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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that strict non-pharmaceutical measures can significantly reduce the incidence and mortality of respiratory and intestinal infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, but there are limited reports on the impact in terms of the rates of zoonotic diseases. METHODS: We extracted the incidence and mortality data of eight notifiable infectious zoonotic diseases from the website of the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for the period of January 2015 to April 2021. RESULTS: First, the overall incidence of zoonotic diseases decreased from 0.3714 per 100 000 in 2015-2019 to 0.2756 in 2020 (25.79% reduction, p<0.001); however, a dramatic increase in activity was seen in 2021 compared with 2020 (0.4478 per 100 000 in 2021, 62.47% increase, p<0.001). Anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis and hydatid disease exhibited significant upward trends in 2021. Second, analysed further by stages, the monthly incidence in the routine stage (from May to December 2020) was much higher than that in the emergency stage of the COVID-19 (from January to April 2020) (55.33% increase, p<0.001). We also found that the monthly observed incidence was significantly lower than the predicted incidence of a 10.29% reduction in the emergency stage. Third, no differences were seen in mortality between 2021 and 2020, while a significant decline was found in 2020 compared with the previous 5 years (72.70%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Strict containment and feasible suppression strategies during the 2020 period of the COVID-19 pandemic had positive impacts on the overall incidence of zoonotic diseases in China. However, anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis and hydatid diseases might increase with the relaxation of non-pharmacological interventions in 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 24, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022078

RESUMO

Baylisascaris procyonis is a nematode parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), and it can be responsible for a severe form of larva migrans in humans. This parasite has been reported from many countries all over the world, after translocation of its natural host outside its native geographic range, North America. In the period between January and August 2021, 21 raccoons were cage-trapped and euthanized in Tuscany (Central Italy), in the context of a plan aimed at eradicating a reproductive population of this non-native species. All the animals were submitted for necroscopic examination. Adult ascariids were found in the small intestine of seven raccoons (prevalence 33.3%). Parasites have been identified as B. procyonis based on both morphometric and molecular approaches. The aim of the present article is to report the first finding of this zoonotic parasite from Italy, highlighting the sanitary risks linked to the introduction of alien vertebrate species in new areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/isolamento & purificação , Guaxinins/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Feminino , Intestinos/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
3.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102482, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673233

RESUMO

Dirofilaria spp. nematodes are accidental parasites of humans causing mild to serious, superficial or visceral infections. Superficial dirofilariosis is rather common in Europe and is typically manifested as subcutaneous form. Herein we report 46 new cases of human dirofilariosis (19 patients with subcutaneous, 18 patients with ocular, 4 patients wih genital, 2 patients with submucosal, 2 patients with pulmonary and 1 patient with intramuscular form of infection) that were recorded from the beginning of 2015 to May 2021 on the Balkan Peninsula with a goal to update the prevalence of this parasitosis and point out potential problems in diagnosis and treatment. Besides, given the high possibility of misinterpretation as tumor, our second aim was to encourage the inclusion of this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules. Although quite common forms, subcutaneous and ocular dirofilariosis can be very often misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to the absence of specific clinical manifestations. Therefore, raising awareness of clinicians about this zoonosis is needed as well as closer collaboration between physicians and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose , Zoonoses , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Península Balcânica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sérvia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
4.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106217, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751139

RESUMO

Informal livestock markets are an important source of animal-derived proteins for growing urban populations in countries such as Zambia. In parallel, they can also constitute pathways of zoonotic pathogen transmission to humans. This risk is aggravated by limited disease monitoring and poor control systems with regards to biosecurity and public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the risks for spread of zoonotic diseases in Zambia's two largest informal small ruminant markets, located in Lusaka and Kasumbalesa, through combining seroepidemiology with interviews and observations. In April, May and September 2018, serum samples (n = 237) were collected and analysed for antibodies for the zoonotic pathogens Brucella spp., Coxiella (C.) burnetii and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In addition, slaughterhouse activities were observed and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions held with slaughterhouse workers and small ruminant traders, focusing on the handling of animals and meat, and the perceptions of zoonotic disease risks at slaughter and consumption. The study found seropositivity rates of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.60-14.7) for Brucella spp., 5.9% (95% CI 3.27-9.71) for C. burnetii, and 0.8% (95% CI 0.10-3.01) for RVFV. Interviews with value chain members and observations at the slaughterhouse revealed unsanitary procedures and multiple occupational hazards for slaughterhouse workers. This study showed that the Zambian informal small ruminant trade system poses risks to public health, and that these risks are exacerbated by a lack of information about food-borne diseases and how associated risks can be mitigated amongst value chain actors. The results of this study can be used to formulate preventive measures to improve informal meat markets and reduce the risks to public health.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Animais , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
5.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 445-450, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730306

RESUMO

Helicobacter species have been reported in animals, some of which are of zoonotic importance. This study aimed to detect Helicobacter species among human and animal samples using conventional PCR assays and to identify their zoonotic potentials. Helicobacter species was identified in human and animal samples by genus-specific PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results revealed that Helicobacter species DNA was detected in 13 of 29 (44.83%) of the human samples. H. pylori was identified in 2 (15.38%), and H. bovis was detected in 4 (30.77%), whereas 7 (53.85%) were unidentified. H. bovis and H. heilmannii were prevalent among the animal samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed bootstrapping of sequences with H. cinaedi in camel, H. rappini in sheep and humans, and Wollinella succinogenes in humans. In conclusion, the occurrence of non-H. pylori infections among human and animal samples suggested zoonotic potentials.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Helicobacter/classificação , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saliva/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 729973, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738003

RESUMO

Effective and sustainable control of the Neglected Zoonoses (NZDs) demands a One Health approach. NZDs largely impact on individuals in low- and middle-income countries, disproportionally affecting resource poor communities with poor access to veterinary and human health services and to clean water and which are intrinsically dependent on animals for their livelihoods. Many NZDs in humans can be treated, but treatment is often complex and expensive. Similarly, while tools for prevention of transmission may exist, they are complex and expensive to adopt at the scale required to be effective. The cost of intervention for NZDs is high when compared to the public health benefits alone, but costs are easily outweighed by full cross sector analysis and when monetary and non-monetary benefits to all stakeholders are considered. Education is a key tool, often overlooked in favor of more complex solutions for the control of NZDs. Successful education programs have been targeted to children of school age for Taenia solium in Kenya, schistosomiasis in Nigeria, and soil transmitted helminths in China. A Snakes and Ladders board game, designed to teach children about schistosomiasis and encourage compliance with mass deworming programs, deployed in Nigerian schools, showed a 67% increase in knowledge of praziquantel and 65% of children who had previously rejected treatment requested the drug at school. For soil transmitted helminths in China, presentation of health information in cartoon format rather than in poster format, showed post-assessment knowledge to be 90% higher. With the rise in affordable smart-phone technology, internet access and airtime in communities in low- and middle- income countries e-education is an increasingly attractive proposition as an intervention tool for the NZDs. The Vicious Worm, a computer based educational health tool that has been designed around the prevention of Taenia Solium has shown remarkable efficacy in affected communities in which it has been deployed with participants applying the principles learned in their communities. This review explores the successes and benefits of education as a control tool for the NZDs.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Taenia solium , Animais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770218

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence on the negative impacts of animal diseases on global productivity [...].


Assuntos
Zoonoses , Animais , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
8.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712599

RESUMO

Background: Nipah virus (NiV) first emerged in 1998 in Malaysia, causing an outbreak of respiratory illness and encephalitis in pigs. Pig-to-human transmission of NiV associated with severe febrile encephalitis was described, and it was thought to occur through close contact with infected animals. The first outbreak was reported in India in Siliguri, West Bengal in 2001 followed by Nadia, West Bengal and adjoining areas of Bangladesh in 2007, where an intermediate animal host was not identified, suggesting bat-to-human and human-to-human transmissions. Although it is extremely difficult to document the spillover event and ascertain crossing of trans-natural boundaries by bats and bringing new viruses in an unexposed population, efforts for source identification are important to understand the epidemiology of disease. As the disease transcends beyond one species and has shown to infect humans, it therefore requires the 'One Health approach' in which multiple sectors coordinate and work together to achieve better public health outcomes. Objective: We summarize the re-emergence and response of the Nipah virus outbreaks (NiVD) in Kerala, India, about 1800 kms away, a decade later in 2018 and 2019. The paper recapitulates involvement of various stakeholders from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Directorate of Health Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, State Health Department, State Animal Husbandry, District Administration, and multidisciplinary response mechanism during the NiVD outbreaks of 2018 and 2019. Methods: Information was collected from the Press Information Bureau (PIB), media/weekly alerts from the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP), news articles from print and electronic media, newsletters, advisories from the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Disease Outbreak News (DON), World Health Organization (WHO), and published papers from various stakeholders. Findings & Conclusion: The evidence of NiV in humans and bats, with samples collected from the outbreak sites, was laboratory confirmed. The multidisciplinary response mechanisms during the 2018 outbreak helped in further understanding the importance of the One Health approach for systemic and streamlined response utilizing existing surveillance systems. This was of utmost help in the subsequent outbreak of the disease that occurred during 2019, wherein there was no documented spread of disease from the index case and no mortality was observed. This success reiterates the need for institutionalizing the involvement and cooperation of various departments and organizations during public health emergencies, especially of Zoonotic diseases, using the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Infecções por Henipavirus , Vírus Nipah , Saúde Única , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Suínos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 4199-4218, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623485

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in various hosts, with the disease giardiasis being a zoonosis. The use of molecular typing tools has improved our understanding of the distribution and zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis genotypes in different animals. The present review summarizes recent data on the distribution of G. duodenalis genotypes in humans and animals in different areas. The dominance of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B in humans and common occurrence of host-adapted assemblages in most domesticated animals suggests that zoonotic giardiasis is probably less common than believed and could be attributed mainly to contact with or contamination from just a few species of animals such as nonhuman primates, equines, rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, and beavers. Future studies should be directed to advanced genetic characterization of isolates from well-designed epidemiological investigations, especially comparative analyses of isolates from humans and animals living in the same household or community. This will likely lead to better understanding of zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis in different environmental and socioeconomic settings.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Cobaias , Cavalos , Tipagem Molecular , Coelhos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E544-E551, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604598

RESUMO

Background: Brucellosis, a major zoonotic disease, is highly present in Iran, especially in Lorestan province. The aim of this study was to understand the issues related to Brucellosis utilizing the multiple streams framework. Methods: A two-step method was adopted: 1) assessment of brucellosis-related documents and 2) interviews with stakeholders. As a first step, all documents related to Brucellosis were reviewed at provincial and national levels. Policy documentation on health issues included the consultation of guidelines, rules and regulations, websites, reports, books, guides, and conferences. These documents were collected by referring to specialized centers, institutions, and organizations. In the second step, semi-structured interviews were conducted to determine the burden of disease with actors and stakeholders involved with the brucellosis program in the Lorestan province. More in detail, physicians, healthcare workers, managers, policy- and decision-makers were selected for interviews. Results: The problem stream was characterized by: 1) high prevalence of the disease, 2) traditional livestock production, 3) unsafe animal slaughtering, 4) centers for the sale and distribution of non-authorized dairy products, 5) raw milk and 6) traditional unsafe dairy products consumption, 7) incomplete livestock vaccination, 8) lack of knowledge of Brucellosis, 9) neighboring countries with high prevalence of Brucellosis, 10) lack of livestock quarantine, and 10) nomadic immigration. The policy stream was characterized by 1) primary healthcare networks, 2) guidelines, 3) medicines, insurance, and 4) diagnostic services. Finally, the political stream was characterized by: 1) support of the University of Medical Sciences, 2) sponsorship by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, 3) Health transformation plan, and 4) Working Group on Health and Food Security in Lorestan. Conclusion: This study examined the brucellosis-related agenda setting: if different issues are taken into consideration, it can be perceived as a health priority.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
12.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 577-584, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643566

RESUMO

Increased human-animal interfaces impose threats on human life by creating scope for the emergence and resurgence of many infectious diseases. Over the last two decades, emergence of novel viral diseases such as SARS, influenza A/H1N1(09) pdm; MERS; Nipah virus disease; Ebola haemorrhagic fever and the current COVID-19 has resulted in massive outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics thereby causing profound losses of human life, health and economy. The current COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 200 countries, reporting a global case load of 167,878,000 with 2 per cent mortality as on May 26, 2021. This has highlighted the importance of reducing human- animal interfaces to prevent such zoonoses. Rapid deforestation, shrinking of boundaries between human and animal, crisis for natural habitation, increasing demands for wildlife products and threat of extinction compounded by biodiversity narrowing compel to increased human-animal conflict and contact. Large quantities of animal waste generated due to animal agriculture may also allow rapid selection, amplification, dissemination of zoonotic pathogens and facilitate zoonotic pathogen adaptation and hinder host evolution for resistance. Public health system faces challenges to contain such epidemics due to inadequate understanding, poor preparedness, lack of interdisciplinary approach in surveillance and control strategy and deficient political commitments. Because the management measures are beyond the purview of health system alone, policy-level adaptation in the transdisciplinary issues are required, emphasizing the engagement of multiple stakeholders towards wildlife protection, alternative land use, community empowerment for natural resource management and regulation on business of wildlife products to ensure comprehensive one health practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e234, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702393

RESUMO

Poultry contact is a risk factor for zoonotic transmission of non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. Salmonella illness outbreaks in the United States are identified by PulseNet, the national laboratory network for enteric disease surveillance. During 2020, PulseNet observed a 25% decline in the number of Salmonella clinical isolates uploaded by state and local health departments. However, 1722 outbreak-associated Salmonella illnesses resulting from 12 Salmonella serotypes were linked to contact with privately owned poultry, an increase from all previous years. This report highlights the need for continued efforts to prevent backyard poultry-associated outbreaks of Salmonella as ownership increases in the United States.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
14.
Adv Parasitol ; 113: 225-286, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620384

RESUMO

Within the past two decades, incidence of human cases of the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi has increased markedly. P. knowlesi is now the most common cause of human malaria in Malaysia and threatens to undermine malaria control programmes across Southeast Asia. The emergence of zoonotic malaria corresponds to a period of rapid deforestation within this region. These environmental changes impact the distribution and behaviour of the simian hosts, mosquito vector species and human populations, creating new opportunities for P. knowlesi transmission. Here, we review how landscape changes can drive zoonotic disease emergence, examine the extent and causes of these changes across Southeast and identify how these mechanisms may be impacting P. knowlesi dynamics. We review the current spatial epidemiology of reported P. knowlesi infections in people and assess how these demographic and environmental changes may lead to changes in transmission patterns. Finally, we identify opportunities to improve P. knowlesi surveillance and develop targeted ecological interventions within these landscapes.


Assuntos
Malária , Plasmodium knowlesi , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 680986, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568251

RESUMO

The introduction of non-native species and deforestation are both important drivers of environmental change that can also facilitate the geographic spread of zoonotic pathogens and increase disease risk in humans. With ongoing trends in globalization and land-use conversions, introduced species and deforestation are ever more likely to pose threats to human health. Here, we used rat lungworm disease, an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis and maintained by invasive rats and snails, to explore how these two forms of environmental change can impact zoonotic disease risk. We used logistic regressions to examine the role of global trade in the introduction of A. cantonensis at a country level and used model estimates to predict the probability of introduction as a function of trade. We then used hurdle-based regression models to examine the association between deforestation and rat lungworm disease in two regions where A. cantonensis is already established: Hawaii and Thailand. At the global scale, we found the trade of horticultural products to be an important driver in the spread of A. cantonensis and that the majority of countries at high risk of future A. cantonensis introduction are islands. At country scales, we found deforestation to increase the per-capita risk of A. cantonensis exposure in Hawaii and Thailand. Our study provides a preliminary view of the associations between species introductions, deforestation, and risk of A. cantonensis exposure in people. Better understanding how these two widespread and overlapping forms of environmental change affect human health can inform international biosecurity protocols, invasive species management, and land-use policies.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Ratos , Caramujos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502012

RESUMO

Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease affecting animals and humans worldwide. The risk of host infection following interaction with environmental sources depends on the ability of Leptospira to persist, survive, and infect the new host to continue the transmission chain. Leptospira may coexist with other pathogens, thus providing a suitable condition for the development of other pathogens, resulting in multi-pathogen infection in humans. Therefore, it is important to better understand the dynamics of transmission by these pathogens. We conducted Boolean searches of several databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, SciELO, and ScienceDirect, to identify relevant published data on Leptospira and coinfection with other pathogenic bacteria. We review the role of the host-microbiota in determining the synanthropic interaction of Leptospira sp. with other bacteria, thus creating a suitable condition for the leptospira to survive and persist successfully. We also discuss the biotic and abiotic factors that amplify the viability of Leptospira in the environment. The coinfection of leptospira with pathogenic bacteria has rarely been reported, potentially contributing to a lack of awareness. Therefore, the occurrence of leptospirosis coinfection may complicate diagnosis, long-lasting examination, and mistreatment that could lead to mortality. Identifying the presence of leptospirosis with other bacteria through metagenomic analysis could reveal possible coinfection. In conclusion, the occurrence of leptospirosis with other diseases should be of concern and may depend on the success of the transmission and severity of individual infections. Medical practitioners may misdiagnose the presence of multiple infections and should be made aware of and receive adequate training on appropriate treatment for leptospirosis patients. Physicians could undertake a more targeted approach for leptospirosis diagnosis by considering other symptoms caused by the coinfected bacteria; thus, more specific treatment could be given.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
17.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(19): 3656-3666, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524795

RESUMO

The spread of infectious diseases due to travel and trade can be seen throughout history, whether from early settlers or traveling businessmen. Increased globalization has allowed infectious diseases to quickly spread to different parts of the world and cause widespread infection. Posthoc analysis of more recent outbreaks-SARS, MERS, swine flu, and COVID-19-has demonstrated that the causative viruses were circulating through populations for days or weeks before they were first detected, allowing disease to spread before quarantines, contact tracing, and travel restrictions could be implemented. Earlier detection of future novel pathogens could decrease the time before countermeasures are enacted. In this Account, we examined a variety of novel technologies from the past 10 years that may allow for earlier detection of infectious diseases. We have arranged these technologies chronologically from pre-human predictive technologies to population-level screening tools. The earliest detection methods utilize artificial intelligence to analyze factors such as climate variation and zoonotic spillover as well as specific species and geographies to identify where the infection risk is high. Artificial intelligence can also be used to monitor health records, social media, and various publicly available data to identify disease outbreaks faster than traditional epidemiology. Secondary to predictive measures is monitoring infection in specific sentinel animal species, where domestic animals or wildlife are indicators of potential disease hotspots. These hotspots inform public health officials about geographic areas where infection risk in humans is high. Further along the timeline, once the disease has begun to infect humans, wastewater epidemiology can be used for unbiased sampling of large populations. This method has already been shown to precede spikes in COVID-19 diagnoses by 1 to 2 weeks. As total infections increase in humans, bioaerosol sampling in high-traffic areas can be used for disease monitoring, such as within an airport. Finally, as disease spreads more quickly between humans, rapid diagnostic technologies such as lateral flow assays and nucleic acid amplification become very important. Minimally invasive point-of-care methods can allow for quick adoption and use within a population. These individual diagnostic methods then transfer to higher-throughput methods for more intensive population screening as an infection spreads. There are many promising early warning technologies being developed. However, no single technology listed herein will prevent every future outbreak. A combination of technologies from across our infection timeline would offer the most benefit in preventing future widespread disease outbreaks and pandemics.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5593, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552082

RESUMO

The persistence mechanisms of Rift Valley fever (RVF), a zoonotic arboviral haemorrhagic fever, at both local and broader geographical scales have yet to be fully understood and rigorously quantified. We developed a mathematical metapopulation model describing RVF virus transmission in livestock across the four islands of the Comoros archipelago, accounting for island-specific environments and inter-island animal movements. By fitting our model in a Bayesian framework to 2004-2015 surveillance data, we estimated the importance of environmental drivers and animal movements on disease persistence, and tested the impact of different control scenarios on reducing disease burden throughout the archipelago. Here we report that (i) the archipelago network was able to sustain viral transmission in the absence of explicit disease introduction events after early 2007, (ii) repeated outbreaks during 2004-2020 may have gone under-detected by local surveillance, and (iii) co-ordinated within-island control measures are more effective than between-island animal movement restrictions.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Febre do Vale de Rift/prevenção & controle , Febre do Vale de Rift/transmissão , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/fisiologia , Animais , Comores/epidemiologia , Gado/virologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105489, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536805

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practices about zoonotic diseases and associated factors among ruminant farmers in Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January 2018 and December 2020. The survey was developed in English and Malay, validated, administered to ruminant farmers in Selangor. A total of 84 farmers completed the structured questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, principal component factor analysis and binary logistic regression models. Only 42 % (35/84) had heard of the term "zoonotic diseases" before this study but the majority of farmers (52/84; 61.9 %) were aware that certain diseases could be transmitted between humans and animals. A higher proportion was aware of rabies (20.8 %), followed by tuberculosis (17.8 %) and brucellosis (15.7 %), and most respondents identified the diseases as zoonotic. The majority of farmers stated (60 %) that zoonosis could be prevented and they preferred to learn more about such diseases through veterinary personnel. Higher proportions (>80 %) agreed to practices such as hand washing, proper cooking of meat, and keeping animal health records. However, the need to pasteurise milk before drinking and selling were the least items that farmers agreed to, which was reflected in their practices. Sixty-four per cent of the farmers had stray animals on their farm with dogs (45.5 %) being predominant. Overall, 34.5 % (29/84), 51.1 % (43/84), and 60.7 % (51/84) were considered to have satisfactory knowledge, attitude and practices regarding zoonotic diseases, respectively. Farmers with higher education (odds ratio; OR = 16.6; 95 % CI 3.7-71.4) and rearing exotic breeds of animals (OR = 6.0; 95 % CI 1.3-27.7) were more likely to have satisfactory knowledge about zoonoses, but less likely for those with small herd size (51-100 animals) (OR = 0.19; 95 % CI 0.04-0.95). The odds of having satisfactory attitude towards preventive measures against zoonoses were higher in farmers with higher education (OR = 3.2; 95 % CI 1.1-8.9). Farms with herd health programs were more likely to engage in satisfactory practices towards zoonoses (OR = 3.2; 95 % CI 1.2-10.0) relative to farms lacking programs. These areas might need to be considered by public health authorities to improve the current knowledge and attitude of ruminant farmers about zoonotic diseases in the Malaysian context.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Humanos , Gado , Malásia/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200358, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538140

RESUMO

In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven rubrics or machine learning models that learn from known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions. What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges? This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Saúde Global , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/veterinária , Ecologia , Humanos , Laboratórios , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Vírus , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
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