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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130602, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314934

RESUMO

The effect of cinnamaldehyde (CA) on the structure and properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. The resultant WPI/CA complex was used as stabilizer to form emulsions and emulsion gels, which were used for the delivery and protection of ß-carotene. The particle size and hydrophobicity of WPI solution increased and then decreased with the addition of CA. Circular dichroism showed that CA mainly changed the secondary structure of WPI, with increasing ß-fold content from 47.2% to 72.9%. The fluorescence spectra showed that both tryptophan and tyrosine in WPI were involved in the interaction with CA. WPI/CA complex as the stabilizer could form the stable emulsions and emulsion gels, which showed better protection effect on ß-carotene, and helped enhance its bioaccessibility. The knowledge provides insights into the development of new multifunctional food ingredients and the enhancement of protein modification in food system.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , beta Caroteno , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Emulsões , Géis , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130726, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352698

RESUMO

The impact of different complexes on the properties of ß-carotene-loaded emulsions was investigated by measuring the droplet size, encapsulation efficiency, droplet morphology, and physical stability. The photo and thermal stability of ß-carotene and its bioaccessibility during digestion were also analyzed. Comparing to the emulsions stabilized by other complexes, the emulsion stabilized by the high methoxyl pectin-rhamnolipid-pea protein isolate-curcumin (HMP-Rha-PPI-Cur) complex had the smallest droplet size (17.53 ± 0.15 µm) and the maximum encapsulation efficiency for curcumin (90.33 ± 0.03 %) and ß-carotene (92.16 ± 0.01 %). The emulsion stabilized by the HMP-Rha-PPI-Cur complex exhibited better physical stability against creaming. The retention rate of ß-carotene in the HMP-Rha-PPI-Cur complex-stabilized emulsion was 17.75 ± 0.02 and 33.64 ± 0.02 % after UV irradiation and thermal treatment. The HMP-Rha-PPI-Cur complex-stabilized emulsion also had a higher level of free fatty acid released (43.67 %) and higher bioaccessibility of ß-carotene (32.35 ± 0.02 %).


Assuntos
Curcumina , Proteínas de Ervilha , Carotenoides , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Pectinas , Tensoativos , beta Caroteno
3.
Food Chem ; 369: 130945, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469841

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of characteristics of the interfacial region and physical location of antioxidants on the chemical stability of ß-carotene in emulsions, ß-carotene-loaded emulsions were prepared with the blends of surfactants with different hydrophilic head sizes (ethylene oxide (EO) unit number). In addition, antioxidants having the different solubilities, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and lauryl gallate as lipophilic and amphiphilic antioxidants, respectively, were incorporated into emulsions. Decrease in the average EO unit number at interfacial region by surfactant blending did not affect the stability of ß-carotene in emulsions at neutral pH but it had a positive effect on the ß-carotene stability at acidic pH. Decrease in the average EO unit number at interfacial region reduced the ability of antioxidants, regardless of their polarity, to protect ß-carotene in emulsions at neutral and acidic pH. TBHQ was more effective in retarding ß-carotene degradation than lauryl gallate, independent of the interfacial composition and surfactant concentration.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , beta Caroteno , Emulsões , Solubilidade , Tensoativos
4.
Food Chem ; 372: 131305, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653777

RESUMO

High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) show promising application in food and cosmetic industries. In this work, diacylglycerol (DAG) was applied to fabricate water-in-oil (W/O) HIPEs. DAG-based emulsion can hold 60% water and the emulsion rigidity increased with water content, indicating the water droplets acted as "active fillers". Stable HIPE with 80% water fraction was formed through the combination of 6 wt% DAG with 1 wt% polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). The addition of 1 w% kappa (κ)-carrageenan and 0.5 M NaCl greatly reduced the droplet size and enhanced emulsion rigidity, and the interfacial tension of the internal phase was reduced. Benefiting from the Pickering crystals-stabilized interface by DAG as revealed by the microscopy and enhanced elastic modulus of emulsions with the gelation agents, the HIPEs demonstrated good retaining ability for anthocyanin and ß-carotene. This study provides insights for the development of W/O HIPEs to fabricate low-calories margarines, spread or cosmetic creams.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos , Água , Cristalização , Emulsões , beta Caroteno
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131697, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392195

RESUMO

Constraining the formation mechanisms of organic matter that persists in aquatic reservoirs is important for determining the reactivity and fate of carbon and nutrients in these environments. Recent studies have linked dissolved organic matter (DOM) accumulating in the ocean to linear terpenoid structures, and carotenoid degradation products have been proposed as potential precursors. The prevalence of reactive oxygen species in aquatic environments and their potential to be quenched by carotenoids led us to examine radical-assisted photochemical degradation of carotenoids as a potential mechanism for DOM formation and transformation. Experiments were conducted with aggregates of ß-carotene, astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin in THF:H2O under solar light irradiation assisted by hydrogen peroxide (UV-Vis/H2O2). Based on the fine structure of UV-Vis spectra, it was determined that ß-carotene and meso-zeaxanthin formed J-type aggregates in experimental solutions, while astaxanthin and fucoxanthin formed H2-type aggregates, consistent with their structural characteristics. All carotenoids degraded under the combined influence of photolysis and OH scavenging, with fucoxanthin exhibiting the fastest degradation kinetics (kPO = 3.69 10-3 s-1) and meso-zeaxanthin the slowest (kPO = 4.37 10-4 s-1). The major degradation products detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were apo-aldehydes and apo-ketones, with the latter tending to accumulate, but epoxidation of the carotenoids also took place, and longer irradiation times resulted in lower molecular weight products. Reaction kinetics and accumulating carotenoid oxidation products identified in this study provide potential formation mechanisms and biomarkers for examining DOM cycling.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , beta Caroteno
6.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 151: 109913, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649686

RESUMO

Dunaliella bardawil, a unicellular green alga, can accumulate a large amount of lutein and ß-carotene under stresses. Using chemical inducers combined with abiotic stress to promote the accumulation of high value-added products such as lipids and carotenoids in microalgae has attracted more and more attention. In this study, creatinine was added into autotrophic medium to investigate its effects on the growth, chlorophyll content, and the ingredients and content of carotenoids in D. bardawil. The results showed that creatinine alone could significantly increase the biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of D. bardawil, among which the contents of lutein and ß-carotene were further increased, while the content of zeaxanthin was decreased. In order to further improve the content of the two carotenoids, different light intensities combined with creatinine have been adopted. Under 6.589 W/m2 light intensity, creatinine could effectively increase the production of lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and ß-carotene. Compared with the control, the content of lutein increased by 46 % and the content of ß-carotene increased by 77 % when the concentration of creatinine was 500 µg/mL. In conclusion, creatinine can effectively improve the production lutein and ß-carotene in D. bardawil, which is more conducive under lower light intensity.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , beta Caroteno , Carotenoides , Creatinina , Luteína
7.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111043, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620441

RESUMO

ζ-Carotene desaturase (ZDS) is one of the key enzymes regulating carotenoids biosynthesis and accumulation. Celery transgenic efficiency is low and it is difficult to obtain transgenic plants. The study on ZDS was limited in celery. Here, the AgZDS gene was cloned from celery and overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and celery to verify its function. The AgZDS has typical characteristic of ZDS protein and is highly conserved in higher plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AgZDS has the closest evolutionary relationship with ZDSs from Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum and Tagetes erecta. Overexpression of AgZDS gene in A. thaliana and celery resulted in increased accumulations of lutein and ß-carotene and up-regulated the expression levels of the genes involved in carotenoids biosynthesis. The contents of lutein and ß-carotene in two lines, AtL1 and AgL5, were the highest in transgenic A. thaliana and celery, respectively. The relative expression levels of 5 genes (AtPDS, AtZISO, AtZEP, AtNCED3, and AtCCD4) were up-regulated compared to the wild type plants. The relative expression levels of most genes in carotenoids biosynthesis pathway, such as AgPDS, AgCRTISO1, and AgZISO, were up-regulated in transgenic celery plants. The antioxidant capacity of A. thaliana and photosynthetic capacity of celery were also enhanced. This research is the first report on the function of structure gene related to carotenoid biosynthesis in transgenic celery plants. The findings in this study demonstrated the roles of AgZDS in regulating carotenoids metabolism of celery, which laid a potential foundation for quality improvement of celery.


Assuntos
Apium/genética , Apium/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Luteína/biossíntese , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Luteína/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Verduras/genética , beta Caroteno/genética
8.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641329

RESUMO

The antioxidant activity of food compounds is one of the properties generating the most interest, due to its health benefits and correlation with the prevention of chronic disease. This activity is usually measured using in vitro assays, which cannot predict in vivo effects or mechanisms of action. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo protective effects of six phenolic compounds (naringenin, apigenin, rutin, oleuropein, chlorogenic acid, and curcumin) and three carotenoids (lycopene B, ß-carotene, and astaxanthin) naturally present in foods using a zebrafish embryo model. The zebrafish embryo was pretreated with each of the nine antioxidant compounds and then exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH), a known inducer of oxidative stress in zebrafish. Significant differences were determined by comparing the concentration-response of the tBOOH induced lethality and dysmorphogenesis against the pretreated embryos with the antioxidant compounds. A protective effect of each compound, except ß-carotene, against oxidative-stress-induced lethality was found. Furthermore, apigenin, rutin, and curcumin also showed protective effects against dysmorphogenesis. On the other hand, ß-carotene exhibited increased lethality and dysmorphogenesis compared to the tBOOH treatment alone.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Fatores Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apigenina/administração & dosagem , Apigenina/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Licopeno/administração & dosagem , Licopeno/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Xantofilas/administração & dosagem , Xantofilas/farmacologia , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem , beta Caroteno/efeitos adversos , beta Caroteno/farmacologia
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3064-3075, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An effect of dietary carotenes on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. We aimed to investigate whether the association between dietary carotenes intake and risk of CVD mortality will persist after controlling for the intakes of potential cardioprotective dietary factors that correlate with dietary alpha- and/or beta-carotenes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed up a total of 58,646 Japanese between 1988 and 1990 and 2009. We used a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to determine the dietary intakes of carotenes, and estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CVD mortality in relation to carotene intake by the proportional hazard regression developed by David Cox. During 965,970 person-years of follow-up (median 19.3 years), we identified 3388 total CVD deaths. After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, dietary intakes of alpha-carotene were significantly associated with the reduced risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); adjusted HR (95% CI) in the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake was 0.75 (0.58-0.96; P-trend = 0.02) and dietary intakes of beta-carotene were significantly associated with the reduced risk of mortality from CVD, CHD, and other CVD; adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98; P-trend = 0.04), 0.78 (0.61-0.99; P-trend = 0.01), and 0.81 (0.67-0.98; P-trend = 0.04), respectively. However, after further adjusting for the dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, vitamins C, E, or K, these associations disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: -Dietary alpha- and beta-carotene intakes were not associated with risk of CVD mortality after controlling for intakes of other potential cardioprotective nutrients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641538

RESUMO

Response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction of bioactive compounds from Ephedra fragilis. The results suggested that extraction with 61.93% ethanol at 44.43 °C for 15.84 h was the best solution for this combination of variables. The crude ethanol extract (CEE) obtained under optimum extraction conditions was sequentially fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity. The content of total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) as well as the antioxidant and antiglycation activities were measured. The phytochemical fingerprint profile of the fraction with the highest activity was characterized by using RP-HPLC. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) had the highest TP and TF contents and exhibited the most potent antioxidant and antiglycation activities. The Pearson correlation analysis results showed that TP and TF contents were highly significantly correlated with the antioxidant and antiglycation activities. Totally, six compounds were identified in the EAF of E. fragilis, including four phenolic acids and two flavonoids. Additionally, molecular docking analysis also showed the possible connection between identified bioactive compounds and their mechanisms of action. Our results suggest new evidence on the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of E. fragilis bioactive compounds that may be applied in the treatment and prevention of aging and glycation-associated complications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ephedra/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ácido Linoleico/química , Reação de Maillard , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , beta Caroteno/química
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684608

RESUMO

Anti-obesity activity has been reported for beta-carotene (BC) supplementation at high doses and metformin (MET). We studied whether BC treatment at a closer to dietary dose and MET treatment at a lower than therapeutic dose are effective in ameliorating unwanted effects of an obesogenic diet and whether their combination is advantageous. Obesity-prone mice were challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% energy as fat) for 4 weeks while receiving a placebo or being treated orally with BC (3 mg/kg/day), MET (100 mg/kg/day), or their combination (BC+MET); a fifth group received a placebo and was kept on a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat). HFD-induced increases in body weight gain and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) adipocyte size were attenuated maximally or selectively in the BC+MET group, in which a redistribution towards smaller adipocytes was noted. Cumulative energy intake was unaffected, yet results suggested increased systemic energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue activation in the treated groups. Unwanted effects of HFD on glucose control and insulin sensitivity were attenuated in the treated groups, especially BC and BC+MET, in which hepatic lipid content was also decreased. Transcriptional analyses suggested effects on skeletal muscle and WAT metabolism could contribute to better responses to the HFD, especially in the MET and BC+MET groups. The results support the benefits of the BC+MET cotreatment.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metformina/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Tamanho Celular , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495203

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the jambolan (Syzigium cumini L.) peel and leaves extract added in pectin based edible coating onto color changes, mass loss and ß-carotene retention of minimally processed papaya during storage at 5 ±2 °C for 9 days. Leaves and peels were crushed in water in solid:liquid ratio, 1:1.5 and 1:2.0 and filtrered to obtain vegetable extracts. After, aqueous solutions were prepared adding 2% of pectin and 5% of extract. The mass loss increasing in all treatments evaluated in this work, being that in the final of 9 days of storage, control and P2 (peel 2%) treatment presented the highest loss, 6.23 and 10.12% respectively. The L1.5 (leaf 1.5%) treatment was the one presented the lowest percentage of mass loss (3.8%). The values of () of the control samples reduced significantly during the storage period, reaching 21% of reduction after 9 days. Coating with vegetable extract from jambolan peel and leaf reduced the loss of ß-carotene in minimally processed papaya during the storage, being that the treatment P1.5 provided the highest retention value of the compound. The results demonstrated that the studied coating set with extracts (peel and leaves) of jambolan, was efficient to preserve the color, the mass loss and the ß-carotene content of the minimally processed papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Filmes Comestíveis , Pectinas , Extratos Vegetais , Verduras , beta Caroteno/análise
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12278-12294, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530616

RESUMO

In this study, we utilized different types of particles to stabilize ß-carotene-loaded Pickering emulsions: spherical hydrophobic zein colloidal particles (ZCPs) (517.3 nm) and rod-shaped hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) (115.2 nm). Either of the particles was incapable of stabilizing Pickering emulsions owing to their inappropriate wettability. When the mass ratio of ZCPs and CNCs was 1:4, the Pickering emulsion showed the best physical and photothermal stability. Compared to the ZCP-stabilized Pickering emulsion (9.29%), the retention rate of ß-carotene in the Pickering emulsion costabilized by ZCPs and CNCs was increased to 60.23% after 28 days of storage at 55 °C. Confocal microscopy and cryoscanning electron microscopy confirmed that different types of particles could form a multilayered structure or induce the formation of an interparticle network. Furthermore, the complexation of ZCPs and CNCs delayed the lipolysis of the emulsion during in vitro digestion. The free fatty acid (FFA) release rate of Pickering emulsions in the small intestinal phase was reduced from 19.46 to 8.73%. Accordingly, the bioaccessibility of ß-carotene in Pickering emulsions ranged from 9.14 to 27.25% through adjusting the mass ratio and addition sequence of distinct particles at the interface. The Pickering emulsion with the novel particle-particle complex interface was designed in foods and pharmaceuticals for purpose of enhanced stability, delayed lipolysis, or sustained nutrient release.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Zeína , Celulose , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , beta Caroteno
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125814, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479143

RESUMO

The study evaluated the biosynthesis of lutein and ß-carotene by Scenedesmus sp. SVMIICT1 under five different light intensities (50, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µE/m2/s). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to determine relative quantities of lutein and ß-carotene. Relatively, high lutein content of 1.43 ± 0.04 and 0.70 ± 0.02 mg/g was found with 50 and 500 µE/m2/s conditions respectively. ß-Carotene content was quantified as 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.1 ± 0.01 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mg/g with 50, 250 and 500 µE/m2/s conditions respectively. The light intensities altered photosystem II and photosystem I. At 50 µE intensity, high chlorophyll content and high photosystem II quantum efficiency (FV/FM) was observed. Low FV/FM ratio of around 0.3 was detected in high light intensities (750 µE and 1000 µE) due to photoinhibition. Lipid fraction increased with increasing light intensity and the fatty acid profiles were similar in all five conditions.


Assuntos
Luteína , Scenedesmus , Clorofila , Luz , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , beta Caroteno
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10974-10988, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510898

RESUMO

Although Blakeslea trispora has been used for industrial production of ß-carotene, the effects of light and oxidative stress on its synthesis have not been fully clarified. The present study focuses on the effects of light and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on carotenoid synthesis and their multilevel regulation in B. trispora. Blue light significantly influenced the intracellular ROS levels, carotenoid contents, and transcription of carotenoid structural genes, while ROS levels were positively correlated with intracellular carotenoid contents and transcriptional levels of carotenoid structural genes. Blue light and ROS were both significant factors affecting carotenoid synthesis with a significant interaction between them. Irradiation by pulsed blue light and (or) addition of generating agents for active oxygen could partially compensate for the inhibition derived from the transcription inhibitor (dactinomycin) and translation inhibitor (cycloheximide) on the multilevel phenotype. Therefore, blue light and ROS act on the transcription and translation of carotenoid structural genes to promote the accumulation of carotenoid in B. trispora.


Assuntos
Mucorales , Carotenoides , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , beta Caroteno
16.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578917

RESUMO

Influenza, a seasonal acute respiratory disease caused primarily by the influenza virus A or B, manifests with severe symptoms leading to considerable morbidity and mortality and is a major concern worldwide. Therefore, effective preventive measures against it are required. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the preventive effects of heat-killed Levilactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290) in combination with ß-carotene (ßC) on influenza virus infections in healthy Japanese subjects aged between 20 and 59 y throughout the winter season. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial from 16 December 2019 to 8 March 2020, comparing KB290 + ßC beverage with placebo beverage. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza based on a doctor's certificate. The incidence of influenza was not significantly different between the two groups. However, the subgroup analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups (influenza incidence: the KB290 + ßC group 1.9%, and the placebo group 3.9%) in the subgroup of subjects aged ˂40 y, but not in the subgroup of subjects aged ≥40 y. The results of this trial suggest that the combination of KB290 and ßC might be a possible candidate supplement for protection against the seasonal influenza virus infection in humans aged <40 y, although further clinical studies are needed to confirm the concrete preventive effect of this combination on influenza.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus brevis , Provitaminas/farmacologia , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9383-9394, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347475

RESUMO

Three protein emulsifiers encapsulating ß-carotene (BC) with accompanying lipids into nanoemulsions (NEs) or without lipids into nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated to study the effect of the type of interfacial protein on carrier design and the structure remodeling during digestion on the overall uptake and metabolism of BC in Caco-2 cells. BC-loaded micelles and micellar-like aggregates were collected after in vitro digestion and applied to Caco-2 cell monolayers. The digestion process significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of BC by 1.2-2.2 times and 4.1-8.2 times loaded in NEs and NPs, respectively. Whey protein isolate-based carriers improved the absorption but decreased the metabolism of BC to retinyl palmitate. The presence of lipids was found to improve metabolism and aid the transport of retinoids to the basolateral side of Caco-2 monolayers. Understanding the transportation behavior of the protein-based nanocarries after digestion may contribute to the design of biosafe carriers with higher bioavailability to deliver lipophilic nutrients.


Assuntos
Vitamina A , beta Caroteno , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Digestão , Humanos , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361696

RESUMO

The nutritional composition and productivity of halophytes is strongly related to the biotic/abiotic stress to which these extremophile salt tolerant plants are subjected during their cultivation cycle. In this study, two commercial halophyte species (Inula crithmoides and Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum) were cultivated at six levels of salinity using a soilless cultivation system. In this way, it was possible to understand the response mechanisms of these halophytes to salt stress. The relative productivity decreased from the salinities of 110 and 200 mmol L-1 upwards for I. crithmoides and M. nodiflorum, respectively. Nonetheless, the nutritional profile for human consumption remained balanced. In general, I. crithmoides vitamin (B1 and B6) contents were significantly higher than those of M. nodiflorum. For both species, ß-carotene and lutein were induced by salinity, possibly as a response to oxidative stress. Phenolic compounds were more abundant in plants cultivated at lower salinities, while the antioxidant activity increased as a response to salt stress. Sensory characteristics were evaluated by a panel of culinary chefs showing a preference for plants grown at the salt concentration of 350 mmol L-1. In summary, salinity stress was effective in boosting important nutritional components in these species, and the soilless system promotes the sustainable and safe production of halophyte plants for human consumption.


Assuntos
Inula/química , Inula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesembryanthemum/química , Mesembryanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/química , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos , Luteína/análise , Minerais/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Piridoxina/análise , Estresse Salino , Taninos/análise , Tiamina/análise , beta Caroteno/análise
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209267

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the ß-carotene status in osteoarthritis (OA) patients and examine its relationships with the risk of inflammation and metabolic syndrome. OA patients were stratified by obesity based on body fat percentage (obese OA, n = 44; non-obese OA, n = 56), and sixty-nine subjects without OA or obesity were assigned as a non-obese control group. ß-carotene, metabolic parameters, and inflammation status were assessed. Obese OA patients exhibited a significantly higher rate of metabolic syndrome (p = 0.02), abdominal obesity (p < 0.01), and lower ß-carotene status (p < 0.01) compared with non-obese OA and non-obese controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, ß-carotene status (≥0.8 µM) was significantly inversely correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio = 0.27, p < 0.01), abdominal obesity (odds ratio = 0.33, p < 0.01), high blood pressure (odds ratio = 0.35, p < 0.01), hyperglycemia (odds ratio = 0.45, p < 0.05), and inflammation (odds ratio = 0.30, p = 0.01). Additionally, subjects who had a high ß-carotene status with a low proportion of metabolic syndrome when they had a low-grade inflammatory status (p < 0.01). Obese OA patients suffered from a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and lower ß-carotene status compared to the non-obese controls. A better ß-carotene status (≥0.8 µM) was inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome and inflammation, so we suggest that ß-carotene status could be a predictor of the risk of metabolic syndrome and inflammation in patients with and without OA.


Assuntos
Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Osteoartrite/sangue , Osteoartrite/complicações , beta Caroteno/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Animal ; 15(8): 100303, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252721

RESUMO

Culling rate in dairy cattle has increased considerably, thereby reducing cows longevity and raising sustainability concerns worldwide. In the last decades, feeding systems have changed towards larger inclusion of preserved forages and reduced fresh herbage, which may limit vitamin E and beta-carotene dietary supply to dairy cows. Because of higher oxidative stress, engendered by greater milk production of modern genetics, the requirement for these nutrients is increased. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the current status of vitamin E and beta-carotene of commercial dairy cows. Blood vitamin E and beta-carotene concentrations were measured in 2 467 dairy cows from 127 farms in Belgium, Germany, Iberia and The Netherlands, that were visited once. Five cows were randomly selected per lactation stage per farm: Dry (between 30 and 1 day(s) before calving), Very-early (from calving until 15 days in milk (DIM)), Early (between 16 and 119 DIM), and Mid-late (from 120 DIM onwards). In addition, a survey was conducted to retrieve data on vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation and feeding practices. Vitamin E and beta-carotene blood concentrations dropped considerably around calving. Among all surveyed cows, more than 75 and 44% were deficient in vitamin E and beta-carotene (i.e., blood concentration below 3.0 and 3.5 mg/l, respectively). Of the Very-early group, more than 97 and 78% of the cows were deficient in vitamin E and beta-carotene, respectively, with respective blood concentrations of 1.15 and 2.71 mg/l, which was significantly lower than the other lactation stages. Vitamin E and beta-carotene blood concentrations, as well as their supplementation levels, significantly varied among countries. Vitamin E and beta-carotene blood concentrations were positively related to the total estimated daily intakes of vitamin E and beta-carotene. Therefore, blood concentrations of vitamin E and beta-carotene depend on their respective level of intake, which is generally below recommendations and varies greatly between countries. Supplementation could contribute to provide cows with adequate amounts of vitamin E and beta-carotene all along the lactation, to ensure their lifetime performance and improve their fertility.


Assuntos
Vitamina E , beta Caroteno , Animais , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação , Leite
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