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1.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3041, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822543

RESUMO

This paper aims to provide theoretically informed practical proposals for the improvement of current drug policies, which are based on a biological model of disease and the criminalization of people who use drugs. First, we present alternatives to a biologically-oriented scientific conception centered around neuroscientific postulates, which support the idea that the etiology of addiction materializes in the brain, in favor of models based on the social sciences where context plays a relevant role in the description and management approaches regarding different uses of psychoactive substances. Second, epistemological models and proposals are offered from a practical perspective to sustain or implement policies and programs in accordance with a more sustainable approach based on the elimination of stigma and the promotion of political participation of people who use drugs. In short, drug policies based on human rights.

4.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 31(1): 53-76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716227

RESUMO

Several ethicists have defended the use of responsibility-based criteria in healthcare rationing. Yet in this article we outline two challenges to the implementation of responsibility-based healthcare rationing policies. These two challenges are, namely, that responsibility for past behavior can diminish as an agent changes, and that blame can come apart from responsibility. These challenges suggest that it is more difficult to hold someone responsible for health related actions than proponents of responsibility-sensitive healthcare policies suggest. We close by discussing public health policies that could function as an alternative to contentious, responsibility-sensitive rationing policies.


Assuntos
Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Política de Saúde , Justiça Social , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos , Princípios Morais
5.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 75-97, 2021 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728879

RESUMO

The Political Constitution of the United States of Mexico (CPEUM) dates from February 5, 1917. It recognizes that all people will enjoy the guarantees granted by the Constitution, which may not be restricted or suspended, except in some cases and under the conditions that it herself establishes.On the centenary of the promulgation of its Magna Carta, Mexico is experiencing a deep economic, political, social and governmental crisis, and the consequent loss of access to fundamental human rights to survive.Among the effects of this situation, 44 million people are in the age of preparing to enter the labor market and sustain the Mexican economy for the next four decades. However, their economic situation prevents them from having the resources required to access adequate food, pay educational expenses and enter the labor market.This reality makes it essential to explore the possible causes that have originated these circumstances and propose viable alternatives that alleviate – in the medium term – the immense deficiencies of the Mexicans and recover the hope that there will be possibilities of a lasting life.


Assuntos
Bioética , Direitos Humanos , Demografia , Humanos , México , Política , Dinâmica Populacional
6.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 27(2): 23, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779818

RESUMO

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were placed on digital contact tracing. Digital contact tracing apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as further waves of COVID-19 tear through much of the northern hemisphere, these apps are playing a less important role in interrupting chains of infection than anticipated. We argue that one of the reasons for this is that most countries have opted for decentralised apps, which cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users of likely infections while avoiding too many false positive reports. Centralised apps, in contrast, have the potential to do this. But policy making was influenced by public debates about the right app configuration, which have tended to focus heavily on privacy, and are driven by the assumption that decentralised apps are "privacy preserving by design". We show that both types of apps are in fact vulnerable to privacy breaches, and, drawing on principles from safety engineering and risk analysis, compare the risks of centralised and decentralised systems along two dimensions, namely the probability of possible breaches and their severity. We conclude that a centralised app may in fact minimise overall ethical risk, and contend that we must reassess our approach to digital contact tracing, and should, more generally, be cautious about a myopic focus on privacy when conducting ethical assessments of data technologies.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade/ética , Busca de Comunicante/ética , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Privacidade , /epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/ética , Saúde Pública , Smartphone
7.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(2): 121-125, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656818

RESUMO

There have been shifts over time in the value placed on long-term psychotherapeutic modalities even though they can be life-saving. For example, the province of Ontario in Canada has been dealing with a government proposal put forward in 2019 to limit the length of psychotherapy treatment. In response, stakeholders from numerous groups came together to advocate for the importance of continuing unrestricted access to long-term psychotherapy. Approaches to this advocacy then had to unexpectedly adapt to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that came to the forefront in 2020 and will continue to develop in response to this changing landscape.


Assuntos
Defesa do Consumidor , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Psicoterapia/legislação & jurisprudência , Psicoterapia/métodos , Humanos , Ontário , Pandemias , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Development (Rome) ; : 1-6, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679101

RESUMO

Envisioning democratic and internationalist ways of exercising peoples' sovereignty beyond local and national borders requires the enrichment of human rights thinking with non-European cosmovisions, normative and legal thinking. Integrating human rights, environmental and climate law and the rights of nature plays a key role in building institutions and policies that can genuinely address the root causes of ecological destruction. Likewise, human rights should be at the forefront of the struggle to re-shape financial capitalism and its destructive economic model. They can guide transition processes towards more sustainable ways of production, distribution and consumption, but also towards the necessary protection of and support for care work. Finally, there is an urgent need for innovation in human rights institutions and practices. This goes from securing funding for independent work and combating corporate capture, addressing the colonial legacy still present in international law and human rights architecture, rebalancing the local, national, sub-regional, regional and international dimensions of human rights work, and finding ways to address the dilemmas of a state-centric human rights accountability and governance which do not fall into the traps of multi-stakeholderism.

13.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e13, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612140

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the consequences of conspiracy theories and the COVID-19 pandemic raised this interest to another level. In this article, I will outline what we know about the consequences of conspiracy theories for individuals, groups, and society, arguing that they are certainly not harmless. In particular, research suggests that conspiracy theories are associated with political apathy, support for non-normative political action, climate denial, vaccine refusal, prejudice, crime, violence, disengagement in the workplace, and reluctance to adhere to COVID-19 recommendations. In this article, I will also discuss the challenges of dealing with the negative consequences of conspiracy theories, which present some opportunities for future research.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Política , Preconceito , Recusa de Vacinação , Apatia , Atitude , Mudança Climática , Crime , Cultura , Negação em Psicologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Violência
14.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 51 Suppl 1: S10-S14, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630342

RESUMO

A civic ideal is an ideal of deliberative self-governance. People who participate in discussing what their own groups should do are being civic. Civic venues, institutions, and habits have waned since the mid-1990s. In the 1990s, a movement arose to restore them, under the banner of "civic renewal." This movement was carefully nonpartisan, often impartial about specific issues, and interested in creating alternative settings that could complement such basic political institutions as Congress and elections. As the condition of democracy has worsened in recent years, this approach looks inadequate or irrelevant. The most promising sources of civic renewal now are parties and social movements that have substantive agendas, such as racial justice, and that improve civic life as a collateral benefit.


Assuntos
Política , Justiça Social , Humanos , Internet
16.
J Public Health Policy ; 42(1): 154-159, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462403

RESUMO

During a public health emergency, a government must balance public welfare, equity, individual rights, and democratic processes and norms. These goods may conflict. Although science has a role in informing wise policy, no empirical evidence or algorithm can determine how to balance competing goods under conditions of uncertainty. Especially in a crisis, it is crucial to have a broad and free conversation about public policy. Many countries are moving in the opposite direction. Sixty-one percent of governments have imposed at least some problematic restrictions on individual rights or democratic processes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and 17 have made substantial negative changes. The policies of Poland and Hungary reflect these global trends and continue these countries' recent histories of democratic erosion. The expertise of public health should be deployed in defense of civil liberties.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Direitos Civis , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Política Pública
17.
J Public Health Policy ; 42(1): 145-153, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462404

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic constitutes not only a danger for public health, but may also threaten civil liberties. Looking at the examples of recent events in Poland and Hungary, the authors argue that governments may misuse pandemic for their political advantage, thus endangering public health. Political decisions taken to stem the spread of pandemics should be limited and strictly proportionate to the situation.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Direitos Civis , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Política
18.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(1): 15-18, 2021 01.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512353

RESUMO

It was a very dark year for EBM. One of the side effects of the Covid-19 pandemic is a severe compression of the evidences. Here are some worrying events. May 2020: the saga of hydroxychloroquine. October 2020: the nitazoxanide case. November 2020: Trump Administration Interferes on Expert Opinion. December 2020: the results of the trials on the first two vaccines were announced in press releases, leaving many scientific uncertainties. Peter Piot, head of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine noted that none of the CoViD-19 vaccines have offered much data to date. «It is frustrating that all of these announcements are delivered via press release, and not give us a chance to review the actual data. We desperately need total transparency on evidence and data¼, says Piot. Better now to relaunch the spread of EBM. In the issue, we have included the best EBM-based readings from the Club for Evidence-Based in Gastroenterology & Hepatology (ebgh.it).


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Pandemias , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Brasil , /epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Revelação , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Itália , Política , Propaganda , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(1): e3001068, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507935

RESUMO

The United States witnessed an unprecedented politicization of biomedical science starting in 2015 that has exploded into a complex, multimodal anti-science empire operating through mass media, political elections, legislation, and even health systems. Anti-science activities now pervade the daily lives of many Americans, and threaten to infect other parts of the world. We can attribute the deaths of tens of thousands of Americans from COVID-19, measles, and other vaccine-preventable diseases to anti-science. The acceleration of anti-science activities demands not only new responses and approaches but also international coordination. Vaccines and other biomedical advances will not be sufficient to halt COVID-19 or future potentially catastrophic illnesses, unless we simultaneously counter anti-science aggression.


Assuntos
Política , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , /epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Opinião Pública , U.R.S.S. , Estados Unidos
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