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1.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(2): 1-7, jun. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254588

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic that began in early 2020 is currently the subject of thousands of articles on the various aspects of its epidemiology. One recurrent theme is the phenomenon of herd immunity or herd effect. In this article, I present a short history of the concept, the arguments around its nomenclature, and the ecologist's view of the herd effect, using the case history of the sleeping sickness control in Africa.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tripanossomíase Africana , Imunidade Coletiva , Ecologia , COVID-19
2.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(2): 1-13, jun. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254586

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean intensity of potential fish-borne zoonotic nematode larvae infecting the predator fish Hoplias aff. malabaricus from the Tapajós River, in the municipality of Santarém, in the Brazilian Amazon. After capture, the specimens of H. aff. malabaricus were analyzed for infection by Contracaecum sp. and Eustrongylides sp. third-stage larvae, and the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean intensity were calculated. A literature search was carried out to clarify the relationship between these indicators and eventual human cases of infection in the Amazon region. Third-stage larvae of nematodes of the Contracaecum and Eustrongylides genera were found in the specimens of H. aff. malabaricus sampled from the Tapajós River. The prevalence of Contracaecum larvae was 100%, while its mean abundance and mean intensity were both 54.8 larvae/fish. The prevalence of Eustrongylides larvae was 62.9%, and its mean abundance and mean intensity were 1.8 and 2.8 larvae/fish, respectively. Despite the high prevalence and intensity values, there are no cases of human infection by these nematode larvae in the Brazilian Amazon reported. The absence of human infections by these nematode larvae in the Brazilian Amazon despite the high prevalence/intensity of Contracaecum and Eustrongylides larvae and the high consumption of fish in the region, is most probably due to the fact that the local populations do not eat raw or undercooked fish. However, it is noteworthy that the absence of zoonotic cases in the region is based only on the examination of the available published papers. A better knowledge of the situation would require surveying hospitals and clinics, and data from the region's medical treatment facilities. However, the authors consider that cases of human infection, if any, are extremely rare, mainly due to the eating habits of the local population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Zoonoses , Peixes , Infecções , Larva
3.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(2): 1-14, jun. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254546

RESUMO

Captive animals, despite the constant care provided, are susceptible to infections from different sources. We herein report the natural trypanosome infection of 11 (28.2% positive) out of 39 non-human primates from 13 different species, in a Brazilian zoological park. Immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) ruled out Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. However, sequencing performed with positive samples employing hsp70 primers revealed similarities from 86% to 88% to diverse trypanosomes, including T. cruzi, Trypanosoma grayi, Trypanosoma lewisi, Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma vivax. We believe that the low similarity values obtained by sequencing reflect the difficulties in the molecular identification of trypanosomes, which share a large portion of their genetic material; this similarity may also preclude the diagnosis of co-infection by more than one trypanosome species. Thus, our study demonstrates the presence of diverse trypanosomes in primates, which are susceptible to infection by these parasites. Mechanical devices such as windows and bed nets, etc., are required to avoid vector insects in these environments, in addition to preventive quarantining of animals recently introduced into zoos. Therefore, investigation of the parasites in both the animals already residing in the zoo and those being introduced is of paramount importance, although no easy task.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Primatas , Trypanosoma , Haplorrinos , Doença de Chagas
4.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(2): 1-15, jun. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254525

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan that has a cosmopolitan geographic distribution and low specificity for intermediate hosts. Domestic chickens are among the most important hosts in toxoplasmosis epidemiology, since they are potential sources of infection for humans, in addition to indicating environmental contamination by protozoa. In this work, we studied the prevalence of T. gondii infection in chickens in different breeding systems from distinct mesoregions of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba States: broiler chickens from commercial farms and free-range chickens from small farms. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and ELISA techniques were used for detecting specific antibodies in blood samples from the birds. There were no seropositive samples among the broilers tested, indicating that intensive management limited the chances of infection for these animals. Among the free-range chickens, the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii detected by IFAT and ELISA were 37.9% and 40.4% respectively. Among the seropositive samples by IFAT, 33 (27.1%) were positive at a dilution of 1:16; in 1:32, 31 (25.4%); in 1:64, 24 (19.7%); 15 (12.3%) in 1:128, and 19 presented titers greater than or equal to 1:256 (15.6%). The substantial concordance observed between IFAT and ELISA signifies these methods are effective methodologies for the diagnosis of avian toxoplasmosis. The high prevalence of specific antibodies among poultry in the studied region highlights the potential risk of T. gondii transmission to humans through consumption of infected meat.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Galinhas , Toxoplasmose , Infecções
5.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(2): 1-16, jun. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254425

RESUMO

Studies linking human health to environmental conditions are essential since parasitic diseases are connected to environmental and sanitary aspects. This study identified the prevalence of enteric parasites in an academic community in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. The purpose was to determine the existence, or not, of links between infections and socio-epidemiological variables, such as personal hygiene habits, the presence of sewage systems and the environment. Participants answered a questionnaire and received universal collectors for fecal samples. Spontaneous sedimentation methods and Rugai were used for diagnosis. One hundred twenty-one samples were analyzed, in which a 38.8% parasite prevalence was detected as well as a 61.7% rate of monoparasitism, as well as a predominance of protozoa Endolimax nana (78.7%) and Giardia duodenalis (21.3%). Among parasitized individuals, 97.9% lived in the Recôncavo Baiano region. The following statistical significance stands out in the findings, with p<0.05: individuals who had already bathed in the local river were more likely to be parasitized than those who had not (p = 0.034) and individuals who washed their hands more frequently before meals proved to be less prone to intestinal parasitic infections (p = 0.018). Results evidenced the presence of enteric parasites in a number of participants in spite of their being university students. The socio-epidemiological variables analyzed brought to light characteristics that favor the establishment of the epidemiological infection triad, such as improper packaging of household waste on disposal and no records of regular domestic water tank cleaning.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias , Epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde Ambiental , Meio Ambiente
6.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(2): 1-20, jun. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254419

RESUMO

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease involving neuromuscular transmission and possible respiratory failure when concomitant with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to analyze the need for ventilatory support (VS), length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality in patients diagnosed with MG and COVID-19. In this systematic review, PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE and IBECS databases were searched for primary studies published from January 2010 to March 2021, with no language restrictions. Fourteen eligible studies were identified. The main factor associated with the need for VS was the use of antibiotics other than azithromycin (AZM) for the treatment of COVID-19 (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.20­2.91; p = 0.009). Patients who used hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and AZM had almost twice the risk of needing invasive ventilatory support (IVS) (RR 1.94; 95% CI 1.07-3.52; p = 0.16). There were nonsignificant trends towards less need for IVS in patients who used intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and corticosteroid therapy (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.09­3.26; p = 0.60). There was a trend towards shorter LOS in patients who received therapy with IVIg and corticosteroid therapy [8 (5 - 8) vs 19 (12.2­23.7); p = 0.007]. 10.3% (n = 4/39) died and 100% did not use IVIg or IVIg and prednisone. There was a non-significant trend towards higher mortality in patients who used AZM (RR 2.55; 95% CI 0.26­30.02; p = 0.60). IVIg and corticotherapy presented themselves as a favorable alternative in relation to the outcomes. KEY WORDS: Coronavirus infections; length of stay; Myasthenia gravis; Respiratory insufficiency.


Assuntos
Humanos , Mortalidade , Coronavirus , Suporte Ventilatório Interativo , Tempo de Internação , Miastenia Gravis
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353211

RESUMO

Presented at the "Consultative Meeting on the Strategic and Operational Aspects for the Clinical Development of Trypanocidal Drugs for Chagas Disease, 23-24 April 2007, Buenos Aires, Argentina.", sponsored by TDR, WHO.


Assuntos
Tripanossomicidas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Eficácia , Doença de Chagas
8.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353224

RESUMO

okenella regensburgei belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and is an opportunistic agent rarely associated with infections in humans. We report a case of osteoarticular knee infection caused by Y. regensburgei in a patient under treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, using corticosteroids, with complication in primary total arthroplasty of the knee. Y. regensburgei was identified using the VITEK2 system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk-diffusion method, according to the guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The patient presented favorable clinical evolution after the second debridement, with complete removal of the prosthesis and antibiotic therapy with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. This is the first case of Y. regensburgei infection described d in Brazil.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Sulfametoxazol , Trimetoprima , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Enterobacteriaceae , Joelho
9.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353266

RESUMO

Given the potential for morbidity and mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the profile of these infections in adult intensive care units was evaluated in the city of Goiânia. Data were collected from a secondary base in the Department of Prevention and Control of Infection in Health Services, of the Municipal Health Department of Goiânia, from 2014 to 2016, in private (82.7%), public (17.2%), and philanthropic (6.0%) health care services. The rate of use of mechanical ventilation did not change significantly over the three years (32.6%). However, there was a decrease in the mean of VAP incidence density, and in 2016 there was a reduction of 7% in the 90th percentile. These reductions highlight the benefit of the implementation and adherence to bundles by the multidisciplinary team.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Respiração Artificial , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Atenção à Saúde , Controle , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
10.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353272

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is still a serious public health concern in Brazil and Sergipe State presents the highest prevalence rate of the disease. Brazil implemented the Schistosomiasis Control Program (PCE) with several strategies to control the disease, including health education actions in endemic areas. Herein, we assessed the impact of an educational intervention on knowledge concerning schistosomiasis in students from a riverside village of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out in 3 phases. 1) A questionnaire was applied to assess the students' knowledge about the biological, clinical, and epidemiological aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni (pre-test). 2) Next, an educational intervention was conducted. Pamphlets about schistosomiasis were distributed to the entire school community, who were then invited to a lecture. 3) A post-test was performed using the questionnaire to assess acquired knowledge. 151 elementary school students were interviewed. 2.6% of the pre-test students and 4.3% of the post-test group had already been diagnosed with schistosomiasis. In the pre-test, only 24.5% knew the cause of the disease and 48.3% the transmission sites. In the post-test, 74.3% (OR= 8.9; p-value<0.0001) knew the etiology and 77.1% the possible transmission sites (OR= 3.6; p-value<0.0001). There was also significant improvement in knowledge regarding signs, symptoms and prophylactic measures. Most students were unaware of the risk of reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni after treatment. The educational intervention proved quite effective in increasing information on schistosomiasis. These results reinforce the importance of health education as an auxiliary tool in the control of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose , Saúde Pública , Educação em Saúde , Controle
11.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3): 179-200, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352889

RESUMO

This was a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey aimed at assessing the perceptions and basic knowledge of COVID-19, a highly transmissible disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, in a sample population in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A questionnaire devised by the researchers and distributed through social media was applied between June 16, 2020 and August 21, 2020. The survey consisted of questions about the basic aspects of COVID-19, which included symptoms, risk groups, suspicion of infection, prevention, transmission, and perception regarding social isolation. The average distribution, frequencies, similarities and differences between the responses for the different variables were evaluated. Five hundred twenty valid responses were obtained from participants aged ≥18 years. Most of the respondents showed satisfactory basic knowledge of COVID-19. Moreover, the data showed that the participants scored an average of 87.6%. Sex, age, and socioeconomic vulnerability presented a statistically significant link with knowledge of the disease; women, young participants, and the least socioeconomically vulnerable had the highest scores. This study indicated that the population in the Triângulo Mineiro region able to access social networking platforms were basically well informed regarding COVID-19, although differences were observed depending on the group analyzed.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimento , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
12.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292499

RESUMO

This study characterized and related yeasts of the genus Candida isolated from vaginal mucous membranes of women with lesions caused by high-risk HPV for cervical cancer. Forty-two women treated at the Lower Genital Tract Pathology Clinic of the University of São Paulo Medical School Hospital of Clinics were examined, with 30 high-grade (G1) uterine lesions with a mean age of 36.5 years ± 11. 1 and 12 with low grade (G2) uterine lesions with a mean age of 34.7 years ± 15.5. Clinical conditions and laboratory data on HPV were collected from patients' medical records; the socio-demographic data obtained from an appropriate questionnaire. For the study of association between the variables, Odds Ratio analysis was used from the STATA 13.1 program. Patients G1 had a higher prevalence for diabetes and the results indicated 27% prevalence of Candida spp. in vaginal mucosa, in G2 this was 33% in vaginal mucosa. Among the species found in vaginal mucosa of patients, Candida albicans was the most isolated with 88%, followed by C. tropicalis (8%) and C. glabrata (4%). The strains of C. albicans isolated from mucosa presented sensitivity to all antifungal agents tested, unlike the C. tropicalis strain isolated in G2 in vaginal mucosa, which presented a resistance profile to fluconazole. Thus, monitoring and supervision through clinical and laboratory testing of HPV patients is important, reinforcing the need for care, treatment and prevention of HPV-related infections and Candida spp.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Papillomaviridae , Candida albicans , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Membrana Mucosa , Antifúngicos
13.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292484

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death amongst adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The lifetime risk of tuberculosis disease for a person with latent infection is estimated at 5-10% with most cases occurring within five years of initial infection. The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis treatment, amongst other strategies. The aim was to assess tuberculosis incidence, survival (free of tuberculosis) and associated factors in HIV-positive patients. IPT was offered to participants with a positive (≥5mm) tuberculin skin test. Participants were followed from February 2003-December 2016. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. Variables with p-value ≤ 0.2 in the univariate analysis entered into the multivariate Cox-Model, keeping those with p-value ≤ 0.05. The 95% confidence interval of incidence of tuberculosis was estimated using Poisson distribution. One hundred nineteen patients completed the IPT and were followed for a median duration of 110.7 months (IQR 93.1-121.0). The probability of developing tuberculosis (10 years post-IPT) was 5.4%. Tuberculosis incidence was 0.58/100 patient/years (CI 95% 0.213-1.264). IPT over 6 months provided long-term protection against tuberculosis. AIDS-defining illness was the only statistically significant variable (HR=5.67) in the multivariate model.


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise de Sobrevida , HIV , Tuberculose Latente , Isoniazida
14.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292385

RESUMO

Information on areas colonized by snails that transmit Schistosoma mansoni is essential for planning schistosomiasis control measures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to map the natural breeding sites of Biomphalaria spp. in the municipality of Peri Mirim, Maranhão, Brazil. The snails were manually collected and the breeding sites were geo-referenced (seven in the urban area and five in flooded fields), from November 2017 to March 2018. In the laboratory, the snails were examined for the presence of larval stages of S. mansoni identified by morphology and internal anatomy analysis. While no snails were found in the urban area, sixteen B. glabrata were collected in the flooded fields. No S. mansoni or other trematode infections were detected. Wild rodents, most likely Holochilus sciureus that could act as S. mansoni reservoirs, were also found in the flooded fields. These data indicate possible risk areas for further outbreaks of schistosomiasis transmission in the municipality of Peri Mirim.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Schistosoma mansoni , Caramujos , Biomphalaria , Análise Espacial
15.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292380

RESUMO

In regions where sanitary conditions are poor, prophylactic administration of antiparasitic drugs is common and affects the prevalence of intestinal parasites, in spite of the environmental maintenance of their life cycle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitic infections, patient lifestyles, health conditions and environmental sources of contamination. One hundred seventy two children and adolescents, 5 to 15 years of age of both sexes were analyzed. Data were obtained through epidemiological questionnaires, parasitological examinations using Paratest®, IgG testing for Entamoeba histolytica, and analysis of sources of contamination in living areas. The study detected a prevalence of 45.9% (79/172) parasitic infections, of which 62.0% (49/79) Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex; 46.8% (37/79) Entamoeba coli; 27.8% (22/79) Giardia intestinalis; 12.7% (10/79) Endolimax nana; 10.1% (8/79) Hymenolepis nana; 8.9% (7/79) Ascaris lumbricoides and 2.5% (2/79) Trichuris trichiura. Out of the 49 samples positive for Entamoeba histolytica complex, there was only one case of antibodies to E. histolytica. The children's life habits demonstrated inadequate food hygiene practices. These insufficient sanitary parameters revealed a general lack of information in face of an alarming situation regarding sewage and other sources of environmental contamination in 20% of the areas. The high prevalence of protozoan infections despite chemoprophylaxis, with environmental sources of contamination/risk, inadequate health conditions and the general apathy of the population suggest the ineffectiveness of current preventive practices. Thus, it is advisable that control actions include protozoa as therapeutic targets and, above all, health education as a routine practice to prevent the long-term continuance of this vicious cycle.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Doenças Parasitárias , Criança , Prevalência , Quimioprevenção
16.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292217

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study evaluates the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle raised in Realeza, PR. There was a seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii of 87.5% and 67.9%, respectively in the properties assessed. The frequencies of T. gondii and N. caninum in the animals were 41.1% and 55.1%, respectively. The studied coccidia are widely distributed in dairy cows reared on family farms in the municipality of Realeza, PR. Sanitary control for reproductive diseases must be adopted to prevent miscarriages and the economic damage caused by the disease. Future studies should be performed to investigate how widespread these pathogens are in cattle herds in southwestern Parana.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Sorologia , Toxoplasma , Vigilância Sanitária , Bovinos , Neospora
17.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(1)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223812

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of head lice in children at a public hospital in Uberlândia, MG and factors associated with pediculosis such as sex, age, hair characteristics and socioeconomic conditions, as well as obtaining information from their parents/guardians regarding the epidemiology, its transmission, prevention and control. To obtain the data, direct hair inspection and a characterization sheet and questionnaire were utilized. An occurrence rate of 6.1 % was found in 230 children examined in a public hospital, 111 females and 119 males with the highest rates observed in female children aged 4-8 with medium to long hair. Income, level of education, hair washing, hair type, color and thickness did not seem to influence the distribution of pediculosis in the children seen in the hospital in Uberlândia. The questionnaire answered by parents/guardians indicated that the children had had at least one infestation in their lifetime. The use of fine comb and pesticides were the most usual control methods adopted. The most frequent symptom was severe itching on the scalp. Although the occurrence of head pediculosis is declining, it is still a prevalent public health problem in the child population of Uberlândia, MG. Pediculosis may be associated with sex, age and hair characteristics. Variations in the degree of these influencing factors depend on the profile of the population studied. Additional studies are required in population groups over time, particularly in those that are inadequately assisted or lack state education and health assistance.


El propósito de este estudio fue verificar la ocurrencia de piojos en niños de un hospital público de Uberlândia, MG y factores asociados a la pediculosis como sexo, edad, características del cabello y condiciones socioeconómicas, así como obtener información de sus padres / tutores. en cuanto a la epidemiología, su transmisión, prevención y control. Para la obtención de los datos se utilizó inspección capilar directa y hoja de caracterización y cuestionario. Se encontró una tasa de ocurrencia del 6.1% en 230 niños examinados en un hospital público, 111 mujeres y 119 hombres, con las tasas más altas observadas en niñas de 4 a 8 años con cabello medio a largo. Los ingresos, el nivel de educación, el lavado del cabello, el tipo de cabello, el color y el grosor no parecen influir en la distribución de la pediculosis en los niños atendidos en el hospital de Uberlândia. El cuestionario respondido por los padres / tutores indicó que los niños habían tenido al menos una infestación en su vida. El uso de peine fino y pesticidas fueron los métodos de control más habituales adoptados. El síntoma más frecuente fue la picazón intensa en el cuero cabelludo. Aunque la incidencia de pediculosis de la cabeza está disminuyendo, sigue siendo un problema de salud pública prevalente en la población infantil de Uberlândia, MG. La pediculosis puede estar asociada con el sexo, la edad y las características del cabello. Las variaciones en el grado de estos factores de influencia dependen del perfil de la población estudiada. Se requieren estudios adicionales en grupos de población a lo largo del tiempo, particularmente en aquellos que reciben asistencia inadecuada o carecen de educación y asistencia sanitaria estatal.


O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de piolhos de cabeça em crianças de um hospital público de Uberlândia, MG e fatores associados à pediculose como sexo, idade, características do cabelo e condições socioeconômicas, além de obter informações dos pais / responsáveis. quanto à epidemiologia, sua transmissão, prevenção e controle. Para a obtenção dos dados foram utilizados inspeção direta dos cabelos e ficha de caracterização e questionário. Uma taxa de ocorrência de 6,1% foi encontrada em 230 crianças examinadas em um hospital público, 111 mulheres e 119 homens com as taxas mais altas observadas em crianças do sexo feminino de 4 a 8 anos com cabelo médio a longo. Renda, escolaridade, lavagem dos cabelos, tipo, cor e espessura do cabelo não parecem influenciar na distribuição da pediculose nas crianças atendidas no hospital de Uberlândia. O questionário respondido pelos pais / responsáveis ​​indicou que as crianças tiveram pelo menos uma infestação na vida. O uso de pente fino e pesticidas foram os métodos de controle mais comumente adotados. O sintoma mais frequente foi coceira intensa no couro cabeludo. Embora a ocorrência de pediculose cefálica esteja em declínio, ainda é um problema de saúde pública prevalente na população infantil de Uberlândia, MG. A pediculose pode estar associada ao sexo, idade e características do cabelo. As variações no grau desses fatores influenciadores dependem do perfil da população estudada. Estudos adicionais são necessários em grupos populacionais ao longo do tempo, principalmente naqueles que são inadequadamente assistidos ou carecem de educação e assistência à saúde do Estado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Infestações por Piolhos , Criança , Epidemiologia , Incidência
18.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(1)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223811

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitoses are highly prevalent in underdeveloped countries such as Brazil. These infirmities may be analyzed looking at the epidemiological triad of the diseases, which consists of host health, the parasite itself and the environment in question. This study aimed to identify the presence of predisposing factors for contamination by enteroparasites in the students of a public university in the South of Brazil. A transversal and descriptive study was carried out with qualitative and quantitative components, and data prospection by means of a questionnaire answered by the students. Only 63.9% of the subjects wash their hands before meals. However, the most alarming factor observed was the environmental instance as the university restrooms are often unclean, which was reported in 99.0% of the questionnaires.


Las parasitosis intestinales son muy frecuentes en países subdesarrollados como Brasil. Estas enfermedades pueden analizarse observando la tríada epidemiológica de las enfermedades, que consiste en la salud del huésped, el parásito en sí y el medio ambiente en cuestión. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la presencia de factores predisponentes a la contaminación por enteroparásitos en los estudiantes de una universidad pública del Sur de Brasil. Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo con componentes cualitativos y cuantitativos, y prospección de datos mediante un cuestionario respondido por los estudiantes. Solo el 63,9% de los sujetos se lava las manos antes de las comidas. Sin embargo, el factor más alarmante observado fue la instancia ambiental como los baños universitarios son a menudo inmundos, lo que se informó en el 99,0% de los cuestionarios.


As parasitoses intestinais são altamente prevalentes em países subdesenvolvidos como o Brasil. Essas enfermidades podem ser analisadas a partir da tríade epidemiológica das doenças, que consiste na saúde do hospedeiro, o próprio parasita e o meio ambiente em questão. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar a presença de fatores predisponentes para contaminação por enteroparasitas em estudantes de uma universidade pública do Sul do Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo transversal e descritivo com componentes qualitativa e quantitativa e prospecção de dados por meio de questionário respondido pelos alunos. Apenas 63,9% dos sujeitos lavam as mãos antes das refeições. Porém, o fator mais alarmante observado foi a instância ambiental como os banheiros da universidade são frequentemente impuros, o que foi relatado em 99,0% dos questionários.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias , Estudantes , Educação em Saúde
19.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(1)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223798

RESUMO

The trematode Echinostoma paraensei is an intestinal parasite transmitted by ingestion of the infectious stage of metacercariae. For scientific purposes, its life cycle has been maintained in the laboratory, allowing analysis using various biological approaches. Different parasite isolates have revealed atypical patterns of migration and establishment in ectopic sites in Swiss-Webster mice. During the investigation of the biological life cycle of an E. paraensei isolate from the silvatic rodent Nectomys squamipes collected in the municipality of Rio Bonito (State of Rio de Janeiro), a bacterial coinfection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed, which produced anatomopathological alterations, mainly in the liver, bile ducts, pancreas, and small intestine. The main macroscopic signs were the whitish suppurative pyogenic punctual lesions. The histological sections stained by hematoxylin-eosin showed an intense inflammatory reaction formed by mononuclear cells and macrophages surrounding the bile ducts, although the hepatic parenchyma still presented its normal aspect. Thus, pyogenic abscesses can be associated with E. paraensei infection depending on the strain and aggravating pathogenesis in the definitive host.


El trematodo Echinostoma paraensei es un parásito intestinal transmitido por ingestión de la etapa infecciosa de las metacercarias. Para fines científicos, su ciclo de vida se ha mantenido en el laboratorio, lo que permite el análisis mediante diversos enfoques biológicos. Diferentes aislamientos de parásitos han revelado patrones atípicos de migración y establecimiento en sitios ectópicos en ratones Swiss-Webster. Durante la investigación del ciclo biológico de un aislado de E. paraensei del roedor silvático Nectomys squamipes colectado en el municipio de Rio Bonito (Estado de Rio de Janeiro), se observó una coinfección bacteriana con Pseudomonas aeruginosa, que produjo alteraciones anatomopatológicas, principalmente en el hígado, los conductos biliares, el páncreas y el intestino delgado. Los principales signos macroscópicos fueron las lesiones puntuales piógenas blanquecinas supurativas. Los cortes histológicos teñidos con hematoxilina-eosina mostraron una intensa reacción inflamatoria formada por células mononucleares y macrófagos que rodeaban las vías biliares, aunque el parénquima hepático aún presentaba su aspecto normal. Por tanto, los abscesos piógenos pueden asociarse con la infección por E. paraensei dependiendo de la cepa y agravando la patogenia en el hospedador definitivo.


O trematódeo Echinostoma paraensei é um parasita intestinal transmitido pela ingestão da fase infecciosa das metacercárias. Para fins científicos, seu ciclo de vida foi mantido em laboratório, permitindo análises por meio de diversas abordagens biológicas. Diferentes isolados de parasitas revelaram padrões atípicos de migração e estabelecimento em sítios ectópicos em camundongos Swiss-Webster. Durante a investigação do ciclo de vida biológico de um isolado de E. paraensei do roedor silvático Nectomys squamipes coletado no município de Rio Bonito (Estado do Rio de Janeiro), foi observada uma coinfecção bacteriana por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, que produziu alterações anatomopatológicas, principalmente no fígado, dutos biliares, pâncreas e intestino delgado. Os principais sinais macroscópicos foram as lesões pontuais piogênicas supurativas esbranquiçadas. Os cortes histológicos corados pela hematoxilina-eosina mostraram intensa reação inflamatória formada por células mononucleares e macrófagos circundando as vias biliares, embora o parênquima hepático ainda apresentasse seu aspecto normal. Assim, abscessos piogênicos podem estar associados à infecção por E. paraensei dependendo da cepa e agravando a patogênese no hospedeiro definitivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Trematódeos , Infecções , Abscesso Hepático , Camundongos
20.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(1)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223706

RESUMO

A single dose of simvastatin and of artesunate monotherapy cause damage to the reproductive system of schistosomes as well as severe tegumental damage in male worms recovered from mice fed high-fat chow. This study aims to investigate whether treatment with multipledose regimes may offer more antischistosomal activity advantages than single daily dosing in mice fed high-fat chow. For this purpose, nine weeks post-infection, Swiss Webster mice were gavaged with simvastatin (200 mg/kg) or artesunate (300 mg/kg) for five consecutive days and euthanized two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were analyzed using brightfield microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, presenting damages caused by simvastatin and artesunate to the reproductive system of males and females as well as tegument alterations, including peeling, sloughing areas, loss of tubercles, tegumental bubbles and tegument rupture exposing subtegumental tissue. The overall findings in this study revealed the potential antischistosomal activity of simvastatin and artesunate against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms, in addition to showing that multiple doses of either monotherapy caused severe damage to the tegument.


Una sola dosis de simvastatina y de artesunato en monoterapia causa daño al sistema reproductivo de los esquistosomas, así como daño tegumental severo en gusanos machos recuperados de ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar si el tratamiento con regímenes de dosis múltiples puede ofrecer más ventajas de actividad antiesquistosomal que la dosis única diaria en ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Para este propósito, nueve semanas después de la infección, los ratones Swiss Webster se alimentaron por sonda con simvastatina (200 mg / kg) o artesunato (300 mg / kg) durante cinco días consecutivos y se sacrificaron dos semanas después del tratamiento. Los gusanos adultos se analizaron utilizando campo claro microscopía, microscopía confocal y microscopía electrónica de barrido, presentando daños causados ​​por simvastatina y artesunato en el sistema reproductivo de machos y hembras, así como alteraciones del tegumento, incluyendo descamación, desprendimiento, pérdida de tubérculos, burbujas tegumentales y rotura del tegumento exponiendo tejido subtegumental. Los hallazgos generales de este estudio revelaron la posible actividad antiesquistosomal de la simvastatina y el artesunato contra los gusanos adultos de Schistosoma mansoni, además de mostrar que dosis múltiples de cualquiera de las dos monoterapia causaron daños graves al tegumento.


Uma única dose de sinvastatina e de monoterapia com artesunato causa danos ao sistema reprodutivo dos esquistossomos, bem como danos graves ao tegumento em vermes machos recuperados de camundongos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar se o tratamento com regimes de múltiplas doses pode oferecer mais vantagens da atividade anti-esquistossomótica do que uma única dose diária em ratos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Para tanto, nove semanas após a infecção, camundongos Swiss Webster foram inoculados com sinvastatina (200 mg / kg) ou artesunato (300 mg / kg) por cinco dias consecutivos e sacrificados duas semanas após o tratamento. Vermes adultos foram analisados ​​usando campo claro microscopia, microscopia confocal e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, apresentando danos causados ​​pela sinvastatina e artesunato ao sistema reprodutivo de homens e mulheres, bem como alterações do tegumento, incluindo descamação, áreas de descamação, perda de tubérculos, bolhas tegumentais e ruptura do tegumento com exposição de tecido subtegumentar. Os achados gerais deste estudo revelaram a potencial atividade anti-esquistossomótica da sinvastatina e do artesunato contra vermes adultos do Schistosoma mansoni, além de mostrar que doses múltiplas de ambas as monoterapias causaram danos graves ao tegumento.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Schistosoma mansoni , Sinvastatina , Hiperlipidemias , Camundongos , Microscopia
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