genome database of maize. According to their sequence composition and phylogenetic relationship, the maize OSCA family was classified into four groups (Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ). Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed a conserved DUF221 domain in these members. We modeled the calcium binding sites of four OSCA families using the autodocking technique. The expression profiles of ZmOSCA genes were analyzed in different tissues and under diverse abiotic stresses such as drought, salt, high temperature, and chilling using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We found that the expression of twelve ZmOSCA genes is variant in different tissues of maize. Furthermore, abiotic stresses such as drought, salt, high temperature, and chilling differentially induced the expression of twelve ZmOSCA genes. We chose ZmOSCA2.2 and ZmOSCA2.3, which responded most strongly to temperature stress, for prediction of protein interactions. We modeled the calcium binding sites of four OSCA families using autodocking tools, obtaining a number of new results. These results are helpful in understanding the function of the plant OSCA gene family for study of the molecular mechanism of plant osmotic stress and response, as well as exploration of the interaction between osmotic stress, high-temperature stress, and low-temperature stress signal transduction mechanisms. As such, they can provide a theoretical basis for crop breeding.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays , Zea mays/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura , Cálcio/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Secas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
10.
J Adv Res ; 41: 179-190, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cereal crops are a major source of raw food and nutrition for humans worldwide. Inflorescence of cereal crops is their reproductive organ, which also contributes to crop productivity. The branching pattern in flowering plant species not only determines inflorescence architecture but also determines the grain yield. There are good reviews describing the grass inflorescence architecture contributing to the final grain yield. However, very few discuss the aspects of inflorescence branching. AIM OF REVIEW: This review aimed at systematically and comprehensively summarizing the latest progress in the field of conservation and divergence of genetic regulatory network that controls inflorescence branching in maize and rice, provide strategies to efficiently utilize the achievements in reproductive branching for crop yield improvement, and suggest a potential regulatory network underlying the inflorescence branching and vegetative branching system. KEY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF REVIEW: Inflorescence branching is the consequence of a series of developmental events including the initiation, outgrowth, determinacy, and identity of reproductive axillary meristems, and it is controlled by a complex functional hierarchy of genetic networks. Initially, we compared the inflorescence architecture of maize and rice; then, we reviewed the genetic regulatory pathways controlling the inflorescence meristem size, bud initiation, and outgrowth, and the key transition steps that shape the inflorescence branching in maize and rice; additionally, we summarized strategies to effectively apply the recent advances in inflorescence branching for crop yield improvement. Finally, we discussed how the newly discovered hormones coordinate the regulation of inflorescence branching and yield traits. Furthermore, we discussed the possible reason behind distinct regulatory pathways for vegetative and inflorescence branching.


Assuntos
Oryza , Humanos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inflorescência/genética , Inflorescência/metabolismo , Meristema/genética , Meristema/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética
11.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364942

RESUMO

Black corn has been attracting attention to investigate its biological properties due to its anthocyanin composition, mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside. Our study evaluated the effects of black corn extract (BCE) on intestinal morphology, gene expression, and the cecal microbiome. The BCE intra-amniotic administration was evaluated by an animal model in Gallus gallus. The eggs (n = 8 per group) were divided into: (1) no injection; (2) 18 MΩ H2O; (3) 5% black corn extract (BCE); and (4) 0.38% cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G). A total of 1 mL of each component was injected intra-amniotic on day 17 of incubation. On day 21, the animals were euthanized after hatching, and the duodenum and cecum content were collected. The cecal microbiome changes were attributed to BCE administration, increasing the population of Bifidobacterium and Clostridium, and decreasing E. coli. The BCE did not change the gene expression of intestinal inflammation and functionality. The BCE administration maintained the villi height, Paneth cell number, and goblet cell diameter (in the villi and crypt), similar to the H2O injection but smaller than the C3G. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, E. coli, and villi GC diameter. The BCE promoted positive changes in the cecum microbiome and maintained intestinal morphology and functionality.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Zea mays , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ceco/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Clostridium , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 508, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited failure to produce functional pollen that most commonly results from expression of novel, chimeric mitochondrial genes. In Zea mays, cytoplasmic male sterility type S (CMS-S) is characterized by the collapse of immature, bi-cellular pollen. Molecular and cellular features of developing CMS-S and normal (N) cytoplasm pollen were compared to determine the role of mitochondria in these differing developmental fates. RESULTS: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling revealed both chromatin and nuclear fragmentation in the collapsed CMS-S pollen, demonstrating a programmed cell death (PCD) event sharing morphological features with mitochondria-signaled apoptosis in animals. Maize plants expressing mitochondria-targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP) demonstrated dynamic changes in mitochondrial morphology and association with actin filaments through the course of N-cytoplasm pollen development, whereas mitochondrial targeting of GFP was lost and actin filaments were disorganized in developing CMS-S pollen. Immunoblotting revealed significant developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in both CMS-S and N mito-types. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome encoded components of the cytochrome respiratory pathway and ATP synthase were of low abundance at the microspore stage, but microspores accumulated abundant nuclear-encoded alternative oxidase (AOX). Cytochrome pathway and ATP synthase components accumulated whereas AOX levels declined during the maturation of N bi-cellular pollen. Increased abundance of cytochrome pathway components and declining AOX also characterized collapsed CMS-S pollen. The accumulation and robust RNA editing of mitochondrial transcripts implicated translational or post-translational control for the developmentally regulated accumulation of mitochondria-encoded proteins in both mito-types. CONCLUSIONS: CMS-S pollen collapse is a PCD event coincident with developmentally programmed mitochondrial events including the accumulation of mitochondrial respiratory proteins and declining protection against mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Biogênese de Organelas , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 335, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197512

RESUMO

This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing dietary soybean meal with peanut meal, on intake and digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and nitrogen balance in lactating cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein × Gyr cows at 84 days in milk (DIM) were distributed in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square. The treatments consisted of increasing peanut meal levels (0, 330, 670, and 1000 g/kg dry matter basis) in replacement of soybean meal in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut meal had no effect on the intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients. Nitrogen balance and percentage of retained were similar among treatments. Microbial nitrogen synthesis and microbial protein synthesis efficiency were similar among treatments. Thus, in regions where its cost is lower, peanut meal can totally replace soybean meal in dairy cow diets without affecting nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis.


Assuntos
Lactação , Soja , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Arachis , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
14.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 702, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellular events during meiosis can differ between inbred lines in maize. Substantial differences in the average numbers of chiasmata and double-strand breaks (DSBs) per meiotic cell have been documented among diverse inbred lines of maize: CML228, a tropical maize inbred line, B73 and Mo17, temperate maize lines. To determine if gene expression might explain these observed differences, an RNA-Seq experiment was performed on CML228 male meiocytes which was compared to B73 and Mo17 male meiocytes, where plants were grown in the same controlled environment. RESULTS: We found that a few DSB-repair/meiotic genes which promote class I crossovers (COs) and the Zyp1 gene which limits newly formed class I COs were up-regulated, whereas Mus81 homolog 2 which promotes class II COs was down-regulated in CML228. Although we did not find enriched gene ontology (GO) categories directly related to meiosis, we found that GO categories in membrane, localization, proteolysis, energy processes were up-regulated in CML228, while chromatin remodeling, epigenetic regulation, and cell cycle related processes including meiosis related cell cycle processes were down-regulated in CML228. The degree of similarity in expression patterns between the three maize lines reflect their genetic relatedness: B73 and Mo17 had similar meiotic expressions and CML228 had a more distinct expression profile. CONCLUSIONS: We found that meiotic related genes were mostly conserved among the three maize inbreds except for a few DSB-repair/meiotic genes. The findings that the molecular players in limiting class I CO formation (once CO assurance is achieved) were up-regulated and those involved in promoting class II CO formation were down-regulated in CML228 agree with the lower chiasmata number observed in CML228 previously. In addition, epigenetics such as chromatin remodeling and histone modification might play a role. Transport and energy-related processes was up-regulated and Cyclin13 was down-regulated in CML228. The direction of gene expression of these processes agree with that previously found in meiotic tissues compared with vegetative tissues. In summary, we used different natural maize inbred lines from different climatic conditions and have shown their differences in expression landscape in male meiocytes.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Zea mays , Epigênese Genética , Meiose/genética , Recombinação Genética , Transcriptoma , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 366: 128176, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307030

RESUMO

In the present work, the effects of combined enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and xylanase (CXEH), fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis (FBEH) operation and kinetics on production of ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) from pretreated corn straws were investigated. The results showed that CXEH could efficiently increase production of FA and pCA. When performed the FBEH operation by feeding 150 mL enzymatic hydrolysis solution (1.5 % enzyme concentration, 5:4 (v/v) ratio of cellulase to xylanase and 2.0 % substrate loading) to 250 mL batch enzymatic hydrolysis solution at 36 h, the maximum production (2178.58 and 2710.17 mg/L) and production rate (590.95 and 727.89 mg/L.h) of FA and pCA were respectively obtained. Moreover, the disruption of fiber tissues, enhancement of crystallinity and accelerated degradation of hemicelluloses and lignocelluloses caused by CXEH contributed to effectively improving production of FA and pCA in corn straws.


Assuntos
Celulase , Zea mays , Hidrólise , Zea mays/metabolismo , Celulase/metabolismo
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292567

RESUMO

The sugar will eventually be exported transporters (SWEET) family is an important group of transport carriers for carbon partitioning in plants and has important functions in growth, development, and abiotic stress tolerance. Although the SWEET family is an important sugar transporter, little is known of the functions of the SWEET family in maize (Zea mays), especially in response to abiotic stresses. To further explore the response pattern of maize SWEET to abiotic stress, a bioinformatics-based approach was used to predict and identify the maize SWEET gene (ZmSWEET) family. Twenty-four ZmSWEET genes were identified using the MaizeGDB database. Phylogenetic analysis resolved these twenty-four genes into four clades. One tandem and five segmental duplication events were identified, which played a major role in ZmSWEET family expansion. Synteny analysis provided insight into the evolutionary characteristics of the ZmSWEET genes with those of three graminaceous crop species. A heatmap showed that most ZmSWEET genes responded to at least one type of abiotic stress. By an abscisic acid signaling pathway, among which five genes were significantly induced under NaCl treatment, eight were obviously up-regulated under PEG treatment and five were up-regulated under Cd stress, revealing their potential functions in response to abiotic stress. These findings will help to explain the evolutionary links of the ZmSWEET family and contribute to future studies on the functional characteristics of ZmSWEET genes, and then improve abiotic stress tolerance in maize through molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Família Multigênica , Cádmio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Hormônios , Carbono/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292598

RESUMO

The developmental phase changes of maize are closely associated with the life span, environmental adaption, plant height, and disease resistance of the plant and eventually determines the grain yield and quality of maize. A natural mutant, Early Phase Change 1 (ZmEPC1), was selected from the inbred line KN5585. Compared with the wild type plant, the ZmEPC1 mutant exhibits deceased plant stature, accelerated developmental stages, and decreased leaf size. Through the transcriptome sequencing analysis of leaf samples at flowering stage, a total of 4583 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened between the mutant and wild type, including 2914 down-regulated genes and 1669 up-regulated genes. The GO enrichment and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs were mainly involved in hormone response, hormone signal transduction, autophagy, JA response and signal response, photosynthesis, biotic/abiotic stress, and circadian rhythms. The RT-qPCR results revealed that the most tested DEGs display consistent expression alterations between V5 and FT stages. However, several genes showed opposite expression alterations. Strikingly, most of the JA biosynthesis and signaling pathway-related genes displayed diametrically expression alterations between V5 and FT stages. miR156, a key regulator of plant phase transition, exhibited significant down-regulated expression at V5 and FT stages. The expression of two miR156 target genes were both significantly different between mutants and wild type. In conclusion, ZmEPC1 was identified to be mainly involved in the regulation of JA-mediated signaling pathways and hormone response and signaling, which is possible to confer developmental phase change through miR156-SPLs pathway.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hormônios
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232684

RESUMO

The study of the genetic control of maize seed development and seed-related pathways has been one of the most important themes approached by the Italian scientific community. Maize has always attracted the interest of the Italian community of agricultural genetics since its beginning, as some of its founders based their research projects on and developed their "schools" by adopting maize as a reference species. Some of them spent periods in the United States, where maize was already becoming a model system, to receive their training. In this manuscript we illustrate the research work carried out in Italy by different groups that studied maize kernels and underline their contributions in elucidating fundamental aspects of caryopsis development through the characterization of maize mutants. Since the 1980s, most of the research projects aimed at the comprehension of the genetic control of seed development and the regulation of storage products' biosyntheses and accumulation, and have been based on forward genetics approaches. We also document that for some decades, Italian groups, mainly based in Northern Italy, have contributed to improve the knowledge of maize genomics, and were both fundamental for further international studies focused on the correct differentiation and patterning of maize kernel compartments and strongly contributed to recent advances in maize research.


Assuntos
Sementes , Zea mays , Endosperma/metabolismo , Genômica , Itália , Sementes/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232781

RESUMO

Weed interference in the crop field is one of the major biotic stresses causing dramatic crop yield losses, and the development of herbicide-resistant crops is critical for weed control in the application of herbicide technologies. To identify herbicide-resistant germplasms, we screened 854 maize inbreed lines and 25,620 seedlings by spraying them with 1 g/L glufosinate. One plant (L336R), possibly derived from a natural variation of line L336, was identified to have the potential for glufosinate tolerance. Genetic analysis validated that the glufosinate tolerance of L336R is conferred by a single locus, which was tentatively designated as ZmGHT1. By constructing a bi-parental population derived from L336R, and a glufosinate sensitive line L312, ZmGHT1 was mapped between molecular markers M9 and M10. Interestingly, genomic comparation between the two sequenced reference genomes showed that large scale structural variations (SVs) occurred within the mapped region, resulting in 2.16 Mb in the inbreed line B73, and 11.5 kb in CML277, respectively. During the fine mapping process, we did not detect any additional recombinant, even by using more than 9500 F2 and F3 plants, suspecting that SVs should also have occurred between L336R and L312 in this region, which inhibited recombination. By evaluating the expression of the genes within the mapped interval and using functional annotation, we predict that the gene Zm00001eb361930, encoding an aminotransferase, is the most likely causative gene. After glufosinate treatment, lower levels of ammonia content and a higher activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in L336R were detected compared with those of L336 and L312, suggesting that the target gene may participate in ammonia elimination involving GS activity. Collectively, our study can provide a material resource for maize herbicide resistant breeding, with the potential to reveal a new mechanism for herbicide resistance.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Aminobutiratos , Amônia/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Transaminases/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
20.
Nat Plants ; 8(10): 1176-1190, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241735

RESUMO

Cold stress negatively affects maize (Zea mays L.) growth, development and yield. Metabolic adjustments contribute to the adaptation of maize under cold stress. We show here that the transcription factor INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION 1 (ZmICE1) plays a prominent role in reprogramming amino acid metabolome and COLD-RESPONSIVE (COR) genes during cold stress in maize. Derivatives of amino acids glutamate/asparagine (Glu/Asn) induce a burst of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which suppress the cold-mediated induction of DEHYDRATION RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ZmDREB1) genes and impair cold tolerance. ZmICE1 blocks this negative regulation of cold tolerance by directly repressing the expression of the key Glu/Asn biosynthesis genes, ASPARAGINE SYNTHETASEs. Moreover, ZmICE1 directly regulates the expression of DREB1s. Natural variation at the ZmICE1 promoter determines the binding affinity of the transcriptional activator ZmMYB39, a positive regulator of cold tolerance in maize, resulting in different degrees of ZmICE1 transcription and cold tolerance across inbred lines. This study thus unravels a mechanism of cold tolerance in maize and provides potential targets for engineering cold-tolerant varieties.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays , Zea mays/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Asparagina/genética , Asparagina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Glutamatos/genética , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Ligases/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
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