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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-10. (PAHO/FPL/IM/21-0012).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55560

RESUMO

The countries of the Americas, with support from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), have made remarkable progress in providing children with an umbrella of protection against basic vaccine-preventable diseases. Sustained high national immunization coverage levels, the eradication of polio, the interruption of endemic measles virus transmission, and the more recent efforts towards rubella and congenital rubella syndrome elimination are hemispheric benchmarks of this progress. Countries are now vaccinating age groups outside those usually targeted in the traditional childhood immunization program, thus showing the critical need for national immunization programs to transition from child to family immunization. In the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the countries of the Region have taken important actions to implement innovative strategies and to maintain the high commitment of health workers to national immunization programs. Although these strategies have improved access to supply services, the COVID-19 pandemic and containment policies in the countries of the Region have affected the demand for vaccination services. In support to countries, one of PAHO's roles is to disseminate information that can highlight progress and challenges faced in the Region. This brochure highlights some of the achievements and challenges in immunization and summarizes 2020 key regional data in the Region of the Americas.


Assuntos
Imunização , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Morte Materna , Poliomielite , Sarampo , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Saúde da Criança , Estatísticas de Saúde
2.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous warts represent a challenging condition to treat. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intralesional injection of MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella) antigen, BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guerin) vaccine, and candida antigen for the treatment of multiple warts. METHODS: A total of ninety (90) clinically confirmed adult patients complaining of recalcitrant extragenital warts of various sizes and durations were recruited in this randomized clinical trial. They were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). Each group consisted of (30) patients. Group (A) subjects received intralesional MMR injections. Group (B) subjects received intralesional BCG injection and Group (C) received intralesional candida antigen injection. RESULTS: Full clearance of warts was observed in (73.33%, 70%, and 43.33%) in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Infrequent side effects including pain, erythema, and minimal induration were reported in all groups but did not necessitate termination of treatment. CONCLUSION: All the three modalities used demonstrated a simple, safe modality with low adverse events, and with no recurrence. To achieve an optimal response with an ideal immunotherapeutic agent and ideal dose, further comparative studies are warranted and on different populations and larger sample sizes.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 60, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination rates for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio (Tdap-IPV) are not optimal among German adolescents. Education in combination with easy access to vaccination may be a promising approach to improve vaccination rates. The present paper describes a pilot study of a planned cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) in which we aim to improve MMR and Tdap-IPV vaccination rates together with knowledge and self-efficacy in a school setting. METHODS: The study covered 863 students from 41 classes of four schools. The optimization and feasibility of access to schools, recruitment strategies, intervention, and assessment procedures were examined. The course and content of the educational unit were evaluated with a mixed-methods approach. A pre-post measurement design was tested for the vaccination rate in all schools. Additionally, at two schools, improvement in vaccination-related knowledge and perceived self-efficacy were measured by questionnaire pre-educational unit (n=287) and post-educational unit (n=293). The remaining two schools provided only postintervention data. Finally, we evaluated the psychometric properties (i.e., reliability, retest reliability, and change rates) of the questionnaire, applying Cronbach's alpha, factor analyses, generalized estimating equations and linear mixed models. RESULTS: The findings of the pilot study indicated good feasibility. Of the total sample, 437 students (50.9%) brought their vaccination cards to school, 68 students received Tdap-IPV vaccinations, and 11 received MMR vaccinations. Out of six knowledge questions, on average, the students had M=2.84 (95% CI [2.69, 3.10]) correct answers before and M=4.45 (95% CI [4.26, 4.64]) after the class. Ranging from 1 to 4, the self-efficacy scale changed by 0.3 points (p <.001); Cronbach's alpha was 0.67 and 0.76 pre- and post-educational unit, respectively, and a one-factor solution was found. Content analysis of the five semistructured group interviews (n=12, 58.3% female) showed that all students found the length of the intervention to be appropriate. The teaching methods, including interactive and social media components, were perceived as very good. CONCLUSIONS: A school-based educational and on-site vaccination intervention appears to be feasible in terms of procedures and the adequacy of the instruments for the adolescent target group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN18026662 . Pilot study for main trial registered 8 December 2017.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serological diagnosis of infections due to measles and rubella viruses is done by IgM detection. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate commercial systems for detecting IgM against both viruses, including those of ELISA, in indirect and capture formats, chemiluminescence and electrochemiluminescence. METHODS: Seven (for rubella) and six (for measles) assays were studied. One hundred and sixty two samples were included in the study (from 90 rubella and 72 measles cases), and all were analyzed in all the assays. RESULTS: The ranges of sensitivity, specificity and agreement for rubella were 94.8-100%, 52.4-100% and 75.5-98.1%, respectively. The corresponding ranges for measles assays were 87.0-100%, 53.3-100%, and 73.0-99.4%. CONCLUSION: The best-performing assays were chemiluminescence (for measles and rubella IgM), and electrochemiluminescence (for rubella IgM).

5.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 25: 101241, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977425

RESUMO

Purpose: Many retinal disorders present with pigmentary retinopathy, most of which are progressive conditions. Here we present over nine years of follow up on a case of stable pigmentary retinopathy that is suspected to stem from a congenital rubella infection. Parafoveal cone photoreceptors were tracked through this period to gain insight into photoreceptor disruption in this pigmentary retinopathy. Methods: The patient was examined at 8 visits spanning a total of 111 months. Examination at baseline included clinical fundus examination, full-field electroretinography (ERG), kinetic visual field assessment (Goldmann), and best corrected visual acuity; all of these except ERG were repeated at follow up visits. Imaging was performed with fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and confocal adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). For the latter four time points AOSLO imaging also included split-detector imaging. Results: There were no defects in hearing or cardiac health found in this patient. There were minimal visual deficits found at baseline, with mild rod suppression on ERG; best corrected visual acuity was 20/25 OD and 20/20 OS at baseline, which was stable throughout the follow-up period. Retinal thickness as measured by OCT was within the normal range, though foveal hypoplasia was present and outer nuclear layer thickness was slightly below the normal range at all time points. Cone density was relatively stable throughout the follow-up period. A number of cones were non-reflective when observed with confocal AOSLO imaging and density was markedly lower than expected values (foveal cone density was 43,782 cones/mm2 on average). Genetic analysis revealed no causative variations explaining the phenotype. Conclusions and Importance: This patient appears to have a stable pigmentary retinopathy. This case is likely due to a congenital insult, rather than progressive retinal disease. This finding of stability agrees with other reports of rubella pigmentary retinopathy. Imaging with AOSLO enabled observation of two notable phenotypic features. First is the observation of dark cones, which are seen in many retinal disorders including color vision defects and degenerative retinal disease. Second, the cone density is well below what is expected - this is especially interesting as this patient has near-normal visual acuity despite this greatly decreased number of normally-waveguiding cones in the fovea.

6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(3): e22, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the health status of healthcare workers (doctors and nurses) compared to those in the general population based on the National Health Insurance Service database and the cause of death data from Statistics Korea. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 104,484 doctors and 220,310 nurses working in healthcare facilities from 2002 to 2017, and who had undergone at least one general medical examination. Based on the subject definition, the subject data were extracted from the National Health Insurance healthcare facility database and qualification database. We collected medical use details included in the research database, general medical examination results, medical history included in the health examination database, and additional data on the cause of death from the National Statistics database to analyze the main cause of death and mortality. RESULTS: In terms of the major causes of death and mortality among healthcare workers, the mortality rate associated with intentional self-harm, injury, transportation accident, heart disease, addiction, and falling was significantly higher than that in the general population. Further, the prevalence of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases was high. When analyzing the proportional mortality ratio (PMR) by cause of death for healthcare workers, the PMR values for death related to malignant neoplasm was the highest. In terms of diseases, both doctors and nurses had higher rates of infectious diseases such as maternal sepsis, rubella, and measles. CONCLUSION: The health status of healthcare workers differs from that of the general population. Thus, it is important to consider the occupational characteristics of healthcare personnel. This study is unique in that it was conducted based on medical use indicators rather than survey data.

7.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 16, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ensure the health of newborns, it is necessary to perform high-quality diagnostic tests. The TORCH panel is a set of tests that identifies infectious pathogens such as Toxoplasma (Toxo) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) that are common in low-setting populations. We performed TORCH panel quality planning using six sigma in a reference laboratory at Peru. RESULTS: This was a cross-sectional study. TORCH tests include Toxo, Rubella, CMV, and Herpes. We processed all samples by fourth-generation ELISA on the GEMINI XCR200 analyzer (Diatron, Budapest, Hungary). We obtained the imprecision from the annual data of the external quality assessment plan and we used the CLSI EP12-A3 guideline. In a total of 44,788 analyses, the average imprecision was 3.69 ± 1.47%, and CMV had lower imprecision (2.3 and 2.6% for IgM and IgG, respectively). Quality planning of the TORCH panel allowed estimating the sigma value that ranged from 4 to 10 (average 7 ± 2 sigma), where rubella had the highest values (10 for IgM and 8 for IgG) while HSV2 had the lowest values (4 for IgM and 5 for IgG). Our results suggest the optimal performance of half of the markers including Toxoplasma, Rubella, and CMV in the Peruvian population.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Recém-Nascido , Peru , Gravidez , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Gestão da Qualidade Total
8.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261332, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020724

RESUMO

Recent reports indicate that respiratory infectious diseases were suppressed during the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 led to behavioral changes aimed to control droplet transmission or contact transmission. In this study, we examined the incidence of common infectious diseases in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 data were extracted from the national data based on the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID). Common infectious diseases were selected from notifiable infectious diseases under the NESID. The epidemic activity of the diseases during 2015-2020 was evaluated based on the Infectious Disease Weekly Reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Each disease was then categorized according to the route of transmission. Many Japanese people had adopted hygienic activities, such as wearing masks and hand washing, even before the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the correlation between the time-series of disease counts of common infectious diseases and COVID-19 over time using cross-correlation analysis. The weekly number of cases of measles, rotavirus, and several infections transmitted by droplet spread, was negatively correlated with the weekly number of cases of COVID-19 for up to 20 weeks in the past. According to the difference-in-differences analysis, the activity of influenza and rubella was significantly lower starting from the second week in 2020 than that in 2015-2019. Only legionellosis was more frequent throughout the year than in 2015-2019. Lower activity was also observed in some contact transmitted, airborne-transmitted, and fecal-oral transmitted diseases. However, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, exanthema subitum, showed the same trend as that over the previous 5 years. In conclusion, our study shows that public health interventions for the COVID-19 pandemic may have effectively prevented the transmission of most droplet-transmitted diseases and those transmitted through other routes.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062794

RESUMO

Mumps outbreaks and breakthrough infections of measles and rubella have raised concerns about waning of vaccine-induced immunity after two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. In the present follow-up study, serum IgG antibodies against mumps, measles and rubella, as well as the functional neutralizing antibodies against both the mumps vaccine strain and mumps outbreak strains were measured longitudinally in young adults that received a third MMR (MMR3) dose. The mumps-specific IgG and virus neutralizing antibody levels at 3 years after vaccination were still elevated compared to pre-vaccination antibody levels, although the differences were smaller than at earlier timepoints. Interestingly, subjects with low antibody levels to mumps before vaccination benefited the most as they showed the strongest antibody increase after an MMR3 dose. Three years after an MMR3 dose, all subjects had antibody levels to measles and rubella above the internationally agreed antibody cutoff levels for clinical protection. Our data support the recommendation that an MMR3 dose may provide additional protection for those that have become susceptible to mumps virus infection during outbreaks. MMR3 also resulted in an increase in anti-measles and rubella antibody levels that lasted longer than might have been expected.

10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1278, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075197

RESUMO

Routine antenatal rubella serological testing is adopted in many countries. In a population covered by universal childhood rubella immunization for four decades, we have observed an association between pre-eclampsia with maternal rubella seronegativity among multiparous gravidae. This retrospective cohort study was further performed to elucidate the interaction between parity status and rubella seronegativity on obstetric outcome in singleton pregnancies carried to ≥ 24 weeks gestation managed from 1997 to 2019, with the data retrieved from a computerized database used for annual statistics and auditing. Of the 133,926 singleton pregnancies eligible for the study, the 13,320 (9.9%) rubella seronegative gravidae had higher mean booking weight and body mass index (BMI), but shorter height, and higher incidence of advanced age (≥ 35 years), high BMI, short stature, and lower incidence of nulliparas. Univariate analysis showed that adverse obstetric outcomes were more frequently found among the multiparas. On multivariate analysis, there was increased postdated (> 41 weeks) pregnancy irrespective of parity status, while nulliparas had reduced gestational hypertension (aRR 0.714, 95% CI 0.567-0.899) and gestational diabetes (aRR 0.850, 95% CI 0.762-0.950), and multiparas had increased pre-eclampsia (aRR 1.261, 95% CI 1.005-1.582), neonatal death (aRR 2.796, 95% CI 1.243-6.291), and perinatal death (aRR 2.123, 95% CI 1.257-3.587). In conclusion, in a population covered by universal childhood rubella immunization, antenatal rubella seronegativity is associated with increased pre-eclampsia and perinatal loss only in multiparas, suggesting that the rubella seronegativity in these women served as proxy for some form of altered immune response which increases adverse pregnancy outcome.

11.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2022: 4490728, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046632

RESUMO

Objectives: The organisms of Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus as an acronym of TORCH are major pathogens in prepregnancy and reproductive-age women. These microorganisms are considered a serious problem and cause 2-3% of all birth defects in the fetus. Our study was aimed at screening the seroprevalence of TORCH antibodies among prepregnancy and reproductive-age women in Tabriz, Iran. Design and Setting. This study was carried out in 2726 prepregnancy and reproductive-age women, who were referred to the laboratory for prenatal TORCH screening. To detect the presence of IgG, IgM antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen against these microorganisms were carried out using a chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer (CLIA). Results: In the current study, the rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, anti-Rubella virus IgG, and anti-Cytomegalovirus IgG were found in 722 cases (26.5%), 2579 cases (94.6%0), and 2718 cases (99.7%), respectively. Moreover, the rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM, anti-Rubella virus IgM, and anti-Cytomegalovirus IgM were discovered in 10 cases (0.4%), 13 cases (0.5%), and 16 cases (0.6%), respectively. The Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 32 cases (1.2%). The dissemination of positive TORCH in various ages was different (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In our study, the seroprevalence of acute TORCH infections was relatively low. Due to the probability of vertical transmission to the fetus during pregnancy and the unpleasant complication of these pathogens, it is essential to be screened for detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies in reproductive ages.

12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 202, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997042

RESUMO

Pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Most molecular diagnoses of viruses rely on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that however can fail due to primer mismatch. We investigated the performance of routine virus diagnostics in Kilifi, Kenya, using random-primed viral next generation sequencing (viral NGS) on respiratory samples which tested negative for the common viral respiratory pathogens by a local standard diagnostic panel. Among 95 hospitalised pneumonia patients and 95 household-cohort individuals, analysis of viral NGS identified at least one respiratory-associated virus in 35 (37%) and 23 (24%) samples, respectively. The majority (66%; 42/64) belonged to the Picornaviridae family. The NGS data analysis identified a number of viruses that were missed by the diagnostic panel (rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus), and these failures could be attributed to PCR primer/probe binding site mismatches. Unexpected viruses identified included parvovirus B19, enterovirus D68, coxsackievirus A16 and A24 and rubella virus. The regular application of such viral NGS could help evaluate assay performance, identify molecular causes of missed diagnoses and reveal gaps in the respiratory virus set used for local screening assays. The results can provide actionable information to improve the local pneumonia diagnostics and reveal locally important viral pathogens.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999974

RESUMO

We describe a measles outbreak among previously vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) and inpatients and the control measures implemented at a tertiary care hospital in 2019. Case-patients were laboratory-confirmed measles with throat swabs tested by quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCR), during April-May 2019. Medical histories and documented immunization records were obtained. We compared attack rates (ARs) among HCWs by occupational subgroup and age and examined the outbreak-associated costs. The index case was not ascertained. Among 26 measles case-patients (22 HCWs, four inpatients) aged 18-28 years, 25 had previously received measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (12/26, 46% (two doses); 13/26, 50% (one dose)), and 16 (62%) had positive results of measles IgG prior to measles diagnosis. ARs were higher among HCWs aged < 30 years (1.88%), especially in the subgroup under 25 years of age (2.22%). Control measures included work restrictions for seronegative HCWs (218/2320, 9.4%) in immunity verification, administration of the MMR vaccine (207 HCWs) or intravenous immunoglobulin (2 HCWs and 11 inpatients), enhanced health surveillance of HCWs, and mandatory assessment of patients with measles-like symptoms at the infectious diseases screening units. The hospital spent 90,417,132 Korean won (US $79,733) in response to the outbreak. Measles outbreaks can occur in healthcare settings despite high population immunity, highlighting the importance of stronger vaccination policies, particularly among young HCWs. Moreover, an effective outbreak response comprising immunization activities and enhanced surveillance of HCWs and patients to rapidly detect measles-like symptoms at a prodromal phase is essential to control nosocomial measles outbreaks.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 6, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are at increased risk of serious infections, including vaccine preventable diseases. Current evidence suggests uptake of additional recommended special risk vaccinations is low. Identification of IBD patients prior to commencing immunosuppressive therapy allows for optimisation of vaccination, including timely administration of live-attenuated and additional recommended vaccines, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. METHODS: Paediatric patients (0-18 years) seen at the tertiary Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, with a recent diagnosis of IBD were referred by the Gastroenterology Unit to our Specialist Immunisation Clinic (SIC) for assessment and provision of routine and special risk vaccines. Data was collected via a standardised REDCap questionnaire completed in or post attendance at the SIC and included serology results where available. RESULTS: Sixty-nine paediatric patients were recruited to the study between 2014 and 2017. Median age at IBD diagnosis was 11.25 years (IQR 4.64 years), with median time between diagnosis and SIC review of 0.88 years (IQR 2.84 years). At initial review 84.1% (58/69) of patients were up to date with vaccines on the Australian National Immunisation Program (NIP) schedule. Of those who were tested, serological evidence of immunity was demonstrated in 38.3% (23/60) of patients for Hepatitis B, 66.7% (36/54) for measles, 51.9% (28/54) for rubella and 41.9% (26/62) for Varicella Zoster Virus. Prior to SIC review 47.8% (33/69) had additional vaccinations and 92.8% (64/69) had vaccinations administered in the 12 months following SIC assessment. The Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (76.8%, 53/69) was the most commonly administered vaccine after SIC review, followed by influenza vaccine (69.6%, 48/69). Within 12 months of SIC review 43.5% (30/69) of patients had completed the schedule and were up-to-date as recommended by the SIC. CONCLUSIONS: Children with IBD and other special risk groups can benefit from early referral to a SIC team to ensure optimal administration of routine and additionally recommended vaccines, especially live and additional special risk vaccines. The value of optimising immunisations could also be applied to other special risk groups, including adult IBD cohorts, particularly those commencing newer biologic immunosuppressive medications.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Vacinas contra Influenza , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Imunização , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação
15.
Can J Public Health ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunization rates during the measles outbreak in Calgary and Edmonton of 2014 stratified by four area-level socio-demographic indicators. This study also leverages this epidemiological data to assess the equity aspect of emergency measures instituted regarding immunization in those two cities. METHODS: A mixed-methods comparative case study analysis methodology was employed to assess the neighbourhood-level immunization statuses before (2013), during (2014), and after (2015) an active measles outbreak in Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The epidemiological one-dose by age-2 MMR coverage data were stratified using four socio-demographic indicators: median household income, %-homeownership, %-Aboriginal population, and %-immigrant population. Document and content analysis was utilized to investigate the outbreak mitigation strategies deployed in each city. RESULTS: The measles outbreak of 2013/2014 involved the entirety of Alberta and led to both provincial and city-specific interventions in which Calgary deployed three mass immunization clinics in 2014, where Edmonton did not. The Calgary coverage data showed an increase in coverage inequalities across all indicators and the Edmonton data showed mixed results in terms of equity gains/losses. Calgary's additive intervention of three mass immunization clinics in 2014 appears to have contributed to both the higher gross immunization rates in Calgary (90.77%) and an inequitable increase in coverage rates as compared with Edmonton (88.96%), in most cases. CONCLUSION: Public health policy-makers must be cognizant that large-scale public health efforts must be optimized for accessibility across all socio-economic levels to ensure public and population health gains are realized equitably.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Cette étude porte sur les taux de vaccination contre la rougeole, la rubéole et les oreillons (RRO) durant l'éclosion de rougeole de 2014 à Calgary et à Edmonton, stratifiés selon quatre indicateurs sociodémographiques régionaux. L'étude se sert aussi de ces données épidémiologiques pour évaluer l'équité des mesures de vaccination d'urgence instituées dans les deux villes. MéTHODE: À l'aide d'une analyse comparative d'études de cas à méthodes mixtes, nous avons évalué les statuts vaccinaux par quartier avant (2013), pendant (2014) et après (2015) une éclosion active de rougeole survenue à Calgary et Edmonton, en Alberta, au Canada. Les données épidémiologiques relatives à la couverture du vaccin RRO, administré en une dose avant l'âge de 2 ans, ont été stratifiées à l'aide de quatre indicateurs sociodémographiques : le revenu médian des ménages, le pourcentage d'accession à la propriété, le pourcentage de la population autochtone et le pourcentage de la population immigrante. Nous avons fait appel à l'analyse documentaire et à l'analyse de contenu pour étudier les stratégies d'atténuation de l'éclosion déployées dans chaque ville. RéSULTATS: L'éclosion de rougeole de 2013-2014 a sévi partout en Alberta et a donné lieu à des interventions à l'échelle de la province et des villes; trois cliniques de vaccination de masse ont été déployées à Calgary en 2014, mais aucune à Edmonton. Selon les données relatives à la couverture vaccinale à Calgary, il y a eu une augmentation des inégalités dans la couverture pour tous les indicateurs; selon les données pour Edmonton, les résultats en matière de gains ou de pertes d'équité ont été mitigés. L'ajout de trois cliniques de vaccination de masse à Calgary en 2014 semble avoir contribué à la fois aux taux de vaccination bruts plus élevés à Calgary (90,77 %) et à une hausse inéquitable des taux de couverture comparativement à Edmonton (88,96 %) dans la plupart des cas. CONCLUSION: Les responsables des politiques de santé publique doivent être conscients qu'il faut optimiser les efforts de santé publique à grande échelle pour que toutes les classes socioéconomiques en bénéficient, afin que les gains réalisés en santé publique et en santé des populations soient équitables.

16.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 2, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high rate of vaccination coverage with 2-doses of measles containing vaccine among Iranian children, outbreaks of measles occurred among different age groups and fully vaccinated subjects. Although the main reason for these outbreaks is unknown, however, vaccine failure was supposed to be an important cause. This study was designed to determine the seroconversion rates to measles- mumps- rubella (MMR) vaccine currently in use among Iranian children. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted among healthy children older than 12 months who were candidates of scheduled MMR vaccination. Blood samples were obtained from each mother- infant pair just before vaccination, and from infants 4-6 weeks after MMR1 and MMR2 immunization. Collected sera were tested for specific lgG antibodies against MMR agents using ELISA method. The proportion of seroprotected subjects among mother- infant pairs before vaccination as well as the prevalence rates of seroconversion after MMR1 and MMR2 vaccination were calculated. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. RESULTS: During 22-months study period, 92 mother- infant pairs were participated. Seroimmunity rates against MMR viruses were 85.8%, 84.7% and 86.9% for mothers, and 3.2%, 2.1% and 1.0% for children, respectively. After MMR1 vaccination from 52 seronegative children, 80.7%, 78.8% and 75% were seroconverted. These rates increased to 94.8%, 89.7% and 94.8% after the MMR2 vaccination. Also, the specific immunity was enhanced among seropositive children. CONCLUSION: Majority of the mothers and few infants were immune to MMR viruses prior to MMR1 vaccination. Immune responses detected after MMR1 injection, and overall seroconversion rates achieved after 2-doses of MMR vaccination were less than expected and inadequate to preserve long-term protection against MMR agents.

17.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 444-449, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination coverage of dose two of MMR (MMR2) at 5th birthday has been consistently low in London and measured 76.3% in 2018/19. Since the early 2000s seven boroughs in London started offering dose two earlier, from 15 to 18 months onwards instead of the recommended 3 years 4 months. In this study we investigate whether the accelerated schedule of MMR2 leads to a change in coverage of MMR2 and other childhood vaccines with an ecological study using childhood immunisation data from 2009 to 2018 in London. METHODS: We modelled coverage used generalized estimating equations (GEE) adjusted for year and DTaP/IPV/Hib3 coverage measured at 2nd birthday as a proxy for baseline local vaccination programme performance to determine the percentage point difference in coverage of MMR2 and other childhood vaccines. RESULTS: Average MMR2 coverage was higher among early implementing boroughs from 2012/13 onwards. Coverage difference was highest in 2017/18 (9.2 percentage points, 95% CI 4.8, 13.5, p < 0.001). On average over the 6 years, compared to London boroughs on the routine schedule, MMR2 coverage among early implementing boroughs was 3.3 percentage points higher (95% CI 1.3, 5.3, p = 0.01) after adjusting for DTaP/IPV/Hib3 coverage, IMD score and year. CONCLUSION: Earlier vaccination of MMR2 is associated with significantly higher coverage at five years for this vaccine in London. Further research is needed to assess the association at a more granular level, but our findings underline a potential opportunity to increase MMR coverage.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Caxumba , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Londres , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Caxumba/prevenção & controle
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 229-263, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914050

RESUMO

Vaccines are one of mankind's greatest medical advances, and their use has drastically reduced and in some cases eliminated (e.g., smallpox) disease and death caused by infectious agents. Traditional vaccine modalities including live-attenuated pathogen vaccines, wholly inactivated pathogen vaccines, and protein-based pathogen subunit vaccines have successfully been used to create efficacious vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. These traditional vaccine modalities, however, take many months to years to develop and have thus proven less effective for use in creating vaccines to emerging or reemerging infectious diseases (EIDs) including influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). As factors such as climate change and increased globalization continue to increase the pace of EID development, newer vaccine modalities are required to develop vaccines that can prevent or attenuate EID outbreaks throughout the world. One such modality, DNA vaccines, has been studied for over 30 years and has numerous qualities that make them ideal for meeting the challenge of EIDs including; (1) DNA vaccine candidates can be designed within hours of publishing of a pathogens genetic sequence; (2) they can be manufactured cheaply and rapidly in large quantities; (3) they are thermostable and have reduced requirement for a cold-chain during distribution, and (4) they have a remarkable safety record in the clinic. Optimizations made in plasmid design as well as in DNA vaccine delivery have greatly improved the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Here we describe the process of making a DNA vaccine to an EID pathogen and describe methods used for assessing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines in small animal models.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Vacinas de DNA , Vacinas Virais , Animais , COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunidade , Vírus da SARS , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2392: 53-64, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773614

RESUMO

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used technique in the diagnosis of viral infections due to its low cost, high sensitivity, and specificity. Although the more advanced variations of PCR, such as real-time PCR and digital PCR are now available to researchers, conventional PCR is still used in many research studies. Here we describe the protocol for tri-primer diagnostic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of rubella in throat swabs and further detailed protocol for a two fragment genotyping using two different sets of primers. In tri-primer diagnostic PCR, one forward and two reverse primers are used to detect clade I and clade II of the rubella virus. In the two fragments genotyping, each fragment of the genome is amplified, sequenced separately, and then the overlapping regions are aligned and full length sequence window is obtained.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Vírus da Rubéola , Genótipo , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus da Rubéola/genética
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(2): 514-520, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617629

RESUMO

In 2017, the Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination (RVC) of the World Health Organization confirmed that measles elimination was sustained in Montenegro, and the previous endemic transmission remained interrupted. However, the RVC was extremely concerned over the continuing low vaccination coverage reported for this country. In this study, we describe the most recent measles epidemic in Montenegro using the epidemiological data collected from January 1 to July 31, 2018. The outbreak is largely attributable to a dangerous accumulation of susceptible subjects across the country and represents a high-risk factor for re-establishing endemic transmission in the Balkan area. This study showed how a vaccine-preventable communicable disease outbreak can have a dramatic impact and severe consequences on regional public health system performance in terms of the sanitary spending point of view. A detailed update is provided on the epidemiological situation in this Central European area, not available until now.

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