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DEN Open ; 4(1): e246, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37206860


A 26-year-old man with a history of ulcerative colitis treatment presented to our clinic with abdominal pain and fever. He had a history of bloody stools and abdominal pain at 19 years of age. A thorough examination by a medical practitioner, including lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, resulted in the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. After induction of remission with prednisolone (PSL), the patient was treated with 5-aminosalicylate. One year ago in September, his symptoms flared up again, and he was administered 30 mg/day of PSL until November of the same year. However, he was transferred to another hospital and referred to his previous doctor. During the follow-up in December of the same year, flare-ups of abdominal pain and diarrhea were reported. Upon review of the patient's medical history, familial Mediterranean fever was suspected because the patient had periodic fevers ≥38°C and symptoms that persisted even after oral steroid administration and were sometimes accompanied by joint pain. However, he was transferred again, and PSL was administered once more. The patient was referred to our hospital for further treatment. At the time of arrival, his symptoms did not improve with 40 mg/day of PSL, and endoscopy and computed tomography revealed thickening of the colon, with no abnormality in the small intestine. Suspecting familial Mediterranean fever-associated enteritis, the patient was administered colchicine, resulting in an improvement in symptoms. Furthermore, an examination of the MEFV gene showed a mutation in Exon5 (S503C), and atypical familial Mediterranean fever was diagnosed. Endoscopy after colchicine treatment revealed that the ulcers improved remarkably.

DEN Open ; 4(1): e240, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37180358


A 35-year-old female who suffered from recurrent pancreatitis was admitted to our hospital. Her magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed ansa pancreatica. And during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a major duodenal papilla adenoma was identified. Hybrid endoscopic mucosal resection of this lesion was performed with pancreatic stent placement through the minor papilla to prevent recurrent pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a major papilla adenoma associated with ansa pancreatica. These minimally invasive endoscopic treatments solved a difficult clinical problem and avoided traumatic surgery.

DEN Open ; 4(1): e243, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37168273


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an intermediate malignancy with myofibroblast proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration with malignant potential. Primary IMTs are predominantly reported in the lungs, while gastric IMTs are very rare. Therefore, no guidelines exist for the diagnosis and treatment of gastric IMTs. The present case is a 39-year-old man diagnosed with an asymptomatic gastric submucosal tumor. Considering the malignancy of the tumor, we selected non-exposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery as the resection method and successfully performed local resection. Histopathological analysis showed myofibroblast proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration, with a diagnosis of primary gastric IMT and negative resection margins. Immunohistochemical staining was negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase. To the best of our knowledge, including our case, there have been 52 reported cases of primary gastric IMTs that have been treated, with several recurrent cases. In this study, we report the first case of local resection of gastric IMT using non-exposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery, with a literature review.

DEN Open ; 4(1): e238, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37168271


Objectives: A "resect-and-discard" strategy has been proposed for diminutive adenomas in the colorectum. However, this strategy is sometimes difficult to implement because of the lack of confidence in differentiating low-grade adenoma (LGA) from advanced lesions such as high-grade adenoma or carcinoma. To perform real-time precise diagnosis of LGA with high confidence, we assessed whether endocytoscopy (EC) diagnosis, considering normal pit-like structure (NP-sign), an excellent indicator of LGA, could have additional diagnostic potential compared with conventional modalities. Methods: All the neoplastic lesions that were observed by non-magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI), magnifying NBI (M-NBI), magnifying pit pattern, and EC prior to pathological examination between 2005 and 2018 were retrospectively investigated. The neoplastic lesions were classified into two categories: LGA and other neoplastic lesions. We assessed the differential diagnostic ability of EC with NP-sign between LGA and other neoplastic lesions compared with that of NBI, M-NBI, pit pattern, and conventional EC in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: A total of 1376 lesions from 1097 patients were eligible. The specificity (94.9%), accuracy (91.5%), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.95) of EC with NP-sign were significantly higher than those of NBI, M-NBI, pit pattern, and conventional EC. Conclusions: EC diagnosis with NP-sign has significantly higher diagnostic performance for predicting colorectal LGA compared with the conventional modalities and enables stratification of neoplastic lesions for "resect-and-discard" with higher confidence.

DEN Open ; 4(1): e222, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37168272


Although prednisolone treatment is effective in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS), its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We performed analyses of cytokine expression and fecal microbiota in a patient with the concurrent occurrence of CCS and rectal cancer, in whom regression of polyposis was achieved by prednisolone. Regression of CCS polyps was accompanied by downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression and alterations in microbiota composition; a decrease in Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius with the promotion of inflammation. We could not completely exclude the possibility that alterations in fecal microbiota composition might be influenced by the presence of advanced cancer. However, this case suggests that the administration of PSL might lead to the regression of CCS polyps through alterations in gut microbiota composition and suppression of proinflammatory cytokine responses.

J Cell Sci ; 137(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37013686


Paracingulin (CGNL1) is recruited to tight junctions (TJs) by ZO-1 and to adherens junctions (AJs) by PLEKHA7. PLEKHA7 has been reported to bind to the microtubule minus-end-binding protein CAMSAP3, to tether microtubules to the AJs. Here, we show that knockout (KO) of CGNL1, but not of PLEKHA7, results in the loss of junctional CAMSAP3 and its redistribution into a cytoplasmic pool both in cultured epithelial cells in vitro and mouse intestinal epithelium in vivo. In agreement, GST pulldown analyses show that CGNL1, but not PLEKHA7, interacts strongly with CAMSAP3, and the interaction is mediated by their respective coiled-coil regions. Ultrastructure expansion microscopy shows that CAMSAP3-capped microtubules are tethered to junctions by the ZO-1-associated pool of CGNL1. The KO of CGNL1 results in disorganized cytoplasmic microtubules and irregular nuclei alignment in mouse intestinal epithelial cells, altered cyst morphogenesis in cultured kidney epithelial cells, and disrupted planar apical microtubules in mammary epithelial cells. Together, these results uncover new functions of CGNL1 in recruiting CAMSAP3 to junctions and regulating microtubule cytoskeleton organization and epithelial cell architecture.

Microtúbulos , Junções Íntimas , Camundongos , Animais , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Junções Aderentes/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo
DEN Open ; 4(1): e245, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37214382


Objectives: Although the laser light is optically ideal for producing narrow-band light, it has not been used in some areas of the world. Endoscopic light sources using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are used worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare blue laser imaging (laser-BLI) and LED-blue light imaging (LED-BLI) for the characterization of colorectal polyps using the Japan narrow band imaging expert team (JNET) classification. Methods: Colorectal lesions were prospectively examined using magnifying narrow-band light generated by a laser (laser-BLI) or LEDs (LED-BLI). Twelve endoscopists (six non-experts and six experts from three institutions) evaluated each still-magnified image of lesions using the JNET classification. Results: Seven hundred and fifty-six images from 63 lesions were reviewed. The mean polyp size was 24.5 ± 13.4 mm. Histopathology included 13 serrated lesions and 50 neoplasms. The rate of agreement between laser-BLI and LED-BLI using the JNET classification was 92.5% (699/756). The weighted κ-statistic was 0.99. The percentages of "almost similar" comparing scores of surface patterns, vessel patterns, and brightness among all endoscopists were 95.4%, 95.9%, and 95.0%, respectively. Conclusions: This multicenter study demonstrates that the rate of agreement between laser-BLI and LED-BLI using the JNET Classification is very high. The surface patterns, vessel patterns, and brightness are almost similar.

DEN Open ; 4(1): e233, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37205318


Obstructive colitis is an acute condition caused by colorectal strictures and requires a combination of therapeutic strategies, including surgery, endoscopic interventions, and medications. Here, we describe the case of a 69-year-old man who developed severe obstructive colitis owing to diverticular stenosis of the sigmoid colon. We immediately performed endoscopic decompression to avoid perforation. The mucosa of the dilated colon appeared black, suggesting severe ischemia. We considered surgical total colectomy owing to the extensive colitis. However, considering the invasiveness of the emergent surgery, we adopted a conservative approach as enhanced computed tomography demonstrated colonic dilation with maintained blood flow in the deeper layer of the colonic wall and no signs of colonic necrosis, such as peritoneal irritation sign or elevation of deviation enzymes, were observed. Moreover, the patient preferred a conservative approach, and surgeons in our team agreed with this conservative approach. While relapses of colonic dilation occurred several times, antibiotic treatment and repeated endoscopic decompression successfully suppressed the dilation and systemic inflammation. The colonic mucosa healed gradually, and we performed a colostomy without resecting a large portion of the colorectum. In conclusion, severe obstructive colitis with maintained blood flow can be treated with endoscopic decompression instead of emergent resection for a wide portion of the colorectum. Moreover, endoscopic images of improved colitic mucosa obtained through repeated colorectal procedures are rare and noteworthy.

DEN Open ; 4(1): e248, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37228709


Objectives: Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) has traditionally been managed with enteral stenting and surgical gastrojejunostomy. Our study aimed to compare outcomes between endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy (EUS-GJ) using a lumen-apposing metal stent and robotic GJ (R-GJ) for unresectable malignant GOO. Methods: Patients undergoing EUS-GJ or R-GJ for unresectable malignant GOO were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome was clinical success defined by the ability to tolerate oral intake at the time of discharge. Secondary outcomes included technical success, procedure duration, adverse events, and post-procedure length of stay (LOS). Results: A total of 44 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of the 44, 29 underwent EUS-GJ and 15 underwent R-GJ. Age, gender, malignant etiology, and presence of ascites were similar between the two groups. Patients treated with EUS-GJ had a higher mean Charlson comorbidity index (10.3 vs. 7.0; p ≤ 0.0001) and a lower preoperative body mass index (22.3 vs. 27.2; p = 0.007). Technical and clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients in both groups (p > 0.99). EUS-GJ was associated with shorter procedure duration (57.5 vs. 146.3 min; p < 0.0001), hospital LOS (4.3 vs. 8.2 days, p = 0.0009), and time to oral intake (1.0 vs. 5.8 days; p < 0.0001) when compared to R-GJ. Adverse events occurred in 5 of the R-GJ patients and none of the EUS-GJ patients (p = 0.003). Conclusions: EUS-GJ has similar efficacy and superior clinical outcomes compared to R-GJ in the management of malignant GOO. Prospective studies with longer follow-up duration are needed to validate these findings.

Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249617, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345540


Abstract Hibernation is a natural condition of animals that lives in the temperate zone, although some tropical lizards also experience hibernation annually, such as the lizard native from South America, Salvator merianae, or "tegu" lizard. Even though physiological and metabolic characteristic associated with hibernation have been extensively studied, possible alterations in the red blood cells (RBC) integrity during this period remains unclear. Dehydration and fasting are natural consequences of hibernating for several months and it could be related to some cellular modifications. In this study, we investigated if the osmotic tolerance of RBCs of tegu lizard under hibernation is different from the cells obtained from animals while normal activity. Additionally, we indirectly investigated if the RBCs membrane of hibernating tegus could be associated with oxidation by quantifying oxidized biomolecules and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that RBCs are more fragile during the hibernation period, although we did not find evidence of an oxidative stress scenario associated with the accentuated fragility. Even though we did not exclude the possibility of oxidative damage during hibernation, we suggested that an increased RBCs volume as a consequence of hypoosmotic blood during hibernation could also affect RBCs integrity as noted.

Resumo A hibernação é uma condição natural dos animais que vivem na zona temperada, embora alguns lagartos tropicais também experenciem hibernação anualmente, como é o caso do lagarto nativo da América do Sul, Salvator merianae ou "teiú". Embora as características fisiológicas e metabólicas associadas à hibernação tenham sido amplamente estudadas, possíveis alterações na integridade das hemácias durante esse período ainda permanecem obscuras. A desidratação e o jejum são consequências naturais da hibernação por vários meses e podem estar relacionadas a algumas modificações celulares. Neste estudo, investigamos se a tolerância osmótica de hemácias do lagarto teiú sob hibernação são diferentes das células obtidas de animais em atividade normal. Além disso, investigamos indiretamente por meio da quantificação de biomoléculas oxidadas e da atividade de enzimas antioxidantes se a membrana das hemácias dos teiús em hibernação poderia estar associada à oxidação. Nossos resultados sugerem que as hemácias possuem maior fragilidade durante o período de hibernação, embora não tenhamos encontrado evidências de um cenário de estresse oxidativo associado à essa fragilidade acentuada. Embora não tenhamos excluído a possibilidade de dano oxidativo durante a hibernação, sugerimos que um aumento no volume das hemácias como consequência de sangue hipoosmótico durante a hibernação também poderia afetar a integridade de hemácias, tal como foi observado.

Animais , Hibernação , Lagartos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Eritrócitos
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541


Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.

Animais , Peixes , Ração Animal/análise , Paquistão , Composição Corporal , Lagoas , Dieta
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248656, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345542


Abstract Several species of Cichla successfully colonized lakes and reservoirs of Brazil, since the 1960's, causing serious damage to local wildlife. In this study, 135 peacock bass were collected in a reservoir complex in order to identify if they represented a single dominant species or multiple ones, as several Cichla species have been reported in the basin. Specimens were identified by color pattern, morphometric and meristic data, and using mitochondrial markers COI, 16S rDNA and Control Region (CR). Overlapping morphological data and similar coloration patterns prevented their identification using the taxonomic keys to species identification available in the literature. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood from sequencing data demonstrated the occurrence of a single species, Cichla kelberi. A single haplotype was observed for the 16S and CR, while three were detected for COI, with a dominant haplotype present in 98.5% of the samples. The extreme low diversity of the transplanted C. kelberi evidenced a limited number of founding maternal lineages. The success of this colonization seems to rely mainly on abiotic factors, such as increased water transparency of lentic environments that favor visual predators that along with the absence of predators, have made C. kelberi a successful invader of these reservoirs.

Resumo Muitas espécies de Cichla colonizaram com sucesso lagos e reservatórios do Brasil desde os anos 1960, causando graves prejuízos à vida selvagem nesses locais. Neste estudo, 135 tucunarés foram coletados em um complexo de reservatórios a fim de identificar se representavam uma espécie dominante ou múltiplas espécies, uma vez que diversas espécies de Cichla foram registradas na bacia. Os espécimes foram identificados com base na coloração, dados morfométricos e merísticos, e por marcadores mitocondriais COI, 16S rDNA e Região Controle (RC). A sobreposição dos dados morfométricos e o padrão similar de coloração impediram a identificação utilizando as chaves de identificação disponíveis na literatura. Entretanto, as análises bayesiana e de máxima verossimilhança de dados moleculares demonstraram a ocorrência de uma única espécie, Cichla kelberi. Um único haplótipo foi observado para o 16S e RC, enquanto três foram detectados para o COI, com um haplótipo dominante presente em 98,5% das amostras. A baixa diversidade nos exemplares introduzidos de C. kelberi evidenciou um número limitado de linhagens maternas fundadoras. O sucesso da invasão parece depender de fatores abióticos, como a maior transparência da água de ambientes lênticos que favorece predadores visuais que, atrelado à ausência de predadores, fez do C. kelberi um invasor bem-sucedido nesses reservatórios.

Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Filogenia , Variação Genética/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Lagos , Teorema de Bayes
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252088, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345543


Abstract Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.

Resumo Acacia mangium é uma espécie pioneira, de rápido crescimento e utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Os objetivos foram avaliar insetos e aranhas, seus índices ecológicos e interações com plantas de A. mangium em área tropical degradada em processo de recuperação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 24 repetições, com os tratamentos representados pelos primeiro e segundo anos após a plantio de A. mangium. Os números de folhas/galhos, galhos/plantas e cobertura do solo por plantas de A. mangium, de Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. e Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula e Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. e Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. e Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; a abundância, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, formigas cuidadoras e a abundância de predadores de Sternorrhyncha foram maiores no segundo ano após o plantio. Os números de Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, formigas cuidadoras, insetos polinizadores, predadores de Sternorrhyncha e a riqueza de espécies de formigas cuidadoras foram maiores em plantas de A. mangium com maior altura e número de folhas ou galhos. O aumento populacional de artrópodes e da cobertura do solo com o processo de envelhecimento das plantas de A. mangium indicam impacto positivo dessa planta na recuperação de áreas degradadas.

Animais , Aranhas , Acacia , Insetos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253106, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345544


Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar modelos baseados em dados para previsão da produção florestal em diferentes cenários de mudanças climáticas na divisão florestal Gallies do distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os modelos Random Forest (RF) e Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) foram desenvolvidos e avaliados usando dados de produção de duas espécies (pinheiro-azul e abeto-prateado) como uma variável objetiva e dados climáticos (temperatura, umidade, precipitação e velocidade do vento) como preditivos variáveis. A precisão da previsão de ambos os modelos foi avaliada por meio de erro quadrático médio (RMSE), erro absoluto médio (MAE), coeficiente de correlação (r), erro quadrático médio relativo (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), índice de Willmott (WI) e métricas Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE). No geral, o modelo RF superou o modelo KRR devido à sua maior precisão na previsão do rendimento florestal. O estudo recomenda fortemente que o modelo RF seja aplicado em outras regiões do país para previsão do crescimento e produtividade florestal, o que pode ajudar no manejo e planejamento futuro da produtividade florestal no Paquistão.

Mudança Climática , Paquistão
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546


Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.

Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Estrigiformes , Reprodução , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248359, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345547


Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.

Resumo A mancha bacteriana das folhas (BLB) é uma das principais doenças do arroz na Malásia. Essa doença causa perdas substanciais de rendimento de até 70%. O desenvolvimento de variedades de arroz que herdaram características de resistência ao BLB é uma abordagem crucial para promover e sustentar a indústria do arroz na Malásia. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar os caracteres BLB resistentes a doenças da variedade comercial MR219 de alto rendimento por meio de uma abordagem de cruzamento retrocruzamento com ferramenta de apoio de seleção assistida por marcador (MAS). O gene de resistência a BLB de amplo espectro, Xa7 do pai doador IRBB7, foi introgressado no MR219 suscetível (pai recorrente) usando dois marcadores flanqueadores ID7 e ID15. No BC3F4, conseguimos gerar 19 linhagens introgressadas com o gene Xa7 homozigoto e apresentamos características de resistência como genitor doador quando desafiado com Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae por inoculação artificial. O pai recorrente MR219 e a variedade controle, MR263, estavam gravemente infectados pela doença. As linhas melhoradas exibiram características morfológicas e de desempenho de rendimento semelhantes às da variedade elite, MR219. Duas linhas, PB-2-107 e PB-2-34, foram escolhidas como linhas potenciais por causa de seus desempenhos excelentes em comparação com a mãe, MR219. Este estudo demonstra uma história de sucesso de aplicação de MAS no desenvolvimento de linhas de arroz melhoradas com resistência a doenças contra a doença BLB.

Oryza , Xanthomonas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548


Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.

Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.

Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal