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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 196, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Central Dry Zone (CDZ) is one of the most important livestock production areas of Myanmar. However, there is an eminent lack of information on the attitudes and traditional beliefs of local farmers and livestock supply chain actors in CDZ of Myanmar on the public health implications. A modified data collection instrument of the Health Belief model was developed to investigate attitudes, beliefs and barriers to the application of recommended zoonotic disease prevention. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: Data analyses were conducted considering a two-phase multilevel mixed effect binomial generalized linear models modelling approach. RESULTS: The availability of information about zoonosis to supply chain actors influenced their confidence to implement preventive actions (OR = 1.5, p = 0.045 for cattle diseases; OR = 1.5, p = 0.022 for village chicken diseases). Supply chain actors were more likely aware of zoonosis transmitted by cattle compared to livestock farmers (OR = 0.3, p = 0.005 for cattle farmers), while people not rearing or trading small ruminants and/or poultry were less likely to be aware of the zoonotic risk associated with these animals (p < 0.005). Information on zoonosis transmitted from small ruminants was mainly promoted through farmers (p = 0.032), while information on zoonotic diseases that can be obtained from chickens was disseminated through farmers, local authorities and the media. Nevertheless, appropriate hand hygiene measures (i.e. cleaning of hands after touching, cutting, cooking meat) (OR = 7.7, p < 0.001 for zoonotic small ruminant diseases; OR = 1.6, p = 0.073 for zoonotic village chicken diseases) and treating of sick animals (OR = 7.3, p < 0.001 for small ruminant zoonotic diseases; OR = 2.2, p = 0.031 for village chicken zoonotic diseases) increased the confidence of small ruminant and village chicken owners to prevent these zoonotic infections. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study indicate that while gender and the availability of information on zoonotic risks play an important role on the perceived threat of zoonoses, the practice of prevention methods influenced the confidence of value chain actors (VCAs) on zoonoses prevention.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Gado , Animais , Humanos , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Mianmar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Galinhas , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Ruminantes , Fazendeiros
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2219962120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623201
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0010460, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634153

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus that has profound impact on domestic ruminants and can also be transmitted to humans via infected animal secretions. Urban areas in endemic regions across Africa have susceptible animal and human hosts, dense vector distributions, and source livestock (often from high risk locations to meet the demand for animal protein). Yet, there has never been a documented urban outbreak of RVF. To understand the likely risk of RVFV introduction to urban communities from their perspective and guide future initiatives, we conducted focus group discussions with slaughterhouse workers, slaughterhouse animal product traders, and livestock owners in Kisumu City and Ukunda Town in Kenya. For added perspective and data triangulation, in-depth interviews were conducted one-on-one with meat inspector veterinarians from selected slaughterhouses. A theoretical framework relevant to introduction, transmission, and potential persistence of RVF in urban areas is presented here. Urban livestock were primarily mentioned as business opportunities, but also had personal sentiment. In addition to slaughtering risks, perceived risk factors included consumption of fresh milk. High risk groups' knowledge and experience with RVFV and other zoonotic diseases impacted their consideration of personal risk, with consensus towards lower risk in the urban setting compared to rural areas as determination of health risk was said to primarily rely on hygiene practices rather than the slaughtering process. Groups relied heavily on veterinarians to confirm animal health and meat safety, yet veterinarians reported difficulty in accessing RVFV diagnostics. We also identified vulnerable public health regulations including corruption in meat certification outside of the slaughterhouse system, and blood collected during slaughter being used for food and medicine, which could provide a means for direct RVFV community transmission. These factors, when compounded by diverse urban vector breeding habitats and dense human and animal populations, could create suitable conditions for RVFV to arrive an urban center via a viremic imported animal, transmit to locally owned animals and humans, and potentially adapt to secondary vectors and persist in the urban setting. This explorative qualitative study proposes risk pathways and provides initial insight towards determining how urban areas could adapt control measures and plan future initiatives to better understand urban RVF potential.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Animais , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Carne , Gado
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): e2164218, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620913

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is enzootic in dromedary camels and causes zoonotic infection and disease in humans. Although over 80% of the global population of infected dromedary camels are found in Africa, zoonotic disease had only been reported in the Arabia Peninsula and travel-associated disease has been reported elsewhere. In this study, genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels in Ethiopia were investigated during 2017-2020. Of 1766 nasal swab samples collected, 61 (3.5%) were detected positive for MERS-CoV RNA. Of 484 turbinate swab samples collected, 10 (2.1%) were detected positive for MERS-CoV RNA. Twenty-five whole genome sequences were obtained from these MERS-CoV positive samples. Phylogenetically, these Ethiopian camel-originated MERS-CoV belonged to clade C2, clustering with other East African camel strains. Virus sequences from camel herds clustered geographically while in an abattoir, two distinct phylogenetic clusters of MERS-CoVs were observed in two sequential sampling collections, which indicates the greater genetic diversity of MERS-CoV in abattoirs. In contrast to clade A and B viruses from the Arabian Peninsula, clade C camel-originated MERS-CoV from Ethiopia had various nucleotide insertions and deletions in non-structural gene nsp3, accessory genes ORF3 and ORF5 and structural gene N. This study demonstrates the genetic instability of MERS-CoV in dromedaries in East Africa, which indicates that the virus is still actively adapting to its camel host. The impact of the observed nucleotide insertions and deletions on virus evolution, viral fitness, and zoonotic potential deserves further study.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Animais , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Camelus , Filogenia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Viagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , RNA
6.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101930, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584413

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical parasitic vector-borne disease that has emerged or re-emerged in recent years and is a major health problem. Algeria is a country where leishmaniasis reaches high levels of endemicity. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to collect, compile and summarise data on the prevalence of animal leishmaniasis in Algeria. Data were collected from 2004 to 2022 during which a number of 12 papers were published from dogs, cats, hedgehogs, and jackals. A total of 4812 dogs, 388 stray cats, 24 hedgehogs and 2 Jackals were included in this analysis. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was performed using serological or molecular tests. The overall prevalence in dogs was 21.2 % (95 %CI, 15.7-26.9 %), and in stray cats, hedgehogs and Jackal was, respectively, 25.3 % (95 %CI, 17-36.6 %), 20.8 % (95 %CI, 8.8-40.9 %) and 50 %. This study is a comprehensive epidemiological analysis of canine leishmaniasis in Algeria and will therefore be a useful tool for researchers. Further studies are needed for a better and continuous assessment of the occurrence of this zoonosis. It can also be used to propose or improve appropriate national surveillance programs for these diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Leishmaniose , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Argélia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ouriços , Chacais/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 165(1): 59-63, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In a guinea pig herd with 26 breeding animals, several individuals of all age categories died (16/26) after three animals had been newly introduced from another herd. Furthermore, the population suffered of apathy, anorexia, severe weight loss and conjunctivitis, as well as abortions and stillbirths. At the same time, the owner experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection with pneumonia, which was confirmed by taking a PCR test. Chlamydia caviae was detected from the conjunctiva and vagina/uterus in one juvenile animal together with an intestinal Cryptosporidium wrairi infection. Oocysts were found histologically in the small intestine, which was confirmed by PCR. C. wairi is a parasite adapted to guinea pigs with zoonotic potential, which causes diarrhoea with frequent deaths in larger guinea pig herds. C. caviae is also a zoonotic pathogen and often the cause of conjunctivitis, pneumonia and abortions in guinea pigs and can lead to upper respiratory tract disease, conjunctivitis but also severe pneumonia in humans. The increased death cases and the clinical signs could be traced back to an infection with Cryptosporidium wrairi, complicated by a co-infection of C. caviae. We suspect that the abortions were caused by C. caviae, but since the population was treated with various antibiotics effective against chlamydial infections, it was no longer possible to verify this by PCR testing. Unfortunately, more animals succumbed and finally only two animals of the originally 26 were left. With this case report, we would like to point out to veterinarians that guinea pigs can be an important source of zoonotic infections for various pathogens, especially since they are popular pets and often come into close contact with children where hygiene might not always be strictly followed.


INTRODUCTION: Dans un groupe de cobayes de 26 animaux reproducteurs, plusieurs individus de toutes les catégories d'âge sont morts (16/26) après l'introduction de trois animaux provenant d'un autre groupe. En outre, la population a souffert d'apathie, d'anorexie, de perte de poids sévère et de conjonctivite ainsi que d'avortements et de mortinatalité. La présence de Chlamydia caviae a pu être détectée dans la conjonctive et le vagin/utérus d'un animal juvénile, ainsi qu'une infection intestinale à Cryptosporidium wrairi. Des oocystes ont été trouvés histologiquement dans l'intestin grêle, ce qui a été confirmé par PCR. C. wairi est un parasite adapté aux cobayes avec un potentiel zoonotique, qui provoque des diarrhées avec des morts fréquentes dans les grands groupes de cobayes. C. caviae est également un agent pathogène zoonotique et est souvent à l'origine de conjonctivites, de pneumonies et d'avortements chez les cobayes ; il peut entraîner des maladies des voies respiratoires supérieures, des conjonctivites mais aussi des pneumonies graves chez l'homme. L'augmentation des cas de décès et les signes cliniques pourraient être attribués à une infection par Cryptosporidium wrairi, compliquée par une co-infection par C. caviae. Nous soupçonnons que les avortements ont été causés par C. caviae, mais comme la population a été traitée avec divers antibiotiques efficaces contre les infections à chlamydia, il n'était plus possible de le vérifier par des tests PCR. Malheureusement, d'autres animaux ont succombé et il ne restait finalement que deux animaux sur les 26 d'origine. Avec ce rapport de cas, nous aimerions attirer l'attention des vétérinaires sur le fait que les cochons d'Inde peuvent être une source importante d'infections zoonotiques pour divers pathogènes, d'autant plus qu'il s'agit d'animaux de compagnie populaires qui sont souvent en contact étroit avec des enfants avec lesquels l'hygiène n'est pas toujours strictement respectée.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Conjuntivite , Criptosporidiose , Cobaias , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite/microbiologia , Conjuntivite/parasitologia , Conjuntivite/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
8.
Vet Med Sci ; 9(1): 345-352, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting a great variety of endemic and emerging pathogens causing diseases in animals and humans. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks collected from cattle in Benin and Togo. METHODS: Overall, 396 (148 males, 205 females and 43 nymphs) ticks were collected from cattle in 17 districts (Benin and Togo) between 2019 and 2020. Ticks were pooled into groups of 2-6 ticks per pool according to individual host, location, species and developmental stage. The DNA of each pool was extracted for molecular screening. RESULTS: PCR results revealed that 20 tick pools were positive for Bartonella spp. (Benin and Togo) and 23 tick pools positive for Rickettsia spp. (Benin), while all pools were negative for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. Sequence analysis of positive Rickettsia samples revealed the presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the presence of zoonotic agents in ticks collected from cattle in Benin and Togo. This information will raise awareness of tick-borne diseases among physicians and veterinarians, stimulate further studies to monitor these pathogens, and advise on necessary measures to control the spread of these zoonoses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Ixodes , Infestações por Carrapato , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Benin/epidemiologia , Togo/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia
9.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e5, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453797

RESUMO

The development of new zoonotic diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and monkeypox that can cause epidemics and high mortality rates have significantly threatened global health security. However, the increasing number of people with no immunity to poxvirus because of the end of the smallpox vaccination programme has created a vulnerable population for the monkeypox outbreak. On 23 July 2022, it was announced that the World Health Organization's director-general has determined that the multicountry outbreak of monkeypox constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus that causes a disease with symptoms similar to smallpox but less severe. Many unanswered questions remain regarding monkeypox's pathogenesis, transmission and host reservoir. There is currently no evidence that transmission by individuals can sustain zoonotic infections during human-to-human transmissions; the continued emergence of these pathogens highlights the interconnectedness of animals and humans. The increasing number of monkeypox cases outside the endemic region has highlighted the need for effective global capacity building to prevent the spread of the disease and its impact on global health security. The priority now is to stop the spread of the disease and protect frontline healthcare workers and the most vulnerable individuals. This article aims to comprehensively analyse the various aspects of the transmission and epidemiology of monkeypox. It also explores possible diagnostic techniques, therapeutics and prevention strategies. A key recommendation is that primary care and public health professionals are expected to increase their efforts to be vigilant and contain any potential outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Varíola dos Macacos , Varíola , Vírus da Varíola , Animais , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Varíola dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1072385, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36506009

RESUMO

Intoduction: Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Cryptosporidium infection with the main symptom of diarrhea. The present study performed a metaanalysis to determine the global prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Equus animals. Methods: Data collection was carried out using Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP Chinese journal database (VIP), WanFang Data, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases, with 35 articles published before 2021 being included in this systematic analysis. This study analyzed the research data through subgroup analysis and univariate regression analysis to reveal the factors leading to high prevalence. We applied a random effects model (REM) to the metadata. Results: The total prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium in Equus was estimated to be 7.59% from the selected articles. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in female Equus was 2.60%. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Equus under 1-year-old was 11.06%, which was higher than that of Equus over 1-year-old (2.52%). In the experimental method groups, the positive rate detected by microscopy was the highest (10.52%). The highest Cryptosporidium prevalence was found in scale breeding Equus (7.86%). The horses had the lowest Cryptosporidium prevalence (7.32%) among host groups. C. muris was the most frequently detected genotype in the samples (53.55%). In the groups of geographical factors, the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium in Equus was higher in regions with low altitude (6.88%), rainy (15.63%), humid (22.69%), and tropical climates (16.46%). Discussion: The search strategy use of five databases might have caused the omission of some researches. This metaanalysis systematically presented the global prevalence and potential risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in Equus. The farmers should strengthen the management of young and female Equus animals, improve water filtration systems, reduce stocking densities, and harmless treatment of livestock manure.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Feminino , Animais , Cavalos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 9, 2022 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527523

RESUMO

Chickens are a host to a variety of pathogens of zoonotic importance and this depends more on the husbandry system practiced. Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp which are more prevalent in free-range chickens (FRC) can be acquired by humans via the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat (muscle) and/or viscera contaminated with infective stages of T. gondii and Toxocara spp. This study aimed to assess knowledge and practices on the household consumption of FRC meat and viscera by rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa, as a risk factor in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens with special emphasis on T. gondii and Toxocara spp. A cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty (20) randomly selected households in four selected communities located on the northern coast (Gingindlovu and Ozwathini) and southern coast (uMzinto and Shongweni) of KZN province using a semi-structured questionnaire. To determine the presence of selected zoonotic pathogens in FRC, birds were purchased from randomly selected households in the study localities for sacrifice. Brain tissues were collected and subjected to molecular detection of T. gondii using TOX4 and TOX5 primers while other tissues and organs that were collected were subjected to molecular detection of Toxocara spp using Nem 18S primers. Questionnaire data were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used to assess knowledge and practices related to FRC consumption and zoonosis transmission. Molecular results showed four positive samples for T. canis from Gingindlovu (n = 1), uMzinto (n = 1), and Shongweni (n = 2). The role of FRC consumption in zoonosis transmission is discussed.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Animais , Humanos , Toxocara , Galinhas , População Rural , Estudos Transversais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497758

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a zoonotic infectious disease belonging to the orthopoxvirus family that has predominantly occurred in West and Central Africa since it was initially discovered in 1958. In May 2022, a global outbreak of monkeypox began to occur on an international scale, with case numbers still rising as this review is being written. This mini review sought to analyze the existing literature on monkeypox published from 2017 onward to provide epidemiological context to current outbreaks. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were used to gather both peer-reviewed and grey literature on the routes of transmission, case definitions, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, management, prevention, vaccination, and epidemiology of monkeypox. Epidemiological studies indicate that the age of onset of monkeypox has increased over time. Antivirals, such as Tecovirimat and Brincidofovir, are recommended to manage confirmed cases of monkeypox. Although mass vaccination is not currently recommended, the smallpox vaccine can be used as a preventative measure for at-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men and frontline healthcare workers. Further peer-reviewed research addressing animal reservoirs and sexual transmission dynamics is needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Varíola dos Macacos , Orthopoxvirus , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Varíola dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21650, 2022 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522373

RESUMO

While many have advocated for widespread closure of Chinese wet and wholesale markets due to numerous zoonotic disease outbreaks (e.g., SARS) and food safety risks, this is impractical due to their central role in China's food system. This first-of-its-kind work offers a data science enabled approach to identify market-level risks. Using a massive, self-constructed dataset of food safety tests, market-level adulteration risk scores are created through machine learning techniques. Analysis shows that provinces with more high-risk markets also have more human cases of zoonotic flu, and specific markets associated with zoonotic disease have higher risk scores. Furthermore, it is shown that high-risk markets have management deficiencies (e.g., illegal wild animal sales), potentially indicating that increased and integrated regulation targeting high-risk markets could mitigate these risks.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Zoonoses , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens , Aprendizado de Máquina
14.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0269929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520941

RESUMO

Brucellosis is one of the most neglected zoonotic diseases in the world. It affects all age groups and both sexes. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2019 to May 2020 to estimate the seroprevalence and assess the potential risk factors of brucellosis among dairy cow owners and dairy farmworkers, and assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practices in selected sites in the central highlands of Oromia, Ethiopia. A structured interview question was administered to 284 respondents, and only 166 of them volunteered to give a blood sample. Most respondents had limited knowledge of brucellosis (93.3%), zoonotic diseases transmitted by handling animal delivery (88%), and consuming raw milk and other animal products (90.0%). Accordingly, 149 blood samples from animal owners and 17 farmworkers were collected for serological testing. The serum samples collected were initially screened using the Rose Bengal Plate test, and the Complement Fixation test was used as a confirmatory test. The overall seroprevalence of zoonotic brucellosis was 1.2% (95%CI: 0.32-4.27). There was a statistically significant association of human brucellosis with human housing (OR = 1.8, p = 0.002), contact with aborted fetus (OR = 21.19, p = 0.017), drinking raw milk from non-aborted (OR = 24.99, p = 0.012), aborted (OR = 5.72, 0.019), and retained fetal membrane (OR = 4.22, p = 0.029) cows. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the study area was low. Public awareness among animal owners, farm and animal health workers on the transmission and health hazards of brucellosis needs to be addressed through community training. Implementing one health approach between veterinary and medical health professionals must be strengthened.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356506

RESUMO

Rabies is one of the most important zoonoses resulting in a high case fatality rate in humans. Most of the human Rabies cases are due to dog bites which can be prevented by effective vaccination in dogs. Globally, epidemiological studies on understanding the seasonality and risk factors for occurrence in canines are limited. The present study aimed to understand the temporal pattern of Rabies occurrence in Chennai city of Tamil Nadu, India, and address the suggestive clinical signs for better clinical ante-mortem rabies diagnosis. Data of 598 suspected canine hippocampus brain smear samples with Seller's staining and/or FAT percent positivity of 71.57% (428/598) from March 2010 to February 2019 were included in this study. Cross-correlation between rabies cases and meteorological factors showed that maximum temperature (lag 15), morning relative humidity (lag 0 and lag 5) and evening relative humidity (lag 4) were significantly associated with rabies cases. Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model with exogenous variables (significant lags of meteorological variables) was used to fit the time series of canine Rabies in Chennai. In logistic regression analysis, the following risk factors were found to be playing a significant role in Rabies positivity viz., behavioural changes in dogs (P < 0.001), free-roaming, unprovoked biting, hyper salivation (P < 0.05), dog bite history and drop jaw (P < 0.01). Hence, the study results highlight the need for continuous surveillance of canine Rabies for devising and implementing future preventive strategies and is helpful to establish the above-identified risk factors as a criterion to help in clinical rabies diagnosis.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças do Cão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Índia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2561-2564, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418004

RESUMO

During routine surveillance at the National Influenza Center, Denmark, we detected a zoonotic swine influenza A virus in a patient who became severely ill. We describe the clinical picture and the genetic characterization of this variant virus, which is distinct from another variant found previously in Denmark.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
18.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 93, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348706

RESUMO

While zoonotic diseases are defined by transmission processes between animals and humans, for many of these diseases the presence of a contaminated environmental source is the cause of transmission. Most zoonoses depend on complex environmentally driven interactions between humans and animals, which occur along an occupational and recreational environmental continuum, including farming and animal marketing systems, environmental management systems, and community leisure environments. Environmentally driven zoonoses (EDZs) are particularly challenging to diagnose and control as their reservoirs are in the natural environment and thus often escape conventional surveillance systems that rely on host monitoring. Changes in the environment as a result of climate change [1], human population density [2], and intensification of agriculture [3] have been linked to increasing transmission events for this group of infections. As such, there is a recognised need to be able to detect the presence of EDZs in the environment as a means to better anticipate transmission events and improve source attribution investigations. Finally, the recognition that a One Health approach is needed to combat these infections is signalling to governments the need to develop policy that optimises trade-offs across human, animal, and environmental health sectors. In this review, we discuss and critically appraise the main challenges relating to the epidemiology, diagnosis, and control of environmental zoonotic disease. Using a set of exemplar diseases, including avian influenza and antimicrobial resistant pathogens, we explore the epidemiological contexts (risk factors) within which these infections not only impact human health but also contribute to animal health and environmental impacts. We then critically appraise the surveillance challenges of monitoring these infections in the environment and examine the policy trade-offs for a more integrated approach to mitigating their impacts.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Densidade Demográfica , Mudança Climática
19.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366571

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become the most far-reaching public health crisis of modern times. Several efforts are underway to unravel its root cause as well as to proffer adequate preventive or inhibitive measures. Zoonotic spillover of the causative virus from an animal reservoir to the human population is being studied as the most likely event leading to the pandemic. Consequently, it is important to consider viral evolution and the process of spread within zoonotic anthropogenic transmission cycles as a global public health impact. The diverse routes of interspecies transmission of SARS-CoV-2 offer great potential for a future reservoir of pandemic viruses evolving from the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic circulation. To mitigate possible future infectious disease outbreaks in Africa and elsewhere, there is an urgent need for adequate global surveillance, prevention, and control measures that must include a focus on known and novel emerging zoonotic pathogens through a one health approach. Human immunization efforts should be approached equally through the transfer of cutting-edge technology for vaccine manufacturing throughout the world to ensure global public health and one health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
20.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(11): 1135-1140, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344230

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by Monkeypox virus, which can cause the change of smallpox pattern in human. Monkeypox has been epidemic in central and west African countries, and infections outside the African continent are rare. Since May 2022, unprecedented outbreaks of human monkeypox and clusters of cases have occurred in non-epidemic countries such as Europe, the Americas and Australia, with multi-country outbreaks drawing global attention. The prevalence, transmission route and reoccurrence of monkeypox are still unknown. In view of the rapid increase of monkeypox cases, this paper reviewed the epidemiological changes, outbreak causes, clinical characteristics, and treatment methods of monkeypox, so as to clarify the epidemic background and transmission characteristics, improve the understanding of the disease, prevent the disease as soon as possible and formulate diagnosis and treatment measures.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Varíola dos Macacos , Animais , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
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