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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669456

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19), is a worldwide pandemic, as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is a respiratory virus that infects people of all ages. Although it may present with mild to no symptoms in most patients, those who are older, immunocompromised, or with multiple comorbidities may present with severe and life-threatening infections. Throughout history, nutraceuticals, such as a variety of phytochemicals from medicinal plants and dietary supplements, have been used as adjunct therapies for many disease conditions, including viral infections. Appropriate use of these adjunct therapies with antiviral proprieties may be beneficial in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of COVID-19. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of nutraceuticals, such as vitamins C, D, E, zinc, melatonin, and other phytochemicals and function foods. These nutraceuticals may have potential therapeutic efficacies in fighting the threat of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia
2.
Food Chem ; 349: 129049, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581435

RESUMO

In this study the potential targeted use of zinc to inactivate proteinase inhibitors (PI) has been investigated as an alternative to the widely applied heat treatment used industrially for inactivation of PI. Zinc was utilized for the reduction of disulfide bonds leading to the structural changes in proteins, thus affecting the decreased affinity between PI and proteinases. The protein disulfide bond reduction mechanism was studied using a newly developed micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with the glutathione redox reaction with dithiothreitol (DTT) as model system. This model proved efficient in monitoring the reduction of disulfide bonds in the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). The use of zinc as a reductant resulted in a significant reduction of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) of 72% for KTI and 85% for BBI, highlighting zinc as a promising potential agent to reduce the activity of PI as an alternative to heat treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidor da Tripsina de Soja de Bowman-Birk/metabolismo , Inibidor da Tripsina de Soja de Kunitz/metabolismo , Zinco/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/química , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor da Tripsina de Soja de Bowman-Birk/química , Inibidor da Tripsina de Soja de Kunitz/química
3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential micronutrient that impacts host-pathogen interplay at infection. Zinc balances immune responses, and also has a proven direct antiviral action against some viruses. Importantly, zinc deficiency (ZD) is a common condition in elderly and individuals with chronic diseases, two groups with an increased risk for severe severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We hypothesize that serum zinc content (SZC) influences COVID-19 disease progression, and thus might represent a useful biomarker. METHODS: We ran an observational cohort study with 249 COVID-19 patients admitted in Hospital del Mar. We have studied COVID-19 severity and progression attending to SZC at admission. In parallel, we have studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) replication in the Vero E6 cell line modifying zinc concentrations. FINDINGS: Our study demonstrates a correlation between serum zinc levels and COVID-19 outcome. Serum zinc levels lower than 50 µg/dL at admission correlated with worse clinical presentation, longer time to reach stability, and higher mortality. Our in vitro results indicate that low zinc levels favor viral expansion in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. INTERPRETATION: Low SZC is a risk factor that determines COVID-19 outcome. We encourage performing randomized clinical trials to study zinc supplementation as potential prophylaxis and treatment with people at risk of zinc deficiency.


Assuntos
/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Idoso , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Vero , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/farmacologia
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 7997-8005, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577306

RESUMO

Application of natural products as new green agrochemicals with low average lifetime, low concentration doses, and safety is both complex and expensive due to chemical modification required to obtain desirable physicochemical properties. Transport, aqueous solubility, and bioavailability are some of the properties that have been improved using functionalized metal-organic frameworks based on zinc for the encapsulation of bioherbicides (ortho-disulfides). An in situ method has been applied to achieve encapsulation, which, in turn, led to an improvement in water solubility by more than 8 times after 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin HP-ß-CD surface functionalization. High-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR HAADF-STEM) and integrated differential phase contrast (iDPC) imaging techniques were employed to verify the success of the encapsulation procedure and crystallinity of the sample. Inhibition studies on principal weeds that infect rice, corn, and potato crops gave results that exceed those obtained with the commercial herbicide Logran. This finding, along with a short synthesis period, i.e., 2 h at 25 °C, make the product an example of a new generation of natural-product-based herbicides with direct applications in agriculture.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Agroquímicos/síntese química , Agroquímicos/química , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/síntese química , Herbicidas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Zinco/química , Zinco/farmacologia
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112023, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578096

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in improving plant tolerance and accumulation of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The growth, physiology and absorption of elements and transport in Phragmites australis (P. australis) were investigated under Zn and Cd stress to identify the transport mechanisms of toxic trace elements (TE) under the influence of AMF. Thus, AMF were observed to alleviate the toxic effects of Zn and Cd on P. australis by increasing plant biomass and through different regulatory patterns under different TE concentrations. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased under Zn stress, and the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and APX significantly increased under high concentrations of Cd. AMF differ in their strategies of regulating the transport of different metals under TE stress. Under Zn stress, the concentration of Zn in P. australis decreased by 10-57%, and the effect on Zn translocation factor (TFZn) was concentration-dependent. AMF increased the TFZn under low concentration stress, but decreased under high concentration stress. Under Cd stress, the concentration of Cd increased by as much as 17-40%, and the TFCd decreased. AMF were also found to change the interaction of Zn×Cd. In the absence of AMF, Cd exposure decreased the Zn concentrations in P. australis at Zn100 mg/L and Zn300 mg/L, while it increased the contents of Zn at Zn700 mg/L. The opposite trend was observed following treatment with AMF. However, regardless of the concentration of Cd, the addition of Zn decreased the concentration of Cd in both treatments in both the presence and absence of AMF. Under different TE stress conditions, the regulation of metal elements by AMF in host plants does not follow a single strategy but a trade-off between different trends of transportations. The findings of our study are important for applying AMF-P. australis systems in the phytoremediation of Zn-Cd co-contaminated ecosystems.


Assuntos
Micorrizas/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Zinco/farmacologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440911

RESUMO

Changes in zinc content and dysregulated zinc homeostatic mechanisms have been recognized in several solid malignancies such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, or pancreatic cancer. Moreover, it has been shown that zinc serum and/or tissue levels are altered in melanoma with varying effects on melanoma development and biology. This study was conducted to explore the effects of acute increases of intracellular zinc in a set of melanoma tissue explants obtained from clinical samples. Measurements of their zinc content showed an extant heterogeneity in total and free intracellular zinc pools associated with varying biological behavior of individual cells, e.g., autophagy levels and propensity to cell death. Use of zinc pyrithione elevated intracellular zinc in a short time frame which resulted in marked changes in mitochondrial activity and lysosomes. These alterations were accompanied by significantly enhanced autophagy flux and subsequent cell demise in the absence of typical apoptotic cell death markers. The present results show for the first time that acutely increased intracellular zinc in melanoma cells specifically enhances their autophagic activity via mitochondria and lysosomes which leads to autophagic cell death. While biologically relevant, this discovery may contribute to our understanding and exploration of zinc in relation to autophagy as a means of controlling melanoma growth and survival.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Apoptose , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Membranas Intracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Zinco/farmacologia
7.
J Food Biochem ; 45(2): e13604, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458853

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic has created unimaginable and unprecedented global health crisis. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, millions of dollars have been spent, hospitalization overstretched with increasing morbidity and mortality. All these have resulted in unprecedented global economic catastrophe. Several drugs and vaccines are currently being evaluated, tested, and administered in the frantic efforts to stem the dire consequences of COVID-19 with varying degrees of successes. Zinc possesses potential health benefits against COVID-19 pandemic by improving immune response, minimizing infection and inflammation, preventing lung injury, inhibiting viral replication through the interference of the viral genome transcription, protein translation, attachment, and host infectivity. However, this review focuses on the various mechanisms of action of zinc and its supplementation as adjuvant for vaccines an effective therapeutic regimen in the management of the ravaging COVID-19 pandemic. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has brought unprecedented untold hardship to both developing and developed countries. The global race for vaccine development against COVID-19 continues with success in sight with attendant increasing hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. Available drugs with anti-inflammatory actions have become alternative to stem the tide of COVID-19 with attendant global financial crises. However, Zinc is known to modulate several physiological functions including intracellular signaling, enzyme function, gustation, and olfaction, as well as reproductive, skeletal, neuronal, and cardiovascular systems. Hence, achieving a significant therapeutic approach against COVID-19 could imply the use of zinc as a supplement together with available drugs and vaccines waiting for emergency authorization to win the battle of COVID-19. Together, it becomes innovative and creative to supplement zinc with currently available drugs and vaccines.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pandemias , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , /isolamento & purificação , Zinco/farmacologia
8.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(3): 1, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448317

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), was identified in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, it has continued to spread rapidly in numerous countries, while the search for effective therapeutic options persists. Coronaviruses, including SARS­CoV­2, are known to suppress and evade the antiviral responses of the host organism mediated by interferon (IFN), a family of cytokines that plays an important role in antiviral defenses associated with innate immunity, and has been used therapeutically for chronic viral diseases and cancer. On the other hand, OncoTherad, a safe and effective immunotherapeutic agent in the treatment of non­muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), increases IFN signaling and has been shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for COVID­19 in a case report that described the rapid recovery of a 78­year­old patient with NMIBC with comorbidities. The present review discusses the possible synergistic action of OncoTherad with vitamin D, zinc and glutamine, nutrients that have been shown to facilitate immune responses mediated by IFN signaling, as well as the potential of this combination as a therapeutic option for COVID­19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Glutamina/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferons/metabolismo , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Glicoproteínas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Fosfatos/uso terapêutico , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 86, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411090

RESUMO

This study determined the effects of antioxidant supplementation and storage time at cool temperatures on the characteristics of epididymal camel spermatozoa. Camel testes were collected at the abattoir after animal slaughtering and kept at 4 °C during transportation and until processing (max 6 h). Spermatozoa were retrieved and diluted with SHOTOR extender, split in aliquots, supplemented with the following antioxidants: 200 µm/mL vitamin E, 1.0 g/L vitamin C, 1 µg/mL selenium nanoparticles, 50 µg/mL zinc nanoparticles, 2 µg/mL sodium selenite, and 100 µg/mL zinc sulfate, and stored at 4 °C for 2, 48, 96, and 144 h. The storage time significantly affected (P < 0.05) the sperms' motility and livability, the sperms' membrane integrity, and the percentages of cytoplasmic droplets as well as the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Epididymal sperm characteristics (progressive motility, livability, membrane integrity, and abnormalities) were significantly improved (P < 0.05) when the spermatozoa were diluted with antioxidants as compared with the control group, and the best additives were identified as nano-selenium, sodium selenite, nano-zinc, and zinc sulfate. In conclusion, adding nano-sized minerals or inorganic trace elements and vitamins maintained the progressive motility, livability, and membrane integrity, and decreased abnormalities and cytoplasmic droplet percentages of epididymal camel spermatozoa stored at 4 °C up to 144 h.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Camelus/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Distribuição Aleatória , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/farmacologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/farmacologia
10.
Life Sci ; 266: 118913, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333050

RESUMO

AIM: Cyclophosphamide (CYP) chemotherapy induces bladder toxicity and hemorrhagic cystitis in cancer patients constituting a current clinical concern. Oxidative inflammatory cascades have been implicated as the mechanism contributing to CYP bladder urotoxicity. We thus assayed to explore whether zinc (Zn) supplementation could mitigate CYP-induced urotoxicity and evaluate the possible underlying mechanism in rats. MAIN METHOD: Rats were orally administered Zn (100 mg/kg b.w./day) for 10 days against urotoxicity induced by single injection of CYP (150 mg/kg b.w., ip) on day 7. KEY FINDINGS: CYP significantly depressed bladder activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, whereas malondialdehyde level was increased prominently. In addition, CYP induced marked increases in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) confirmed by histological alterations. CYP prominently increased bladder inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and expression of caspase-3 protein. Zinc supplementation considerably abrogated the bladder urotoxicity by restoring redox balance, proinflammatory and apoptotic cascades and alleviated histopathological changes. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first to reveal zinc potential to prevent CYP-induced urotoxic hemorrhagic cystitis via restoring redox balance and enhancing anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms in rat bladder.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Cistite/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/toxicidade , Caspase 3/química , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Cistite/induzido quimicamente , Cistite/metabolismo , Cistite/patologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Hemorragia/patologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 123-134, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360236

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) is involved in plant growth and stress resistance and is known to increase crop yield. Here, we investigated the effect of Zn on water absorption in the roots of maize (Zea mays L.), a crop which is sensitive to Zn deficiency, during water stress conditions. Seedlings of the maize variety "Zhengdan 958" were cultivated with 0.1 or 6 µM ZnSO4·7H2O. To simulate drought stress, three-week-old seedlings were exposed to 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Root growth parameters, root antioxidant enzyme activity, root hydraulic conductivity, root aquaporin gene expression, root and leaf anatomy structure, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, leaf area, and gas exchange parameters were measured. Under water stress, moderate Zn treatment promoted root growth; maintained root and leaf anatomy structural integrity. Moderate Zn significantly increased roots hydraulic conductivity (51%) and decreased roots antioxidant enzyme activity (POD: -11.1%, CAT: -35.1%, SOD: -3.1%) compared with low-level Zn under water stress. The expression of ZmPIP1;1, ZmPIP1;2, and ZmPIP2;2 was significantly higher with moderate Zn treatment than that of low-level Zn treatment. The leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, leaf area, and gas exchange parameters with moderate Zn treatment increased significantly under water stress compared with low-level Zn treatment. The moderate concentration of Zn improved root hydraulic conductivity in maize and increased resistance to simulated drought conditions by maintaining root structural integrity, decreasing antioxidant enzyme activity, and increasing aquaporin gene expression. Moderate Zn application increased root water absorption and leaf transpiration, thereby maintaining maize water balance under water stress conditions.


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico , Água , Zea mays , Zinco , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia
12.
Biofouling ; 36(9): 1090-1099, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349036

RESUMO

A previous study has reported that a novel fluoro-zinc-silicate glass ionomer cement (Caredyne Restore) showed superior anti-biofilm effects by interfering with bacterial adhesion. However, the active ions may degrade with time. This study aimed to assess the valid anti-biofilm effects of Caredyne Restore after being aged by water immersion for 3 weeks. Streptococcus mutans biofilm was allowed to grow on the surface before and after water aging for 24 h using a modified Robbins device flow-cell system. The results showed water aging promoted biofilm formation. Insufficient amount of fluoride and zinc ions were released from Caredyne Restore after water aging under neutral pH condition. An acidic pH is needed to exert effective anti-biofilm properties. As the release of active ions from Caredyne Restore will gradually decrease after the restoration,  the restoration may not prevent biofilm formation after 3 weeks while neutral pH is maintained by the buffering capacity of saliva.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/farmacologia , Silicatos , Streptococcus mutans , Água , Zinco/farmacologia
13.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092041

RESUMO

Viral infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the importance of public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations in reducing their spread is well established. Furthermore, it is well known that proper nutrition can help support optimal immune function, reducing the impact of infections. Several vitamins and trace elements play an important role in supporting the cells of the immune system, thus increasing the resistance to infections. Other nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, help sustain optimal function of the immune system. The main aim of this manuscript is to discuss of the potential role of micronutrients supplementation in supporting immunity, particularly against respiratory virus infections. Literature analysis showed that in vitro and observational studies, and clinical trials, highlight the important role of vitamins A, C, and D, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc in modulating the immune response. Supplementation with vitamins, omega 3 fatty acids and zinc appears to be a safe and low-cost way to support optimal function of the immune system, with the potential to reduce the risk and consequences of infection, including viral respiratory infections. Supplementation should be in addition to a healthy diet and fall within recommended upper safety limits set by scientific expert bodies. Therefore, implementing an optimal nutrition, with micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, might be a cost-effective, underestimated strategy to help reduce the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1712, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754164

RESUMO

During the current corona pandemic, new therapeutic options against this viral disease are urgently desired. Due to the rapid spread and immense number of affected individuals worldwide, cost-effective, globally available, and safe options with minimal side effects and simple application are extremely warranted. This review will therefore discuss the potential of zinc as preventive and therapeutic agent alone or in combination with other strategies, as zinc meets all the above described criteria. While a variety of data on the association of the individual zinc status with viral and respiratory tract infections are available, study evidence regarding COVID-19 is so far missing but can be assumed as was indicated by others and is detailed in this perspective, focusing on re-balancing of the immune response by zinc supplementation. Especially, the role of zinc in viral-induced vascular complications has barely been discussed, so far. Interestingly, most of the risk groups described for COVID-19 are at the same time groups that were associated with zinc deficiency. As zinc is essential to preserve natural tissue barriers such as the respiratory epithelium, preventing pathogen entry, for a balanced function of the immune system and the redox system, zinc deficiency can probably be added to the factors predisposing individuals to infection and detrimental progression of COVID-19. Finally, due to its direct antiviral properties, it can be assumed that zinc administration is beneficial for most of the population, especially those with suboptimal zinc status.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Zinco/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Cílios/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/deficiência , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico
16.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 138-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742504

RESUMO

Treatment with anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide can harm the male reproductive system. Vitamin C and zinc are micronutrients with antioxidant activity and are the essential components of semen. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether cyclophosphamide-exposed mice can recover from fertility with vitamin C and zinc therapy. In this experimental study, fifty male mice were divided into five groups. Groups 1-4 received cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg, once a week for eight weeks). Also, group 2 received zinc (200 mg/kg), group 3 received vitamin C (300 mg/kg), group 4 received zinc and vitamin C (200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, respectively), five times per week for eight weeks, and group 5 received normal saline once a week and water five days a week for eight weeks. The data collected were statistically analyzed using SPSS 22. Results showed a significant increase in mount latency and a significant decrease in the number of sperms in the cyclophosphamide group compared to the control group. However, mount latency has been significantly decreased in mice treated with cyclophosphamide plus zinc compared to the cyclophosphamide group. The study also showed that the sperm count in the group that received cyclophosphamide and zinc had been increased compared to the cyclophosphamide group; the other treatments have decreased mount latency and increased the sperm count compared to the group treated with cyclophosphamide but not significantly. The Tubule Differentiation Index showed an increase in the cyclophosphamide-Zinc-Vitamin C group in comparison with the cyclophosphamide group. The current study showed that zinc could improve cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity of the reproductive system in male mice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127497, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650168

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution is an increasingly serious problem in agricultural ecosystems. Zinc accumulation in the food chain may harm the physiological functions of organisms, including herbivorous and predatory insects. Its effects on development and reproduction in Harmonia axyridis are largely unknown. In this study, five Zn solutions (25, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) plus control (0 mg/kg) were used to treat broad beans and to water the resulting seedlings. Aphids fed on these seedlings were eaten by H. axyridis ladybugs. Zn accumulation was found at all three trophic levels. Compared with the control group, ladybugs in the 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg groups had significantly reduced weight gain from the 4th instar to adulthood. Pupae and larvae (instars 1-4) in the 150 mg/kg group had the lowest survival of any group; pupal mortality in the 100 mg/kg group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Under Zn stress, female adults had inhibited expression of Vg1, Vg2 and VgR, reducing egg production and hatchability. Zn thus negatively affected their fertility. These results provide a theoretical basis for future exploration of soil heavy metal pollution impacts in ecosystems.


Assuntos
Afídeos/química , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Cadeia Alimentar , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Afídeos/metabolismo , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/metabolismo , Besouros/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Plantas Comestíveis/parasitologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/metabolismo
18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 251(3): 175-181, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641644

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now officially declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), and most parts of the world are taking drastic measures to restrict human movements to contain the infection. Millions around the world are wondering, if there is anything that could be done, other than maintaining high personal hygiene, and be vigilant of the symptoms, to reduce the spread of the disease and chances of getting infected, or at least to lessen the burden of the disease, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The National and International health agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the WHO have provided clear guidelines for both preventive and treatment suggestions. In this article, I will briefly discuss, why keeping adequate zinc balance might enhance the host response and be protective of viral infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Zinco/fisiologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/deficiência , Zinco/farmacologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692754

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of kaempferol and zinc gluconate on neurobehavioural and oxidative stress changes in Wistar rats exposed to noise. Thirty (30) rats were randomly divided into five groups: Groups I and II were administered with deionized water (DW); Group III, kaempferol (K); Group IV, zinc gluconate (Zn); Group V, kaempferol + zinc gluconate. Groups II, III, IV, and V were subjected to noise stress (N) induced by exposing rats to 100 dB (4 h/day) for 15 days, from day 33 to day 48 after starting the drug treatments. Neuromuscular coordination, motor coordination, motor strength, sensorimotor reflex, and learning and memory, were evaluated using standard laboratory methods. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated in the hippocampus. Exposure of rats to noise, induced significant neurobehavioural deficits and oxidative stress while the combined administration of kaempferol and zinc gluconate significantly (P < 0.05) improved open-field performance, motor coordination, motor strength, sensorimotor reflex, and learning and memory. Co-administration of kaempferol and zinc gluconate ameliorated noise-induced oxidative stress as demonstrated by the significantly increased activities of GPx, catalase, and SOD, and decreased levels of NO and MDA (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively), compared to the DW + N group. Our results suggest that oxidative stress, evidenced by increased NO and MDA concentration and decreased activities of GPx, catalase and SOD, were involved in the molecular mechanism underlying neurobehavioural impairment in Wistar rats, exposed to noise stress. Single treatment of kaempferol exerted a more potent mitigative effect than zinc gluconate, while their combination produced an improved outcome.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Gluconatos/farmacologia , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3921-3936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581537

RESUMO

Background: Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles (MCSNs) have good prospects in the medical field due to their great physicochemical characteristics, antibacterial activity and drug delivery capacity. This study was to analyze the antibiofilm activity and mechanisms of silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) incorporated MCSNs (Ag/Zn-MCSNs) with different percentages of Ag and Zn. Methods: Ag/Zn(1:9, molar ratio)-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(9:1, molar ratio)-MCSNs were prepared and characterized. Endocytosis of nanoparticles by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) treated with Ag/Zn-MCSNs was observed using TEM to explore the antibacterial mechanisms. The antibiofilm activity of Ag/Zn-MCSNs with different ratios of Ag and Zn was tested by E. faecalis biofilm model in human roots. The human roots pretreated by different Ag/Zn-MCSNs were cultured with E. faecalis. Then, SEM and CLSM were used to observe the survival of E. faecalis on the root canal wall. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was tested by CCK8 kits. Results: The Ag/Zn-MCSNs release Ag+ and destroy the cell membranes to kill bacteria. The MCSNs containing Ag showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis biofilms in different degrees, and they can adhere to dentin surfaces to get a continuous antibacterial effect. However, MTA, MCSNs and Zn-MCSNs could not disrupt the bacterial biofilms obviously. MCSNs, Ag/Zn(1:1, molar ratio)-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(1:9)-MCSNs showed no obvious cytotoxicity, while Ag-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(9:1)-MCSNs showed cytotoxicity. Zn-MCSNs can slightly promote cell proliferation. Conclusion: Ag/Zn-MCSNs have good antibiofilm activity. They might achieve an appropriate balance between the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity by adjusting the ratio of Ag and Zn. Ag/Zn-MCSNs are expected to be a new type of root canal disinfectant or sealer for root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Prata/química , Zinco/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Silicatos/química , Prata/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia
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