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1.
Microb Pathog ; 192: 106691, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759933

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a potentially fatal poultry disease that causes enormous economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary organic yeast-derived selenium (Se) on immune protection against experimental necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed basal diets supplemented with different Se levels (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 Se mg/kg). To induce NE, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) was orally administered at 14 days of age post hatch. The results showed that birds fed 0.25 Se mg/kg exhibited significantly increased body weight gain compared with the non-supplemented/infected birds. There were no significant differences in gut lesions between the Se-supplemented groups and the non-supplemented group. The antibody levels against α-toxin and NetB toxin increased with the increase between 0.25 Se mg/kg and 0.50 Se mg/kg. In the jejunal scrapings and spleen, the Se-supplementation groups up-regulated the transcripts for pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, and LITAF and avian ß-defensin 6, 8, and 13 (AvBD6, 8 and 13). In conclusion, supplementation with organic yeast-derived Se alleviates the negative consequences and provides beneficial protection against experimental NE.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium perfringens , Citocinas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enterite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Selênio , Animais , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Enterite/veterinária , Enterite/imunologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Clostridium perfringens/imunologia , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Necrose , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/imunologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , Jejuno/patologia , Baço/imunologia , Leveduras , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743468

RESUMO

Introduction. Innovative antifungal therapies are of crucial importance to combat the potentially life-threatening infections linked to the multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen Candida auris. Induction of regulated cell death, apoptosis, could provide an outline for future therapeutics. Human antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), well-known antifungal compounds, have shown the ability to induce apoptosis in pathogenic fungi.Hypothesis/Gap Statement . Although it is known that AMPs possess antifungal activity against C. auris, their ability to induce apoptosis requires further investigations.Aim. This study evaluated the effects of AMPs on the induction of apoptosis in C. auris.Methods. Human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1), human ß-Defensins-3 (hBD-3) and human salivary histatin 5 (His 5) were assessed against two clinical C. auris isolates. Apoptosis hallmarks were examined using FITC-Annexin V/PI double labelling assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labelling (TUNEL) to detect phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation, respectively. Then, several intracellular triggers were studied using JC-10 staining, spectrophotometric assay and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining to measure the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, respectively.Results and conclusion. FITC-Annexin V/PI staining and TUNEL analysis revealed that exposure of C. auris cells to HNP-1 and hBD-3 triggered both early and late apoptosis, while His 5 caused significant necrosis. Furthermore, HNP-1 and hBD-3 induced significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization, which resulted in substantial cytochrome c release. In contrast to His 5, which showed minimal mitochondrial depolarization and no cytochrome c release. At last, all peptides significantly increased ROS production, which is related to both types of cell death. Therefore, these peptides represent promising and effective antifungal agents for treating invasive infections caused by multidrug-resistant C. auris.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Apoptose , Candida auris , Histatinas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Histatinas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Candida auris/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Defensinas/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Defensinas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/química , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia
3.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 267, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745232

RESUMO

Low sperm motility is a significant contributor to male infertility. beta-defensins have been implicated in host defence and the acquisition of sperm motility; however, the regulatory mechanisms governing their gene expression patterns and functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we performed single-cell RNA and spatial transcriptome sequencing to investigate the cellular composition of testicular and epididymal tissues and examined their gene expression characteristics. In the epididymis, we found that epididymal epithelial cells display a region specificity of gene expression in different epididymal segments, including the beta-defensin family genes. In particular, Defb15, Defb18, Defb20, Defb25 and Defb48 are specific to the caput; Defb22, Defb23 and Defb26 to the corpus; Defb2 and Defb9 to the cauda of the epididymis. To confirm this, we performed mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) targeting certain exon region of beta-defensin genes, and found some of their expression matched the sequencing results and displayed a close connection with epididimosome marker gene Cd63. In addition, we paid attention to the Sertoli cells and Leydig cells in the testis, along with fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in the epididymis, by demonstrating their gene expression profile and spatial information. Our study provides a single-cell and spatial landscape for analysing the gene expression characteristics of testicular and epididymal environments and has important implications for the study of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation.


Assuntos
Epididimo , Análise de Célula Única , Maturação do Esperma , Transcriptoma , beta-Defensinas , Masculino , Animais , beta-Defensinas/genética , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transcriptoma/genética , Maturação do Esperma/genética , Epididimo/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testículo/metabolismo
4.
Reprod Biol ; 24(2): 100887, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688100

RESUMO

Human ß-defensins and interleukins may be auxiliary in sperm maturation. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the expression of Human ß-defensins 1 and 2, interleukins (ILs)- 10 and -18 genes in sperm, as well as seminal plasma levels of these two cytokines in subfertile men with different types of sperm abnormalities compared to those with normozoospermic men. Participants were separated into two experimental groups: the control group (n = 25) and the group with sperm abnormalities (SA) (n = 45). SA participants were further subdivided into the following groups with n = 15 individuals each: Teratozoospermia (T), Asthenoteratozoospermia (AT), and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) groups. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the mRNA levels of hBDs 1 and 2, IL-10, and IL-18 in sperm. The seminal plasma concentrations of IL-10 and IL-18 were measured by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The mRNA expression of hBD-1 and IL-10 showed a significant decrease in the OAT compared to the controls (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.02, respectively). The lowest seminal plasma concentration of IL-10 belonged to the OAT (P = 0.04). ROC curve analysis showed a sensitivity, specificity, and cutoff value of 82.35%, 86.67%, and 0.63 for hBD-1 levels, respectively. A positive and significant correlation was found between hBD-1 expression and sperm motility and IL-10 expression rate and normal sperm morphology.Therefore, hBD-1 could be considered as the alternative biomaterial to pre-treatments of infertile men with abnormal sperm parameters, specifically OAT men, which led to improving the assisted reproduction success rate.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , Masculino , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , beta-Defensinas/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Adulto , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Sêmen/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674148

RESUMO

It is now generally accepted that the success of antitumor therapy can be impaired by concurrent antibiotic therapy, the presence of certain bacteria, and elevated defensin levels around the tumor tissue. The aim of our current investigation was to identify the underlying changes in microbiome and defensin levels in the tumor tissue induced by different antibiotics, as well as the duration of this modification. The microbiome of the tumor tissues was significantly different from that of healthy volunteers. Comparing only the tumor samples, no significant difference was confirmed between the untreated group and the group treated with antibiotics more than 3 months earlier. However, antibiotic treatment within 3 months of analysis resulted in a significantly modified microbiome composition. Irrespective of whether Fosfomycin, Fluoroquinolone or Beta-lactam treatment was used, the abundance of Bacteroides decreased, and Staphylococcus abundance increased. Large amounts of the genus Acinetobacter were observed in the Fluoroquinolone-treated group. Regardless of the antibiotic treatment, hBD1 expression of the tumor cells consistently doubled. The increase in hBD2 and hBD3 expression was the highest in the Beta-lactam treated group. Apparently, antibiotic treatment within 3 months of sample analysis induced microbiome changes and defensin expression levels, depending on the identity of the applied antibiotic.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Microbiota , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Fosfomicina/uso terapêutico , Fosfomicina/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia
6.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 10(1): 37, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589404

RESUMO

Immunomodulatory peptides, while exhibiting potential antimicrobial, antifungal, and/or antiviral properties, can play a role in stimulating or suppressing the immune system, especially in pathological conditions like breast cancer (BC). Thus, deregulation of these peptides may serve as an immunotherapeutic strategy to enhance the immune response. In this meta-analysis, we utilized single-cell RNA sequencing data and known therapeutic peptides to investigate the deregulation of these peptides in malignant versus normal human breast epithelial cells. We corroborated our findings at the chromatin level using ATAC-seq. Additionally, we assessed the protein levels in various BC cell lines. Moreover, our in-house drug repositioning approach was employed to identify potential drugs that could positively impact the relapse-free survival of BC patients. Considering significantly deregulated therapeutic peptides and their role in BC pathology, our approach aims to downregulate B2M and SLPI, while upregulating PIGR, DEFB1, LTF, CLU, S100A7, and SCGB2A1 in BC epithelial cells through our drug repositioning pipeline. Leveraging the LINCS L1000 database, we propose BRD-A06641369 for B2M downregulation and ST-4070043 and BRD-K97926541 for SLPI downregulation without negatively affecting the MHC complex as a significantly correlated pathway with these two genes. Furthermore, we have compiled a comprehensive list of drugs for the upregulation of other selected immunomodulatory peptides. Employing an immunotherapeutic approach by integrating our drug repositioning pipeline with single-cell analysis, we proposed potential drugs and drug targets to fortify the immune system against BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Imunoterapia , Análise de Célula Única , Peptídeos
7.
Open Vet J ; 14(1): 25-31, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633174

RESUMO

Background: Affection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pseudotuberculosis) and development of cellulitis and/or abscess formation with cutaneous lymphangitis in cattle is rare to some extent, so literature about the biochemical changes that would accompany this infection is rare. Aim: In this context, the present study was designed to screen the effect of the infection with C. pseudotuberculosis cutaneous lymphangitis on the release of some immune molecules, organ functions, and redox state in Baladi cows. Methods: Fourteen Baladi cows from a small dairy farm in El-Behira, Egypt, were selected to complete this study. After bacteriological culture confirmation, seven of them were found suffering from cutaneous lesions due to infection with C. pseudotuberculosis (Diseased group), while the others were healthy (Healthy group). Serum samples were obtained to evaluate the presumptive changes in some clinicopathological parameters. Results: Serum analysis revealed a significant decrease in the levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 as well as a significant decrement in the concentration of beta-defensin (ß-defensin) and lipocalin-2. While serum level of interleukin-10 recorded a significant increase in these animals when compared to healthy control animals. Concurrently, the affected animals recorded a significant elevation in serum levels of hepato-cardiac enzymes, urea, and creatinine in addition to disturbance in the serum redox state. Conclusion: In conclusion, infection with C. pseudotuberculosis cattle may disturb the defensive immune state, body organ function, and redox state of the animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Infecções por Corynebacterium , Linfangite , beta-Defensinas , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Linfangite/veterinária , Citocinas , Inflamação/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/patologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/veterinária
8.
J Nutr Biochem ; 129: 109637, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574828

RESUMO

Adequate dietary L-tryptophan (Trp) governs intestinal homeostasis in piglets. However, the defensive role of Trp in the diet against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (K88) in pigs is still poorly understood. Here, sixty (6.15 ± 1.52 kg, 24-day-old, Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned piglets were used for an E. coli F4 attack test in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The growth (ADG, ADFI, GH), immune factors (IL-10, IgA, IgG, IgM), Trp metabolite 5-HT, intestinal morphology (jejunal and colonic VH), mRNA expression of ß-defensins (jejunal BD-127, BD-119, ileal BD-1, BD-127), and abundance of beneficial microorganisms in the colon (Prevotella 9, Lactobacillus, Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium) were higher in the piglets in the HT (High Trp) and HTK (High Trp, K88) groups than in the LT (Low Trp) and LTK (Low Trp, K88) groups (P<.05), while FCR, diarrhea rate, diarrhea index, serum Trp, Kyn, IDO, D-LA, ET, and abundance of harmful microorganisms in the colon (Spirochaetes, Fusobacteria, Prevotella, Christensenellaceae R7) were lower in the HT and HTK groups than in the LT and LTK groups (P<.05). High Trp reduced the expression of virulence genes (K88 and LT) after E. coli F4 attack (P<.05). The IL-6, TNF-α was lower in the HTK group than in the LT, LTK group (P<.05). In short, a diet containing 0.35% Trp protected piglets from enterotoxigenic E. coli F4 (K88) via Trp metabolism promoting BD expression in the intestinal mucosa, which improved growth and intestinal health.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Triptofano , Desmame , beta-Defensinas , Animais , Triptofano/metabolismo , Suínos , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/microbiologia , Ração Animal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária
9.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 123: 106948, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intestinal inflammation and gut microbiota dysbiosis can stimulate degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and development of Parkinson's disease (PD) via the gut-brain axis in certain patients. METHODS: In a case-control study, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and permeability were measured using the ELISA method in PD patients and healthy controls. Motor and nonmotor symptoms were assessed using the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Unified PD Rating Scale, Hoehn & Yahr scale, MDS Non-Motor Symptom Scale, Scales for Outcomes in PD - Autonomic Dysfunction, PD Sleep Scale - 2, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. A correlation was established between the intestinal inflammation and permeability markers and PD symptoms. RESULTS: Higher levels of beta-defensin 2, zonulin and lactoferrin were recorded in PD patients compared to controls. Calprotectin and secretory immunoglobulin A showed no significant differences. Regression analysis indicated the roles of beta-defensin 2 and lactoferrin in predicting PD likelihood. Calprotectin yielded positive correlations with disease duration, depression, motor fluctuations, and gastrointestinal symptoms; beta defensin 2 with thermoregulation; and secretory immunoglobulin A with depression. Secretory immunoglobulin A showed negative correlation with age and age at disease onset, while zonulin showed negative correlation with the MDS Unified PD Rating Scale total score. CONCLUSIONS: Fecal markers differed in PD patients compared to controls and correlated with age, disease duration, and some nonmotor symptoms. Future studies should identify the subgroups of PD patients that are likely to develop intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Haptoglobinas , Lactoferrina , Doença de Parkinson , Precursores de Proteínas , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Toxina da Cólera/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Permeabilidade , Fezes/química , Gastroenterite/complicações
10.
Equine Vet J ; 56(4): 670-677, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometritis is a major cause of subfertility in mares. Multiparous old mares are more susceptible to developing endometritis given that ageing is associated with an altered immune response and with inadequate physiological uterine clearance after breeding, which can lead to degenerative changes in the endometrium. Molecules such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as endometritis markers in the equine species. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the endometrial expression of defensin-beta 4B (DEFB4B), lysozyme (LYZ) and secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI) genes in mares either affected or not by subclinical endometritis, due to the role of these AMPs in the immune response to bacteria and inflammatory reactions. METHODS: Endometrial biopsy for histopathological and gene expression examinations was performed on 26 mares. The inclusion criteria for the normal mare group (NM, N = 7) were 2-4 years of age, maiden status, no clinical signs of endometritis and a uterine biopsy score of I, while for mares affected by subclinical endometritis (EM, N = 19) the inclusion criteria were 10-22 years of age, barren status for 1-3 years, no clinical signs of endometritis and a uterine biopsy score between IIA and III. RESULTS: A significantly higher expression of LYZ (NM: 0.76 [1.84-0.37] vs. EM: 2.78 [5.53-1.44], p = 0.0255) and DEFB4B (NM: 0.06 [0.11-0.01] vs. EM: 0.15 [0.99-0.08], p = 0.0457) genes was found in endometritis mares versus normal mares. Statistically significant moderate positive correlations were found between the level of expression of LYZ gene and both the age (r = 0.4071, p = 0.039) and the biopsy grade (r = 0.4831, p = 0.0124) of the mares. MAIN LIMITATIONS: The study investigated a limited number of genes and mares, and the presence/location of the proteins coded by these genes was not confirmed within the endometrium by IHC. CONCLUSIONS: If the results of this study are confirmed, LYZ and DEFB4B genes can be used as markers to identify mares that are affected by subclinical endometritis.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Biomarcadores , Endometrite , Endométrio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Endometrite/veterinária , Endometrite/metabolismo , Endometrite/patologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/genética , Estudos Transversais , beta-Defensinas/genética , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo
11.
Cell Rep Med ; 5(3): 101447, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442713

RESUMO

There is an unmet clinical need for a non-invasive and cost-effective test for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) that informs clinicians when a biopsy is warranted. Human beta-defensin 3 (hBD-3), an epithelial cell-derived anti-microbial peptide, is pro-tumorigenic and overexpressed in early-stage OSCC compared to hBD-2. We validate this expression dichotomy in carcinoma in situ and OSCC lesions using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The proportion of hBD-3/hBD-2 levels in non-invasively collected lesional cells compared to contralateral normal cells, obtained by ELISA, generates the beta-defensin index (BDI). Proof-of-principle and blinded discovery studies demonstrate that BDI discriminates OSCC from benign lesions. A multi-center validation study shows sensitivity and specificity values of 98.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90.3-99.9) and 82.6% (95% CI 68.6-92.2), respectively. A proof-of-principle study shows that BDI is adaptable to a point-of-care assay using microfluidics. We propose that BDI may fulfill a major unmet need in low-socioeconomic countries where pathology services are lacking.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , beta-Defensinas/análise , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 148: 109502, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471627

RESUMO

ß-defensin of flounder plays an important role in immunomodulation by recruiting immune cells and has a potential vaccine adjuvant effect in addition to its bactericidal activity. In this study, adjuvant effects of ß-defensin on DNA vaccine OmpC against edwardsiellosis in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated. The bicistronic eukaryotic expression plasmid pBudCE4.1 plasmid vector with two independent coding regions was selected to construct DNA vaccine of p-OmpC which express only the gene for the outer membrane protein of Edwardsiella tarda and the vaccine of p-OmpC-ßdefensin which express both the outer membrane protein of the bacterium and ß-defensin of flounder. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the constructed plasmids can be expressed in flounder embryonic cell lines and injection sites of muscles. After vaccination by intramuscular injection, both p-OmpC and p-OmpC-ßdefensin groups showed significant upregulation of immune-response. Compared to the pBbudCE4.1 and the p-OmpC vaccinated groups, the p-OmpC-ßdefensin vaccinated group showed significantly more cell aggregation at the injection site and intense immune response. The proportion of sIgM+ cells, as well as the CD4-1+ and CD4-2+ cells in both spleen and kidney was significantly higher in the p-OmpC-ßdefensin vaccinated group at peak time point than in the control groups. The relative survival rate of the p-OmpC-ßdefensin vaccine was 74.17%, which was significantly higher than that of the p-OmpC vaccinated group 48.33%. The results in this study determined that ß-defensin enhances the responses in cellular and humoral immunity and evokes a high degree of protection against E. tarda, which is a promising candidate for vaccine adjuvant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Doenças dos Peixes , Linguado , Vacinas de DNA , beta-Defensinas , Animais , beta-Defensinas/genética , Adjuvantes de Vacinas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Edwardsiella tarda , Vacinas Bacterianas , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 183, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic potential of serum intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), fecal calprotectin (FC), and fecal human ß-defensin 2 (hBD2) in predicting necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. METHODS: A prospective cohort of neonates with a gestational age < 32 weeks, suspected of NEC, was enrolled between June 2021 and December 2022. Serum I-FABP, FC, and fecal hBD2 levels were measured upon NEC suspicion, and diagnosis was confirmed through radiological examination or surgical intervention. Diagnostic precision of serum I-FABP, FC, and fecal hBD2 was assessed using a logistic regression model with multiple variables. RESULTS: The study included 70 neonates (45 males, 25 females), with 30 developing NEC (40% Stage III, n = 12; 60% Stage II, n = 18) and 40 in the control group. NEC patients exhibited significantly higher serum I-FABP and FC levels (4.76 ng/mL and 521.56 µg/g feces, respectively) than those with other diagnoses (1.38 ng/mL and 213.34 µg/g feces, respectively; p ˂ 0.05 for both biomarkers). Stage II NEC neonates showed elevated fecal hBD2 levels (376.44 ng/g feces) than Stage III NEC neonates and controls (336.87 ng/g and 339.86 ng/g feces, respectively; p ˂ 0.05). No such increase was observed in infants progressing to Stage III NEC. Using a serum I-FABP threshold of > 2.54 ng/mL yielded 76.7% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity, 82.1% positive predictive value (PPV), and 83.3% negative predictive value (NPV). For FC (cutoff > 428.99 µg/g feces), corresponding values were 76.7% sensitivity, 67.5% specificity, 63.9% PPV, and 79.4% NPV. CONCLUSION: Serum I-FABP and FC levels are valuable for early NEC detection and provide insights into disease severity. Low fecal hBD2 levels suggest an inadequate response to luminal bacteria, potentially rendering these infants more susceptible to NEC development or exacerbation.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , beta-Defensinas , Masculino , Lactente , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Enterocolite Necrosante/metabolismo , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo , Fezes , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 105, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493097

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of salt addition on the skin gene expression of Mucin, Antimicrobial peptides, cortisol, and glucose in Oreochromis niloticus after 5-hour transportation in water. Three groups were compared: Control, post-transport without salt (PT-S), and post-transport with 5 g salt-1(PT + S), with a stocking density of 28.6 gL-1, 20 fish for each experimental group. The results showed that the PT-S group had more significant changes in gene expression than the PT + S group, suggesting that salt alleviated the stress and immune responses of O. niloticus. The PT-S group had higher expression of mucin- 2(MUC + 2) (7.58 folds) and mucin-5AC (MUC5-AC) (6.29 folds) than the PT + S group (3.30 folds and 4.16 folds, respectively). The PT-S group also had lower expression of ß-defensin-1 (Dß1) (0.42 folds), ß-defensin-2 (Dß2) (0.29 folds), and Cath1 (0.16 folds) than the PT + S group (0.82 folds, 0.69 folds, and 0.75 folds, respectively). The skin morphology of the PT-S group revealed some white patches with no goblet cell openings, while the PT + S group had better preservation of skin features with some goblet cell openings and slight white patches. This study indicates that O. niloticus can benefit from sodium chloride during transportation, as it helps to reduce stress and inflammation, balance mineral levels, enhance health and immunity, and regulate mucous secretion.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , beta-Defensinas , Animais , Cloreto de Sódio , beta-Defensinas/genética , Água , Mucinas , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta
15.
Life Sci ; 346: 122591, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548013

RESUMO

As a family of cationic host defense peptides, human ß-defensins (HBDs) are ubiquitous in the oral cavity and are mainly synthesized primarily by epithelial cells, serving as the primary barrier and aiming to prevent microbial invasion, inflammation, and disease while maintaining physiological homeostasis. In recent decades, there has been great interest in their biological functions, structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential in oral diseases. Meanwhile, researchers are dedicated to improving the properties of HBDs for clinical application. In this review, we first describe the classification, structural characteristics, functions, and mechanisms of HBDs. Next, we cover the role of HBDs and their synthetic analogs in oral diseases, including dental caries and pulp infections, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, fungal/viral infections and oral mucosal diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we discuss the limitations and challenges of clinical translation of HBDs and their synthetic analogs, including, but not limited to, stability, bioavailability, antimicrobial activity, resistance, and toxicity. Above all, this review summarizes the biological functions, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential of both natural HBDs and their synthetic analogs in oral diseases, as well as the challenges associated with clinical translation, thus providing substantial insights into the laboratory development and clinical application of HBDs in oral diseases.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/farmacologia , beta-Defensinas/química , Doenças da Boca/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
J Dairy Res ; 91(1): 70-72, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361416

RESUMO

We investigated the antimicrobial components in cow milk at dry off and postpartum and their contribution in preventing new high SCC at quarter level. Milk samples from 72 quarters of 19 lactating cows were collected at last milking before dry off and at 7 d after parturition. Milk yield of each cow was recorded and SCC, IgG, IgA, lactoferrin, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), and S100A7 concentrations in each quarter milk sample were measured. The postpartum milk yield was significantly higher than that at dry off. The IgG, IgA and lactoferrin concentrations in milk at dry off were significantly higher than those at postpartum, whereas the LAP concentration was lower. Quarters with SCC < 300 000 cells/ml at both dry off and postpartum were classified as persistent low SCC (PL) whereas those that rose above that same threshold postpartum were classified as new high SCC (NH). At dry off, IgG and LAP concentrations in milk were significantly higher in PL than in NH. These results suggest that high LAP concentrations during the dry period may contribute toward the prevention of new high SCC.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Lactação , Lactoferrina , Leite , Período Pós-Parto , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Leite/química , Lactoferrina/análise , Lactação/fisiologia , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , beta-Defensinas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397085

RESUMO

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a global health crisis with substantial morbidity and mortality rates. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC-II) play a critical role in the pulmonary immune response against Mtb infection by secreting effector molecules such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1), an important AMP produced by AEC-II, has been demonstrated to exert potent anti-tuberculosis activity. HBD1 overexpression effectively inhibited Mtb proliferation in AEC-II, while mice lacking hBD1 exhibited susceptibility to Mtb and increased lung tissue inflammation. Mechanistically, in A549 cells infected with Mtb, STAT1 negatively regulated hBD1 transcription, while CEBPB was the primary transcription factor upregulating hBD1 expression. Furthermore, we revealed that the ERK1/2 signaling pathway activated by Mtb infection led to CEBPB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, which subsequently promoted hBD1 expression. Our findings suggest that the ERK1/2-CEBPB-hBD1 regulatory axis can be a potential therapeutic target for anti-tuberculosis therapy aimed at enhancing the immune response of AEC-II cells.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , beta-Defensinas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Células Epiteliais Alveolares , beta-Defensinas/genética , beta-Defensinas/farmacologia , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Células Epiteliais , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Tuberculose/metabolismo
18.
Cells ; 13(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334675

RESUMO

Cathepsin B (CatB) is thought to be essential for the induction of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg LPS)-induced Alzheimer's disease-like pathologies in mice, including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) production and cognitive decline. However, little is known about the role of CatB in Pg virulence factor-induced IL-1ß production by microglia. We first subjected IL-1ß-luciferase reporter BV-2 microglia to inhibitors of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), IκB kinase, and the NLRP3 inflammasome following stimulation with Pg LPS and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). To clarify the involvement of CatB, we used several known CatB inhibitors, including CA-074Me, ZRLR, and human ß-defensin 3 (hBD3). IL-1ß production in BV-2 microglia induced by Pg LPS and OMVs was significantly inhibited by the TLR2 inhibitor C29 and the IκB kinase inhibitor wedelolactonne, but not by the NLRPs inhibitor MCC950. Both hBD3 and CA-074Me significantly inhibited Pg LPS-induced IL-1ß production in BV-2 microglia. Although CA-074Me also suppressed OMV-induced IL-1ß production, hBD3 did not inhibit it. Furthermore, both hBD3 and CA-074Me significantly blocked Pg LPS-induced nuclear NF-κB p65 translocation and IκBα degradation. In contrast, hBD3 and CA-074Me did not block OMV-induced nuclear NF-κB p65 translocation or IκBα degradation. Furthermore, neither ZRLR, a specific CatB inhibitor, nor shRNA-mediated knockdown of CatB expression had any effect on Pg virulence factor-induced IL-1ß production. Interestingly, phagocytosis of OMVs by BV-2 microglia induced IL-1ß production. Finally, the structural models generated by AlphaFold indicated that hBD3 can bind to the substrate-binding pocket of CatB, and possibly CatL as well. These results suggest that Pg LPS induces CatB/CatL-dependent synthesis and processing of pro-IL-1ß without activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In contrast, OMVs promote the synthesis and processing of pro-IL-1ß through CatB/CatL-independent phagocytic mechanisms. Thus, hBD3 can improve the IL-1ß-associated vicious inflammatory cycle induced by microglia through inhibition of CatB/CatL.


Assuntos
Microglia , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
19.
Mol Immunol ; 168: 38-46, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422885

RESUMO

Asthma, a common pediatric pulmonary disease, significantly affects children's healthy development. This study aimed to investigate the functions of human ß defensin-3 (HBD-3) in asthma progression. For this purpose, blood samples from asthmatic and healthy children were collected. Moreover, the airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) were treated with platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) to develop an in vitro asthma model, then evaluated cell viability and migration via CCK-8 and transwell assays. The mRNA levels of interferon γ (INF-γ), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 10 (IL-10), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), HBD-3, and the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) along with protein kinase B (AKT) were detected. Similarly, the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) content in the ASMCs and m6A levels of HBD-3 were also measured. Results indicated an upregulated HBD-3 in the asthmatic children. The ASMCs were found to be stimulated by PDGF-BB, in addition to the promotion of cell viability and migration. The INF-γ, IL-4, and α-SMA levels were reduced, while IL-10 was elevated in PDGF-BB-stimulated ASMCs. Silencing HBD-3 in PDGF-BB stimulated ASMCs was found to exert the opposite effect by inhibiting cell viability and migration, enhancing the levels of INF-γ, IL-4, and α-SMA, while the IL-10 levels were found to decline. PDGF-BB stimulation of ASMCs resulted in activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which was blocked post HBD-3 silencing, while the role of si-hBD in PDGF-BB stimulated ASMCs was neutralized post-treatment with IGF-1. Finally, it was found that METTL3 overexpression prominently upregulated the m6A levels of HBD-3 and decreased the mRNA expression and stability of HBD-3 in the PDGF-BB-stimulated ASMCs. The study concluded that METTL3-mediated HBD-3 participates in the progression of asthma through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Asma , Metiltransferases , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , beta-Defensinas , Criança , Humanos , Asma/metabolismo , Becaplermina/farmacologia , Becaplermina/metabolismo , beta-Defensinas/genética , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 67(5): 681-692, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that early surgery for Crohn's disease leads to a lower recurrence rate. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to analyze the innate immunity microenvironment in ileal mucosa according to the duration of Crohn's disease. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTINGS: Tertiary referral center for IBD surgery. PATIENTS: A total of 88 consecutive patients with Crohn's disease undergoing ileocolonic resection were prospectively enrolled. Mucosal samples were obtained from both healthy and inflamed ileum. Data from a public data set were analyzed as an external validation cohort. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by histological asessment and macrophage subpopulation was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of TLR2 , TLR4 , TLR5 , DEFB1 , DEFB4A , DEFB103 , DEFA5 , and DEFA6 were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Concentrations of BDNF, CCL-11, ICAM-1, IL-1A, IL-1ß, IL-1RN, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-23A, MMP-3, CCL-3, KITLG, and VEGFA were determined with an immunometric assay. RESULTS: Neutrophil infiltration is inversely correlated with disease duration. DEFB4A mRNA expression tended to be higher in late-stage Crohn's disease ( p = 0.07). A higher number of macrophages expressed CD163 at low intensity in late-stage Crohn's disease ( p = 0.04). The concentration of IL-15 ( p = 0.02) and IL-23A ( p = 0.05) was higher in healthy ileal mucosa of early-stage patients. In the external cohort, expressions of DEFB1 ( p = 0.03), DEFB4A ( p = 0.01), IL-2 ( p = 0.04), and IL-3 ( p = 0.03) increased in patients with late-stage Crohn's disease. LIMITATIONS: A relatively small number of patients, especially in the newly diagnosed group. CONCLUSIONS: In newly diagnosed Crohn's disease, high levels of IL-15 and IL-23 in healthy mucosa suggest that innate immunity is the starter of acute inflammation. Moreover, M2 macrophages increase in the healthy mucosa of patients with late-stage Crohn's disease, suggesting that reparative and profibrotic processes are predominant in the long term, and in this phase, anti-inflammatory therapy may be less efficient. See Video Abstract . ACTIVACIN DE LA INMUNIDAD INNATA EN LA RECIENTEMENTE DIAGNOSTICADA ENFERMEDAD DE CROHN ILEOCLICA UN ESTUDIO DE COHORTE: ANTECEDENTES:Estudios recientes demostraron que la cirugía temprana para la enfermedad de Crohn (EC) conduce a una menor tasa de recurrencia. Sin embargo, se desconoce el mecanismo subyacente.OBJETIVO:El estudio tiene como objetivo analizar el microambiente de la inmunidad innata en la mucosa ileal según la duración de la EC.DISEÑO:Un estudio de cohorte prospectivo.AJUSTES:Centro terciario de referencia para cirugía de EII.PACIENTES:Fueron registrados de manera prospectiva y consecutiva 88 pacientes con EC sometidos a resección ileocolónica. Se obtuvieron muestras de mucosa ileal, tanto del íleon sano como del íleon inflamado. Los datos se analizaron como una cohorte de validación externa.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE RESULTADO:Fueron evaluados la infiltración de neutrófilos por histología y la subpoblación de macrófagos por inmunohistoquímica. La expresión de TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, DEFB1, DEFB4A, DEFB103, DEFA5 y DEFA6 fueron cuantificados mediante qPCR en tiempo real. Las concentraciones de BDNF, CCL-11, ICAM-1, IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-1RN, IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-23A, MMP-3, CCL-3, KITLG, VEGFA se determinaron con ensayo inmunométrico.RESULTADOS:La infiltración de neutrófilos se correlaciona inversamente con la duración de la enfermedad. La expresión del ARNm de DEFB4A mostro una tendencia a ser mayor en la EC en etapa tardía ( p = 0,07). Un mayor número de macrófagos expresaron CD163 a baja intensidad en la etapa tardía ( p = 0,04). La concentración de IL15 ( p = 0,02) e IL23A ( p = 0,05) fue mayor en la mucosa ileal sana de pacientes en estadio temprano. En la cohorte externa, la expresión de DEFB1 ( p = 0,03) y DEFB4A ( p = 0,01), IL2 ( p = 0,04) e IL3 ( p = 0,03) aumentó en pacientes en etapa tardía.LIMITACIONES:Un número relativamente pequeño de pacientes, especialmente en el grupo recién diagnosticado.CONCLUSIONES:En la EC recién diagnosticada, los altos niveles de IL-15 e IL-23 en la mucosa sana sugieren que la inmunidad innata es el promotor de la inflamación aguda. Además, los macrófagos M2 aumentan en la mucosa sana de pacientes con EC en etapa tardía, lo que sugiere que los procesos reparadores y profibróticos son predominantes a largo plazo y en esta fase, la terapia antiinflamatoria puede ser menos eficiente. (Traducción-Dr. Osvaldo Gauto ).


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Interleucina-15 , Interleucina-17 , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Receptor 5 Toll-Like , Imunidade Inata , Interleucina-12 , Interleucina-23 , Estudos Retrospectivos
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