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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48419

RESUMO

Um microorganismo implantado em mosquitos reduziu em 70% a ocorrência de casos de dengue, 66% de incidência de casos de chinkungunya e 40% de Zika em Niterói, no Rio de Janeiro.


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Zika virus , Planos e Programas de Pesquisa em Saúde , Aedes , Wolbachia
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489923

RESUMO

Serological testing is a powerful tool in epidemiological studies for understanding viral circulation and assessing the effectiveness of virus control measures, as is the case of SARS-CoV-2, the pathogenic agent of COVID-19. Immunoassays can quantitatively reveal the concentration of antiviral antibodies. The assessment of antiviral antibody titers may provide information on virus exposure, and changes in IgG levels are also indicative of a reduction in viral circulation. In this work, we describe a serological study for the evaluation of antiviral IgG and IgM antibodies and their correlation with antiviral activity. The serological assay for IgG detection used two SARS-CoV-2 proteins as antigens, the nucleocapsid N protein and the 3CL protease. Cross-reactivity tests in animals have shown high selectivity for detection of antiviral antibodies, using both the N and 3CL antigens. Using samples of human serum from individuals previously diagnosed by PCR for COVID-19, we observed high sensitivity of the ELISA assay. Serological results with human samples also suggest that the combination of higher titers of antiviral IgG antibodies to different antigen targets may be associated with greater neutralization activity, which can be enhanced in the presence of antiviral IgM antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vigilância Imunológica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/normas , Reações Cruzadas , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zika virus/imunologia
3.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200507, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on sleep changes and brain function in children with microcephaly due to Zika virus. METHOD: Systematic review conducted in the databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, and SciELO and the grey databases Google Scholar and OpenGrey. RESULTS: Ten Brazilian primary studies with observational research design were included. These were published between 2017 and 2020 with 516 children with microcephaly due to Zika virus infection aged 4 months to 4 years. Out of these, 4 investigated qualitative aspects of sleep using the questionnaires Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire or Infant Sleep Questionnaire and 6 investigated changes in brain activities during sleep using the Electroencephalogram or Video-Electroencephalogram exams. The children's quality of sleep was not compromised in most studies. Changes in brain activity during sleep were frequent, with epileptogenic activity being a common finding among the studies. CONCLUSION: The quality of sleep of children with microcephaly due to Zika virus has shown to be similar to that of children with typical development and the presented behavioral changes may be related to changes in electric brain activity.


Assuntos
Microcefalia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Sono , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
4.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1296-1301, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497219

RESUMO

Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV infections are well-known infectious diseases caused by blood products, but recently there have been almost no reports. In 2011, hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody test was covered by insurance in Japan, and certain numbers of transfusion-transmitted HEV were reported, and five cases were recognized in 2019. As the Japanese Red Cross has started to examine individual NAT of HEV for all blood donors since August 2020, and the number of transfusion-transmitted HEV will decrease. In addition, Trypanosoma cruzi antibody test for selective blood donors has been examined since August 2016, and the risk of Chagas disease infection by blood transfusion will be decreased. In the future, it is important for protecting against the transfusion-transmitted infection to inspect bacterial tests and know the information of emerging infectious disease occurring overseas. When the emerging infectious diseases such as DENV (dengue virus), WNV (West Nile virus), Zika (Zika virus) and CHIKV (chikungunya virus) occur in Japan, it is necessary to stimulate countermeasures and prepare what kind of tests should be performed for blood donors or criteria for blood donation.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por HIV , Reação Transfusional , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Doadores de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499027

RESUMO

Introduction. Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a public health concern on the American continent during late 2015. As the number of infected grew so did the concerns about its capability to cause long-term damage especially with the appearance of the congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Proteins from the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) were proposed as the cellular receptors, however, due to the ability of the virus to infect a variety of cell lines different strategies to elucidate the tropism of the virus should be investigated.Hypothesis. Pseudotyping is a powerful tool to interrogate the ability of the glycoprotein (GP) to permit entry of viruses.Aim. We aimed to establish a highly tractable pseudotype model using lenti- and retro-viral backbones to investigate the entry pathway of ZIKV.Methodology. We used different glycoprotein constructs and different lenti- or retro-viral backbones, in a matrix of ratios to investigate production of proteins and functional pseudotypes.Results. Varying the ratio of backbone and glycoprotein plasmids did not yield infectious pseudotypes. Moreover, the supplementation of the ZIKV protease or the substitution of the backbone had no positive impact on the infectivity. We showed production of the proteins in producer cells implying the lack of infectious pseudotypes is due to a lack of successful glycoprotein incorporation, rather than lack of protein production.Conclusion. In line with other reports, we were unable to successfully produce infectious pseudotypes using the variety of methods described. Other strategies may be more suitable in the development of an efficient pseudotype model for ZIKV and other flaviviruses.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Virologia/métodos , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Zika virus/classificação , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/fisiologia
6.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(7): 607-611, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is currently the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Risk factors for GBS include previous viral or bacterial infections or vaccination. Recently, an outbreak of Zika virus led to an outbreak of GBS in Latin America, mostly in Brazil, concomitant to continuous circulation of dengue virus serotypes. However, there is no study about cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a risk for GBS in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we report a series of cases of GBS with the aim of determining the prevalence of CMV and the characteristics associated with the infection. METHODS: A cohort of 111 GBS cases diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 in Natal, northeastern Brazil, was studied. Presence of CMV IgM antibodies was determined by means of electrochemiluminescence. The analysis was performed considering CMV infection status and the clinical outcome. RESULTS: We found seroprevalence of 15.3% (n = 17) for CMV. CMV patients were younger (26 vs. 40; p = 0.016), with no apparent gastrointestinal (p = 0.762) or upper respiratory infections (p = 0.779) or sensory loss (p = 0.03). They presented more often with a classic GBS sensorimotor variant (p = 0.02) and with a demyelinating pattern in electrophysiological studies (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In Brazil, the clinical-epidemiological profile of GBS associated with CMV infection is similar to that described in other countries. Better understanding of the relationship between infectious processes and GBS is a key component of the research agenda and assistance strategy for global health initiatives relating to peripheral neuropathic conditions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00271020, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495097

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the degree of implementation of the response to the emergency of microcephaly associated with Zika virus in Pernambuco State, Brazil. This was a normative evaluative study conducted in the initial epicenter of the public health emergency of international concern, from October 2015 to July 2017. A logical model was produced for the intervention under analysis, with the components of Management, Surveillance, and Care in the dimensions of structure, process, and result, based on technical publications and institutional guidelines, in addition to a corresponding log frame of indicators for assessment. Data were collected through a questionnaire, direct observation, and consultation of official documents. The results showed partial implementation (74.9%) of the response to the microcephaly emergency by the Pernambuco State Health Department, with the process dimension reaching 75% of the expected level and the structure dimension, 74.5%. Surveillance was the only component that was assessed as implemented (81%), although with a shortage of regional and laboratory investments, while Management (74.2%) and Care (68.8%) were partially implemented, with insufficiencies in items related to human resources and physical structure, planning, and evaluation. In conclusion, the response to the public health emergency of international concern involving microcephaly associated with the Zika virus was assessed as partially implemented, with different levels between the intervention´s components, especially surveillance when compared to management and care. The shortcomings signal the need for investments to deal with future public health emergencies, with a view towards more timely and adequate interventions.


Assuntos
Microcefalia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Emergências , Humanos , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
8.
Vaccine ; 39(36): 5173-5186, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353682

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) caused over two million human infections in more than 80 countries around 2015-2016. Current vaccines under development are mostly focused on inducing antibodies that despite capable of inhibiting the virus, may have the potential to trigger antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). T cell vaccines that do not induce antibodies targeting viral surface will unlikely cause ADE, but be capable of potentiating the effectiveness of an antibody-inducing vaccine. To develop such a protective T cell vaccine, we first examined the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells in immunocompetent mice that have been transiently infected by ZIKV. Through epitope mapping using 427 overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of ZIKV polyprotein, we discovered 27 immunodominant epitopes scattered throughout the virus on C, E, NS1-NS5 proteins. Among them, 8 were confirmed as CD4+ T cell epitopes, and 16 as CD8+ T cell epitopes, while 3 for both T cell subsets. From these 27 newly identified epitopes, the top 10 epitopes were selected to formulate three T cell vaccines comprised of either CD4+ T cell epitopes, or CD8+ T cell epitopes, or a mixture of both. Immunization with these T cell epitopes induced T cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production, and conferred varying degrees of protection against ZIKV challenge. Moreover, these new T cell vaccines also improved the protective efficacy of a neutralizing antibody-inducing recombinant E80 protein vaccine. Together, our results provided additional evidence in support of the protective role of ZIKV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and laid foundation for future development of T cell vaccines for ZIKV.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Epitopos Imunodominantes , Camundongos , Vacinas Sintéticas , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1288: 21-47, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453730

RESUMO

The testis is one of several immune privilege sites. These sites are necessary to decrease inflammation and immune responses that could be damaging to the host. For example, inflammation in the brain, eye or placenta could result in loss of cognitive function, vision or rejection of the semi-allogeneic fetus, respectively. In the testis, immune privilege is "good" as it is necessary for protection of the developing auto-immunogenic germ cells. However, there is also a downside or "bad" part of immune privilege, where pathogens and cancers can take advantage of this privilege and persist in the testis as a sanctuary site. Even worse, the "ugly" of privilege is how re-emerging viruses, such as Ebola and Zika viruses, can establish persistence in the testes and be sexually transmitted even months after they have been cleared from the bloodstream. In this review, we will discuss the delicate balance within the testis that provides immune privilege to protect the germ cells while still allowing for immune function to fight off pathogens and tumors.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Privilégio Imunológico , Imunidade , Masculino , Testículo
10.
Talanta ; 234: 122617, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364426

RESUMO

A group of infectious and parasitic diseases with prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions of the planet, especially in places with difficult access, internal conflicts, poverty, and low visibility from the government and health agencies are classified as neglected tropical diseases. While some well-intentioned isolated groups are making the difference on a global scale, the number of new cases and deaths is still alarming. The development and employment of low-cost, miniaturized, and easy-to-use devices as biosensors could be the key to fast diagnosis in such areas leading to a better treatment to further eradication of such diseases. Therefore, this review contains useful information regarding the development of such devices in the past ten years (2010-2020). Guided by the updated list from the World Health Organization, the work evaluated the new trends in the biosensor field applied to the early detection of neglected tropical diseases, the efficiencies of the devices compared to the traditional techniques, and the applicability on-site for local distribution. So, we focus on Malaria, Chagas, Leishmaniasis, Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya, Schistosomiasis, Leprosy, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), Lymphatic filariasis, and Rabies. Few papers were found concerning such diseases and there is no available commercial device in the market. The works contain information regarding the development of point-of-care devices, but there are only at proof of concepts stage so far. Details of electrode modification and construction of electrochemical biosensors were summarized in Tables. The demand for the eradication of neglected tropical diseases is increasing. The use of biosensors is pivotal for the cause, but appliable devices are scarce. The information present in this review can be useful for further development of biosensors in the hope of helping the world combat these deadly diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hanseníase , Malária , Doenças Parasitárias , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia
11.
Anal Chem ; 93(33): 11379-11387, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378378

RESUMO

This work presents a sensitive and specific single-step RNA sensor for Zika virus (ZIKV) in serum. Using AC electrokinetics (ACEK)-enhanced capacitive sensing technology, ZIKV genomic RNA (gRNA) can be directly detected from serum. The sensors are interdigitated electrodes modified with oligonucleotide probes complementary to the conserved regions of ZIKV gRNA. The ACEK capacitive sensing applies an optimized AC excitation signal over the sensor, which induces ACEK microfluidic enrichment of analytes and also simultaneously performs real-time monitoring of hybridization of ZIKV gRNA on the sensor surface. Hence, the sensing procedures are simple with rapid turn-around time and good specificity and sensitivity. A series of experiments are conducted to optimize the sensor performance. The performance of the sensor is investigated for three different probes, two functionalization buffers, and different hybridization buffers. With the optimized sensing protocol, this method can detect spiked ZIKV gRNA from human serum within 30 s and reach a limit of detection of 78.8 copies/µL in analytical samples and as low as 287.5 copies/µL in neat serum. The sensors can successfully differentiate between the RNAs of the ZIKV and dengue virus, two viruses with similar transmission paths and symptoms. The sensor is simple to use and requires no labeling or sophisticated process typically involved in a polymerase chain reaction, hybridization chain reaction, or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Genômica , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , RNA Viral/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406289

RESUMO

Infections caused by arboviruses that have mostly impacted the Brazilian morbidity and mortality are caused by the same vector, Aedes aegypti. Preventive actions related to the vector are the most effective strategies in the prevention and control of these diseases. This study aimed to associate the knowledge on the vector that transmits dengue, Zika and chikungunya with the sociodemographic and behavioral preventive practices towards Aedes aegypti in the municipality of Tangara da Serra, Mato Grosso State, in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. A probabilistic urban population sampling was obtained by clusters: census sectors and households. The sample size calculation considered 10% of loss and a 1.5 design effect. This is a cross-sectional research carried out through a household survey in February and March 2018. There were 583 participants. The study variables were knowledge on the vector, sociodemographic characteristics and preventive practices related to the vector. The statistical analysis was based on a bivariate analysis and Poisson multiple regressions. Inadequate or insufficient knowledge on the vector Aedes aegypti remained associated with education in the categories illiterate (p<0.001) and 8 years of study or less (p<0.001), in addition to not adopting practices of capping and cleaning the water tank (p=0.002) and not using insecticides at home (p=0.007). It is concluded that there is a need for health communication actions that consider characteristics the population, especially the level of education and previous knowledge on the vector, allowing a dialogical approach and enabling the community participation in preventive practices and control of the vector Aedes aegypti .


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
13.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1333-1343, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408012

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has emerged as a global concern because of its impact on human health. ZIKV infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly and other severe brain defects in the developing fetus and there have been reports of the occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in areas affected by ZIKV. NK cells are activated during acute viral infections and their activity contributes to a first line of defense because of their ability to rapidly recognize and kill virus-infected cells. To provide insight into NK cell function during ZIKV infection, we have profiled, using mass cytometry, the NK cell receptor-ligand repertoire in a cohort of acute ZIKV-infected female patients. Freshly isolated NK cells from these patients contained distinct, activated, and terminally differentiated, subsets expressing higher levels of CD57, NKG2C, and KIR3DL1 as compared with those from healthy donors. Moreover, KIR3DL1+ NK cells from these patients produced high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α, in the absence of direct cytotoxicity, in response to in vitro stimulation with autologous, ZIKV-infected, monocyte-derived dendritic cells. In ZIKV-infected patients, overproduction of IFN-γ correlated with STAT-5 activation (r = 0.6643; p = 0.0085) and was mediated following the recognition of MHC class 1-related chain A and chain B molecules expressed by ZIKV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells, in synergy with IL-12 production by the latter cells. Together, these findings suggest that NK cells contribute to the generation of an efficacious adaptive anti-ZIKV immune response that could potentially affect the outcome of the disease and/or the development of persistent symptoms.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Gravidez , Receptores KIR3DL1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410903

RESUMO

An infectious agent's pathogenic and transmission potential is heavily influenced by early events during the asymptomatic or subclinical phase of disease. During this phase, the presence of infectious agent may be relatively low. An important example of this is Zika virus (ZIKV), which can cross the placenta and infect the foetus, even in mothers with subclinical infections. These subclinical infections represent roughly 80 % of all human infections. Initial ZIKV pathogenesis studies were performed in type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) knockout mice. Blunting the interferon response resulted in robust infectivity, and increased the utility of mice to model ZIKV infections. However, due to the removal of the interferon response, the use of these models impedes full characterization of immune responses to ZIKV-related pathologies. Moreover, IFNAR-deficient models represent severe disease whereas less is known regarding subclinical infections. Investigation of the anti-viral immune response elicited at the maternal-foetal interface is critical to fully understand mechanisms involved in foetal infection, foetal development, and disease processes recognized to occur during subclinical maternal infections. Thus, immunocompetent experimental models that recapitulate natural infections are needed. We have established subclinical intravaginal ZIKV infections in mice and guinea pigs. We found that these infections resulted in: the presence of both ZIKV RNA transcripts and infectious virus in maternal and placental tissues, establishment of foetal infections and ZIKV-mediated CXCL10 expression. These models will aid in discerning the mechanisms of subclinical ZIKV mother-to-offspring transmission, and by extension can be used to investigate other maternal infections that impact foetal development.


Assuntos
Feto , Placenta , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Feto/imunologia , Feto/virologia , Cobaias , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Placenta/imunologia , Placenta/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Células Vero , Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/patogenicidade
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 710551, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458161

RESUMO

This manuscript is an up-to-date review of experimentally validated linear and continuous epitopes identified from arbovirus members of the Flavivirus genus. We summarized 153 immunoreactive peptides from the Dengue virus, Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus described in studies published from 1989 to 2020. We included peptides from structural (envelope, capsid, and pre-membrane) and nonstructural (Ns1-5) viral proteins that demonstrated relevant immunoreactivity with antibodies from naturally infected or vaccinated humans. We included peptides that demonstrated relevant reactivity features, such as indicators of disease severity related to immunological or immunopathological outcomes, differential or group diagnostic markers, immunotherapy candidates, and potential for vaccine formulation. The majority of immunoreactive peptides were described for DENV probably due to its long-lasting impact on human health and the lack of efficient vaccines and therapeutic methods. Immune landscape data regarding linear immunoreactive and continuous flavivirus peptides are still scarce, and a complete and more detailed map remains to be elucidated. Therefore, this review provides valuable data for those investigating the antibody response against flavivirus infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos , Infecções por Flavivirus , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Humanos
16.
J Mol Graph Model ; 108: 108001, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388402

RESUMO

The 2015 Zika outbreak sparked major global concern and emphasized the reality and dangers still posed by mosquito borne pathogens. While efforts have been made to develop a vaccine and other therapeutics, there is still a great demand for antiviral drugs targeting Zika and other flaviviruses. The non-structural protein 3 (NS3) helicase is a vital component of the viral replication complex, tasked with unwinding the viral dsRNA molecule into single strands. Given this critical function, the Zika virus helicase is a potential therapeutic target and the focus of many ongoing research efforts. Using a combination of drug docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified a list of competitive helicase inhibitors targeting the ATP hydrolysis site and have discovered a potential allosteric site capable of distorting both of the protein's active sites.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 866, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective control of emerging mosquito-borne viral diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika requires, amongst other things, a functional healthcare system, ready and capable of timely detection and prompt response to incipient epidemics. We assessed the readiness of Zanzibar health facilities and districts for early detection and management of mosquito-borne viral disease outbreaks. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving all 10 District Health Management Teams and 45 randomly selected public and private health facilities in Zanzibar was conducted using a mixed-methods approach including observations, document review, and structured interviews with health facility in-charges and District Health Management Team members. RESULTS: The readiness of the Zanzibar healthcare system for timely detection, management, and control of dengue and other mosquito-borne viral disease outbreaks was critically low. The majority of health facilities and districts lacked the necessary requirements including standard guidelines, trained staff, real-time data capture, analysis and reporting systems, as well as laboratory diagnostic capacity. In addition, health education programmes for creating public awareness and Aedes mosquito surveillance and control activities were non-existent. CONCLUSIONS: The Zanzibar healthcare system has limited readiness for management, and control of mosquito-borne viral diseases. In light of impending epidemics, the critical shortage of skilled human resource, lack of guidelines, lack of effective disease and vector surveillance and control measures as well as lack of laboratory capacity at all levels of health facilities require urgent attention across the Zanzibar archipelago.


Assuntos
Aedes , Epidemias , Viroses , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445581

RESUMO

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a master regulator of metabolism, adipogenesis, inflammation and cell cycle, and it has been extensively studied in the brain in relation to inflammation or neurodegeneration. Little is known however about its role in viral infections of the brain parenchyma, although they represent the most frequent cause of encephalitis and are a major threat for the developing brain. Specific to viral infections is the ability to subvert signaling pathways of the host cell to ensure virus replication and spreading, as deleterious as the consequences may be for the host. In this respect, the pleiotropic role of PPARγ makes it a critical target of infection. This review aims to provide an update on the role of PPARγ in viral infections of the brain. Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of PPARγ in brain or neural cells infected by immunodeficiency virus 1, Zika virus, or human cytomegalovirus. They have provided a better understanding on PPARγ functions in the infected brain, and revealed that it can be a double-edged sword with respect to inflammation, viral replication, or neuronogenesis. They unraveled new roles of PPARγ in health and disease and could possibly help designing new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalite/patologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
19.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015-2016, a large Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak occurred in the Americas. Although the exact ZIKV antibody kinetics after infection are unknown, recent evidence indicates the rapid waning of ZIKV antibodies in humans. Therefore, we aimed to determine the levels of ZIKV antibodies more than three years after a ZIKV infection. METHODS: We performed ZIKV virus neutralization tests (VNT) and a commercial ZIKV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) IgG ELISA in a cohort of 49 participants from Suriname who had a polymerase-chain-reaction-confirmed ZIKV infection more than three years ago. Furthermore, we determined the presence of antibodies against multiple dengue virus (DENV) antigens. RESULTS: The ZIKV seroprevalence in this cohort, assessed with ZIKV VNT and ZIKV NS1 IgG ELISA, was 59.2% and 63.3%, respectively. There was, however, no correlation between these two tests. Furthermore, we did not find evidence of a potential negative influence of DENV immunity on ZIKV antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: ZIKV seroprevalence, assessed with two commonly used serological tests, was lower than expected in this cohort of participants who had a confirmed previous ZIKV infection. This can have implications for future ZIKV seroprevalence studies and possibly for the duration of immunological protection after a ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/análise , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Suriname , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
20.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372576

RESUMO

Virus-induced infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most serious problems in public health and can be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, where these manifestations have been neglected. Typically, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella-zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for a high number of cases in immunocompetent hosts, whereas other herpesviruses (for example, cytomegalovirus) are the most common in immunocompromised individuals. Arboviruses have also been associated with outbreaks with a high burden of neurological disorders, such as the Zika virus epidemic in Brazil. There is a current lack of understanding in Brazil about the most common viruses involved in CNS infections. In this review, we briefly summarize the most recent studies and findings associated with the CNS, in addition to epidemiological data that provide extensive information on the circulation and diversity of the most common neuro-invasive viruses in Brazil. We also highlight important aspects of the prion-associated diseases. This review provides readers with better knowledge of virus-associated CNS infections. A deeper understanding of these infections will support the improvement of the current surveillance strategies to allow the timely monitoring of the emergence/re-emergence of neurotropic viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Doenças Priônicas/epidemiologia , Alphavirus/patogenicidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Enterovirus/patogenicidade , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Herpesviridae/patogenicidade , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Doenças Priônicas/fisiopatologia , Príons/metabolismo , Príons/patogenicidade , Simplexvirus/patogenicidade , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/patogenicidade , Zika virus/patogenicidade
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