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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 808: 152023, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861304

RESUMO

The takeaway food industry, involving more than 0.4 billion consumers in China, has brought mass of packaging waste and salient environmental burden. Here we mapped the distribution of takeaway food industry across China including the industry scale, diet structure and order time based on the analysis of more than 35 million takeaway food orders. The real use situation of various packaging materials in the takeaway food industry market has been clarified. The life cycle assessment of "a piece of takeaway food delivery order" has been carried out in different regions. Results show that in addition to plastic waste generation, takeaway food industry causes more types of environmental impacts. In terms of the national resource consumption, greenhouse gases emission, water pollution and health damage risk, the top 5 ranked provinces in each accounted for 44%, 48%, 43% and 49%, respectively. Under the latest Chinese plastic pollution control policy, the industry needs to reduce 1.12 million tons of non-degradable plastic packaging by the end of 2025, and 65% of the pressure is clustered in the metropolis and provincial capitals. However, without targeted and regionally differentiated plastic pollution control policies, the environmental impact control of takeaway food industry is still ineffective. It is urgent to explore the control measures applicable to different regions. Overall, packaging reduction is more effective than material substitution.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261280, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Industry self-regulation is the dominant approach to managing alcohol advertising in Australia and many other countries. There is a need to explore the barriers to government adoption of more effective regulatory approaches. This study examined relevance and quality features of evidence cited by industry and non-industry actors in their submissions to Australian alcohol advertising policy consultations. METHODS: Submissions to two public consultations with a primary focus on alcohol advertising policy were analysed. Submissions (n = 71) were classified into their actor type (industry or non-industry) and according to their expressed support for, or opposition to, increased regulation of alcohol advertising. Details of cited evidence were extracted and coded against a framework adapted from previous research (primary codes: subject matter relevance, type of publication, time since publication, and independence from industry). Evidence was also classified as featuring indicators of higher quality if it was either published in a peer-reviewed journal or academic source, published within 10 years of the consultation, and/or had no apparent industry connection. RESULTS: Almost two-thirds of submissions were from industry actors (n = 45 submissions from alcohol, advertising, or sporting industries). With few exceptions, industry actor submissions opposed increased regulation of alcohol advertising and non-industry actor submissions supported increased regulation. Industry actors cited substantially less evidence than non-industry actors, both per submission and in total. Only 27% of evidence cited by industry actors was highly relevant and featured at least two indicators of higher quality compared to 58% of evidence cited by non-industry actors. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the value of the evidentiary contribution of industry actors to consultations on alcohol advertising policy appears to be limited. Modifications to consultation processes, such as exclusion of industry actors, quality requirements for submitted evidence, minimum standards for referencing evidence, and requirements to declare potential conflicts, may improve the public health outcomes of policy consultations.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 289: 114451, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673355

RESUMO

Collaboration between governments and non-state actors has emerged as the dominant mode of policy making to address a wide range of public and global health issues, particularly via public-private partnerships and multi-stakeholder platforms. Despite its paradigmatic status in contemporary health governance, political claims and promises of partnership approaches as more effective than state regulation have received limited attention. This study addresses this gap by tracing negotiations over a calorie reduction 'pledge' within the Public Health Responsibility Deal: a public-private partnership between the UK Department of Health, food industry and civil society organisations focusing on obesity policy. It demonstrates how political claims-making by the Department of Health that a public-private partnership as an effective substitute for legislation, contrasted with protracted and conflictual negotiations with food industry business associations. Employing Erving Goffman's distinction between frontstage and backstage interaction and the concept of informal governance, this study traces a shift to informal back stage governance as a mechanism to cope with acute tensions between economic interests and nutrition policy goals. The study illustrates how this shift to the back stage had substantive public health implications, privileging commercial sector perspectives and marginalising civil society participation. Informalization served to reframe calorie reduction from industry-focused to personal responsibility for lifestyle behaviours, in the process reducing its effectiveness. The results suggest that, while partnership and multi-stakeholder approaches are widely promoted as a legitimate tool in health governance, visible tensions between commercial sector and public health interests challenge political claims about public-private collaboration as consensus-oriented and effective. Informal governance, when used as a coping mechanism to manage tensions public health and commercial sector interests, may be symptomatic of wider dysfunctions and conflicts of interest in partnership approaches. This suggests that there may be limited scope for effective policy innovations where commercial sector actors perceive core interests as threatened.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358252

RESUMO

The dimensions of patient-centred care include not only clinical effectiveness and patient safety, but, importantly, the preferences of patients as consumers of healthcare services. A total of 249 participants were included in the study, with a balanced population proportional representation by age, gender, ethnicity and geographic region of New Zealand. An online questionnaire was used to identify participants' decision-making process, and what factors and barriers for participants to seek dental treatment. Cross-tabulations, Spearman correlation analysis and Pearson Chi-Square analysis were used for the statistical analyses. Three most common reasons for visit were check-up (77%), clean (57%) and relief of pain 36%). A desire to treat a perceived problem was the most common encouraging factor to seek dental care. Cost was the most common barrier to seeking dental services. The majority of participants attended a private practice (84%), with convenience of location and referral from professionals the most likely to influence their choice. Participants felt the most important trait a dental practitioner could demonstrate was to discuss treatment options with them before any treatment. Dental check-up, teeth cleaning and relief of pain were the most common reasons for patients to choose dental services. Cost and ethnicity of the consumers had a significant impact on how dental services were perceived and sought. Dental practitioners may need to reorientate how they express value of oral health practice, not just in regard to communication with patients, but also with government funding agencies.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Papel do Dentista , Odontólogos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415824

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness and sociocultural feasibility of a dating violence (DV) bystander intervention program, called With-Us, implemented on university campus in South Korea. Participants were recruited from two universities, some as part of an intervention group (n = 99) and the others as part a comparison group (n = 67). The participants were assessed pre- and post-interventions in terms of their readiness and intention to help, as well as their efficacy. Analyses show that the program increased the readiness in bystanders to help victims. Contrarily, it was observed that older participants, males, and those having higher patriarchal gender stereotypes, were less likely to pay attention to the program. Based on the findings, we provided several suggestions to promote its effectiveness and sociocultural feasibility so that it could be efficiently applied in further studies.

6.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 66, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307069

RESUMO

Introduction: Partnerships are essential to creating effective global health leadership training programs. Global pandemics, including the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and more recently the COVID-19 pandemic, have tested the impact and stability of healthcare systems. Partnerships must be fostered to prepare the next generation of leaders to collaborate effectively and improve health globally. Objectives: We provide key matrices that predict success of partnerships in building global health leadership capacity. We highlight opportunities and challenges to building effective partnerships and provide recommendations to promote development of equitable and mutually beneficial partnerships. Findings: Critical elements for effective partnership when building global health leadership capacity include shared strategic vision, transparency and excellent communication, as well as intentional monitoring and evaluation of the partnership, not just the project or program. There must be recognition that partnerships can be unpredictable and unequal, especially if the end is not defined early on. Threats to equitable and effective partnerships include funding and co-funding disparities between partners from high-income and low-income countries, inequalities, unshared vision and priorities, skewed decision-making levels, and limited flexibility to minimize inequalities and make changes. Further, imbalances in power, privilege, position, income levels, and institutional resources create opportunities for exploitation of partners, particularly those in low-income countries, which widens the disparities and limits success and sustainability of partnerships. These challenges to effective partnering create the need for objective documentation of disparities at all stages, with key milestones to assess success and the environment to sustain the partnerships and their respective goals. Conclusions: Developing effective and sustainable partnerships requires a commitment to equality from the start by all partners and an understanding that there will be challenges that could derail otherwise well-intended partnerships. Guidelines and training on evaluation of partnerships exist and should be used, including generic indicators of equity, mutual benefit, and the added value of partnering. Key Takeaways: Effective partnerships in building global health leadership capacity require shared strategic vision and intentional monitoring and evaluation of goalsInequalities in partnerships may arise from disparities in infrastructure, managerial expertise, administrative and leadership capacity, as well as limited mutual benefit and mutual respectTo promote equitable and effective partnerships, it is critical to highlight and monitor key measures for success of partnerships at the beginning of each partnership and regularly through the lifetime of the partnership.We recommend that partnerships should have legal and financial laws through executed memoranda of understanding, to promote accountability and facilitate objective monitoring and evaluation of the partnership itself.More research is needed to understand better the contextual predictors of the broader influence and sustainability of partnership networks in global health leadership training.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Liderança , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Comunicação , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Participação dos Interessados
7.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(2)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104929

RESUMO

Mass media campaigns are common interventions used in public health, but publicly available evaluations of such campaigns are few and far between, and particularly so for formative evaluations. In 2019, the Heart Foundation released a new campaign called 'Heartless Words', including a major advertisement that sparked instant controversy. In the backlash that followed, very little was said about the importance of rigorous pre-campaign formative evaluations and sharing these evaluations for the benefit of other researchers, practitioners and policy makers. We argue the takeaway points of such controversial campaigns are not only whether they provoke certain emotions or discussion, but also whether they are supported by robust formative evaluations that are publicly available. Formative evaluations are crucial in public health so that we can share and learn what works, for whom, and why. We call on researchers and practitioners to develop, implement and, crucially, disseminate formative evaluations for public health mass media campaigns.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Publicidade , Austrália , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1967-1972, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982506

RESUMO

The article summarized the relevant researches on the clinical orientation of Chinese patent medicines, and put forward the post-marking principle and strategies of the clinical orientation. The principle could be illustrated by four criteria: overall design, step-by-step implementation, from easiness to hardness, gradual concentration. The strategies were as follows: first carrying out the projects with little cost of money and time, and then the projects requiring much cost of money and time, so that the possibility of fai-lure would be put forward at an early stage to reduce the loss caused by research failure as much as possible by consolidating the research projects with less investment at the early stage and gradually increasing the research projects with more investment at the later stage. On this basis, the "three dimensions and four stages" key technology was proposed for the post-marketing clinical orientation of traditional Chinese medicine. Medicines, diseases and patients were the "three dimensions", so we should understand the features and interaction of the target indications, symptoms and population to establish a three-dimensional clinical positioning coordinate system. "Four stages" were the four steps of clues analyzing, hypothesis orientation, preliminary verification and clinical validation. Each latter stage should be started after full completion of the former one, and the latter stage results shall be used to validate and revise the former clinical orientational hypothesis, continuously forming a feedback circle. Based on the sufficient verification of previous study, prospective clinical trials were implemented at last to get the best evidence-based evidence of clinical orientational hypothesis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Humanos , Marketing , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 1980-1987, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982508

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is an important feature of cancer treatment in China. The methods to tap the advantages of TCM, reasonably evaluate and accurately apply Chinese patent medicines have become current research hotspots and difficulties. TCM takes syndrome differentiation and treatment as the core, with the characteristics of overall regulation and multi-targets efficacy. Therefore, the post-marketing survival benefit evaluation of Chinese patent medicines for cancer is different from that in modern medicine. The primary treatment goals in cancer patients include to improve the disease control rate and prolong their survival time. At present, Chinese patent medicines for cancer patients are lacking indepth studies on survival benefit at the post-marketing stage. In addition, the characteristics of individualized treatment with TCM have also increased the complexity of clinical research on TCM. Therefore, it is of certain practical significance and necessity to evaluate the survival benefit of Chinese patent medicines for cancer after marketing. Based on this, in this paper, we first summarized the technical methodological means of survival benefit evaluation at this stage, and then explored the post-marketing survival benefit evaluation of Chinese patent medicines for cancer from three aspects: the evaluation of cancer treatment effect based on survival time and quality of life, treatment-related toxicity and the auxiliary effect of TCM, and the improvement effect for tumor-related symptoms. Based on the practices of early clinical researches, and according to the insufficient efficacy evaluation of current clinical research on Chinese patent medicines, this paper proposed to improve the evaluation system for clinical researches on Chinese patent medicines, establish the evaluation method with TCM characteristics, clarify the dominant population, lay a theoretical foundation for the evaluation of post-marketing survival benefits of Chinese patent medicines for cancer in the future, and promote the modernization process of TCM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Neoplasias , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Marketing , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(42): 59473-59485, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754269

RESUMO

From the perspective of improving the environmental benefits of the supply chain, in this paper, the evaluation index system of manufacturing cloud service is established. It is oriented to the environmental benefits of the supply chain and takes into account the environmental indicators of the candidate providers. The fuzzy DEMATEL modified entropy method is used to calculate the comprehensive weight of the evaluation index. Then, the candidate manufacturing cloud service providers are selected based on gray relational analysis to ensure the rationality of the evaluation results. The evaluation system not only objectively considers the situation of each supplier but also reflects the platform's emphasis on low-carbon environmental factors. Finally, this paper takes the seat suppliers' selection problem in the supply chain of Tianjin industrial cloud automotive mold supply chain as examples to verify the practical significance of this model. At the same time, this paper can provide ideas for the application of cloud manufacturing mode and the solution of supply chain environment problems.


Assuntos
Computação em Nuvem , Comércio , Carbono , Entropia , Indústrias
11.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(3): 733-744, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538306

RESUMO

The effectiveness of interventions targeting children's eating and physical activity behaviors through childcare settings is inconsistent. To enhance public health impact, it is imperative to evaluate fidelity of implementing complex interventions in real-world settings. This study evaluated fidelity and contextual factors influencing implementation of Healthy Me, Healthy We (HMHW). HMHW was an 8-month social marketing campaign delivered through childcare to support children's healthy eating and physical activity. HMHW required two levels of implementation support (research team and childcare providers) and two levels of campaign delivery (childcare providers and parents). Process evaluation was conducted among childcare centers in the intervention group (n=48) of the cluster-randomized control trial. Measures included attendance logs, self-report surveys, observation checklists, field notes, and semi-structured interviews. A 35-item fidelity index was created to assess fidelity of implementation support and campaign delivery. The fidelity with which HMHW was implemented by childcare providers and parents was low (mean 17.4 out of 35) and decreased between childcare providers and parents. Childcare providers had high acceptability of the program and individual components (80 - 93%). Only half of parents felt intervention components were acceptable. Frequently cited barriers to implementation by childcare providers included time constraints, parent engagement, staff turnover, and restrictive policies. The lack of observable effect of HMHW on children's dietary or physical activity behaviors may be due to inadequate implementation at multiple levels. Different or additional strategies are necessary to support implementation of multilevel interventions, particularly when individuals are expected to deliver intervention components and support others in doing so.


Assuntos
Creches , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Marketing Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5): 178-182, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539332

RESUMO

Residents and staff members of long-term care facilities (LTCFs), because they live and work in congregate settings, are at increased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). In particular, skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), LTCFs that provide skilled nursing care and rehabilitation services for persons with complex medical needs, have been documented settings of COVID-19 outbreaks (3). In addition, residents of LTCFs might be at increased risk for severe outcomes because of their advanced age or the presence of underlying chronic medical conditions (4). As a result, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that residents and staff members of LTCFs be offered vaccination in the initial COVID-19 vaccine allocation phase (Phase 1a) in the United States (5). In December 2020, CDC launched the Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program* to facilitate on-site vaccination of residents and staff members at enrolled LTCFs. To evaluate early receipt of vaccine during the first month of the program, the number of eligible residents and staff members in enrolled SNFs was estimated using resident census data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN†) and staffing data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Payroll-Based Journal.§ Among 11,460 SNFs with at least one vaccination clinic during the first month of the program (December 18, 2020-January 17, 2021), an estimated median of 77.8% of residents (interquartile range [IQR] = 61.3%- 93.1%) and a median of 37.5% (IQR = 23.2%- 56.8%) of staff members per facility received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine through the Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program. The program achieved moderately high coverage among residents; however, continued development and implementation of focused communication and outreach strategies are needed to improve vaccination coverage among staff members in SNFs and other long-term care settings.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Farmácia/organização & administração , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(3): 870-881, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484152

RESUMO

Technology-based physical activity programs are a novel solution to the major public health issue of physical inactivity. However, to be successful, there must be a large and population-appropriate uptake, which depends heavily on promotion. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an advertising campaign to disseminate a physical activity smartphone app. The experiment used a 3 × 3 × 3 full-factorial design, examining platforms (Facebook; Facebook Messenger; Instagram), selling-techniques (hard-sell-sending viewers directly to (a) Apple Store or (b) Google Play, and soft-sell-sending viewers from an ad to a (c) landing-page, then to an app store) and themes (Health and Wellbeing; Body and Self-Confidence; Social Enjoyment). Outcomes were reach, click-through, and app downloads. Advertisements reached 1,373,273 people, achieving 2,989 clicks and 667 downloads. Instagram and Facebook Messenger had higher reach compared to Facebook (F[2,27] = 27.17, p < .001), whilst Facebook and Facebook Messenger both produced higher click-through (F[2,27] = 8.98, p < .001) and downloads (F[2,27] = 4.649, p = .018). Selling-technique differed, with soft-selling ads producing greater reach (F[2,27] = 4,616.077, p < .001); however, both hard-selling ads (Apple Store and Google Play) had greater click-through (F[2,27] = 10.77, p < .001) and downloads (F[2,27] = 3.791, p < .001). Advertising theme varied, with Social Enjoyment themes producing less click-through (F[2,27] = 5.709, p = .009) and downloads (F[2,27] = 5.480, p = .010). We recommend future studies to consider Facebook and Facebook Messenger, using hard-selling techniques, with themes relating to Health and Wellbeing and Body and Self-Confidence.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(2): 184-199, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597517

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Tofogliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that lowers plasma glucose levels by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. After its approval in Japan in 2014 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, we carried out a 3-year prospective observational post-marketing surveillance study in Japanese patients (Japanese Study of Tofogliflozin with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients/Long Term [J-STEP/LT]). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This surveillance was carried out between September 2014 and February 2019, and recorded safety in terms of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ADRs of special interest, and effectiveness in terms of changes in glycated hemoglobin and bodyweight from baseline to last observation carried forward. RESULTS: Of 6,897 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus registered, 6,711 and 6,451 were analyzed for safety and effectiveness, respectively. ADRs were reported in 846 patients (12.61%), with serious ADRs in 101 patients (1.5%). ADRs of special interest included hypoglycemia (62 patients [0.9%]), polyuria/pollakiuria (90 [1.3%]), volume depletion-related disorders (135 [2.0%]), urinary tract infections (91 [1.4%]), genital infections (117 [1.7%]) and skin diseases (53 [0.8%]). One case of diabetic ketoacidosis was reported. The mean ± standard deviation changes from baseline to last observation carried forward in glycated hemoglobin and bodyweight were -0.68 ± 1.34% (n = 6,158, P < 0.0001) and -3.13 ± 4.67 kg (n = 5,213, P < 0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: J-STEP/LT, a 3-year, prospective, observational, post-marketing study in Japan, found no unprecedented ADRs, and consistent reductions from baseline in glycated hemoglobin and bodyweight over the observation period. The present results provide further evidence regarding the safety and tolerability of tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/métodos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338339

RESUMO

The study objective is to develop classification and to characterize main business processes (production relationships) arising during development of export of medical services in the Russian Federation. METHODS: The study was based on information derived from publications off- and on-line, analysis and evaluation of regulatory legal acts, structuring processes of interaction between elements of organizational system. RESULTS: The classification and characteristics of 59 major external business processes arising in process of developing the export of medical services as part of interaction of subject pairs represented by government organizations, business structures and foreign citizens are proposed. The individual regulating documents also were considered. INTERPRETATION: The proposed structured forms of interaction between subjects participating in export of medical services will help developing new or improving existing regulatory legal acts needed for effective implementation of this process.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Organizações , Comércio , Humanos , Federação Russa
17.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(3): 229-242, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749875

RESUMO

Latinxs in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and present with more advanced disease than their non-Latinx peers, due to numerous barriers to care including HIV stigma. We describe the adaptation, implementation, and reach of Sólo Se Vive Una Vez (You Only Live Once), Baltimore's first social marketing campaign promoting HIV screening among Spanish-speaking Latinxs. The 6-month campaign promoted free HIV testing by addressing HIV stigma. The campaign included a website, a social marketing campaign, community outreach events, and advertisements via radio, billboards, local partners, and buses. During the campaign, there were 9,784 unique website users, and ads were served to over 84,592 people on social media platforms. Among Latinx HIV testers at the Baltimore City Health Department, 31.6% reported having seen or heard of Sólo Se Vive Una Vez and 25.3% of Latinx HIV testers reported that the campaign influenced them to get tested.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Marketing Social , Estigma Social , Migrantes/educação , Baltimore , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Migrantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos
18.
Bus Strategy Environ ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836996

RESUMO

This article projects business risk through deferent industrial scenarios in concentrated solar investments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Nationwide, the government seeks a sustainable solution through energy policy development and engagement of the stakeholders for clean energy generation at wider level in the long run. Support has been extended through various support schemes. In the current study, Monte Carlo simulations and net present value (NPV) risk are used to analyse the return on investment. A 5 MW concave solar panel project is evaluated. We have assessed the impact of local factors on profits through NPV. The study proposes that a higher NPV is expected if the concave solar panel project is financed 50% by Khalifa funding. The study also proposes a robust policy and highlights the opportunity of business profitability if the government subsidises land leasing with respect to each scenario. Additionally, the study also proposes a policy to maintain the interests of investors in the UAE.

19.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(6-7): 340-345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698607

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of youth-engaging interventions on illegal sales by tobacco retailers near schools in Thailand. The youth were educated and engaged in the planning and implementation of a program to reduce tobacco retailers' illegal sales in the Uttaradit Municipality, Thailand. Intervention components included community education, retailer education, and direct approaches to tobacco retailers. A study included a pretest-posttest control group. The 6-month intervention focused on 114 tobacco retailers. The posttest showed that the percentage of tobacco retailers violating the retail law decreased: tobacco product displays at points of sales decreased from 67.5% to 23.7%, single cigarette sales declined from 71.1% to 36.0%, and tobacco sales to minors decreased from 74.6% to 5.3%. Asking for identification or the buyer's age before selling tobacco increased from 33.3% to 78.1%. The intervention led to a significant reduction in the violation of tobacco retail laws near schools.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação da Comunidade , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Cidades , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia
20.
BMJ ; 370: m2436, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between US state policies that establish age 18 or 21 years as the minimum purchaser age for the sale of handguns and adolescent suicide rate. DESIGN: Regression discontinuity and difference-in-differences analyses. SETTING: 46 US states without policy changes between 2001 and 2017; Missouri and South Carolina, which lowered the age for handgun sales in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and West Virginia and Wyoming, which increased the age for handgun sales in 2010. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 13 to 20 years(554 461 961 from 2001 to 2017) in the regression discontinuity analysis, and adolescents aged 18 to 20 years (168 934 041 from 2002 to 2014) in the main difference-in-differences analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Suicide rate per 100 000 adolescents. RESULTS: In the regression discontinuity analysis, state policies that limited the sale of handguns to those aged 18 or older (relative to 21 or older) were associated with an increase in suicide rate among adolescents aged 18 to 20 years equivalent to 344 additional suicides in each state where they were in place between 2001 and 2017. In the difference-in-differences analysis, state policies that limited the sale of handguns to those aged 21 or older were associated with 1.91 fewer suicides per 100 000 adolescents aged 18 to 20 years (95% confidence interval -3.13 to -0.70, permutation adjusted P=0.025). In the difference-in-differences analysis, there were 1.83 fewer firearm related suicides per 100 000 adolescents (-2.66 to -1.00, permutation adjusted P=0.002), with no association between age 21 handgun sales policies and non-firearm related suicides. Separate event study estimates indicated increases in suicide rates in states that lowered the age of handgun sales, with no association in states that increased the age of handgun sales. CONCLUSIONS: A clear discontinuity was shown in the suicide rate by age at age 18 in states that limited the sale of handguns to individuals aged 18 or older. State policies to limit the sale of handguns to individuals aged 21 or older were associated with a reduction in suicide rates among adolescents. Increases in suicide rates were observed after states lowered the age of handgun sales, but no effect was found in states that increased the age of handgun sales.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Armas de Fogo/economia , Humanos , Missouri/epidemiologia , Políticas , Análise de Regressão , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Suicídio/etnologia , West Virginia/epidemiologia , Wyoming/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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