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1.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 68-76, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036774

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are the well-known cause of severe respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in a wide range of hosts including man, mammals, fish, and avian. The scientific interest on coronaviruses increased after the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreaks in 2002-2003 followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). This decade's first CoV, named 2019-nCoV, emerged from Wuhan, China, and declared as 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern' on January 30th, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). As on February 4, 2020, 425 deaths reported in China only and one death outside China (Philippines). In a short span of time, the virus spread has been noted in 24 countries. The zoonotic transmission (animal-to-human) is suspected as the route of disease origin. The genetic analyses predict bats as the most probable source of 2019-nCoV though further investigations needed to confirm the origin of the novel virus. The ongoing nCoV outbreak highlights the hidden wild animal reservoir of the deadly viruses and possible threat of spillover zoonoses as well. The successful virus isolation attempts have made doors open for developing better diagnostics and effective vaccines helping in combating the spread of the virus to newer areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
2.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Rural , Viroses/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
3.
Infez Med ; 28(1): 3-5, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009128

RESUMO

Pathogen transmission from a vertebrate animal to a human, also known as zoonotic spillover, represents a global public health burden, which while associated with multiple outbreaks, still remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Coronaviruses, like influenza viruses, circulate in nature in various animal species. Alpha-coronaviruses and beta-coronaviruses can infect mammals and gamma-coronaviruses and delta-coronaviruses tend to infect birds, but some of them can also be transmitted to mammals. Although still preliminary, current data suggest that bats are the most probable initial source of the current 2019 novel CoV (2019nCoV) outbreak, that begun on December 2019 in Wuhan, China, apparently spreading from a "wet market" to multiple cities and provinces in China. This epidemic of 2019nCoV, already reaching more than 6,000 cases to-day (end of January 2020) (>90% in China), will not be the last one linked to zoonotic spillover events.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Zoonoses , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Epidemias , Humanos , Mamíferos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 26, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. It is one of the most public health problems that remains largely neglected in developing counties, including Saudi Arabia. Brucellosis is particularly prevalent among rural people who have constant contact with livestock. METHODS: A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study conducted in Aseer Central Hospital, South Saudi Arabia, between 2014 and 2018 among 7567 patients. Serum samples were analyzed for Brucella antibodies using slide agglutination test. Serology results and patient's demographic data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism. Results were presented as mean ± SEM and differences between two groups were assessed by t-test and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of brucellosis among the admitted suspected 7567 cases was 12.8% (10.4-15.7%; CI 95%). The highest prevalence rate was detected during 2015, the rate decreased to the lowest level during the last three years (p < 0.05). Higher rate of brucellosis was observed among males than females (p < 0.05) and most cases were reported during summer season (p < 0.05). The highest prevalence rate was observed in age group 21-40 year old (40.5%) followed by 41-60 years (27.7%). The lowest prevalence rate was noticed in old and young children (15 and 3%, respectively). Cross-transmission of brucellosis was seen within family (1%) and high titers (> 1280) was noticed in 22% of the hospitalized patients. The major symptoms were fatigue, hyperhidrosis, fever and joint pain. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed a high prevalence of human brucellosis among suspected patients in Aseer region. This indicates that clinical suspicion is a valid criterion and the endemic nature of the disease. The disease status requires early laboratory detection and confirmation to start prompt treatment to decrease patients suffering.


Assuntos
Brucella/imunologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucelose/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gado/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/microbiologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 28, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic trichostrongyloid nematodes have a worldwide distribution in ruminants and frequently have been reported from humans in Middle and Far East, particularly in rural communities with poor personal hygiene and close cohabitation with herbivorous animals. Different species of the genus Trichostrongylus are the most common trichostrongyloids in humans in endemic areas. Also, Ostertagia species are gastrointestinal nematodes that mainly infect cattle, sheep and goats and in rare occasion humans. The aim of the present study was to identify the trichostrongyloid nematodes obtained from a familial infection in Guilan province, northern Iran, using morphological and molecular criteria. METHODS: After anthelmintic treatment, all fecal materials of the patients were collected up to 48 h and male adult worms were isolated. Morphological identification of the adult worms was performed using valid nematode keys. Genomic DNA was extracted from one male worm of each species. PCR amplification of ITS2-rDNA region was carried out, and products were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence data was performed using MEGA 6.0 software. RESULTS: Adult worms expelled from the patients were identified as T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta based on morphological characteristics of the males. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that each species obtained in current study was placed together with reference sequences submitted to GenBank database. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of current study confirms the zoonotic aspect of Trichostrongylus species and T. circumcincta in inhabitants of Guilan province. The occurrence of natural human infection by T. circumcincta is reported for the first time in Iran and the second time in the world.


Assuntos
Trichostrongyloidea/genética , Tricostrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/transmissão , Tricostrongilose/epidemiologia , Tricostrongilose/transmissão , Trichostrongylus/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Bases/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Tricostrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Tricostrongilose/tratamento farmacológico , Trichostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600521

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is one of the biggest threats to livestock and human population. For this purpose, the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica was investigated in yaks and sheep living on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China by piloting commercial ELISA kits. A total of 3276 yaks and 1092 sheep were incorporated in this study. The prevalence of the parasite in yaks and sheep was 38.3% and 26.4%, respectively. The serological results revealed a relatively high prevalence of F. hepatica infection in yaks and sheep, respectively. The present study may greatly contribute to the prevention of this parasitic zoonosis and great importance should be given to the potential threat caused by F. hepatica in this special plateau.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tibet/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
8.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105211, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600522

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a potentially important zoonotic pathogen. However, there is no information on E. bieneusi infection of captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan Province, China. Here 193 fecal specimens of M. fascicularis were collected from a breeding base in Hainan Province, China, housing non-human primates for experimental use. E. bieneusi was identified and genotyped by nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. A total of 59 (30.6%) specimens were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi and 16 ITS genotypes were identified including nine known genotypes: Type IV (n = 19), D (n = 11), CM1 (n = 8), PigEBITS7 (n = 4), Pongo2 (n = 4), Peru8 (n = 3), Peru11 (n = 1), WL21 (n = 1) and CM2 (n = 1) and seven novel genotypes HNM-I to HNM-VII (one each). Importantly, genotypes D, Type IV, Peru8, PigEBITS7, and Peru11, which were the predominant (38/59, 64.4%) genotypes identified among captive M. fascicularis in this study, are also well-known human-pathogenic genotypes. All the genotypes of E. bieneusi identified here, including the seven novel ones, belonged to zoonotic Group 1. This is the first report of the identification of E. bieneusi in M. fascicularis in Hainan Province, China. The finding that the numerous known human-pathogenic types and seven novel genotypes of E. bieneusi all belong to zoonotic Group 1 indicates the possibility of transmission of this important pathogenic parasite between M. fascicularis and humans.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Macaca fascicularis/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/genética , Filogenia , Zoonoses/genética , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
9.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105222, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639325

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonoses worldwide, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Horses are an intermediate host of T. gondii, representing a potential risk for humans. To determine the T. gondii seroprevalence in horses worldwide, a global meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 35 publications were obtained by searching the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of knowledge (CNKI) and Wanfang databases. A total of 12,354 horses were assessed, of which 1580 were positive for T. gondii. The pooled overall seroprevalence of horses infected by T. gondii was 11.29%. No significant difference of T. gondii seroprevalence was observed between male and female horses. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses from different countries varied. Our findings suggest that toxoplasmosis is prevalent in horses worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to implement continuous monitoring of the status of T. gondii seroprevalence in horses. Moreover, powerful regulatory measures should be implemented to prevent and control the spread of toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Cavalos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105203, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574252

RESUMO

Detailed post mortem analyses of 68 free-ranging, slaughter-age pigs from two sites in the Banke District of Nepal identified 36% as being infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The cysts ranged from infertile, immature cysts a few millimetres in diameter to fertile cysts >10 cm in diameter. PCR RFLP and DNA sequencing identified the cysts as being E. granulosus sensu stricto. The Banke district has recently been identified as having a high prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. These data suggest that cestode zoonoses in this, and possibly other parts of Nepal may be a serious concern for human health. An assessment of the level of human cystic echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis, in the region is warranted and the introduction of control measures are required to limit the parasites' transmission.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Suínos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007906, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although malaria cases have substantially decreased in Southeast Brazil, a significant increase in the number of Plasmodium vivax-like autochthonous human cases has been reported in remote areas of the Atlantic Forest in the past few decades in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) state, including an outbreak during 2015-2016. The singular clinical and epidemiological aspects in several human cases, and collectively with molecular and genetic data, revealed that they were due to the non-human primate (NHP) parasite Plasmodium simium; however, the understanding of the autochthonous malarial epidemiology in Southeast Brazil can only be acquired by assessing the circulation of NHP Plasmodium in the foci and determining its hosts. METHODOLOGY: A large sampling effort was carried out in the Atlantic forest of RJ and its bordering states (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo) for collecting and examining free-living NHPs. Blood and/or viscera were analyzed for Plasmodium infections via molecular and microscopic techniques. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 146 NHPs of six species, from 30 counties in four states, were tested, of which majority were collected from RJ. Howler monkeys (Alouatta clamitans) were the only species found infected. In RJ, 26% of these monkeys tested positive, of which 17% were found to be infected with P. simium. Importantly, specific single nucleotide polymorphisms-the only available genetic markers that differentiate P. simium from P. vivax-were detected in all P. simium infected A. clamitans despite their geographical origin of malarial foci. Interestingly, 71% of P. simium infected NHPs were from the coastal slope of a mountain chain (Serra do Mar), where majority of the human cases were found. Plasmodium brasilianum/malariae was initially detected in 14% and 25% free-living howler monkeys in RJ and in the Espírito Santo (ES) state, respectively. Moreover, the malarial pigment was detected in the spleen fragments of 50% of a subsample comprising dead howler monkeys in both RJ and ES. All NHPs were negative for Plasmodium falciparum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that howler monkeys act as the main reservoir for the Atlantic forest human malarial parasites in RJ and other sites in Southeast Brazil and reinforce its zoonotic characteristics.


Assuntos
Alouatta/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Brasil , Florestas , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
12.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(5): 599-606, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonoses are infections caused by all types of etiological transmissible agents from vertebrate animals to humans. During the last decades, the risk to health caused by different zoonoses has been a consequence of the natural distribution of the different etiological agents and by the emergence and reemergence of these diseases. AIM: To study the distribution of the risk of mortality of the four main zoonoses in continental Chile, based on national mortality data, with the objective of visualizing geographically where to focus the control efforts of these diseases. METHODS: Relative risk was estimated by means of Bayesian Statistics. RESULTS: The distribution in Chile of the main zoonoses was obtained. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The risk maps obtained show a parasitic disease transmitted by high-risk vectors in the north, Chagas disease; a parasitic disease of biological communities in which man is an accidental host, associated with livestock areas, more prevalent in the south, hydatidosis; a bacterial disease transmitted by vertebrates, especially by rodents, where water is an important vehicle, dominant in the center, leptospirosis; and a viral disease transmitted by rodents, very dominant in the south, the hantavirus infection.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/etiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Equinococose/etiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/etiologia , Humanos , Leptospirose/etiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/etiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 929, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. The two major types of infection in humans are cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatidosis and alveolar echinococcosis (AE). It is endemic in some parts of the world, such as the Middle East, with Iran being a part of it. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine the prevalence of CE and AE echinococcosis and their epidemiological and clinical aspects in Iran. METHODS: Electronic databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), SCOPUS, Web of Science, SID and Mag Iran (two Persian scientific search engines) were searched from 1 January 1990 to 8 August 2017. The prevalence of CE and AE echinococcosis was estimated using the random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was evaluated by subgroup analysis. Data were analyzed by STATA version 12. RESULTS: Of the 2051 records identified in the mentioned electronic databases, Seventy-eight articles met our eligibility criteria, with a total of 214124individuals. The meta-analysis was performed on only 37 out of 78 included studies. The pooled prevalence of CE and AE in Iran was 5% [95% confidence interval )CI(: 3-6%] and 2% [95% CI: 0-5%], respectively. Subgroup meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of CE was significantly higher in North [9%, 95% CI: 4-18%] and West of Iran [6%, 95% CI: 3-11%], patients younger than 40 years of age [7%, 95% CI: 4-12%], villagers and nomads [6%, 95% CI: 2-12%], and studies that used the combination of serological, clinical, and imaging diagnostic methods [7%, 95% CI: 5-9%]. There were no significant differences between the prevalence of CE among low and high-quality studies. Housewives were the most affected group by hydatidosis (n=24/77, 31%), followed by illiterate people (n=11/77, 14%) and farmers (n= 9/77, 12%). Liver [55%, 95% CI: 46-65%] and lung [28%, 95% CI, 22-35%] were the most common sites of cyst formation. CONCLUSIONS: Given to the importance of echinococcosis on human health and domestic animals industry, it is necessary to implement monitoring and control measures in this regard.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Equinococose/etiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108477, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767089

RESUMO

Swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) cause acute respiratory syndromes in pigs and may also infect humans. Following the 2009 pandemic, a network was established in France to reinforce swIAV monitoring. This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6 %) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6 %), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1 % and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6 %) was detected throughout the country, without settling in areas of higher pig densities. Its proportion increased in winter, during the seasonal epidemics in humans. The European human-like reassortant swine H3N2 as well as H1avN2 viruses were identified sporadically. In up to 30 % of swIAV-positive cases, pigs exhibited clinical signs of high intensity, regardless of the viral subtype and vaccination program. The recurrent pattern of the disease, i.e., an endemic infection at the herd level, was reported in 41% of cases and mainly affected post-weaning piglets (OR = 5.11 [3.36-7.76]). Interestingly, the study also revealed a significant association between the recurrent pattern and sow vaccination (OR = 1.96 [1.37-2.80]). Although restricted to the studied pig population, these results bring new knowledge about swIAV dynamics and infection patterns in pig herds in France.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Animais , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108453, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767092

RESUMO

Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arbovirus causing clinical symptoms such as arthritis, rash and fever following human infections in Fennoscandia. Its transmission cycle involves mosquito species as vectors as well as wild birds that act as natural reservoir hosts. In Germany, SINV was first time observed in 2009 in different mosquito species in the Upper Rhine valley and one year later in a hooded crow in Berlin. Recently, SINV was also detected repeatedly at various locations in Germany in the context of a mosquitoes monitoring program for arboviruses. In this study, we detected for just the second time a SINV infection in a diseased wild bird (common wood pigeon) from Central Europe. SINV was isolated by cell culture and the complete SINV genome sequence was determined. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affiliation to SINV genotype I with a high similarity to human isolate sequences from Finland, Sweden and Russia. The isolate was genetically distinct from the first avian isolate suggesting the circulation of at least two different SINV strains in Germany. In order to reveal the infection frequency in SINV positive mosquito regions 749 bird blood samples were assayed serologically and SINV antibodies found primarily in resident birds. SINV is therefore endemically circulating in mosquitoes in Germany, which results in occasional bird infections. No data are yet available on zoonotic transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/virologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Vírus Sindbis/classificação , Zoonoses/virologia , Infecções por Alphavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Alphavirus/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Aves/virologia , Genótipo , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus Sindbis/genética , Vírus Sindbis/fisiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 199-212, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564730

RESUMO

Rabies is a fatal viral disease that causes an estimated 59,000 human deaths each year. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries in Asia. Canine rabies is endemic to Vietnam, which is, however, moving towards the disease's elimination. Many countries, such as Vietnam, have invested tremendous resources in controlling rabies, highlighting the goal of regional and global elimination of this neglected disease. In Vietnam, rabies is recognised as one of five high-priority, zoonotic diseases by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Investment by the government and by international partners for rabies prevention and control has played a substantial role in reducing human rabies deaths from 404 cases in 1992 to 74 cases in 2017. The catalyst for this effort was the Prime Minister's creation of the National Rabies Program in 1996, which led to increased support and resources for rabies prevention and control. Interventions carried out since then include the expansion of post-exposure prophylaxis centres throughout the country, the introduction or revision of key legislation and guidelines, and improved multisectoral One Health collaboration. In addition, support from international partners, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has helped to increase awareness, manage dog populations more effectively, and improve Vietnam's surveillance and diagnostic capabilities. To pursue the goal of eliminating dog-mediated rabies in Vietnam, political commitment is crucial. Resources must be made available to enforce the regulations and guidelines that will enable Vietnam to achieve greater canine rabies vaccination coverage. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the animal and human health systems in Vietnam, as well as past, current and future directions of rabies prevention and control.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão , Raiva , Animais , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
17.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 185-198, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564731

RESUMO

Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of infectious, devastating and severe diseases caused by enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses. The endemicity, emergence or re-emergence of different VHF viruses and lack of vaccines and antiviral therapy for most VHFs result in a significant global threat. Most VHF viruses are restricted to specific parts of the world, and the dramatic expansion of their geographical distribution beyond their original habitats would greatly affect global public health. In the past few decades alone, several outbreaks have affected the Middle East, a part of the world containing arid to semi-arid, hot and water-scarce countries. Political instability, natural and humanitarian crises, direct contact with domesticated animals and climate change are the main factors in the dissemination of different zoonotic diseases, including vector-borne diseases. Some VHF viruses have been introduced into the Middle East (e.g. Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever) and others have been re-introduced and have become endemic in the region. Dengue fever, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and hantavirus haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are examples of re-emerging or endemic viruses in the region. The temporal and spatial extension of VHF distribution mandates a particular engagement from all the actors in the fields of animal, human and environmental health. The One Health concept is a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach for promoting collaboration, coordination and communication among different nations, sectors and disciplines, which is highly relevant to the fight against endemic, emerging and re-emerging infectious agents at the human-animal-environment interface. The adoption of the One Health approach is a promising solution to addressing public health threats in the Middle East.


Assuntos
Febres Hemorrágicas Virais , Saúde Única , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Saúde Pública/normas , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
18.
Adv Parasitol ; 106: 209-254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630759

RESUMO

A total of eight Giardia species are accepted. These include: Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia), which infects humans and animals, Giardia agilis, Giardia ardeae, Giardia psittaci, Giardia muris, Giardia microti, Giardia peramelis and G. cricetidarum, which infect non-human hosts including amphibians, birds, rodents and marsupials. Giardia duodenalis is a species complex consisting of eight assemblages (A-H), with assemblages A and B the dominant assemblages in humans. Molecular studies to date on the zoonotic potential of Giardia in animals are problematic and are hampered by lack of concordance between loci. Livestock (cattle, sheep, goats and pigs) are predominantly infected with G. duodenalis assemblage E, which has recently been shown to be zoonotic, followed by assemblage A. In cats and dogs, assemblages A, B, C, D and F are commonly reported but relatively few studies have conducted molecular typing of humans and their pets and the results are contradictory with some studies support zoonotic transmission but the majority of studies suggesting separate transmission cycles. Giardia also infects a broad range of wildlife hosts and although much less well studied, host-adapted species as well as G. duodenalis assemblages (A-H) have been identified. Fish and other aquatic wildlife represent a source of infection for humans with Giardia via water contamination and/or consumption of undercooked fish and interestingly, assemblage B and A predominated in the two molecular studies conducted to date. Our current knowledge of the transmission dynamics of Giardia is still poor and the development of more discriminatory typing tools such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Giardia isolates is therefore essential.


Assuntos
Giardíase/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Medicina Veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Giardia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardíase/transmissão , Humanos , Medicina Veterinária/tendências , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4531, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615986

RESUMO

Recent outbreaks of animal-borne emerging infectious diseases have likely been precipitated by a complex interplay of changing ecological, epidemiological and socio-economic factors. Here, we develop modelling methods that capture elements of each of these factors, to predict the risk of Ebola virus disease (EVD) across time and space. Our modelling results match previously-observed outbreak patterns with high accuracy, and suggest further outbreaks could occur across most of West and Central Africa. Trends in the underlying drivers of EVD risk suggest a 1.75 to 3.2-fold increase in the endemic rate of animal-human viral spill-overs in Africa by 2070, given current modes of healthcare intervention. Future global change scenarios with higher human population growth and lower rates of socio-economic development yield a fourfold higher likelihood of epidemics occurring as a result of spill-over events. Our modelling framework can be used to target interventions designed to reduce epidemic risk for many zoonotic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Zoonoses/virologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007506, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucella spp. is a zoonotic bacterial agent of high public health and socio-economic importance. It infects many species of animals including wildlife, and people may get exposed through direct contact with an infected animal or consumption of raw or undercooked animal products. A linked livestock-human cross-sectional study to determine seroprevalences and risk factors of brucellosis in livestock and humans was designed. Estimates were made for intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these observations at the household and village levels. METHODOLOGY: The study was implemented in Garissa (specifically Ijara and Sangailu areas) and Tana River (Bura and Hola) counties. A household was the unit of analysis and the sample size was derived using the standard procedures. Serum samples were obtained from selected livestock and people from randomly selected households. Humans were sampled in both counties, while livestock could be sampled only in Tana River County. Samples obtained were screened for anti-Brucella IgG antibodies using ELISA kits. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed effects logistic regression models with the household (herd) and village being used as random effects. RESULTS: The overall Brucella spp. seroprevalences were 3.47% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.72-4.36%) and 35.81% (95% CI: 32.87-38.84) in livestock and humans, respectively. In livestock, older animals and those sampled in Hola had significantly higher seroprevalences than younger ones or those sampled in Bura. Herd and village random effects were significant and ICC estimates associated with these variables were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.22-0.60) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.08-0.52), respectively. In humans, Brucella spp. seroprevalence was significantly higher in older people, males, and people who lived in pastoral areas than younger ones, females or those who lived in irrigated or riverine areas. People from households that had at least one seropositive animal were 3.35 (95% CI: 1.51-7.41) times more likely to be seropositive compared to those that did not. Human exposures significantly clustered at the household level; the ICC estimate obtained was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.06-0.52). CONCLUSION: The presence of a Brucella spp.-seropositive animal in a household significantly increased the odds of Brucella spp. seropositivity in humans in that household. Exposure to Brucella spp. of both livestock and humans clustered significantly at the household level. This suggests that risk-based surveillance measures, guided by locations of primary cases reported, either in humans or livestock, can be used to detect Brucella spp. infections in livestock or humans, respectively.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/imunologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Gado/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucella , Brucelose/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Rios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
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