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1.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 229-233, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a 40% miswak compared to a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients aged 20-55 years who attended the Periodontics Clinics at the College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq, were allocated into 2 groups to use either 40% miswak mouthwash or 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate Kin Gingival (Laboratorios KIN) twice daily for 2 months. Gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices were assessed. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the effectiveness of miswak and chlorhexidine mouthwashes in terms of gingivitis. The means of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices using miswak mouthwash were 1.2, 0.4, and 0.53, respectively, i.e. indicating lower effectiveness, than when 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash was used (0.87, 0.43, 0.23, respectively). CONCLUSION: Miswak mouthwash is a good oral hygiene agent especially for long-term use even if its efficacy is lower than chlorhexidine mouthwash.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 26(1): e2119248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare three teaching methods' time and personnel requirements, and their effects on plaque and gingival indices. METHODS: This study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial on fixed orthodontic appliance candidates (n = 90), assigned into a control group (n = 30) and two different study groups (n = 30 each). The control group received standard printed educational material and was assisted with verbal information. The study groups either received video-assisted or hands-on training about fixed orthodontic appliance and oral hygiene. The time requirements for all three educational interventions was recorded during the initial visit. The adequacy of oral hygiene was documented through plaque and gingival indices during the initial visit and eighth week of the treatment. The continuous variables were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA. Tukey HSD and Student t-tests were used for post-hoc comparisons (α?#8197;= 0.05). Also, a chi-square test was used for the analysis of categorical variables. RESULTS: Standard education failed to maintain the plaque and gingival indices at the eighth week of the treatment. Although both video-assisted and hands-on training took a considerable amount of time, they served well in preserving both of the indices at the eighth week. The longer the educational intervention was, the better the preservation of the plaque and gingival indices. CONCLUSION: Educational intervention, either with video-assisted or hands-on programs, provided better results in oral hygiene depending on the time and personnel constraints of the orthodontist.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Higiene Bucal , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Índice Periodontal , Método Simples-Cego
3.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 128(2): 87-88, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605257

RESUMO

A heart transplant procedure is performed on patients who have an end-stage heart disease (severe failure) for whom no other treatment is left. Patients need to take immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of their lives to prevent the rejection of a transplanted heart. A recent overview of scientific literature shows a higher risk of gingival hyperplasia, periodontal conditions, the presence of Candida species and oral malignancies compared to healthy individuals. The association between a heart transplant and dental caries is unclear. A frequent periodical dental check and professional dental cleaning is recommended for heart transplant patients.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária , Transplante de Coração , Doenças Periodontais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia
4.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 30-37, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427216

RESUMO

More than 700 microbial species inhabit the complex environment of the oral cavity. For years microorganisms have been studied in pure cultures, a highly artificial situation because microorganisms in natural habitats grow as complex ecologies, termed biofilms. These resemble multicellular organisms and are characterized by their overall metabolic activity upon multiple cellular interactions. Microorganisms in biofilms express different genes than their planktonic counterparts, resulting in higher resistance to antimicrobials, different nutritional requirements, or creation of a low redox potential allowing the growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen. Multiple in vitro biofilm models have been described in the literature so far. The main emphasis here will be on multispecies biofilm batch culture models developed in Zurich. The standard 6-species supragingival biofilm model has been used to study basic aspects of oral biofilms such as structure, social behavior, and spatial distribution of microorganisms, or diffusion properties. Numerous parameters related to the inhibition of dental plaque were tested illustrating the high reliability of the model to predict the in vivo efficiency of antimicrobials. Modifications and advancements led to a 10-species subgingival model often combined with human gingival epithelial cells, as an integral part of the oral innate immune system, eliciting various cell responses ranging from cytokine production to apoptosis. In conclusion, biofilm models enable a multitude of questions to be addressed that cannot be studied with planktonic monocultures. The Zurich in vitro biofilm models are reproducible and reliable and may be used for basic studies, but also for application-oriented questions that could not be addressed using culture techniques. Oral biofilm research will certainly lead to a more realistic assessment of the role of microorganisms in the oral cavity in health and disease. In this respect, substantial progress has been made, but there is still more to explore.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Boca , Gengiva , Humanos , Plâncton , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 91-97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427225

RESUMO

Caries and inflammatory periodontal diseases have a high prevalence worldwide. Although improvements in oral health status in our patients have been shown, there is still an increased demand for preventive measurements - especially in view of the systemic influence of the chronic disease periodontitis. The main focus of such measurements lies on an optimal biofilm management which can be divided into professional biofilm management and home care measurements. Since home care mechanical measurements such as toothbrushing and interdental cleaning are often insufficient or not on a regular basis, they can be supported by antibacterial agents which are able to inhibit or kill any oral microorganisms that remain. Besides a proven effect on plaque bacteria and gingival inflammation, agents should have a high substantivity in the oral cavity that outlast the short rinsing period. This chapter aims to present the background and rationale of using antibacterial mouth rinses, their common agents, to show sensible indications, and to evaluate the scientific evidence of their additional effect over toothbrushing alone.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Antissépticos Bucais , Biofilmes , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inflamação , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Higiene Bucal , Escovação Dentária
6.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 1-11, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427230

RESUMO

In reality, most microorganisms are not free floating. They exist in biofilms, a community of many of them from the same species or from other genera and attached to surfaces.Microorganisms undergo a transition from free-floating, planktonic microorganisms to a sessile, surface-attached one. Contact with a surface induces changes in gene expression, and a strong attachment of microcolonies occurs only after a few hours. The maturation of a biofilm is associated with matrix formation. The matrix is of importance as it provides stability and protects against environmental insults, it consists of polysaccharides, water, lipids, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Biofilms can be found everywhere - in the environment, in water systems - and they play an important role in medicine and dentistry. In medicine, infections of chronic wounds, of the respiratory tract in cystic fibrosis infections, or when linked with incorporated biomaterial are mostly biofilm associated. In the oral cavity, the most prevalent oral diseases, dental caries, and periodontitis are multi-species biofilm-associated diseases. Although not acting alone, key pathogens drive the development of the microbial shift. Microorganisms metabolize sugar and create an acidic environment where aciduric bacteria (including mutans streptococci) become dominant, which leads to the demineralization of enamel and dentine. Porphyromonas gingivaliscauses biofilm dysbiosis in the development of periodontal disease. Biofilm-associated infections are extremely difficult to treat. The matrix serves as a barrier to antimicrobial agents and there are subpopulations of dormant bacteria resistant to antimicrobials requiring metabolically active cells. Approaches to treat biofilm-associated infections include the modification of the biofilm composition, inhibitors of quorum-sensing molecules, or interfering with matrix constituents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Biofilmes , Humanos , Boca , Percepção de Quorum , Streptococcus mutans
7.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 74-79, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427231

RESUMO

The intraoral biofilm requires mechanical removal due to its physical properties. When exposed to the biofilm, interdental areas need special devices to be used. The most effective ones and the first choice are interdental brushes. However, they may not be adequate in the case of very narrow interdental spaces. Despite the difficulties in handling, dental floss may have some advantage in subgingival cleaning. Data are present for gingivitis and periodontitis, but almost no information has been published on gingivally healthy individuals. With respect to interdental caries there is evidence that floss only has a protective value when used professionally and without sufficient fluoridation. There are no such data available on interdental brushes.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Biofilmes , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Escovação Dentária
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401545

RESUMO

Poly(methyl methacralyate) (PMMA) has long been used in dentistry as a base polymer for dentures, and it is recently being used for the 3D printing of dental materials. Despite its many advantages, its susceptibility to microbial colonization remains to be overcome. In this study, the interface between 3D-printed PMMA specimens and oral salivary biofilm was studied following the addition of zwitterionic materials, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) or sulfobetaine methacrylate (SB). A significant reduction in bacterial and biofilm adhesions was observed following the addition of MPC or SB, owing to their protein-repellent properties, and there were no significant differences between the two test materials. Although the mechanical properties of the tested materials were degraded, the statistical value of the reduction was minimal and all the properties fulfilled the requirements set by the International Standard, ISO 20795-2. Additionally, both the test materials maintained their resistance to biofilm when subjected to hydrothermal fatigue, with no further deterioration of the mechanical properties. Thus, novel 3D-printable PMMA incorporated with MPC or SB shows durable oral salivary biofilm resistance with maintenance of the physical and mechanical properties.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Resinas Compostas/química , Materiais Dentários/farmacologia , Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/química , Impressão Tridimensional/instrumentação , Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/química , Boca/microbiologia , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo
9.
Quintessence Int ; 52(2): 176-186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433083

RESUMO

At present, the most important criterion for the size selection of interdental brushes is the PHD-value (passage hole diameter) according to the ISO standard for interdental brushes ISO 16409:2016. The PHD size range of commercially available products currently lies between 0.6 and 5.2 mm. With the exceptions of special situations, a range between 0.7 and 2.9 mm is sufficient for clinical routine. As most products have longer filaments nowadays, one brush can often be applied for two PHD intervals. Consequently, adequate patient counseling and the individual selection of the appropriate interdental brushes can generally be achieved with an assortment of 12 systematically arranged interdental brush sizes. An application example is the "Heidelberg set" described herein. It is crucial that the correct choice of size is based upon continuously rising PHD-values, and not upon parameters such as stem size, outer diameter of filaments, or similar, as these do not allow for a reliable conclusion regarding the interdental passage. The usage of ISO sizes is also not recommendable due to their insufficient size differentiation. (Quintessence Int 2021;52: 176-186; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.b872241; Revised from an article originally published (in German) in Parodontologie 2020;31(1)37-49)

.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Escovação Dentária
10.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 105-114, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors of this study aimed to evaluate the clinical antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of 3 oral hygiene regimens: toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride, zinc lactate, and fluoride (CPC + Zn + F) in an alcohol-free base; toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing essential oils (EO) in an alcohol-free base; and toothbrushing with manual toothbrush and standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush (control). METHODS: The participants (N = 120) were randomly assigned to study groups and followed the assigned regimens twice daily for 6 weeks. The participants were examined by a calibrated examiner for the Quigley-Hein plaque index (Turesky modification) and Löe-Silness gingival index at baseline, week 4, and week 6. Statistical analyses were performed separately for plaque and gingival indexes by means of analysis of variance, paired t test, and analysis of covariance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: At week 4, the CPC + Zn + F group presented additional reductions in dental plaque compared with EO and control groups of (21.4% [P < .001] and 31.4% [P < .001], respectively). After 6 weeks, these values were 26.7% (P < .001) and 44.8% (P < .001), respectively. For Löe-Silness gingival index, additional reduction in the CPC + Zn + F group compared with EO were 10.6% (P < .001) and 13.7% (P < .001) at 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Compared with control, these reductions were 13.6% (P < .001) and 17.8% (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The regimen including a mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F presented higher antiplaque and antigingivitis effects than EO and control regimens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: A mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F is an effective protocol for the control of dental plaque and gingivitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Cetilpiridínio/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactatos , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Escovação Dentária , Zinco/uso terapêutico
11.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 115-126.e4, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of oscillating rotating (OR) versus side-to-side (SS) powered toothbrushes on plaque and gingival index reduction. METHODS: The authors searched 3 electronic databases and the gray literature for randomized clinical trials in which investigators compared OR with SS powered toothbrushes. Two authors independently screened the studies, performed data abstraction, and assessed the risk of bias. The authors used random-effects model meta-analyses to pool results across trials and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: This systematic review included 24 trials in which researchers enrolled a total of 2,998 patients. There was moderate-certainty evidence that SS toothbrushes may result in little to no difference in plaque index reduction from baseline to 4 weeks compared with OR toothbrushes (standardized mean difference, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.46 to 0.42). There was moderate-certainty evidence that SS toothbrushes may result in little to no difference in gingival index reduction from baseline to 4 weeks compared with OR toothbrushes (standardized mean difference, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, -0.47 to 0.22). There was moderate-quality evidence suggesting little to no difference in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence does not suggest the superiority of either OR or SS toothbrushes for plaque or gingival index reduction. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians and patients considering the use of either of these toothbrushes are unlikely to observe more benefits with one type versus the other.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária
12.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(6): 424-430, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369552

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different motivational methods on children's oral hygiene and periodontal health. Methods: A prospective, controlled, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 60 six- to 12-year-olds who were randomly assigned to toothbrushing with an hourglass timer, music video, or control group. All three groups were divided into two equal subgroups: those using a manual toothbrush and those using a powered toothbrush. The plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were measured in each group. The data obtained were analyzed using three-factor variance analysis. Results: A statistically significant decrease was observed in PI and GI values in all groups (P<0.05). The highest decrease in PI values was observed in the group brushing with a music video and a powered toothbrush (51.8 percent), whereas the least decrease was observed in the control group using a powered toothbrush (26.1 percent). The differences were not statistically significant among the groups. Conclusions: A significant decrease in plaque index and gingival index values was obtained in all groups compared to baseline values. Although the additional motivational methods used during toothbrushing contributed to improved plaque removal and toothbrushing efficiency, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Criança , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD003864, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For people with physical, sensory and cognitive limitations due to stroke, the routine practice of oral health care (OHC) may become a challenge. Evidence-based supported oral care intervention is essential for this patient group. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of OHC interventions with usual care or other treatment options for ensuring oral health in people after a stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group and Cochrane Oral Health Group trials registers, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and six other databases in February 2019. We scanned reference lists from relevant papers and contacted authors and researchers in the field. We handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted other researchers. There were no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated one or more interventions designed to improve the cleanliness and health of the mouth, tongue and teeth in people with a stroke who received assisted OHC led by healthcare staff. We included trials with a mixed population provided we could extract the stroke-specific data. The primary outcomes were dental plaque or denture plaque. Secondary outcomes included presence of oral disease, presence of related infection and oral opportunistic pathogens related to OHC and pneumonia, stroke survivor and providers' knowledge and attitudes to OHC, and patient satisfaction and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened abstracts and full-text articles according to prespecified selection criteria, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We sought clarification from investigators when required. Where suitable statistical data were available, we combined the selected outcome data in pooled meta-analyses. We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen RCTs (22 randomised comparisons) involving 3631 participants with data for 1546 people with stroke met the selection criteria. OHC interventions compared with usual care Seven trials (2865 participants, with data for 903 participants with stroke, 1028 healthcare providers, 94 informal carers) investigated OHC interventions compared with usual care. Multi-component OHC interventions showed no evidence of a difference in the mean score (DMS) of dental plaque one month after the intervention was delivered (DMS -0.66, 95% CI -1.40 to 0.09; 2 trials, 83 participants; I2 = 83%; P = 0.08; very low-quality evidence). Stroke survivors had less plaque on their dentures when staff had access to the multi-component OHC intervention (DMS -1.31, 95% CI -1.96 to -0.66; 1 trial, 38 participants; P < 0.0001; low-quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in gingivitis (DMS -0.60, 95% CI -1.66 to 0.45; 2 trials, 83 participants; I2 = 93%; P = 0.26: very low-quality evidence) or denture-induced stomatitis (DMS -0.33, 95% CI -0.92 to 0.26; 1 trial, 38 participants; P = 0.69; low-quality evidence) among participants receiving the multi-component OHC protocol compared with usual care one month after the intervention. There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants receiving a multi-component OHC intervention (99 participants; 5 incidents of pneumonia) compared with those receiving usual care (105 participants; 1 incident of pneumonia) (OR 4.17, CI 95% 0.82 to 21.11; 1 trial, 204 participants; P = 0.08; low-quality evidence). OHC training for stroke survivors and healthcare providers significantly improved their OHC knowledge at one month after training (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.35; 3 trials, 728 participants; I2 = 94%; P = 0.03; very low-quality evidence). Pooled data one month after training also showed evidence of a difference between stroke survivor and providers' oral health attitudes (SMD 0.28, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.54; 3 trials, 728 participants; I2 = 65%; P = 0.06; very low-quality evidence). OHC interventions compared with placebo Three trials (394 participants, with data for 271 participants with stroke) compared an OHC intervention with placebo. There were no data for primary outcomes. There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants receiving an OHC intervention compared with placebo (OR 0.39, CI 95% 0.14 to 1.09; 2 trials, 242 participants; I2 = 42%; P = 0.07; low-quality evidence). However, decontamination gel reduced the incidence of pneumonia among the intervention group compared with placebo gel group (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; 1 trial, 203 participants; P = 0.028). There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants treated with povidone-iodine compared with a placebo (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.18 to 3.51; 1 trial, 39 participants; P = 0.77). One OHC intervention compared with another OHC intervention Twelve trials (372 participants with stroke) compared one OHC intervention with another OHC intervention. There was no difference in dental plaque scores between those participants that received an enhanced multi-component OHC intervention compared with conventional OHC interventions at three months (MD -0.04, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.25; 1 trial, 61 participants; P = 0.78; low-quality evidence). There were no data for denture plaque. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low- to very low-quality evidence suggesting that OHC interventions can improve the cleanliness of patient's dentures and stroke survivor and providers' knowledge and attitudes. There is limited low-quality evidence that selective decontamination gel may be more beneficial than placebo at reducing the incidence of pneumonia. Improvements in the cleanliness of a patient's own teeth was limited. We judged the quality of the evidence included within meta-analyses to be low or very low quality, and this limits our confidence in the results. We still lack high-quality evidence of the optimal approach to providing OHC to people after stroke.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Educação em Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estomatite sob Prótese/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374694

RESUMO

The scientific community has definitely demonstrated the importance of the use of mouthwash in daily oral hygiene. In our pilot study, we tested the effectiveness of a novel mouth rinse containing sea salt, xylitol, and lysozyme. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) growth, and plaque index in adolescent patients aged 14-17 years, were observed. The bacterial load was investigated by in vitro microbiological analysis; the plaque index was assessed through the O'Leary's Plaque Control Record (PCR). The study has shown that the use of a sea salt-based mouthwash in daily oral hygiene reduces the bacterial levels of S. mutans (p < 0.01) linked to the combined action of xylitol and lysozyme, together with the action of sea salt. Our preliminary data confirm and improve the main results reported in the scientific literature on the importance of the use of xylitol, lysozyme, and sea salt in oral health.


Assuntos
Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Higiene Bucal , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Xilitol/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Muramidase/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Streptococcus mutans
16.
J Dent Hyg ; 94(6): 33-39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376120

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a professional oral health care program on the oral health status and salivary flow of elderly people living in nursing homes.Methods: Elderly residents aged ≥ 65 years, living in a nursing home, were randomly assigned to either a one-week interval, two-week interval, or control group, and received an oral health intervention accordingly over a period of 12 weeks. Plaque index, tongue coating, gingival index, and salivary flow rate were compared before and after the oral health intervention within and between the groups.Results: The plaque, tongue coating, and gingival indices of the participants who received the oral health intervention decreased significantly; while the salivary flow rate significantly increased. Plaque, tongue coating, and gingival indices decreased most significantly in the one-week interval group, followed by the two-week interval group, relative to the control. The salivary flow rate increased most significantly in the one-week interval group, followed by the two-week interval group.Conclusion: A professional oral health care program is effective for improving the oral health and salivation of elderly residents in nursing homes and the effect was found to be greater with interventions provided at one-week intervals. Oral health care professionals, including dentists and dental hygienists, must regularly monitor and manage the oral health of elderly residents.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Idosos , Placa Dentária , Idoso , Assistência à Saúde , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Casas de Saúde , Saúde Bucal
17.
Rev. ADM ; 77(6): 301-305, nov.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151065

RESUMO

A finales de 2019 se identificó el virus SARS-CoV-2 (por su significado en inglés Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) como agente etiológico de la COVID-19 (por su significado en inglés coronavirus disease 2019) en la ciudad de Wuhan, China. Debido a su rápida propagación al resto del mundo durante el primer trimestre del año 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) la declaró pandemia mundial en marzo del mismo año. Por el potencial de contagio de COVID-19 se ha considerado que el entorno clínico en el que se desenvuelve la odontología puede ser de alto riesgo para el paciente, el odontólogo y sus asistentes si no se tienen las medidas de bioseguridad adecuadas. En un principio se vieron suspendidas las consultas regulares; sin embargo, al volver a la actividad laboral se han adaptado protocolos para el control de infecciones como reforzar el uso de barreras de protección y minimizar tratamientos que involucren aerosoles. La caries es uno de los principales motivos de consulta en la odontología pediátrica, por lo que en este escrito se sugieren algunos protocolos basados en la mínima invasión que prescinden de instrumental rotatorio para salvaguardar al paciente en riesgo de contagio, reduciendo el número de visitas y tiempo en consulta e incluso controlando algunos aspectos de salud bucal fuera de consulta clínica por medio de estrategias preventivas que pueden llevarse a cabo desde casa. Esto significa también mantener la tranquilidad por parte de los tutores del paciente ante la pandemia que se vive actualmente (AU)


At the end of 2019, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the etiological agent of COVID-19 in the city of Wuhan China. Due to its rapid spread to the rest of the world during the first trimester of 2020, the WHO declared a global pandemic in March of the same year. Due to the contagion potential of COVID-19, it has been considered that the clinical environment in which dentistry operates may be in high risk for the patient if the appropriate biosafety measures are not taken, initially clinical practices were suspended. However, when returning to work, protocols have been adapted to the infection control procedures, reinforced the use of protective barriers, and minimize treatments that involve aerosols. Caries is one of the main reasons for consultation in Pediatric Dentistry, this article suggests some protocols based on minimal invasion that dispense with rotating instruments to safeguard the patient from the risk of contagion, reducing the number of visits and time in consultation and even controlling some aspects of the oral health outside the dental visit through preventive strategies that can be carried out from home. Modifications to Dental Home. This should include maintaining tranquility and calm on the part of the patient's tutors in the face of the pandemic that we are currently experiencing (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/métodos , Aerossóis , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras , Remineralização Dentária , Protocolos Clínicos , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Resinas Compostas , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/métodos , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Tratamento Dentário Restaurador sem Trauma
18.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 911-919, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Candida albicans is frequently detected together with Streptococcus mutans in the plaque or biofilms of children with early childhood caries (ECC). The aim of this study was to examine the association of the microbial counts of C. albicans and S. mutans in the supragingival plaque with the activity status of carious lesions and oral health practices in children with ECC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 children aged 5 years were examined and their caries status recorded as per the ICDAS-II and the Lesion Activity Assessment (LAA) criteria. A questionnaire covering oral health practices was administered to parents. Plaque samples were collected and cultured on mitis salivarus bacitracin (MSB) agar and CHROMagar. Data was analysed using Spearman's rank correlation and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the levels of S. mutans and C. albicans (rs = 0.702, p <0.001). A positive correlation was seen between the percentage of active carious lesions with the colony counts of S. mutans (rs = 0.884, p <0.001) and C. albicans (rs = 0.785, p <0.001). Improper toothbrushing practices, dietary and feeding practices were statistically significantly associated with activity of caries lesions, S. mutans and C. albicans count. CONCLUSION: The total count of C. albicans and S. mutans in the supragingival dental plaque of children with ECC increases with an increase in the percentage of active carious lesions and the severity of dental caries. Improper oral health practices can lead to increased number of active carious lesions, as well as increased microbial load of both S. mutans and C. albicans.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária , Candida albicans , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Streptococcus mutans
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1507-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221773

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different antiseptic mouthwash on microbiota around the mini-screw applied to patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: From patients who have been undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and who have mini-screws in their mouth, a total of 38 patients were selected for the study consisting of 4 groups, each of which has 15 mini-screws. The patients were selected from the following groups: no use of mouthwash (Group 1), use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash (Group 2), use of essential oils-containing mouthwash (Group 3), and use of 7.5% povidone-iodine-containing mouthwash (Group 4). Plaque indices and gingival indices of the patients were measured at the beginning (T0) and at their appointments 3 weeks later (T1). In addition, biological samples were collected from the sulcus around the mini-screw with the help of sterile paper point. Results: The total number of microorganisms around the mini-screw in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 decreased significantly compared to Group 1. A significant decrease in Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Candida parapsilosis, total bacteria, plaque index, and gingival index count was observed in T1compared to T0. Conclusion: Antiseptic mouthwash in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 can be used to reduce the number of microbial microbiota around the mini-screw and to improve oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Parafusos Ósseos/microbiologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Boca , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Índice Periodontal
20.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(11): 899-905, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161692

RESUMO

Studies on interdental cleaning have shown an advantage of interdental brushes (IDB) over other interdental care products. Sticks (STK) made of rubber are often recommended as an alternative, as they are considered user-friendly, gentle but nevertheless effective. This laboratory study aimed to compare the cleaning efficiency with the same application force between IDB and STK. Brushes with different geometries and diameters were tested. Two conical STK from two manufacturers of the sizes "XS/S" (0.7-2.6 mm) and "L" (0.9-3.4 mm) were tested. For the IDB, one conical (2.7-3.4 mm), two cylindrical (1.9 and 2.5 mm) and one waisted brush (4-2-4 mm) were assessed. A geometric model with parallel-walled metal blocks (black and coated with titanium oxide) was used. The brushes were tested with one and five cleaning cycles each in horizontal direction. The test surfaces were measured planimetrically for cleaning efficiency by calculating the areas freed from titanium oxide in relation to the maximum cleanable total area. The maximum cleaning efficiency of the IDB was 45% at 1 mm distance with one cleaning cycle and 95% with five cycles. For the sticks, the cleaning efficiency with one cleaning cycle was 30% and 67% with five cycles. At a distance of 2 mm, the maximum cleaning efficiency was 50% with one cleaning cycle and 87% with five cycles for the IDBs and only 10% for the STKs. Taking into account the limitations of this study, the IDBs showed an overall better cleaning efficiency with the same application force, compared to STKs, with the waisted IDB achieving better cleaning efficiency than the conical IDB. In conclusion, STKs can be used in narrow interdental spaces where app opriate, but overall IDBs are more preferable in narrow and wider contact point conditions.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária , Humanos , Escovação Dentária
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