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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612558

RESUMO

Cruzipain inhibitors are required after medications to treat Chagas disease because of the need for safer, more effective treatments. Trypanosoma cruzi is the source of cruzipain, a crucial cysteine protease that has driven interest in using computational methods to create more effective inhibitors. We employed a 3D-QSAR model, using a dataset of 36 known inhibitors, and a pharmacophore model to identify potential inhibitors for cruzipain. We also built a deep learning model using the Deep purpose library, trained on 204 active compounds, and validated it with a specific test set. During a comprehensive screening of the Drug Bank database of 8533 molecules, pharmacophore and deep learning models identified 1012 and 340 drug-like molecules, respectively. These molecules were further evaluated through molecular docking, followed by induced-fit docking. Ultimately, molecular dynamics simulation was performed for the final potent inhibitors that exhibited strong binding interactions. These results present four novel cruzipain inhibitors that can inhibit the cruzipain protein of T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Protozoários , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612650

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is a vector-borne Neglected Zoonotic Disease (NZD) caused by a flagellate protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, that affects various mammalian species across America, including humans and domestic animals. However, due to an increase in population movements and new routes of transmission, T. cruzi infection is presently considered a worldwide health concern, no longer restricted to endemic countries. Dogs play a major role in the domestic cycle by acting very efficiently as reservoirs and allowing the perpetuation of parasite transmission in endemic areas. Despite the significant progress made in recent years, still there is no vaccine against human and animal disease, there are few drugs available for the treatment of human CD, and there is no standard protocol for the treatment of canine CD. In this review, we highlight human and canine Chagas Disease in its different dimensions and interconnections. Dogs, which are considered to be the most important peridomestic reservoir and sentinel for the transmission of T. cruzi infection in a community, develop CD that is clinically similar to human CD. Therefore, an integrative approach, based on the One Health concept, bringing together the advances in genomics, immunology, and epidemiology can lead to the effective development of vaccines, new treatments, and innovative control strategies to tackle CD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Doença de Chagas , Doenças do Cão , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Animais Domésticos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
3.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1380049, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576607

RESUMO

Introduction: There is currently no vaccine against Chagas disease (ChD), and the medications available confer multiple side effects. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) produces balanced Th1, Th2, and Th17 modulatory immune responses and has improved efficacy in controlling chronic infections through nonspecific immunity. We aimed to improve the response to infection by inducing a stronger immune response and greater protection against the parasite by trained immunity. Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized with BCG subcutaneously, and 60 days later, they were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi intraperitoneally. An evaluation of the progression of the disease from the acute to the chronic stage, analyzing various aspects such as parasitemia, survival, clinical status, and humoral and cellular immune response, as well as the appearance of visceral megas and the histopathological description of target organs, was performed. Results: Vaccination reduced parasitemia by 70%, and 100% survival was achieved in the acute stage; although the presentation of clinical signs was reduced, there was no increase in the antibody titer or in the differential production of the isotypes. Conclusion: Serum cytokine production indicated a proinflammatory response in infected animals, while in those who received BCG, the response was balanced by inducing Th1/Th2-type cytokines, with a better prognosis of the disease in the chronic stage.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Mycobacterium bovis , Animais , Camundongos , Vacina BCG , Parasitemia , Infecção Persistente , Adjuvantes Imunológicos
4.
Parasitol Res ; 123(4): 181, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602595

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD), caused by the complex life cycle parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a global health concern and impacts millions globally. T. cruzi's genetic variability is categorized into discrete typing units (DTUs). Despite their widespread presence in the Americas, a comprehensive understanding of their impact on CD is lacking. This study aims to analyze life cycle traits across life cycle stages, unraveling DTU dynamics. Metacyclogenesis curves were generated, inducing nutritional stress in epimastigotes of five DTUs (TcI (MG), TcI (DA), TcII(Y), TcIII, TcIV, and TcVI), resulting in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Infection dynamics in Vero cells from various DTUs were evaluated, exploring factors like amastigotes per cell, cell-derived trypomastigotes, and infection percentage. Statistical analyses, including ANOVA tests, identified significant differences. Varying onset times for metacyclogenesis converged on the 7th day. TcI (MG) exhibited the highest metacyclogenesis potential. TcI (DA) stood out, infecting 80% of cells within 24 h. TcI demonstrated the highest potential in both metacyclogenesis and infection among the strains assessed. Intra-DTU diversity was evident among TcI strains, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of Trypanosoma cruzi dynamics and genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Células Vero , Fenótipo
5.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611899

RESUMO

2,6-Diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones and corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives were designed to lower the major toxicity of their parent anti-kinetoplatidal diarylideneacetones through a prodrug effect. Novel diastereoselective methodologies were developed and generalized from diarylideneacetones and 2,6-diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones to allow the introduction of a wide substitution profile and to prepare the related S-oxides. The in vitro biological activity and selectivity of diarylideneacetones, 2,6-diaryl-4H-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-ones, and their S-sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites were evaluated against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and various Leishmania species in comparison with their cytotoxicity against human fibroblasts hMRC-5. The data revealed that the sulfides, sulfoxides, and sulfones, in which the Michael acceptor sites are temporarily masked, are less toxic against mammal cells while the anti-trypanosomal potency was maintained against T. b. brucei, T. cruzi, L. infantum, and L. donovani, thus confirming the validity of the prodrug strategy. The mechanism of action is proposed to be due to the involvement of diarylideneacetones in cascades of redox reactions involving the trypanothione system. After Michael addition of the dithiol to the double bonds, resulting in an elongated polymer, the latter-upon S-oxidation, followed by syn-eliminations-fragments, under continuous release of reactive oxygen species and sulfenic/sulfonic species, causing the death of the trypanosomal parasites in the micromolar or submicromolar range with high selectivity indexes.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Pró-Fármacos , Piranos , Safrol/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Humanos , Animais , Óxidos , Oxirredução , Mamíferos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612484

RESUMO

Twenty 2-(4-alkyloxyphenyl)-imidazolines and 2-(4-alkyloxyphenyl)-imidazoles were synthesized, with the former being synthesized in two steps by using MW and ultrasonication energy, resulting in good to excellent yields. Imidazoles were obtained in moderate yields by oxidizing imidazolines with MnO2 and MW energy. In response to the urgent need to treat neglected tropical diseases, a set of 2-(4-alkyloxyphenyl)- imidazolines and imidazoles was tested in vitro on Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma cruzi. The leishmanicidal activity of ten compounds was evaluated, showing an IC50 < 10 µg/mL. Among these compounds, 27-31 were the most active, with IC50 values < 1 µg/mL (similar to the reference drugs). In the evaluation on epimastigotes of T. cruzi, only 30 and 36 reached an IC50 < 1 µg/mL, showing better inhibition than both reference drugs. However, compounds 29, 33, and 35 also demonstrated attractive trypanocidal activities, with IC50 values < 10 µg/mL, similar to the values for benznidazole and nifurtimox.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Doença de Chagas , Imidazolinas , Leishmania mexicana , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8208, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589582

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). PEACH study was a single-center, superiority randomized clinical trial of exercise training versus no exercise (control). The sample comprised Chagas disease patients with CCC, left ventricular ejection fraction < 45%, without or with HF symptoms (CCC stages B2 or C, respectively). QoL was assessed at baseline, after three months, and at the end of six months of follow-up using the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients randomized for the exercise group (n = 15) performed exercise training (aerobic, strength and stretching exercises) for 60 min, three times a week, during six months. Patients in the control group (n = 15) were not provided with a formal exercise prescription. Both groups received identical nutritional and pharmaceutical counseling during the study. Longitudinal analysis of the effects of exercise training on QoL, considering the interaction term (group × time) to estimate the rate of changes between groups in the outcomes (represented as beta coefficient), was performed using linear mixed models. Models were fitted adjusting for each respective baseline QoL value. There were significant improvements in physical functioning (ß = + 10.7; p = 0.02), role limitations due to physical problems (ß = + 25.0; p = 0.01), and social functioning (ß = + 19.2; p < 0.01) scales during the first three months in the exercise compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed between groups after six months. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provided short-term improvements in the physical and mental aspects of QoL of patients with CCC.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02517632; August 7, 2015.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/terapia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico , Infecção Persistente
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 169, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triatoma garciabesi and T. guasayana are considered secondary vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi and frequently invade rural houses in central Argentina. Wing and head structures determine the ability of triatomines to disperse. Environmental changes exert selective pressures on populations of both species, promoting changes in these structures that could have consequences for flight dispersal. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a gradient of anthropization and phenotypic plasticity in flight-related traits. METHODS: The research was carried out in Cruz del Eje and Ischilín departments (Córdoba, Argentina) and included 423 individuals of the two species of triatomines. To measure the degree of anthropization, a thematic map was constructed using supervised classification, from which seven landscapes were selected, and nine landscape metrics were extracted and used in a hierarchical analysis. To determine the flight capacity and the invasion of dwellings at different levels of anthropization for both species, entomological indices were calculated. Digital images of the body, head and wings were used to measure linear and geometric morphometric variables related to flight dispersion. One-way ANOVA and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used to analyze differences in size and shape between levels of anthropization. Procrustes variance of shape was calculated to analyze differences in phenotypic variation in heads and wings. RESULTS: Hierarchical analysis was used to classify the landscapes into three levels of anthropization: high, intermediate and low. The dispersal index for both species yielded similar results across the anthropization gradient. However, in less anthropized landscapes, the density index was higher for T. garciabesi. Additionally, in highly anthropized landscapes, females and males of both species exhibited reduced numbers. Regarding phenotypic changes, the size of body, head and wings of T. garciabesi captured in the most anthropized landscapes was greater than for those captured in less anthropized landscapes. No differences in body size were observed in T. guasayana collected in the different landscapes. However, males from highly anthropized landscapes had smaller heads and wings than those captured in less anthropized landscapes. Both wing and head shapes varied between less and more anthropogenic environments in both species. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the study indicate that the flight-dispersal characteristics of T. garciabesi and T. guasayana changed in response to varying degrees of anthropization.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Triatoma/fisiologia , População Rural , Argentina , Análise de Variância
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0011452, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune response of triatomines plays an important role in the success or failure of transmission of T. cruzi. Studies on parasite-vector interaction have shown the presence of trypanolytic factors and have been observed to be differentially expressed among triatomines, which affects the transmission of some T. cruzi strains or DTUs (Discrete Typing Units). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trypanolytic factors were detected in the hemolymph and saliva of R. prolixus against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of the Y strain (T. cruzi II). To identify the components of the immune response that could be involved in this lytic activity, a comparative proteomic analysis was carried out, detecting 120 proteins in the hemolymph of R. prolixus and 107 in R. colombiensis. In salivary glands, 1103 proteins were detected in R. prolixus and 853 in R. colombiensis. A higher relative abundance of lysozyme, prolixin, nitrophorins, and serpin as immune response proteins was detected in the hemolymph of R. prolixus. Among the R. prolixus salivary proteins, a higher relative abundance of nitrophorins, lipocalins, and triabins was detected. The higher relative abundance of these immune factors in R. prolixus supports their participation in the lytic activity on Y strain (T. cruzi II), but not on Dm28c (T. cruzi I), which is resistant to lysis by hemolymph and salivary proteins of R. prolixus due to mechanisms of evading oxidative stress caused by immune factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lysis resistance observed in the Dm28c strain would be occurring at the DTU I level. T. cruzi I is the DTU with the greatest geographic distribution, from the south of the United States to central Chile and Argentina, a distribution that could be related to resistance to oxidative stress from vectors. Likewise, we can say that lysis against strain Y could occur at the level of DTU II and could be a determinant of the vector inability of these species to transmit T. cruzi II. Future proteomic and transcriptomic studies on vectors and the interactions of the intestinal microbiota with parasites will help to confirm the determinants of successful or failed vector transmission of T. cruzi DTUs in different parts of the Western Hemisphere.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Rhodnius , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Hemolinfa , Proteômica , Glândulas Salivares , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo
11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 48: e28, 2024.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576844

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic Chagas disease (CCD) in Brazil: in the general population, in women, and in women of childbearing age. Methods: A meta-analysis of the literature was conducted to extract data on the prevalence of CCD in municipalities in Brazil in the 2010-2022 period: in the general population, in women, and in women of childbearing age. Municipal-level CCD indicators available in health information systems were selected. Statistical modeling of the data extracted from the meta-analysis (based on data obtained from information systems) was applied to linear, generalized linear, and additive models. Results: The five most appropriate models were selected from a total of 549 models tested to obtain a consensus model (adjusted R2 = 54%). The most important predictor was self-reported CCD in the primary health care information system. Zero prevalence was estimated in 1 792 (32%) of Brazil's 5 570 municipalities; in the remaining 3 778 municipalities, average prevalence of the disease was estimated at 3.25% (± 2.9%). The number of carriers of CCD was estimated for the Brazilian population (~3.7 million), for women (~2.1 million) and for women of childbearing age (~590 000). The disease reproduction rate was calculated at 1.0336. All estimates refer to the 2015-2016 period. Conclusions: The estimated prevalence of CCD, especially among women of childbearing age, highlights the challenge of vertical transmission in Brazilian municipalities. Mathematical projections suggest that these estimates should be included in the national program for the elimination of vertical transmission of Chagas disease.


Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica en la población brasileña en general, en las mujeres y en las mujeres en edad fértil. Métodos: Se realizó un metanálisis de la bibliografía para extraer datos sobre la prevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica en la población brasileña en general, en las mujeres y en las mujeres en edad fértil, en los municipios de Brasil durante el período 2010-2022. Se seleccionaron los indicadores relacionados con esa enfermedad disponibles en los sistemas municipales de información de salud. La modelización estadística de los datos extraídos del metanálisis, en función de los obtenidos de los sistemas de información, se aplicó a modelos lineales, lineales generalizados y aditivos. Resultados: Se seleccionaron los cinco modelos más apropiados de un total de 549 modelos evaluados, para obtener un modelo de consenso (R2 ajustado = 54%). El factor predictor más importante fue el registro de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica autodeclarada en el sistema de información de atención primaria de salud. De los 5570 municipios brasileños, en 1792 (32%) la prevalencia estimada fue nula y en los 3778 restantes la prevalencia media fue del 3,25% (± 2,9%). El número estimado de pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas crónica en la población brasileña en general, en las mujeres y en las mujeres en edad fértil fue de ~3,7 millones, ~2,1 millones y ~590 000, respectivamente. La tasa calculada de reproducción de la enfermedad fue de 1,0336. Todas las estimaciones se refieren al período 2015-2016. Conclusiones: La prevalencia estimada de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica, especialmente en las mujeres en edad fértil, pone de manifiesto el desafío que representa la transmisión vertical en los municipios brasileños. Estas estimaciones están en línea con los patrones de las proyecciones matemáticas, y sugieren la necesidad de incorporarlas al Pacto Nacional para la Eliminación de la Transmisión Vertical de la Enfermedad de Chagas.

12.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59392

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência da doença de Chagas (DC) crônica (DCC) na população brasileira, em mulheres e em mulheres em idade fértil. Métodos. Foi realizada uma metanálise da literatura para extrair dados de prevalência de DCC na população brasileira, em mulheres e em mulheres em idade fértil, em municípios do Brasil, no período 2010–2022. Indi- cadores relacionados com a DCC disponíveis nos sistemas de informação em saúde foram selecionados em escala municipal. A modelagem estatística dos dados extraídos da metanálise em função daqueles obtidos dos sistemas de informação foi aplicada a modelos lineares, lineares generalizados e aditivos. Resultados. Foram selecionados os cinco modelos mais adequados de um total de 549 modelos testados para obtenção de um modelo de consenso (R2 ajustado = 54%). O preditor mais importante foi o cadastro autorreferido de DCC do sistema de informação da Atenção Primária à Saúde. Dos 5 570 munícipios brasi- leiros, a prevalência foi estimada como zero em 1 792 (32%); nos 3 778 municípios restantes, a prevalência média da doença foi estimada em 3,25% (± 2,9%). O número de portadores de DCC foi estimado na popu- lação brasileira (~3,7 milhões), mulheres (~2,1 milhões) e mulheres em idade fértil (~590 mil). A taxa de reprodução da doença foi calculada em 1,0336. Todas as estimativas se referem ao intervalo 2015–2016. Conclusões. As prevalências estimadas de DCC, especialmente entre mulheres em idade fértil, evidenciam o desafio da transmissão vertical em municípios brasileiros. Estas estimativas são comparadas aos padrões de projeções matemáticas, sugerindo sua incorporação ao Pacto Nacional para a Eliminação da Transmissão Vertical da DC.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic Chagas disease (CCD) in Brazil: in the general population, in women, and in women of childbearing age. Methods. A meta-analysis of the literature was conducted to extract data on the prevalence of CCD in munici- palities in Brazil in the 2010–2022 period: in the general population, in women, and in women of childbearing age. Municipal-level CCD indicators available in health information systems were selected. Statistical mode- ling of the data extracted from the meta-analysis (based on data obtained from information systems) was applied to linear, generalized linear, and additive models. Results. The five most appropriate models were selected from a total of 549 models tested to obtain a con- sensus model (adjusted R2 = 54%). The most important predictor was self-reported CCD in the primary health care information system. Zero prevalence was estimated in 1 792 (32%) of Brazil’s 5 570 municipalities; in the remaining 3 778 municipalities, average prevalence of the disease was estimated at 3.25% (± 2.9%). The number of carriers of CCD was estimated for the Brazilian population (~3.7 million), for women (~2.1 million) and for women of childbearing age (~590 000). The disease reproduction rate was calculated at 1.0336. All estimates refer to the 2015–2016 period. Conclusions. The estimated prevalence of CCD, especially among women of childbearing age, highlights the challenge of vertical transmission in Brazilian municipalities. Mathematical projections suggest that these estimates should be included in the national program for the elimination of vertical transmission of Chagas disease.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica en la población brasileña en general, en las mujeres y en las mujeres en edad fértil. Métodos. Se realizó un metanálisis de la bibliografía para extraer datos sobre la prevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica en la población brasileña en general, en las mujeres y en las mujeres en edad fértil, en los municipios de Brasil durante el período 2010-2022. Se seleccionaron los indicadores relacionados con esa enfermedad disponibles en los sistemas municipales de información de salud. La modelización estadística de los datos extraídos del metanálisis, en función de los obtenidos de los sistemas de información, se aplicó a modelos lineales, lineales generalizados y aditivos. Resultados. Se seleccionaron los cinco modelos más apropiados de un total de 549 modelos evaluados, para obtener un modelo de consenso (R2 ajustado = 54%). El factor predictor más importante fue el registro de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica autodeclarada en el sistema de información de atención primaria de salud. De los 5570 municipios brasileños, en 1792 (32%) la prevalencia estimada fue nula y en los 3778 restantes la prevalencia media fue del 3,25% (± 2,9%). El número estimado de pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas crónica en la población brasileña en general, en las mujeres y en las mujeres en edad fértil fue de ~3,7 millo- nes, ~2,1 millones y ~590 000, respectivamente. La tasa calculada de reproducción de la enfermedad fue de 1,0336. Todas las estimaciones se refieren al período 2015-2016. Conclusiones. La prevalencia estimada de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica, especialmente en las mujeres en edad fértil, pone de manifiesto el desafío que representa la transmisión vertical en los municipios brasi- leños. Estas estimaciones están en línea con los patrones de las proyecciones matemáticas, y sugieren la necesidad de incorporarlas al Pacto Nacional para la Eliminación de la Transmisión Vertical de la Enfermedad de Chagas.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Revisão Sistemática , Doença de Chagas , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Revisão Sistemática , Doença de Chagas , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Revisão Sistemática
13.
Preprint em Espanhol | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-8356

RESUMO

Objective. To generate data about Chagas disease vectors through passive surveillance and inform the public using social media and community science. Materials and methods. We used social media to inform, raise awareness and to promote the public to report their triatomine encounters. We received pictures and specimens collected to be tested for Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify recent bloodmeal source through PCR. Results. Community scientists reported 44 triatomines from 15 states in Mexico and one triatomine from Nicaragua, including 9 species with Triatoma dimidiata sensu lato and T. gerstaeckeri being the most common. We received 12 collected specimens and T. cruzi was detected in 8 (67%) of the discrete typing unit TcI. We identified recent bloodmeal source in 6 triatomines including: human (Homo sapiens), dog (Canis lupus familiaris), wood rat (Neotoma sp.), dove (Columbidae) and amphibius (Bufonidae). Conclusion. The use of community science can be a complementary method to generate information about the ecology and epidemiology of Chagas disease vectors.


Objetivo. Generar datos sobre vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas (EC) mediante vigilancia pasiva e informar a la población mediante redes sociales y ciencia ciudadana. Material y métodos. Utilizando redes sociales informamos, concientizamos y alentamos al público a reportarnos sus encuentros con triatominos. Recibimos reportes fotográficos y especímenes colectados a los que analizamos para detectar infección por Trypanosoma cruzi e identificar la fuente reciente de alimentación mediante PCR. Resultados. Nos reportaron 44 triatominos de 15 estados en México y uno de Nicaragua, incluyendo 9 especies siendo Triatoma dimidiata sensu lato y T. gerstaeckeri las más comunes. Recibimos 12 especímenes colectados y encontramos T. cruzi en 8 (67%) de la unidad taxonómica discreta TcI. Identificamos fuente reciente de alimentación en 6 triatominos incluyendo: humano (Homo sapiens), perro (Canis lupus familiaris), rata de campo (Neotoma sp.), paloma (Columbidae) y anfibio (Bufonidae). Conclusión. Ciencia ciudadana puede ser un método complementario para generar información sobre ecología y epidemiología de EC.

14.
Bioorg Chem ; 146: 107288, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521013

RESUMO

Nitroimidazole compounds are well-known bioactive substances, and the structural activity relationship has been reported whereby the position of the nitro group within the imidazole ring has a large influence on the activity. This study focuses on synthesising new trypanocidal agents from the hybridisation of metronidazole with different natural phenols (eugenol, dihydroeugenol and guaiacol). Two different coupling methodologies have been explored in order to analyse the influence of the connector on bioactivity: i) classic direct esterification (AD compounds) and ii) "click" chemistry using a triazole connector (AC compounds). The in vitro trypanocidal tests show good results for both AC and AD hybrid compounds against both epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In silico studies showed positive data for most of the synthesised compounds and, in general present low toxicological risks. The AC compounds present lower ClogP (lipophilicity) values than those found for the AD series and higher TPSA (topological polar surface area) values, suggesting lower lipophilicity may be related to the presence of the triazole connector. The AD series compounds have higher Drug Score values than the AC series derivatives, suggesting better general properties for a pharmacological action.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Tripanossomicidas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/química , Eugenol , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1297099, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495650

RESUMO

Introduction: Oral transmission of T. cruzi is probably the most frequent transmission mechanism in wild animals. This observation led to the hypothesis that consuming raw or undercooked meat from animals infected with T. cruzi may be responsible for transmitting the infection. Therefore, the general objective of this study was to investigate host-pathogen interactions between the parasite and gastric mucosa and the role of meat consumption from infected animals in the oral transmission of T. cruzi. Methods: Cell infectivity assays were performed on AGS cells in the presence or absence of mucin, and the roles of pepsin and acidic pH were determined. Moreover, groups of five female Balb/c mice were fed with muscle tissue obtained from mice in the acute phase of infection by the clone H510 C8C3hvir of T. cruzi, and the infection of the fed mice was monitored by a parasitemia curve. Similarly, we assessed the infective capacity of T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes by infecting groups of five mice Balb/c females, which were infected orally using a nasogastric probe, and the infection was monitored by a parasitemia curve. Finally, different trypomastigote and amastigote inoculums were used to determine their infective capacities. Adhesion assays of T. cruzi proteins to AGS stomach cells were performed, and the adhered proteins were detected by western blotting using monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies and by LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis. Results: Trypomastigote migration in the presence of mucin was reduced by approximately 30%, whereas in the presence of mucin and pepsin at pH 3.5, only a small proportion of parasites were able to migrate (∼6%). Similarly, the ability of TCTs to infect AGS cells in the presence of mucin is reduced by approximately 20%. In all cases, 60-100% of the animals were fed meat from mice infected in the acute phase or infected with trypomastigotes or amastigotes developed high parasitemia, and 80% died around day 40 post-infection. The adhesion assay showed that cruzipain is a molecule of trypomastigotes and amastigotes that binds to AGS cells. LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis, also confirmed that transialidase, cysteine proteinases, and gp63 may be involved in TCTs attachment or invasion of human stomach cells because they can potentially interact with different proteins in the human stomach mucosa. In addition, several human gastric mucins have cysteine protease cleavage sites. Discussion: Then, under our experimental conditions, consuming meat from infected animals in the acute phase allows the T. cruzi infection. Similarly, trypomastigotes and amastigotes could infect mice when administered orally, whereas cysteinyl proteinases and trans-sialidase appear to be relevant molecules in this infective process.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Doenças Transmissíveis , Trypanosoma cruzi , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Parasitemia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Mucinas
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 145, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triatoma garciabesi, a potential vector of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is the causative agent of Chagas disease, is common in peridomestic and wild environments and found throughout northwestern and central Argentina, western Paraguay and the Bolivian Chaco. Genetic differentiation of a species across its range can help to understand dispersal patterns and connectivity between habitats. Dispersal by flight is considered to be the main active dispersal strategy used by triatomines. In particular, the morphological structure of the hemelytra is associated with their function. The aim of this study was to understand how genetic diversity is structured, how morphological variation of dispersal-related traits varies with genetic diversity and how the morphological characteristics of dispersal-related traits may explain the current distribution of genetic lineages in this species. METHODS: Males from 24 populations of T. garciabesi across its distribution range were examined. The cytochrome c oxidase I gene (coI) was used for genetic diversity analyses. A geometric morphometric method based on landmarks was used for morpho-functional analysis of the hemelytra. Centroid size (CS) and shape of the forewing, and contour of both parts of the forewing, the head and the pronotum were characterised. Length and area of the forewing were measured to estimate the aspect ratio. RESULTS: The morphometric and phylogenetic analysis identified two distinct lineages, namely the Eastern and Western lineages, which coincide with different ecological regions. The Eastern lineage is found exclusively in the eastern region of Argentina (Chaco and Formosa provinces), whereas the Western lineage is prevalent in the rest of the geographical range of the species. CS, shape and aspect ratio of the hemelytra differed between lineages. The stiff portion of the forewing was more developed in the Eastern lineage. The shape of both portions of the hemelytra were significantly different between lineages, and the shape of the head and pronotum differed between lineages. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide preliminary insights into the evolution and diversification of T. garciabesi. Variation in the forewing, pronotum and head is congruent with genetic divergence. Consistent with genetic divergence, morphometry variation was clustered according to lineages, with congruent variation in the size and shape of the forewing, pronotum and head.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Triatoma , Masculino , Animais , Filogenia , Insetos Vetores , Variação Genética
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1297321, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481660

RESUMO

Chagas' is a neglected disease caused by the eukaryotic kinetoplastid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Currently, approximately 8 million people are infected worldwide, most of whom are in the chronic phase of the disease, which involves cardiac, digestive, or neurologic manifestations. There is an urgent need for a vaccine because treatments are only effective in the initial phase of infection, which is generally underdiagnosed. The selection and combination of antigens, adjuvants, and delivery platforms for vaccine formulations should be designed to trigger mixed humoral and cellular immune responses, considering that T. cruzi has a complex life cycle with both intracellular and bloodstream circulating parasite stages in vertebrate hosts. Here, we report the effectiveness of vaccination with a T. cruzi-specific protein family (TcTASV), employing both recombinant proteins with aluminum hydroxide and a recombinant baculovirus displaying a TcTASV antigen at the capsid. Vaccination stimulated immunological responses by producing lytic antibodies and antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ IFNÉ£ secreting lymphocytes. More than 90% of vaccinated animals survived after lethal challenges with T. cruzi, whereas all control mice died before 30 days post-infection. Vaccination also induced a strong decrease in chronic tissue parasitism and generated immunological memory that allowed vaccinated and infected animals to control both the reactivation of the infection after immunosuppression and a second challenge with T. cruzi. Interestingly, inoculation with wild-type baculovirus partially protected the mice against T. cruzi. In brief, we demonstrated for the first time that the combination of the baculovirus platform and the TcTASV family provides effective protection against Trypanosoma cruzi, which is a promising vaccine for Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Parasitos , Vacinas Protozoárias , Trypanosoma cruzi , Vacinas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Baculoviridae/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Vacinação , Vacinas Protozoárias/genética
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 49: 101003, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462304

RESUMO

Despite multiple screening efforts to identify exposures to Trypanosoma cruzi, in dogs across southern USA, no published studies could be found involving client owned dogs in the North Texas Metroplex area. Therefore, a limited screen was conducted for client owned dogs, seeking routine or preventative care, from participating veterinary practices in the greater Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex from 2019 to 2021. Participants, with owner consent, ranged in age, breed, and length of time at recorded residence. Ninety-nine samples were acquired from participating veterinary practices, initially assessed with the Chagas StatPak, and positive samples were confirmed with IFA (indirect fluorescent antibody test) at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab (TVMDL), College Station, Texas. Six samples were positive with the StatPak and only two were confirmed positive with IFA. Both animals were senior (10 and 8 years) with no owner reports of previous cardiac issues. The results appear reasonable within the context of previous studies and the seropositivity rate of 2% (n = 99) for client owned dogs included in this study are lower than previously reported rates for shelter dogs from the North Texas area.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Doenças do Cão , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Cães , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Texas/epidemiologia , Habitação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5225, 2024 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433244

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, invades many cell types affecting numerous host-signalling pathways. During the T. cruzi infection, we demonstrated modulations in the host RNA polymerase II activity with the downregulation of ribonucleoproteins affecting host transcription and splicing machinery. These alterations could be a result of the initial damage to the host DNA caused by the presence of the parasite, however, the mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, we examined whether infection by T. cruzi coincided with enhanced DNA damage in the host cell. We studied the engagement of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathways at the different time points (0-24 h post-infection, hpi) by T. cruzi in LLC-MK2 cells. In response to double-strand breaks (DSB), maximum phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX is observed at 2hpi and promotes recruitment of the DDR p53-binding protein (53BP1). During T. cruzi infection, Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) and DNA-PK protein kinases remained active in a time-dependent manner and played roles in regulating the host response to DSB. The host DNA lesions caused by the infection are likely orchestrated by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway to maintain the host genome integrity.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Humanos , Células Epiteliais , Doença de Chagas/genética , Fosforilação , Reparo do DNA
20.
mBio ; 15(4): e0031924, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441981

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of the most prevalent human parasitic disease in Latin America, Chagas disease. Its genome is rich in multigenic families that code for virulent antigens and are present in the rapidly evolving genomic compartment named Disruptive. DNA replication is a meticulous biological process in which flaws can generate mutations and changes in chromosomal and gene copy numbers. Here, integrating high-throughput and single-molecule analyses, we were able to identify Predominant, Flexible, and Dormant Orc1Cdc6-dependent origins as well as Orc1Cdc6-independent origins. Orc1Cdc6-dependent origins were found in multigenic family loci, while independent origins were found in the Core compartment that contains conserved and hypothetical protein-coding genes, in addition to multigenic families. In addition, we found that Orc1Cdc6 density is related to the firing of origins and that Orc1Cdc6-binding sites within fired origins are depleted of a specific class of nucleosomes that we previously categorized as dynamic. Together, these data suggest that Orc1Cdc6-dependent origins may contribute to the rapid evolution of the Disruptive compartment and, therefore, to the success of T. cruzi infection and that the local epigenome landscape is also involved in this process.IMPORTANCETrypanosoma cruzi, responsible for Chagas disease, affects millions globally, particularly in Latin America. Lack of vaccine or treatment underscores the need for research. Parasite's genome, with virulent antigen-coding multigenic families, resides in the rapidly evolving Disruptive compartment. Study sheds light on the parasite's dynamic DNA replication, discussing the evolution of the Disruptive compartment. Therefore, the findings represent a significant stride in comprehending T. cruzi's biology and the molecular bases that contribute to the success of infection caused by this parasite.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Origem de Replicação , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Dosagem de Genes , Cromossomos
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