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1.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1380049, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576607

RESUMO

Introduction: There is currently no vaccine against Chagas disease (ChD), and the medications available confer multiple side effects. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) produces balanced Th1, Th2, and Th17 modulatory immune responses and has improved efficacy in controlling chronic infections through nonspecific immunity. We aimed to improve the response to infection by inducing a stronger immune response and greater protection against the parasite by trained immunity. Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized with BCG subcutaneously, and 60 days later, they were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi intraperitoneally. An evaluation of the progression of the disease from the acute to the chronic stage, analyzing various aspects such as parasitemia, survival, clinical status, and humoral and cellular immune response, as well as the appearance of visceral megas and the histopathological description of target organs, was performed. Results: Vaccination reduced parasitemia by 70%, and 100% survival was achieved in the acute stage; although the presentation of clinical signs was reduced, there was no increase in the antibody titer or in the differential production of the isotypes. Conclusion: Serum cytokine production indicated a proinflammatory response in infected animals, while in those who received BCG, the response was balanced by inducing Th1/Th2-type cytokines, with a better prognosis of the disease in the chronic stage.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Mycobacterium bovis , Animais , Camundongos , Vacina BCG , Parasitemia , Infecção Persistente , Adjuvantes Imunológicos
2.
Biosci Rep ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623843

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases are a serious global health concern, causing many common and severe infections, including Chagas disease, leishmaniasis,and schistosomiasis. The NLRP3 inflammasome belongs to the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins) family, which are cytosolic proteins playing key roles in the detection of pathogens. NLRP3 inflammasomes are activated in immune responses to Plasmodium,Leishmania, Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoeba histolytica,Trypanosoma cruzi and other parasites. The role of NLRP3 is not fully understood, but it is a crucial component of the innate immune response to parasitic infections and its functions as a sensor triggering the inflammatory response to the invasive parasites. However, while this response can limit the parasites' growth, it can also result in potentially catastrophic host pathology. This makes it essential to understand how NLRP3 interacts with parasites to initiate the inflammatory response. Plasmodium hemozoin, Leishmania glycoconjugate lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin can stimulate NLRP3 activation, while the dense granule protein 9 (GRA9) of T. gondii has been shown to suppress it. Several other parasitic products also have diverse effects on NLRP3 activation. Understanding the mechanism of NLRP3 interaction with these products will help to develop advanced therapeutic approaches to treat parasitic diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge of the NLRP3 inflammasome's action on the immune response to parasitic infections and aims to determine the mechanisms through which parasitic molecules either activate or inhibit its action.

3.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1339470, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633251

RESUMO

Protozoa exert a serious global threat of growing concern to human, and animal, and there is a need for the advancement of novel therapeutic strategies to effectively treat or mitigate the impact of associated diseases. Omega polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-PUFAs), including Omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6), are constituents derived from various natural sources, have gained significant attention for their therapeutic role in parasitic infections and a variety of essential structural and regulatory functions in animals and humans. Both ω-3 and ω-6 decrease the growth and survival rate of parasites through metabolized anti-inflammatory mediators, such as lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins, and have both in vivo and in vitro protective effects against various protozoan infections. The ω-PUFAs have been shown to modulate the host immune response by a commonly known mechanism such as (inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic process, production of anti-inflammatory mediators, modification of intracellular lipids, and activation of the nuclear receptor), and promotion of a shift towards a more effective immune defense against parasitic invaders by regulation the inflammation like prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxane, are involved in controlling the inflammatory reaction. The immune modulation may involve reducing inflammation, enhancing phagocytosis, and suppressing parasitic virulence factors. The unique properties of ω-PUFAs could prevent protozoan infections, representing an important area of study. This review explores the clinical impact of ω-PUFAs against some protozoan infections, elucidating possible mechanisms of action and supportive therapy for preventing various parasitic infections in humans and animals, such as toxoplasmosis, malaria, coccidiosis, and chagas disease. ω-PUFAs show promise as a therapeutic approach for parasitic infections due to their direct anti-parasitic effects and their ability to modulate the host immune response. Additionally, we discuss current treatment options and suggest perspectives for future studies. This could potentially provide an alternative or supplementary treatment option for these complex global health problems.

4.
Parasitol Res ; 123(4): 181, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602595

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD), caused by the complex life cycle parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a global health concern and impacts millions globally. T. cruzi's genetic variability is categorized into discrete typing units (DTUs). Despite their widespread presence in the Americas, a comprehensive understanding of their impact on CD is lacking. This study aims to analyze life cycle traits across life cycle stages, unraveling DTU dynamics. Metacyclogenesis curves were generated, inducing nutritional stress in epimastigotes of five DTUs (TcI (MG), TcI (DA), TcII(Y), TcIII, TcIV, and TcVI), resulting in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Infection dynamics in Vero cells from various DTUs were evaluated, exploring factors like amastigotes per cell, cell-derived trypomastigotes, and infection percentage. Statistical analyses, including ANOVA tests, identified significant differences. Varying onset times for metacyclogenesis converged on the 7th day. TcI (MG) exhibited the highest metacyclogenesis potential. TcI (DA) stood out, infecting 80% of cells within 24 h. TcI demonstrated the highest potential in both metacyclogenesis and infection among the strains assessed. Intra-DTU diversity was evident among TcI strains, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of Trypanosoma cruzi dynamics and genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Células Vero , Fenótipo
5.
Parasitol Int ; 101: 102894, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604471

RESUMO

Rhodnius species are potential vectors of the etiological agent of Chagas disease (CD), the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. CD impacts around seven million people in Latin America, resulting in approximately fourteen thousand deaths per year. Several species of Rhodnius are notable not only for their epidemiological relevance, but also for the challenging distinction between their species. Rhodnius has twenty species, each with its specific epidemiological importance. Rhodnius neglectus and Rhodnius prolixus are found with colonies in domiciliary environments. The observation of eggs in human dwellings signals the colonization process of these insects, increasing the risk of contamination of the population, since correct identification of eggs is necessary to help more effective vector control programs. Here we highlight diagnostic characters of eggs for these three species.

6.
Traffic ; 25(4): e12935, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629580

RESUMO

The protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi continue to exert a significant toll on the disease landscape of the human population in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Control measures have helped reduce the burden of their respective diseases-malaria, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease-in endemic regions. However, the need for new drugs, innovative vaccination strategies and molecular markers of disease severity and outcomes has emerged because of developing antimicrobial drug resistance, comparatively inadequate or absent vaccines, and a lack of trustworthy markers of morbid outcomes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been widely reported to play a role in the biology and pathogenicity of P. falciparum, Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi ever since they were discovered. EVs are secreted by a yet to be fully understood mechanism in protozoans into the extracellular milieu and carry a cargo of diverse molecules that reflect the originator cell's metabolic state. Although our understanding of the biogenesis and function of EVs continues to deepen, the question of how EVs in P. falciparum, Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi can serve as targets for a translational agenda into clinical and public health interventions is yet to be fully explored. Here, as a consortium of protozoan researchers, we outline a plan for future researchers and pose three questions to direct an EV's translational agenda in P. falciparum, Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi. We opine that in the long term, executing this blueprint will help bridge the current unmet needs of these medically important protozoan diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Vesículas Extracelulares , Leishmania , Parasitos , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Humanos , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia
7.
J Nat Prod ; 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631020

RESUMO

A search for anti-trypanosomal natural compounds from plants collected in El Salvador, a country particularly endemic for Chagas disease, resulted in the isolation of five lignan-type compounds (1-5) from Peperomia pseudopereskiifolia. The lignan derivatives 1, 2, and 4 are new. Their absolute configuration was determined by chemical derivatization. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 8 exhibited anti-trypanosomal activity against the amastigote form of T. cruzi comparable to that of the existing drug benznidazole.

8.
CRISPR J ; 7(2): 88-99, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564197

RESUMO

Rhodnius prolixus is currently the model vector of choice for studying Chagas disease transmission, a debilitating disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. However, transgenesis and gene editing protocols to advance the field are still lacking. Here, we tested protocols for the maternal delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly spaced palindromic repeats/Cas-9 associated) elements to developing R. prolixus oocytes and strategies for the identification of insertions and deletions (indels) in target loci of resulting gene-edited generation zero (G0) nymphs. We demonstrate successful gene editing of the eye color markers Rp-scarlet and Rp-white, and the cuticle color marker Rp-yellow, with highest effectiveness obtained using Receptor-Mediated Ovary Transduction of Cargo (ReMOT Control) with the ovary-targeting BtKV ligand. These results provide proof of concepts for generating somatic mutations in R. prolixus and potentially for generating germ line-edited lines in triatomines, laying the foundation for gene editing protocols that could lead to the development of novel control strategies for vectors of Chagas disease.

9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8208, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589582

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). PEACH study was a single-center, superiority randomized clinical trial of exercise training versus no exercise (control). The sample comprised Chagas disease patients with CCC, left ventricular ejection fraction < 45%, without or with HF symptoms (CCC stages B2 or C, respectively). QoL was assessed at baseline, after three months, and at the end of six months of follow-up using the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients randomized for the exercise group (n = 15) performed exercise training (aerobic, strength and stretching exercises) for 60 min, three times a week, during six months. Patients in the control group (n = 15) were not provided with a formal exercise prescription. Both groups received identical nutritional and pharmaceutical counseling during the study. Longitudinal analysis of the effects of exercise training on QoL, considering the interaction term (group × time) to estimate the rate of changes between groups in the outcomes (represented as beta coefficient), was performed using linear mixed models. Models were fitted adjusting for each respective baseline QoL value. There were significant improvements in physical functioning (ß = + 10.7; p = 0.02), role limitations due to physical problems (ß = + 25.0; p = 0.01), and social functioning (ß = + 19.2; p < 0.01) scales during the first three months in the exercise compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed between groups after six months. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provided short-term improvements in the physical and mental aspects of QoL of patients with CCC.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02517632; August 7, 2015.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/terapia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico , Infecção Persistente
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 261: 108749, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593864

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) causes Chagas, which is a neglected tropical disease (NTD). WHO estimates that 6 to 7 million people are infected worldwide. Current treatment is done with benznidazole (BZN), which is very toxic and effective only in the acute phase of the disease. In this work, we designed, synthesized, and characterized thirteen new phenoxyhydrazine-thiazole compounds and applied molecular docking and in vitro methods to investigate cell cytotoxicity, trypanocide activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, cell death, and immunomodulation. We observed a higher predicted affinity of the compounds for the squalene synthase and 14-alpha demethylase enzymes of T. cruzi. Moreover, the compounds displayed a higher predicted affinity for human TLR2 and TLR4, were mildly toxic in vitro for most mammalian cell types tested, and LIZ531 (IC50 2.8 µM) was highly toxic for epimastigotes, LIZ311 (IC50 8.6 µM) for trypomastigotes, and LIZ331 (IC50 1.9 µM) for amastigotes. We observed that LIZ311 (IC50 2.5 µM), LIZ431 (IC50 4.1 µM) and LIZ531 (IC50 5 µM) induced 200 µg/mL of NO and JM14 induced NO production in three different concentrations tested. The compound LIZ331 induced the production of TNF and IL-6. LIZ311 induced the secretion of TNF, IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17, cell death by apoptosis, decreased acidic compartment formation, and induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, LIZ311 is a promising anti-T. cruzi compound is not toxic to mammalian cells and has increased antiparasitic activity and immunomodulatory properties.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596605

RESUMO

Objective: Chagas disease poses a public health problem in Latin America, and the electrocardiogram is a crucial tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of this pathology. In this context, the aim of this study was to quantify the change in the ability to detect electrocardiographic patterns among healthcare professionals after completing a virtual course. Materials and Methods: An asynchronous virtual course with seven pre-recorded classes was conducted. Participants answered the same questionnaire at the beginning and end of the training. Based on these responses, pre and post-test results for each participant were compared. Results: The study included 1656 participants from 21 countries; 87.9% were physicians, 5.2% nurses, 4.1% technicians, and 2.8% medical students. Initially, 3.1% answered at least 50% of the pre-test questions correctly, a proportion that increased to 50.4% after the course (p=0.001). Regardless of their baseline characteristics, 82.1% of course attendees improved their answers after completing the course. Conclusions: The implementation of an asynchronous online course on electrocardiography in Chagas disease enhanced the skills of both medical and non-medical personnel to recognize this condition.

12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 121(2): e20230653, 2024.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tele-cardiology tools are valuable strategies to improve risk stratification. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of tele-electrocardiography (ECG) to predict abnormalities in screening echocardiography (echo) in primary care (PC). METHODS: In 17 months, 6 health providers at 16 PC units were trained on simplified handheld echo protocols. Tele-ECGs were recorded for final diagnosis by a cardiologist. Consented patients with major ECG abnormalities by the Minnesota code, and a 1:5 sample of normal individuals underwent clinical questionnaire and screening echo interpreted remotely. Major heart disease was defined as moderate/severe valve disease, ventricular dysfunction/hypertrophy, pericardial effusion, or wall-motion abnormalities. Association between major ECG and echo abnormalities was assessed by logistic regression as follows: 1) unadjusted model; 2) model 1 adjusted for age/sex; 3) model 2 plus risk factors (hypertension/diabetes); 4) model 3 plus history of cardiovascular disease (Chagas/rheumatic heart disease/ischemic heart disease/stroke/heart failure). P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: A total 1,411 patients underwent echo; 1,149 (81%) had major ECG abnormalities. Median age was 67 (IQR 60 to 74) years, and 51.4% were male. Major ECG abnormalities were associated with a 2.4-fold chance of major heart disease on echo in bivariate analysis (OR = 2.42 [95% CI 1.76 to 3.39]), and remained significant after adjustments in models (p < 0.001) 2 (OR = 2.57 [95% CI 1.84 to 3.65]), model 3 (OR = 2.52 [95% CI 1.80 to3.58]), and model 4 (OR = 2.23 [95%CI 1.59 to 3.19]). Age, male sex, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease were also independent predictors of major heart disease on echo. CONCLUSIONS: Tele-ECG abnormalities increased the likelihood of major heart disease on screening echo, even after adjustments for demographic and clinical variables.


FUNDAMENTO: As ferramentas de telecardiologia são estratégias valiosas para melhorar a estratificação de risco. OBJETIVO: Objetivamos avaliar a acurácia da tele-eletrocardiografia (ECG) para predizer anormalidades no ecocardiograma de rastreamento na atenção primária. MÉTODOS: Em 17 meses, 6 profissionais de saúde em 16 unidades de atenção primária foram treinados em protocolos simplificados de ecocardiografia portátil. Tele-ECGs foram registrados para diagnóstico final por um cardiologista. Pacientes consentidos com anormalidades maiores no ECG pelo código de Minnesota e uma amostra 1:5 de indivíduos normais foram submetidos a um questionário clínico e ecocardiograma de rastreamento interpretado remotamente. A doença cardíaca grave foi definida como doença valvular moderada/grave, disfunção/hipertrofia ventricular, derrame pericárdico ou anormalidade da motilidade. A associação entre alterações maiores do ECG e anormalidades ecocardiográficas foi avaliada por regressão logística da seguinte forma: 1) modelo não ajustado; 2) modelo 1 ajustado por idade/sexo; 3) modelo 2 mais fatores de risco (hipertensão/diabetes); 4) modelo 3 mais história de doença cardiovascular (Chagas/cardiopatia reumática/cardiopatia isquêmica/AVC/insuficiência cardíaca). Foram considerados significativos valores de p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: No total, 1.411 pacientes realizaram ecocardiograma, sendo 1.149 (81%) com anormalidades maiores no ECG. A idade mediana foi de 67 anos (intervalo interquartil de 60 a 74) e 51,4% eram do sexo masculino. As anormalidades maiores no ECG se associaram a uma chance 2,4 vezes maior de doença cardíaca grave no ecocardiograma de rastreamento na análise bivariada (OR = 2,42 [IC 95% 1,76 a 3,39]) e permaneceram significativas (p < 0,001) após ajustes no modelo 2 (OR = 2,57 [IC 95% 1,84 a 3,65]), modelo 3 (OR = 2,52 [IC 95% 1,80 a 3,58]) e modelo 4 (OR = 2,23 [IC 95% 1,59 a 3,19]). Idade, sexo masculino, insuficiência cardíaca e doença cardíaca isquêmica também foram preditores independentes de doença cardíaca grave no ecocardiograma. CONCLUSÕES: As anormalidades do tele-ECG aumentaram a probabilidade de doença cardíaca grave no ecocardiograma de rastreamento, mesmo após ajustes para variáveis demográficas e clínicas.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cardiopatias , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Isquemia Miocárdica , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
13.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 15: 333-349, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590427

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is the most important endemic parasitosis in South America and represents a great socioeconomic burden for the chronically ill and their families. The only currently available treatment against CD is based on the oral administration of benznidazole, an agent, developed in 1971, of controversial effectiveness on chronically ill patients and toxic to adults. So far, conventional pharmacological approaches have failed to offer more effective and less toxic alternatives to benznidazole. Nanomedicines reduce toxicity and increase the effectiveness of current oncological therapies. Could nanomedicines improve the treatment of the neglected CD? This question will be addressed in this review, first by critically discussing selected reports on the performance of benznidazole and other molecules formulated as nanomedicines in in vitro and in vivo CD models. Taking into consideration the developmental barriers for nanomedicines and the degree of current technical preclinical efforts, a prospect of developing nanomedicines against CD will be provided. Not surprisingly, we conclude that structurally simpler formulations with minimal production cost, such as oral nanocrystals and/or parenteral nano-immunostimulants, have the highest chances of making it to the market to treat CD. Nonetheless, substantive political and economic decisions, key to facing technological challenges, are still required regarding a realistic use of nanomedicines effective against CD.

14.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592968

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, which causes 10,000 deaths per year. Despite the high mortality associated with Chagas, relatively few parasite genomes have been assembled to date, with genome assemblies unavailable even for some commonly used laboratory strains. This is at least partially due to T. cruzi's highly complex and highly repetitive genome, which defies investigation using traditional short read sequencing methods. Here, we have generated a high-quality whole genome assembly of the hybrid Tulahuen strain, a commercially available Type VI strain, using long read Nanopore sequencing without short read scaffolding. The assembled genome contains 25% repeat regions, 17% variable multigene family members, and 27% transposable elements and is of comparable quality to T. cruzi genome assemblies that utilized both long and short read data. Notably, we find that regions with transposable elements are significantly enriched for multicopy surface proteins, and that surface proteins are, on average, closer to transposable elements than other coding regions. This finding suggests that mobile genetic elements such as transposons may drive recombination within surface protein gene families. This work demonstrates the feasibility of nanopore sequencing to resolve complex regions of T. cruzi genomes, and with these resolved regions, provides support for a possible mechanism for genomic diversification.

15.
Acta Parasitol ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chagas disease (CD) a Neglected Tropical Diseases is an important public health issue in countries where is still endemic, included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Traditionally restricted to rural areas with diverse routes of transmissions from vectorial to oral with acute manifestations but being more common diagnosed in chronic stages. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) related to Chagas disease (CD) in two rural settlements of the Colombian Caribbean with previous records of the disease and/or the parasite. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was made in two rural settlements in Colombia and surveillance instrument was developed to measure Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) related to Chagas disease (CD). RESULTS: In a population with > 60% women and access to social security around 66.5%; 81,6% were homeowners with access to water and electricity > 90% but only 9% of sewerage. The level of knowledge about CD was around 62% but lack of specificity about comprehension of transmission routes (74,6%), and symptoms (85,3%) were found; concluding that 86% of the surveyed sample had very poor level of knowledge about the disease despite preventive campaigns carried out in the two communities studied. CONCLUSIONS: Despite of a low frequency of CD in this Caribbean areas, the presence of vector, risk factors plus poor level of knowledge about the disease justify that public health intervention strategies should be implemented and monitored over time to maintain uninterrupted surveillance of Chagas Disease.

16.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611899

RESUMO

2,6-Diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones and corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives were designed to lower the major toxicity of their parent anti-kinetoplatidal diarylideneacetones through a prodrug effect. Novel diastereoselective methodologies were developed and generalized from diarylideneacetones and 2,6-diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones to allow the introduction of a wide substitution profile and to prepare the related S-oxides. The in vitro biological activity and selectivity of diarylideneacetones, 2,6-diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones, and their S-sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites were evaluated against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and various Leishmania species in comparison with their cytotoxicity against human fibroblasts hMRC-5. The data revealed that the sulfides, sulfoxides, and sulfones, in which the Michael acceptor sites are temporarily masked, are less toxic against mammal cells while the anti-trypanosomal potency was maintained against T. b. brucei, T. cruzi, L. infantum, and L. donovani, thus confirming the validity of the prodrug strategy. The mechanism of action is proposed to be due to the involvement of diarylideneacetones in cascades of redox reactions involving the trypanothione system. After Michael addition of the dithiol to the double bonds, resulting in an elongated polymer, the latter-upon S-oxidation, followed by syn-eliminations-fragments, under continuous release of reactive oxygen species and sulfenic/sulfonic species, causing the death of the trypanosomal parasites in the micromolar or submicromolar range with high selectivity indexes.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Pró-Fármacos , Piranos , Safrol/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Humanos , Animais , Óxidos , Oxirredução , Mamíferos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612484

RESUMO

Twenty 2-(4-alkyloxyphenyl)-imidazolines and 2-(4-alkyloxyphenyl)-imidazoles were synthesized, with the former being synthesized in two steps by using MW and ultrasonication energy, resulting in good to excellent yields. Imidazoles were obtained in moderate yields by oxidizing imidazolines with MnO2 and MW energy. In response to the urgent need to treat neglected tropical diseases, a set of 2-(4-alkyloxyphenyl)- imidazolines and imidazoles was tested in vitro on Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma cruzi. The leishmanicidal activity of ten compounds was evaluated, showing an IC50 < 10 µg/mL. Among these compounds, 27-31 were the most active, with IC50 values < 1 µg/mL (similar to the reference drugs). In the evaluation on epimastigotes of T. cruzi, only 30 and 36 reached an IC50 < 1 µg/mL, showing better inhibition than both reference drugs. However, compounds 29, 33, and 35 also demonstrated attractive trypanocidal activities, with IC50 values < 10 µg/mL, similar to the values for benznidazole and nifurtimox.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Doença de Chagas , Imidazolinas , Leishmania mexicana , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612558

RESUMO

Cruzipain inhibitors are required after medications to treat Chagas disease because of the need for safer, more effective treatments. Trypanosoma cruzi is the source of cruzipain, a crucial cysteine protease that has driven interest in using computational methods to create more effective inhibitors. We employed a 3D-QSAR model, using a dataset of 36 known inhibitors, and a pharmacophore model to identify potential inhibitors for cruzipain. We also built a deep learning model using the Deep purpose library, trained on 204 active compounds, and validated it with a specific test set. During a comprehensive screening of the Drug Bank database of 8533 molecules, pharmacophore and deep learning models identified 1012 and 340 drug-like molecules, respectively. These molecules were further evaluated through molecular docking, followed by induced-fit docking. Ultimately, molecular dynamics simulation was performed for the final potent inhibitors that exhibited strong binding interactions. These results present four novel cruzipain inhibitors that can inhibit the cruzipain protein of T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Protozoários , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Fármacos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612650

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is a vector-borne Neglected Zoonotic Disease (NZD) caused by a flagellate protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, that affects various mammalian species across America, including humans and domestic animals. However, due to an increase in population movements and new routes of transmission, T. cruzi infection is presently considered a worldwide health concern, no longer restricted to endemic countries. Dogs play a major role in the domestic cycle by acting very efficiently as reservoirs and allowing the perpetuation of parasite transmission in endemic areas. Despite the significant progress made in recent years, still there is no vaccine against human and animal disease, there are few drugs available for the treatment of human CD, and there is no standard protocol for the treatment of canine CD. In this review, we highlight human and canine Chagas Disease in its different dimensions and interconnections. Dogs, which are considered to be the most important peridomestic reservoir and sentinel for the transmission of T. cruzi infection in a community, develop CD that is clinically similar to human CD. Therefore, an integrative approach, based on the One Health concept, bringing together the advances in genomics, immunology, and epidemiology can lead to the effective development of vaccines, new treatments, and innovative control strategies to tackle CD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Doença de Chagas , Doenças do Cão , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Animais Domésticos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
20.
ACS Infect Dis ; 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606978

RESUMO

Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is a neglected tropical disease which is a top priority target of the World Health Organization. The disease, endemic mainly in Latin America, is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and has spread around the globe due to human migration. There are multiple transmission routes, including vectorial, congenital, oral, and iatrogenic. Less than 1% of patients have access to treatment, relying on two old redox-active drugs that show poor pharmacokinetics and severe adverse effects. Hence, the priorities for the next steps of R&D include (i) the discovery of novel drugs/chemical classes, (ii) filling the pipeline with drug candidates that have new mechanisms of action, and (iii) the pressing need for more research and access to new chemical entities. In the present work, we first identified a hit (4a) with a potent anti-T. cruzi activity from a library of 3-benzylmenadiones. We then designed a synthetic strategy to build a library of 49 3-(4-monoamino)benzylmenadione derivatives via reductive amination to obtain diazacyclic benz(o)ylmenadiones. Among them, we identified by high content imaging an anti-amastigote "early lead" 11b (henceforth called cruzidione) revealing optimized pharmacokinetic properties and enhanced specificity. Studies in a yeast model revealed that a cruzidione metabolite, the 3-benzoylmenadione (cruzidione oxide), enters redox cycling with the NADH-dehydrogenase, generating reactive oxygen species, as hypothesized for the early hit (4a).

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