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1.
Glob Public Health ; 16(1): 136-148, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125297

RESUMO

At the end of 2019, a new virus named SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China, provoking coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19. Self-isolation and quarantine as key strategies to overcoming the spread of the disease have had major, micro, and macroscopic consequences. This commentary, therefore, seeks to review critical factors impacting the COVID-19 pandemic through the spectrum of levels, categorising effects in the WHO's ecological framework (individual, relational, community, and societal aspects). We further describe the management of the crisis at each level to help guide health personnel, communities, governments, and international policymakers in understanding how their actions fit into a larger picture as they seek to manage the crisis.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Política , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 143352, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162142

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This pathogen has spread rapidly across the world, causing high numbers of deaths and significant social and economic impacts. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus with a suggested zoonotic origin with the potential for cross-species transmission among animals. Antarctica can be considered the only continent free of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, concerns have been expressed regarding the potential human introduction of this virus to the continent through the activities of research or tourism to minimise the effects on human health, and the potential for virus transmission to Antarctic wildlife. We assess the reverse-zoonotic transmission risk to Antarctic wildlife by considering the available information on host susceptibility, dynamics of the infection in humans, and contact interactions between humans and Antarctic wildlife. The environmental conditions in Antarctica seem to be favourable for the virus stability. Indoor spaces such as those at research stations, research vessels or tourist cruise ships could allow for more transmission among humans and depending on their movements between different locations the virus could be spread across the continent. Among Antarctic wildlife previous in silico analyses suggested that cetaceans are at greater risk of infection whereas seals and birds appear to be at a low infection risk. However, caution needed until further research is carried out and consequently, the precautionary principle should be applied. Field researchers handling animals are identified as the human group posing the highest risk of transmission to animals while tourists and other personnel pose a significant risk only when in close proximity (< 5 m) to Antarctic fauna. We highlight measures to reduce the risk as well as identify of knowledge gaps related to this issue.


Assuntos
Zoonoses , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
3.
Glob Public Health ; 16(1): 17-35, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019889

RESUMO

Although there has been increasing focus in recent years on interdisciplinary approaches to health and disease, and in particular the dimension of social inequalities in epidemics, infectious diseases have been much less focused on. This is especially true in the area of cultural dynamics and their effects on pathogen behaviours, although there is evidence to suggest that this relationship is central to shaping our interactions with infectious disease agents on a variety of levels. This paper makes a case for a biocultural approach to pandemics such as COVID-19. It then uses this biocultural framework to examine the anthropogenic dynamics that influenced and continue to shape the COVID-19 pandemic, both during its initial phase and during critical intersections of the pandemic. Through this understanding of biocultural interactions between people, animals and pathogens, a broader societal and political dimension is drawn as a function of population level and international cultures, to reflect on the culturally mediated differential burden of the pandemic. Ultimately, it is argued that a biocultural perspective on infectious disease pandemics will allow for critical reflection on how culture shapes our behaviours at all levels, and how the effects of these behaviours are ultimately foundational to pathogen ecology and evolution.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Características Culturais , Política , Animais , Humanos , Pandemias , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143723, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213901

RESUMO

The pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a significant burden to healthcare systems, economic crisis, and public fears. It is also a lesson to be learned and a call-to-action to minimize the risk of future viral pandemics and their associated challenges. The present paper outlines selected measures (i.e., monitoring and identification of novel viral agents in animals, limitations to wildlife trade, decreasing hunting activities, changes to mink farming and meat production), the implementation of which would decrease such a risk. The role of viral surveillance systems and research exploring the virus strains associated with different animal hosts is emphasized along with the need for stricter wild trade regulations and changes to hunting activities. Finally, the paper suggests modifications to the meat production system, particularly through the introduction of cultured meat that would not only decrease the risk of exposure to novel human viral pathogens but also strengthen food security and decrease the environmental impacts of food production.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
5.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316899

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern to public health, as highlighted by the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Such diseases are of particular danger during mass gathering and mass influx events, as large crowds of people in close proximity to each other creates optimal opportunities for disease transmission. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are two countries that have witnessed mass gatherings due to the arrival of Syrian refugees and the annual Hajj season. The mass migration of people not only brings exotic diseases to these regions but also brings new diseases back to their own countries, e.g., the outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Many emerging pathogens originate in bats, and more than 30 bat species have been identified in these two countries. Some of those bat species are known to carry viruses that cause deadly diseases in other parts of the world, such as the rabies virus and coronaviruses. However, little is known about bats and the pathogens they carry in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Here, the importance of enhanced surveillance of bat-borne infections in Jordan and Saudi Arabia is emphasized, promoting the awareness of bat-borne diseases among the general public and building up infrastructure and capability to fill the gaps in public health preparedness to prevent future pandemics.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Jordânia , Arábia Saudita , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e292, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256863

RESUMO

Despite high exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the predictors for seropositivity in the context of husbandry practices for camels in Eastern Africa are not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to describe the camel herd profile and determine the factors associated with MERS-CoV seropositivity in Northern Kenya. We enrolled 29 camel-owning households and administered questionnaires to collect herd and household data. Serum samples collected from 493 randomly selected camels were tested for anti-MERS-CoV antibodies using a microneutralisation assay, and regression analysis used to correlate herd and household characteristics with camel seropositivity. Households reared camels (median = 23 camels and IQR 16-56), and at least one other livestock species in two distinct herds; a home herd kept near homesteads, and a range/fora herd that resided far from the homestead. The overall MERS-CoV IgG seropositivity was 76.3%, with no statistically significant difference between home and fora herds. Significant predictors for seropositivity (P ⩽ 0.05) included camels 6-10 years old (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), herds with ⩾25 camels (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4) and camels from Gabra community (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). These results suggest high levels of virus transmission among camels, with potential for human infection.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Migrantes , Zoonoses/transmissão
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e928572, 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311429

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third (following SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV) zoonotic coronavirus that has crossed the species barrier in the 21st century, resulting in the development of serious human infection. The punishing effect of the recent outbreak of pandemic disease termed COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 impelled us to gather the facts about the nature of coronaviruses. First, we introduce the basic information about coronavirus taxonomy, structure, and replication process to create the basis for more advanced consideration. In the following part of this review, we focused on interactions between the virus and the receptor on the host cell, as this stage is the critical process determining the species and tissue tropism, as well as clinical course of infection. We also illuminate the molecular basis of the strategy used by coronaviruses to cross the species barrier. We give special attention to the cellular receptor's interaction with S protein of different CoVs (dipeptidyl peptidase IV and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), as well as the cellular proteases involved in proteolysis of this protein. These factors determine the virus entry and replication; thus, even fine quantitative or qualitative differences in their expression may crucially affect outcomes of infection. Understanding virus biology and characterization of the host factors involved in coronavirus transmission and pathogenesis may offer novel options for development of efficient therapeutic and preventive strategies.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/metabolismo , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , /patogenicidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/patologia
8.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 19-35, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191344

RESUMO

La pandemia de COVID-19 tiene un origen zoonótico: fue transmitida de los animales a los humanos. Lo mismo ha sucedido con otras epidemias recientes (como las causadas por los virus SARS-CoV-1 y H7N9, entre otros). Estas epidemias surgieron en un contexto de explotación animal: el comercio de animales silvestres. Mucha gente ha pedido la prohibición total de la venta de animales silvestres en mercados. Sin embargo, la prohibición puede ser contraproducente y tener peores consecuencias tanto para los animales como para la salud pública. Este artículo argumenta en contra de una prohibición total y a favor de una regulación progresiva que tome en cuenta el bienestar de los animales, pero que tenga como finalidad última la desaparición del comercio de animales silvestres


The COVID-19 pandemic has a zoonotic origin: it was transmitted from animals to humans. The same has happened with other recent epidemics (such as those caused by the virus SARS-CoV-1 and H7N9, among others). These epidemics arose in a context of animal exploitation: the trade in wildlife. Many people have asked for a blanket ban of wildlife trade in wet markets. However, a blanket ban may be counterproductive and have worse consequences both for the animals and for public health. This paper argues against a blanket ban and argues for a progressive regulation that takes into account the welfare of animals, but that has as its final goal the disappearance of trade in wildlife


La pandèmia de la COVID-19 té un origen zoonòtic: es va transmetre dels animals als humans. El mateix ha passat amb altres epidèmies recents (com les causades pels virus SARS-CoV-1 I H7N9, entre d'altres). Aquestes epidèmies van sorgir en un context d'explotació animal: el comerç d'animals silvestres. Molta gent ha demanat la prohibició total de la venda d'animals silvestres en mercats. No obstant això, la prohibició pot ser contraproduent I tenir pitjors conseqüències tant per als animals com per a la salut pública. Aquest article argumenta en contra d'una prohibició total I a favor d'una regulació progressiva que tingui en compte el benestar dels animals, però que tingui com a finalitat última la desaparició del comerç d'animals silvestres


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 814, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthrax is the second most highly prioritized zoonotic disease in Ethiopia due to its negative impact at the household level, causing disease and production losses in livestock and severe disease in humans. This study seeks to assess the knowledge of, attitudes towards, and practices addressing (KAPs) anthrax in the communities of Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted concurrently with focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) between May 2019 and April 2020. A total of 862 respondents participated in the questionnaire survey. Of these, 800 were local community members while 62 were professionals working at health service institutions. In addition, qualitative data were collected using six FGDs and 11 KIIs. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent (496/800) of the community respondents said that they were aware of anthrax while 38% (304/800) of them did not. Only 9.3% (74/800) of the respondents reported that the causative agent of anthrax is germs/microbial. About 56.5% (35/62) of professional respondents said that it is bacterial. More than 60% (64.1%, 513/800) of the respondents did not know that whether the disease was zoonotic or not. Regarding clinical signs, 26.3 (210/800) and 36.8% (294/800) of the respondents could identify at least one in animals and humans, respectively, while 21.3 (170/800) and 20.1% (161/800) knew one or more transmission routes in animals and humans, respectively. Moreover, 43.4% (347/800) and 45.6% (365/800) of the respondents mentioned one or more control/prevention method(s) in animals and humans, respectively. Regarding qualitative results, some of the participants knew the disease (in animals) by their local names: Lalish and Tafia (splenomegaly), and Gulbus (abdominal cramps and shivering). Some reported that anthrax was exclusively a human disease while others recognized its zoonotic potential after the clinical signs in both animals and humans were listed. CONCLUSION: The KAP of the participants regarding anthrax was low. There was no consistent understanding of the disease among the participants. The study also revealed that the participants did not receive consistent, adequate, and continuous education regarding the disease.


Assuntos
Antraz/psicologia , Conscientização , Bacillus anthracis , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Zoonoses/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antraz/epidemiologia , Antraz/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(4): e014820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237191

RESUMO

Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus (cat genotype) have been commonly identified as intestinal trichomonads in both dogs and cats. Although P. hominis is considered as non-pathogenic protozoa in many kinds of mammals, it has the potential for zoonotic transmission. T. foetus has been recognized as the emerging causative agent of diarrhea in cats without the risk of zoonotic transmission. As pet shops are the major source of young companion animals, the present study discusses the molecular prevalence of P. hominis and T. foetus from 544 pet shop puppies and 409 kittens. The results suggest that the prevalence of P. hominis (puppies: 7.0%; kittens: 0.5%) and T. foetus (puppies: 0%; kittens: 2.4%) in pet shop young animals are low. In addition, the infections of P. hominis and T. foetus are not always associated with the clinical signs (soft or diarrhea feces).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Trichomonadida , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Trichomonadida/genética , Tritrichomonas foetus/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
Epidemics ; 33: 100410, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152622

RESUMO

An accurate understanding of why zoonoses such as SARS-CoV-2 are emerging at an increased rate, is vital to prevent future pandemics from the approximately 700,000 viruses with zoonotic potential. Certain authors have argued that the consumption of wildlife, or human contact with bats was responsible for the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Others argue that a range of anthropogenic environmental degradations have played a vital role in the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonoses. In this opinion piece, I argue that these divergent viewpoints stem, in part, from different foundational conceptual frameworks - biomedical individualist and eco-social frameworks, respectively. Based on the fact that the eco-social framework provides a more complete account of the different types of causal factors underpinning the emergence of zoonoses, I propose that the COVID-19 pandemic provides an additional reason for the health sciences to ground its theory of health and disease in an eco-social conceptual framework.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Ecossistema , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , /transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Sociobiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 461-470, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046929

RESUMO

In recent times, there has been an increased focus on animal health and zoonotic diseases that have the potential to trigger epidemics or pandemics that disproportionately affect the poor and most vulnerable. The recent Ebola, Zika and COVID-19 outbreaks demonstrate the devastating human, social and economic impacts of such diseases if they are not prevented or controlled, ideally at source. The risk drivers for zoonoses, which are complex and often interdependent, include climate change and related disasters, antimicrobial resistance, and anthropogenic drivers such as land-use changes and animal production practices. Understanding these drivers requires a better understanding of the ecology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal-environment interface. Biosecurity and biosafety are critical for reducing the risk of accidental or deliberate release and should be included in risk management strategies. International frameworks for sustainable development, climate change, and disaster risk reduction have all integrated health as one of the core areas of work, calling for better preparedness and response to biological hazards and increased health system resilience. To improve their ability to prevent, prepare for, and respond to emerging and re-emerging threats, countries should address these risk drivers, taking a multidisciplinary One Health approach that involves the animal and human health and environment sectors. Cross-border cooperation is also vital, as diseases know no boundaries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Desastres , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Mudança Climática , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos , Infecção por Zika virus/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051368

RESUMO

Despite numerous barriers to transmission, zoonoses are the major cause of emerging infectious diseases in humans. Among these, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and ebolaviruses have killed thousands; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has killed millions. Zoonoses and human-to-animal cross-species transmission are driven by human actions and have important management, conservation, and public health implications. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which presumably originated from an animal reservoir, has killed more than half a million people around the world and cases continue to rise. In March 2020, New York City was a global epicenter for SARS-CoV-2 infections. During this time, four tigers and three lions at the Bronx Zoo, NY, developed mild, abnormal respiratory signs. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory secretions and/or feces from all seven animals, live virus in three, and colocalized viral RNA with cellular damage in one. We produced nine whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the animals and keepers and identified different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes in the tigers and lions. Epidemiologic and genomic data indicated human-to-tiger transmission. These were the first confirmed cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 animal infections in the United States and the first in nondomestic species in the world. We highlight disease transmission at a nontraditional interface and provide information that contributes to understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission across species.IMPORTANCE The human-animal-environment interface of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important aspect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that requires robust One Health-based investigations. Despite this, few reports describe natural infections in animals or directly link them to human infections using genomic data. In the present study, we describe the first cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in tigers and lions in the United States and provide epidemiological and genetic evidence for human-to-animal transmission of the virus. Our data show that tigers and lions were infected with different genotypes of SARS-CoV-2, indicating two independent transmission events to the animals. Importantly, infected animals shed infectious virus in respiratory secretions and feces. A better understanding of the susceptibility of animal species to SARS-CoV-2 may help to elucidate transmission mechanisms and identify potential reservoirs and sources of infection that are important in both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
Virol J ; 17(1): 143, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008410

RESUMO

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. This ongoing pandemic has now been reported in 215 countries with more than 23 million confirmed cases and more than 803 thousand deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2020. Although efforts are undergoing, there is no approved vaccine or any specific antiretroviral drug to treat COVID-19 so far. It is now known that SARS-CoV-2 can affect not only humans but also pets and other domestic and wild animals, making it a one health global problem. Several published scientific evidence has shown that bats are the initial reservoir hosts of SARS-CoV-2, and pangolins are suggested as an intermediate hosts. So far, little is known concerning the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19. Therefore, updated knowledge about the potential role of pets in the current outbreak will be of paramount importance for effective prevention and control of the disease. This review summarized the current evidence about the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 140, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028426

RESUMO

Most human pathogens originate from non-human hosts and certain pathogens persist in animal reservoirs. The transmission of such pathogens to humans may lead to self-sustaining chains of transmission. These pathogens represent the highest risk for future pandemics. For their prevention, the transmission over the species barrier - although rare - should, by all means, be avoided. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, surprisingly though, most of the current research concentrates on the control by drugs and vaccines, while comparatively little scientific inquiry focuses on future prevention. Already in 2012, the World Bank recommended to engage in a systemic One Health approach for zoonoses control, considering integrated surveillance-response and control of human and animal diseases for primarily economic reasons. First examples, like integrated West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitos, wild birds, horses and humans in Italy show evidence of financial savings from a closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors. Provided a zoonotic origin can be ascertained for the COVID-19 pandemic, integrated wildlife, domestic animal and humans disease surveillance-response may contribute to prevent future outbreaks. In conclusion, the earlier a zoonotic pathogen can be detected in the environment, in wildlife or in domestic animals; and the better human, animal and environmental surveillance communicate with each other to prevent an outbreak, the lower are the cumulative costs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 285-291, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998656

RESUMO

Although human toxocariasis can lead to serious complications including neurological, ocular and visceral complications, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological information about the seroprevalence of Toxocara species in humans. In the present study, we analysed and reviewed the overall seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in Iran. The data collection was systematically undertaken on published articles using the PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases. A total of 27 studies from the past two decades reporting seroprevalence of human toxocariasis met our eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of Toxocara infection was estimated as 6.58% (95% confidence interval = 3.98-9.77). A wide variation between different studies was observed (Q statistic = 799.37, df = 26, P < 0.0001, and I2 = 96.7%). The seroprevalence rate of toxocariasis in the Iranian population is relatively high; contamination of the environment by eggs from the host as well as from household dogs and cats should be blamed.


Assuntos
Larva Migrans Visceral/epidemiologia , Larva Migrans Visceral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Larva Migrans Visceral/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxocara/imunologia , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008658, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From the end of 2016 until the beginning of 2019, Brazil faced a massive sylvatic yellow fever (YF) outbreak. The 2016-2019 YF epidemics affected densely populated areas, especially the Southeast region, causing thousands of deaths of humans and non-human primates (NHP). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a molecular investigation of yellow fever virus (YFV) RNA in 781 NHP carcasses collected in the urban, urban-rural interface, and rural areas of Minas Gerais state, from January 2017 to December 2018. Samples were analyzed according to the period of sampling, NHP genera, sampling areas, and sampling areas/NHP genera to compare the proportions of YFV-positive carcasses and the estimated YFV genomic loads. YFV infection was confirmed in 38.1% of NHP carcasses (including specimens of the genera Alouatta, Callicebus, Callithrix, and Sapajus), from the urban, urban-rural interface, and rural areas. YFV RNA detection was positively associated with epidemic periods (especially from December to March) and the rural environment. Higher median viral genomic loads (one million times) were estimated in carcasses collected in rural areas compared to urban ones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed the wide occurrence of YF in Minas Gerais in epidemic and non-epidemic periods. According to the sylvatic pattern of YF, a gradient of viral dissemination from rural towards urban areas was observed. A high YF positivity was observed for NHP carcasses collected in urban areas with a widespread occurrence in 67 municipalities of Minas Gerais, including large urban centers. Although there was no documented case of urban/Aedes YFV transmission to humans in Brazil during the 2016-2019 outbreaks, YFV-infected NHP in urban areas with high infestation by Aedes aegypti poses risks for YFV urban/Aedes transmission and urbanization.


Assuntos
Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Aedes/virologia , Alouatta/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Callicebus/virologia , Callithrix/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Epidemias , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Primatas/virologia , Sapajus/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Amarela/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 35(12): 1052-1055, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097287

RESUMO

Zoonosis-based epidemics are inevitable unless we revisit our relationship with the natural world, protect habitats, and regulate wildlife trade, including live animals and non-sustenance products. To prevent future zoonoses, governments must establish effective legislation addressing wildlife trade, protection of habitats, and reduction of the wildlife-livestock-human interface.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
19.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(4): 45, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030629

RESUMO

Many experts have warned that environmental degradation is increasing the likelihood of future pandemics like COVID-19, as habitat loss and poaching increase close contact between wildlife and people. This fact has been framed as a reason to increase wildlife conservation efforts. We have many good reasons to step up conservation efforts, but arguments for doing so on the basis of pandemic prevention are rhetorically, ethically, and empricially flawed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens
20.
J Mycol Med ; 30(4): 101040, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917518

RESUMO

Tinea capitis, which are fungal infections caused by some dermatophyte species, are common in developing countries, such as Algeria, where they represent a public health concern. In order to define the epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic features of these infections, a prospective study was conducting from September 2018 to May 2019, at the University Hospital of Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria). PATIENTS: All patients addressed to the Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology of the University Hospital of Tizi-Ouzou for a suspected Tinea capitis, were included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Before sampling, contact with animals or soil, presence of similar lesions in the family circle, and previous antifungal or corticosteroid treatment were searched. Mycological examination included direct microscopic examination of the samples, and culture on Sabouraud agar slants at 27°C for up to 4weeks. RESULTS: Out of the 87 samples examined, 46 allowed us to confirm the diagnosis of Tinea capitis, representing a positivity rate of 52.9%. The sex ratio was 1.09 (52.2% males vs. 47.8% females among the infected patients), and the infection mainly involved children of 4-6years (43.3%). Thirty-four strains of dermatophytes were isolated. Microsporum canis was the most frequent species identified (44.1%), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (38.2%). During this study, Trichophyton tonsurans, an unusual dermatophyte species in Algeria, was identified for the first time in our hospital. CONCLUSION: Tinea capitis are still common in Algeria, mainly affecting school-aged children and preschool children. Microsporum canis and T. mentagrophytes are the major causative agents, in agreement with previous studies showing a decrease in frequency of anthropophilic species, in favour of zoophilic species.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Adolescente , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Coelhos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
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