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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1441, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coxiellosis is a neglected zoonosis for occupationally exposed people in many parts of the world. Sheep and goats are two important small ruminants that act as reservoirs for human contamination; however, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the epidemiological aspects of coxiellosis in sheep and goats at regional and global levels. The aim of this study was to systematically review the available articles on seroprevalence of coxiellosis in sheep and goats and estimate the overall seroprevalence in different regions. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was performed in five electronic repositories for articles published until December 2021. Relevant data were extracted from the selected articles based on the inclusion criteria. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to analyse the data. Results are presented as the prevalence of seropositivity as a percentage and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The global pooled seroprevalence of coxiellosis in sheep was 17.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.59%-19.17%). Overall, the regional level pooled prevalence estimates in sheep ranged from 15.04% (95% CI: 7.68%-22.40%) to 19.14% (95% CI: 15.51%-22.77%), depending on region. The global pooled seroprevalence of coxiellosis in goats was 22.60% (95% CI: 19.54%-25.66%). Overall, the regional level pooled prevalence estimates in goats ranged from 6.33% (95% CI: 2.96%-9.71%) to 55.13% (95% CI: 49.61%-60.65%), depending on the region. The prevalence estimates also varied significantly in both sheep and goats depending on age, sex, and rearing systems of the animals (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of coxiellosis in both sheep and goats is considerable. Routine monitoring of the sheep and goat populations is needed to prevent spillover infection in other livestock and humans.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ovinos , Humanos , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ruminantes , Cabras , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Gado , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301195, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574109

RESUMO

Understanding the evolution of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and its relationship to other coronaviruses in the wild is crucial for preventing future virus outbreaks. While the origin of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains uncertain, mounting evidence suggests the direct involvement of the bat and pangolin coronaviruses in the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. To unravel the early days of a probable zoonotic spillover event, we analyzed genomic data from various coronavirus strains from both human and wild hosts. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was performed using multiple datasets, using strict and relaxed clock evolutionary models to estimate the occurrence times of key speciation, gene transfer, and recombination events affecting the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 and its closest relatives. We found strong evidence supporting the presence of temporal structure in datasets containing SARS-CoV-2 variants, enabling us to estimate the time of SARS-CoV-2 zoonotic spillover between August and early October 2019. In contrast, datasets without SARS-CoV-2 variants provided mixed results in terms of temporal structure. However, they allowed us to establish that the presence of a statistically robust clade in the phylogenies of gene S and its receptor-binding (RBD) domain, including two bat (BANAL) and two Guangdong pangolin coronaviruses (CoVs), is due to the horizontal gene transfer of this gene from the bat CoV to the pangolin CoV that occurred in the middle of 2018. Importantly, this clade is closely located to SARS-CoV-2 in both phylogenies. This phylogenetic proximity had been explained by an RBD gene transfer from the Guangdong pangolin CoV to a very recent ancestor of SARS-CoV-2 in some earlier works in the field before the BANAL coronaviruses were discovered. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the timeline and evolutionary dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quirópteros , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Filogenia , Pangolins/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(4): 768-778, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471176

RESUMO

Murine typhus is a flea-borne disease caused by Rickettsia typhi infection. The disease is a notifiable infectious disease in Taiwan. Specimens from suspected cases are required to be sent to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for laboratory diagnosis. In this study, 204 cases of murine typhus were identified by bacterial isolation, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or indirect immunofluorescence assay between 2013 and 2020. The average incidence rate was 0.11/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.08-0.13). Murine typhus occurred throughout the year, but it was most prevalent in summer (May to August). The majority of patients were males (75%), residents of Kaohsiung city (31%), and worked in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and animal husbandry (27%). Fever was the most common symptom, present in 95.6% of patients, followed by headache (41%), myalgia (33%), and liver dysfunction (33%). Only 13% of patients had a rash. Up to 80% of cases were among hospitalized patients, and 43% of patients developed severe manifestations. Serological assays also indicated coinfection events. Seven patients showed a 4-fold increase in antibody titers against Orientia tsutsugamushi (N = 2), Coxiella burnetii (n = 2), and Leptospira (N = 3). In conclusion, murine typhus is an endemic and important zoonotic rickettsial disease in Taiwan that cannot be ignored. Further epidemiological surveillance and clinical characteristics should be continuously investigated to prevent and control murine typhus.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Feminino , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/diagnóstico , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Rickettsia typhi , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico
5.
Parasite ; 31: 19, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530212

RESUMO

Trichomonads are protozoan symbionts with the capacity to infect vertebrates including humans and non-human primates (NHPs), sometimes with pathogenic effects. However, their diversity and prevalence in NHPs in China are poorly understood. A total of 533 fecal samples were collected from captive NHPs in Yunnan Province, China, of which 461 samples from Macaca fascicularis and 72 from Macaca mulatta. Trichomonadidae species were identified using PCR amplification of the ITS-1/5.8S/ITS-2 sequences. The overall prevalence of trichomonads in NHPs was determined to be 11.4% (61/533), with gender, diarrhea, and region identified as potential risk factors for the infections. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis identified three species of trichomonads, i.e., Trichomitopsis minor (n = 45), Pentatrichomonas hominis (n = 11), and Tetratrichomonas sp. (n = 5). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report Trichomitopsis minor infection in NHPs in China. Of note, Pentatrichomonas hominis is generally recognized as a parasitic organism affecting humans. Collectively, our results suggest that NHPs are potential sources of zoonotic trichomonad infections, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures to protect human and animal populations.


Title: Prévalence des Trichomonadidae intestinaux chez les primates non humains captifs en Chine. Abstract: Les Trichomonadidae sont des symbiotes protozoaires capables d'infecter les vertébrés, notamment les humains et les primates non humains (PNH), parfois avec des effets pathogènes. Cependant, leur diversité et leur prévalence chez les PNH en Chine sont mal comprises. Au total, 533 échantillons fécaux ont été collectés sur des PNH captifs dans la province du Yunnan, en Chine, dont 461 échantillons de Macaca fascicularis et 72 de Macaca mulatta. Les espèces de Trichomonadidae ont été identifiées par amplification PCR des séquences ITS-1/5.8S/ITS-2. La prévalence globale des Trichomonadidae dans les PNH a été déterminée à 11,4 % (61 / 533) et le sexe, la diarrhée et la région ont été identifiés comme facteurs de risque potentiels d'infection. L'alignement des séquences et l'analyse phylogénétique ont identifié trois espèces de Trichomonadidae, à savoir Trichomitopsis minor (n = 45), Pentatrichomonas hominis (n = 11) et Tetratrichomonas sp. (n = 5). À notre connaissance, il s'agit de la première étude à signaler une infection par Trichomitopsis minor chez les PNH en Chine. Il convient de noter que Pentatrichomonas hominis est généralement reconnu comme un organisme parasitaire affectant les humains. Collectivement, nos résultats suggèrent que les PNH sont des sources potentielles d'infections zoonotiques à Trichomonadidae, soulignant l'importance des mesures de surveillance et de contrôle pour protéger les populations humaines et animales.


Assuntos
Primatas , Trichomonas , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Intestinos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Q Rev Biophys ; 57: e2, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477116

RESUMO

Zoonoses are infectious agents that are transmissible between animals and humans. Up to 60% of known infectious diseases and 75% of emergent diseases are zoonotic. Genomic variation between homeostatic populations provides a novel window into the effect of environmental pathogens on allelic distributions within the populations. Genodynamics is a biophysical approach utilizing developed metrics on biallelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be used to quantify the adaptive influences due to pathogens. A genomic free energy that is minimized when overall population health is optimized describes the influence of environmental agents upon genomic variation. A double-blind exploration of over 100 thousand SNPs searching for smooth functional dependencies upon four zoonotic pathogens carried by four possible hosts amidst populations that live in their ancestral environments has been conducted. Exemplars that infectious agents can have significant adaptive influence on human populations are presented. One discussed SNP is likely associated with both adaptive and innate immune regulation. The adaptive response of another SNP suggests an intriguing connection between zoonoses and human cancers. The adaptive forces of the presented pathogens upon the human genome have been quantified.


Assuntos
Genômica , Zoonoses , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2577, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531842

RESUMO

Substantial global attention is focused on how to reduce the risk of future pandemics. Reducing this risk requires investment in prevention, preparedness, and response. Although preparedness and response have received significant focus, prevention, especially the prevention of zoonotic spillover, remains largely absent from global conversations. This oversight is due in part to the lack of a clear definition of prevention and lack of guidance on how to achieve it. To address this gap, we elucidate the mechanisms linking environmental change and zoonotic spillover using spillover of viruses from bats as a case study. We identify ecological interventions that can disrupt these spillover mechanisms and propose policy frameworks for their implementation. Recognizing that pandemics originate in ecological systems, we advocate for integrating ecological approaches alongside biomedical approaches in a comprehensive and balanced pandemic prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Vírus , Animais , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Ecossistema
9.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298929, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547141

RESUMO

'Bushmeat' markets are often portrayed as chaotic spaces where exotic wild animals are sold. They are hypothesized to be important sites for zoonotic disease transmission, given the prolonged and intense nature of the cross-species encounters that occur within them. Whilst such markets have received some attention from researchers, rich qualitative descriptions of everyday practices in these markets are rare. Depictions of wild animal markets as sites for potential viral amplification often rely on exoticizing assumptions and narratives rather than actual evidence, and in some cases are based more on ideology than on science. We provide an in-depth ethnographic account of two bushmeat markets in Bo, Sierra Leone. Our analysis goes beyond common assumptions that zoonotic risk is located solely in the knowledge and behaviours of traders. Our account sheds light on the modes of touch, closeness and contact that shape this hypothesised zoonotic interface, outlining the possible risks to different people who use and spend time in the market. We found that inadequate infrastructure and sanitation facilities created risks of zoonotic disease transmission for diverse actors including traders, customers, children, and the wider public. Butchering and trading practices frequently resulted in people directly and indirectly encountering animal fluids. We also discuss how public health management of these markets focused on individual behaviours rather than on improving conditions. Urgent sanitary reform and infrastructure upgrades in these sites that support the economic needs of traders could encourage voluntary compliance with biosafety measures amongst traders seeking to balance responsibilities to family and public health. Our study reveals the value of moving beyond exoticized narratives about bushmeat markets to yield situated insights for reducing risk at this interface.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Zoonoses , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Serra Leoa , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Saneamento
10.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427618

RESUMO

Employees at wild great ape sites are at high risk of transmitting infectious diseases to endangered great apes. Because of the significant amount of time employees spend near great apes, they are a priority population for the prevention and treatment of zoonotic and zooanthroponotic spillover and need adequate preventive and curative healthcare. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 46 staff (rangers and porters) at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda (BINP) and key informants from five other wild great ape sites around the world were performed. The objectives of the study were to 1) evaluate health-seeking behavior and health resources used by staff in contact with great apes at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park; 2) evaluate existing occupational health programs for employees working with great apes in other parts of the world; and 3) make recommendations for improvement of occupational health at BINP. Results show that BINP employees do not frequently access preventive healthcare measures, nor do they have easy access to diagnostic testing for infectious diseases of spillover concern. Recommendations include assigning a dedicated healthcare provider for great ape site staff, providing free annual physical exams, and stocking rapid malaria tests and deworming medication in first aid kits at each site.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides , Doenças Transmissíveis , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Uganda , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Gorilla gorilla
11.
Eur J Protistol ; 93: 126066, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442435

RESUMO

The zoonotic potential of the protist parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in amphibians and reptiles raises public health concerns due to their growing popularity as pets. This review examines the prevalence and diversity of these parasites in wild and captive amphibians and reptiles to better understand the zoonotic risk. Research on Giardia in both groups is limited, and zoonotic forms of Cryptosporidium or Giardia have not been reported in amphibians. Host-adapted Cryptosporidium species dominate in reptiles, albeit some reptiles have been found to carry zoonotic (C. hominis and C. parvum) and rodent-associated (C. tyzzeri, C. muris and C. andersoni) species, primarily through mechanical carriage. Similarly, the limited reports of Giardia duodenalis (assemblages A, B and E) in reptiles may also be due to mechanical carriage. Thus, the available evidence indicates minimal zoonotic risk associated with these organisms in wild and captive frogs and reptiles. The exact transmission routes for these infections within reptile populations remain poorly understood, particularly regarding the importance of mechanical carriage. Although the risk appears minimal, continued research and surveillance efforts are necessary to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the transmission dynamics and ultimately improve our ability to safeguard human and animal health.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Humanos , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Giardíase/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Anuros , Répteis , Prevalência , Fezes/parasitologia
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297274, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386647

RESUMO

Tracking livestock abortion patterns over time and across factors such as species and agroecological zones (AEZs) could inform policies to mitigate disease emergence, zoonoses risk, and reproductive losses. We conducted a year-long population-based active surveillance of livestock abortion between 2019 and 2020, in administrative areas covering 52% of Kenya's landmass and home to 50% of Kenya's livestock. Surveillance sites were randomly selected to represent all AEZs in the country. Local animal health practitioners electronically transmitted weekly abortion reports from each ward, the smallest administrative unit, to a central server, using a simple short messaging service (SMS). Data were analyzed descriptively by administrative unit, species, and AEZ to reveal spatiotemporal patterns and relationships with rainfall and temperature. Of 23,766 abortions reported in all livestock species, sheep and goats contributed 77%, with goats alone contributing 53%. Seventy-seven per cent (n = 18,280) of these abortions occurred in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) that primarily practice pastoralism production systems. While spatiotemporal clustering of cases was observed in May-July 2019 in the ASALs, there was a substantial seasonal fluctuation across AEZs. Kenya experiences high livestock abortion rates, most of which go unreported. We recommend further research to document the national true burden of abortions. In ASALs, studies linking pathogen, climate, and environmental surveillance are needed to assign livestock abortions to infectious or non-infectious aetiologies and conducting human acute febrile illnesses surveillance to detect any links with the abortions.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Cabras , Gado , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Quênia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/etiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4467, 2024 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409294

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease. The standard serological test, known as Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), requires the use of live Leptospira strains. To enhance its sensitivity and specificity, the usage of locally circulating strains is recommended. However, to date, no local strain is available from Austria. This study aimed to isolate circulating Leptospira strains from cattle in Austria to enhance the performances of the routine serological test for both humans and animals. We used a statistical approach combined with a comprehensive literature search to profile cattle with greater risk of leptospirosis infection and implemented a targeted sampling between November 2021 and October 2022. Urine and/or kidney tissue were sampled from 410 cattle considered at higher risk of infection. Samples were inoculated into EMJH-STAFF culture media within 2-6 h and a real-time PCR targeting the lipL32 gene was used to confirm the presence/absence of pathogenic Leptospira in each sample. Isolates were further characterised by core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). Nine out of 429 samples tested positive by PCR, from which three isolates were successfully cultured and identified as Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjobovis, cgMLST cluster 40. This is the first report on the isolation and genotyping of local zoonotic Leptospira in Austria, which holds the potential for a significant improvement in diagnostic performance in the country. Although the local strain was identified as a cattle-adapted serovar, it possesses significant zoonotic implications. Furthermore, this study contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiology of leptospirosis in Europe.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Genótipo , Áustria/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3904, 2024 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365824

RESUMO

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a zoonosis transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, and is considered a priority pathogen by the WHO. RVF epidemics mostly occur in Africa and can decimate livestock herds, causing significant economic losses and posing health risks for humans. RVF transmission is associated with the occurrence of El Niño events that cause floods in eastern Africa and favour the emergence of mosquitoes in wetlands. Different risk models have been developed to forecast RVF transmission risk but very few studies have validated models at pan-African scale. This study aims to validate the skill of the Liverpool Rift Valley Fever model (LRVF) in reproducing RVF epidemics over Africa and to explore the relationship between simulated climatic suitability for RVF transmission and large-scale climate modes of variability such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Dipole Mode Index (DMI). Our results show that the LRVF model correctly simulates RVF transmission hotspots and reproduces large epidemics that affected African countries. LRVF was able to correctly reproduce major RVF epidemics in Somalia, Kenya, Zambia and to a lesser extent for Mauritania and Senegal. The positive phases of ENSO and DMI are associated with an increased risk of RVF over the Horn of Africa, with important time lags. Following research activities should focus on the development of predictive modelling systems at different time scales.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre do Vale de Rift , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Animais , Humanos , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0287893, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324542

RESUMO

Wildlife trafficking creates favorable scenarios for intra- and inter-specific interactions that can lead to parasite spread and disease emergence. Among the fauna affected by this activity, primates are relevant due to their potential to acquire and share zoonoses - infections caused by parasites that can spread between humans and other animals. Though it is known that most primate parasites can affect multiple hosts and that many are zoonotic, comparative studies across different contexts for animal-human interactions are scarce. We conducted a multi-parasite screening targeting the detection of zoonotic infections in wild-caught monkeys in nine Peruvian cities across three contexts: captivity (zoos and rescue centers, n = 187); pet (households, n = 69); and trade (trafficked or recently confiscated, n = 132). We detected 32 parasite taxa including mycobacteria, simian foamyvirus, bacteria, helminths, and protozoa. Monkeys in the trade context had the highest prevalence of hemoparasites (including Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and microfilaria) and enteric helminths and protozoa were less common in pet monkeys. However, parasite communities showed overall low variation between the three contexts. Parasite richness (PR) was best explained by host genus and the city where the animal was sampled. Squirrel (genus Saimiri) and wooly (genus Lagothrix) monkeys had the highest PR, which was ~2.2 times the PR found in tufted capuchins (genus Sapajus) and tamarins (genus Saguinus/Leontocebus) in a multivariable model adjusted for context, sex, and age. Our findings illustrate that the threats of wildlife trafficking to One Health encompass exposure to multiple zoonotic parasites well-known to cause disease in humans, monkeys, and other species. We demonstrate these threats continue beyond the markets where wildlife is initially sold; monkeys trafficked for the pet market remain a reservoir for and contribute to the translocation of zoonotic parasites to households and other captive facilities where contact with humans is frequent. Our results have practical applications for the healthcare of rescued monkeys and call for urgent action against wildlife trafficking and ownership of monkeys as pets.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Humanos , Animais , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Haplorrinos , Saguinus
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(2): e1011375, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381804

RESUMO

The rapid intensification of poultry production raises important concerns about the associated risks of zoonotic infections. Here, we introduce EPINEST (EPIdemic NEtwork Simulation in poultry Transportation systems): an agent-based modelling framework designed to simulate pathogen transmission within realistic poultry production and distribution networks. We provide example applications to broiler production in Bangladesh, but the modular structure of the model allows for easy parameterization to suit specific countries and system configurations. Moreover, the framework enables the replication of a wide range of eco-epidemiological scenarios by incorporating diverse pathogen life-history traits, modes of transmission and interactions between multiple strains and/or pathogens. EPINEST was developed in the context of an interdisciplinary multi-centre study conducted in Bangladesh, India, Vietnam and Sri Lanka, and will facilitate the investigation of the spreading patterns of various health hazards such as avian influenza, Campylobacter, Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in these countries. Furthermore, this modelling framework holds potential for broader application in veterinary epidemiology and One Health research, extending its relevance beyond poultry to encompass other livestock species and disease systems.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Aves Domésticas , Galinhas , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
18.
ACS Infect Dis ; 10(3): 808-826, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415654

RESUMO

Recent pandemics, including the COVID-19 outbreak, have brought up growing concerns about transmission of zoonotic diseases from animals to humans. This highlights the requirement for a novel approach to discern and address the escalating health threats. The One Health paradigm has been developed as a responsive strategy to confront forthcoming outbreaks through early warning, highlighting the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and their environment. The system employs several innovative methods such as the use of advanced technology, global collaboration, and data-driven decision-making to come up with an extraordinary solution for improving worldwide disease responses. This Review deliberates environmental, animal, and human factors that influence disease risk, analyzes the challenges and advantages inherent in using the One Health surveillance system, and demonstrates how these can be empowered by Big Data and Artificial Intelligence. The Holistic One Health Surveillance Framework presented herein holds the potential to revolutionize our capacity to monitor, understand, and mitigate the impact of infectious diseases on global populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(3): 561-568, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320310

RESUMO

Incidence of human monkeypox (mpox) has been increasing in West and Central Africa, including in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where monkeypox virus (MPXV) is endemic. Most estimates of the pathogen's transmissibility in the DRC are based on data from the 1980s. Amid the global 2022 mpox outbreak, new estimates are needed to characterize the virus' epidemic potential and inform outbreak control strategies. We used the R package vimes to identify clusters of laboratory-confirmed mpox cases in Tshuapa Province, DRC. Cases with both temporal and spatial data were assigned to clusters based on the disease's serial interval and spatial kernel. We used the size of the clusters to infer the effective reproduction number, Rt, and the rate of zoonotic spillover of MPXV into the human population. Out of 1,463 confirmed mpox cases reported in Tshuapa Province between 2013 and 2017, 878 had both date of symptom onset and a location with geographic coordinates. Results include an estimated Rt of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.79-0.85) and a rate of 132 (95% CI: 122-143) spillovers per year assuming a reporting rate of 25%. This estimate of Rt is larger than most previous estimates. One potential explanation for this result is that Rt could have increased in the DRC over time owing to declining population-level immunity conferred by smallpox vaccination, which was discontinued around 1982. Rt could be overestimated if our assumption of one spillover event per cluster does not hold. Our results are consistent with increased transmissibility of MPXV in Tshuapa Province.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Animais , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
20.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 342, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strengthening the surveillance of zoonotic diseases emergence in the wild meat value chains is a critical component of the prevention of future health crises. Community hunters could act as first-line observers in zoonotic pathogens surveillance systems in wildlife, by reporting early signs of the possible presence of a disease in the game animals they observe and manipulate on a regular basis. METHODS: An experimental game was developed and implemented in a forested area of Gabon, in central Africa. Our objective was to improve our understanding of community hunters' decision-making when finding signs of zoonotic diseases in game animals: would they report or dissimulate these findings to a health agency? 88 hunters, divided into 9 groups of 5 to 13 participants, participated in the game, which was run over 21 rounds. In each round the players participated in a simulated hunting trip during which they had a chance of capturing a wild animal displaying clinical signs of a zoonotic disease. When signs were visible, players had to decide whether to sell/consume the animal or to report it. The last option implied a lowered revenue from the hunt but an increased probability of early detection of zoonotic diseases with benefits for the entire group of hunters. RESULTS: The results showed that false alerts-i.e. a suspect case not caused by a zoonotic disease-led to a decrease in the number of reports in the next round (Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.36-0.8, p < 0.01). Hunters who had an agricultural activity in addition to hunting reported suspect cases more often than others (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.09-3.88, p < 0.03). The number of suspect case reports increased with the rank of the game round (Incremental OR: 1.11, CI: 1.06-1.17, p < 0.01) suggesting an increase in participants' inclination to report throughout the game. CONCLUSION: Using experimental games presents an added value for improving the understanding of people's decisions to participate in health surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Zoonoses , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Carne , Probabilidade , Jogos Experimentais
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