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2.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, New York introduced regulations mandating that hospitals develop pediatric-specific protocols for sepsis recognition and treatment. METHODS: We used hospital discharge data from 2011 to 2015 to compare changes in pediatric sepsis outcomes in New York and 4 control states: Florida, Massachusetts, Maryland, and New Jersey. We examined the effect of the New York regulations on 30-day in-hospital mortality using a comparative interrupted time-series approach, controlling for patient and hospital characteristics and preregulation temporal trends. RESULTS: We studied 9436 children admitted to 237 hospitals. Unadjusted pediatric sepsis mortality decreased in both New York (14.0% to 11.5%) and control states (14.4% to 11.2%). In the primary analysis, there was no significant effect of the regulations on mortality trends (differential quarterly change in mortality in New York compared with control states: -0.96%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.95% to 0.02%; P = .06). However, in a prespecified sensitivity analysis excluding metropolitan New York hospitals that participated in earlier sepsis quality improvement, the regulations were associated with improved mortality trends (differential change: -2.08%; 95% CI: -3.79% to -0.37%; P = .02). The regulations were also associated with improved mortality trends in several prespecified subgroups, including previously healthy children (differential change: -1.36%; 95% CI: -2.62% to -0.09%; P = .04) and children not admitted through the emergency department (differential change: -2.42%; 95% CI: -4.24% to -0.61%; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of statewide sepsis regulations was generally associated with improved mortality trends in New York State, particularly in prespecified subpopulations of patients, suggesting that the regulations were successful in affecting sepsis outcomes.

5.
Trials ; 21(1): 601, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Septic shock remains a significant cause of death in critically ill patients. During septic shock, some patients will retain microcirculatory disorders despite optimal hemodynamic support (i.e., fluid resuscitation, vasopressors, inotropes). Alterations in the microcirculation are a key pathophysiological factor of organ dysfunction and death in septic shock patients. Ilomedin is a prostacyclin analog with vasodilatory effect and anti-thrombotic properties (i.e., inhibition of platelet aggregation) preferentially at the microcirculatory level. We hypothesize that early utilization of intravenous Ilomedin in septic shock patients with clinical persistence of microperfusion disorders would improve the recovery of organ dysfunction. METHODS: The I-MICRO trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. We plan to recruit 236 adult patients with septic shock and persistent microcirculatory disorders (i.e., skin mottling or increased capillary refill time) despite hemodynamic support. Participants will be randomized to receive a 48-h intravenous infusion of either Ilomedin or placebo starting at the earliest 6 h and later 24 h after septic shock. The primary outcome will be the change (delta) of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score between randomization and day 7. Secondary outcomes will include mean SOFA score during the first 7 days after randomization, mortality at day 28 post-randomization, number of ventilation-free survival days in the 28 days post-randomization, number of renal replacement therapy-free survival days in the 28 days post-randomization, number of vasopressor-free survival days in the 28 days post-randomization, and mottling score at day 1 after randomization. DISCUSSION: The trial aims to provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of Ilomedin in patients with septic shock and persistent microcirculatory disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT NCT03788837 . Registered on 28 December 2018.

6.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 8294342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617075

RESUMO

Sepsis is associated with a strong inflammatory reaction triggering a complex and prolonged immune response. Septic patients have been shown to develop sustained immunosuppression due to a reduced responsiveness of leukocytes to pathogens. Changes in cellular metabolism of leukocytes have been linked to this phenomenon and contribute to the ongoing immunological derangement. However, the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena are incompletely understood. In cell culture models, we mimicked LPS tolerance conditions to provide evidence that epigenetic modifications account for monocyte metabolic changes which cause immune paralysis in restimulated septic monocytes. In detail, we observed differential methylation of CpG sites related to metabolic activity in human PBMCs 18 h after septic challenge. The examination of changes in immune function and metabolic pathways was performed in LPS-tolerized monocytic THP-1 cells. Passaged THP-1 cells, inheriting initial LPS challenge, presented with dysregulation of cytokine expression and oxygen consumption for up to 7 days after the initial LPS treatment. Proinflammatory cytokine concentrations of TNFα and IL1ß were significantly suppressed following a second LPS challenge (p < 0.001) on day 7 after first LPS stimulation. However, the analysis of cellular metabolism did not reveal any noteworthy alterations between tolerant and nontolerant THP-1 monocytes. No quantitative differences in ATP and NADH synthesis or participating enzymes of energy metabolism occurred. Our data demonstrate that the function and epigenetic modifications of septic and tolerized monocytes can be examined in vitro with the help of our LPS model. Changes in CpG site methylation and monocyte function point to a correlation between epigenetic modification in metabolic pathways and reduced monocyte function under postseptic conditions.

7.
Colorectal Dis ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619321

RESUMO

AIM: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) should be delayed to a second stage in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and prolonged exposure to medical therapy. However, there is still discussion about whether a modified 2-stage is preferable to a 3-stage approach. Recently, a transanal approach has been introduced to overcome the well-known difficulties of laparoscopic pelvic surgery. This article presents short-term outcomes of transanal IPAA (ta-IPAA) according to a modified 2-stage approach. METHODS: Data from all patients who underwent a modified 2-stage Ta-IPAA for UC refractory to medical therapy were retrieved retrospectively from a prospective database. Comprehensive complication index (CCI) was used for 90-day postoperative complications. Conversion, duration of surgery, hospital stay, and reoperation were considered. A logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors for peri-pouch sepsis. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (68.8%) were identified from 109 consecutive IPAAs. Median operation time was 159 min. Conversion rate was 4%. Mean CCI was 7. All anastomotic leaks (10.6%) were treated with diverting ileostomy. Additionally, active rescue with transanal drainage and early resuturing of the anastomotic gap was performed in 6 patients. Ileostomy closure occurred after a median period of 5.4 months. At univariable analysis, factors associated with peri-pouch sepsis were male gender and age at IPAA construction. CONCLUSIONS: A modified 2-stage Ta-IPAA is safe and feasible. Standardization and reproducibility of the technique is reflected in few conversions and intraoperative complications. Finally, morbidity and anastomotic leak do not differ from those reported in previous Ta-IPAA series with a variable proportion of multistage procedures.

8.
J Surg Res ; 255: 442-448, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the potential link between trauma center American College of Surgeons verification level and institutional volume of penetrating thoracic trauma with outcomes for patients with penetrating thoracic trauma. METHODS: Penetrating thoracic injuries were identified in the National Trauma Data Bank from 2013 to 2016. Primary exposures were trauma center American College of Surgeons verification level and annual penetrating trauma caseload by center. Cox models were used to evaluate the association between primary exposures and mortality. Poisson regression was used to evaluate admission and outcome rate differences by trauma center status. RESULTS: Of 68,727 patients identified, 38% were treated at level I centers, 18% at level II centers, and 44% at other centers. Only 3.1% required major surgery for thoracic injury (3.1% at level I, 2.6% at level II, and 3.2% at other). Overall, annual volume of penetrating thoracic trauma was not associated with mortality. For specific injuries, level I centers had superior outcomes for injuries to the thoracic aorta and vena cava compared with other centers. Level I centers also showed improved outcomes for lung/bronchus injuries compared with level II centers. Level I centers had less sepsis/acute respiratory distress syndrome, but more surgical site infection, venous thromboembolism, and unplanned operation compared with non-level I centers. CONCLUSIONS: There was no identified impact of penetrating thoracic trauma volume or trauma center verification level on overall mortality. However, level I verification did correlate with improved outcomes for some specific injuries. Further study to identify factors that improve outcomes in patients with high-risk penetrating thoracic mechanisms is warranted.

9.
J Surg Res ; 255: 456-462, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) and the 11-factor modified frailty index (mFI-11) are equally effective in predicting adverse outcomes in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. The similarly structured American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database has not been studied with these two frailty indices. We hypothesized that the mFI-5 and mFI-11 could similarly predict adverse outcomes with TQIP data. METHODS: The mFI-5 and mFI-11 were calculated for each patient comprising our institutional TQIP registry (2016-2018). Spearman ρ was calculated to assess correlations between the two indices across multiple predefined TQIP patient cohorts. Complications were stratified by frailty score for each index. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score were created to assess each mFI's association with any complication and discharge dispositions (home, facility, and expired). RESULTS: There were 8467 patients. Spearman ρ was >0.9 (P < 0.0001) for all patient cohorts except elderly, elderly blunt multisystem, and isolated hip fractures. Increasing frailty scores for both mFIs were associated with greater rates of acute kidney injury (P < 0.0001), myocardial infarction (P < 0.001), severe sepsis (P < 0.05), unplanned return to the intensive care unit (P < 0.0001), and unplanned intubation (P < 0.0001). On separate multivariable logistic regressions, the mFI-5 and mFI-11 were each predictive of any complication (P < 0.0001) and a facility discharge (P < 0.001). Neither the mFI-5 nor the mFI-11 were associated with mortality (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mFI-5 and mFI-11 are highly correlated across several TQIP patient cohorts. They also are both predictive of complications and discharge dispositions; however, neither index can predict mortality. Given its ease of use, the mFI-5 may be a better option for identifying frail patients and predicting adverse outcomes at the point of care in trauma.

10.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 196: 106024, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619902

RESUMO

AIM: In recent years, extended endoscopic endonasal approach (EEEA) has been used as an alternative to transcranial approaches in the treatment of anterior midline skull base lesions. We retrospectively reviewed our cases operated using this technique and compared the results with current literature. METHOD: The data of 24 patients who were operated using EEEA in our department between 2010-2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The lesions were located in the midline between the posterior wall of the frontal sinus and tuberculum sella. Tumor locations, histopathological diagnoses, surgical techniques, outcomes and complications were documented. RESULTS: Eleven patients were female and 13 were male. Their ages ranged between 18-75 years (mean 40.5 years). Considering their locations; 12 were in the anterior fossa (50 %), 7 were in the tuberculum sella (29.1 %), and 5 were in both anatomic sites (20.8 %). Histopathologically, our series consisted of 15 meningiomas, 6 osteomas, 2 dermoid tumors and 1 metastatic carcinoma. We achieved gross total resection in 75 % of our patients. Ten patients presented with visual complaints and 7 of them improved postoperatively. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSF) was observed in 3 patients and one of them developed meningitis and subsequently died of sepsis. CONCLUSION: Although the number of cases is low, EEEA seems like a safe, effective and well-tolerated treatment modality for anterior midline skull base lesions. But strict preventive measures should be taken for a possible CSF leak.

11.
Pediatrics ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the hypothesis that obesity is associated with increased mortality and worse outcomes in children who are critically ill. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury, Renal Angina, and Epidemiology study, a prospective, multinational observational study. Patients between 3 months and 25 years across Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America were recruited for 3 consecutive months. Patients were divided into 4 groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on the basis of their BMI percentile for age and sex. RESULTS: A total of 3719 patients were evaluated, of whom 542 (14%) had a primary diagnosis of sepsis. One thousand fifty-nine patients (29%) were underweight, 1649 (44%) were normal weight, 423 (11%) were overweight, and 588 (16%) were obese. The 28-day mortality rate was 3.6% for the overall cohort and 9.1% for the sepsis subcohort and differed significantly by weight status (5.8%, 3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.8% for subjects with underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively, in the overall cohort [P < .001] and 15.4%, 6.6%, 3.6%, and 4.7% in the sepsis subcohort, respectively [P = .003]). In a fully adjusted model, 28-day mortality risk was 1.8-fold higher in the underweight group versus the normal weight group in the overall cohort and 2.9-fold higher in the sepsis subcohort. Patients who were overweight and obese did not demonstrate increased risk in their respective cohorts. Patients who were underweight had a longer ICU length of stay, increased need for mechanical ventilation support, and a higher frequency of fluid overload. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who are underweight make up a significant proportion of all patients in the PICU, have a higher short-term mortality rate, and have a more complicated ICU course.

12.
Anaesthesist ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Vibrio vulnificus heavily depends on the temperature and salinity of the sea water. In the course of climate change an increase in cases of fatal sepsis caused by V. vulnificus at the German Baltic Sea coast could be detected. OBJECTIVE: To generate awareness for a life-threatening infection with increasing incidence in Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article presents an overview of the current state of the literature followed by an exemplary description of cases with V vulnificus sepsis caused by contact with water in the Baltic Sea, which were treated at the Medical University in Greifswald in summer 2018. RESULTS: In the presence of risk factors, such as liver and kidney diseases, immunosuppression and male sex, there is a danger of severe sepsis if damaged skin comes into contact with contaminated sea water. A pronounced organ dysfunction can frequently be found on admission. In these cases the diagnosis must be made promptly and timely surgical cleansing and antibiotic treatment should be initiated (e.g. a combination of tetracyclines and third generation cephalosporins). CONCLUSION: Sepsis due to V. vulnificus will probably increase over the coming years. Because there is a latency in some cases between infection and onset of sepsis, physicians beyond the coastal region must also be informed about this disease.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621149

RESUMO

The complement system is a vital component of the innate immune system, though its role in bacteremia is poorly understood. We present complement levels in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) and Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) and describe observed associations of complement levels with clinical outcomes. Complement and cytokine levels were measured in serum samples from 20 hospitalized patients with SAB, 20 hospitalized patients with GNB, 10 non-infected hospitalized patients, and 10 community controls. C5a levels were significantly higher in patients with SAB as compared to patients with GNB. Low C4 and C3 levels were associated with septic shock and 30-day mortality in patients with GNB, and elevated C3 was associated with a desirable outcome defined as absence of (1) septic shock, (2) acute renal failure, and (3) death within 30 days of bacteremia. Low levels of C9 were associated with septic shock in patients with GNB but not SAB. Elevated IL-10 was associated with increased 30-day mortality in patients with SAB. Complement profiles differ in patients with SAB and those with GNB. Measurement of IL-10 in patients with SAB and of C4, C3, and C9 in patients with GNB may help to identify those at higher risk for poor outcomes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621356

RESUMO

AIM: Neonatal early onset sepsis (EOS) is a low-incidence, high-risk disease which has prompted significant overtreatment with antibiotics for the standard duration of 48 h. The aims of this study were to determine whether blood cultures collected from term and late preterm neonates for EOS would return a positive result for pathogenic bacteria within 24 h and to review the literature to supplement the results. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of time to positive blood culture in the BACTEC culture system from neonates ≥34 weeks in a single referral centre between 1999 and 2018. A literature review was conducted through PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase using search terms of 'neonatal sepsis' AND 'blood culture'. Studies were included if they reported time to positive blood culture in EOS. RESULTS: Forty positive cultures were included in this report, with 39 (98%) showing bacterial growth within 24 h. One culture, obtained after commencement of antibiotics, became positive at 3 days. Sixteen papers were included in our literature review and six presented data for an EOS cohort; a median of 96.5% of pathogenic EOS blood cultures become positive within 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: All pathogenic blood cultures collected pre-therapy from neonates ≥34 weeks suspected of EOS returned a positive result within 24 h of incubation. Similar studies have found that 92-100% of cultures are positive by 24 h. This data could contribute to re-evaluation of the current standard duration of antibiotic use in term and late preterm neonates with suspected EOS.

15.
FEBS Lett ; 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621378

RESUMO

Sepsis as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by microorganisms represents a dreadful challenge for the immune system. The role of the complement system as major column of innate immunity has been extensively studied in various sepsis models but its translational value remains in the dark. Complement activation products, such as C3a and C5a, and their corresponding receptors provide useful diagnostic tools and promising targets to improve organ function and outcome. However, a mono-therapeutic complement intervention irrespective of the current immune function seems insufficient to reverse the complex sepsis mechanisms. Indeed, sepsis-induced disturbances of cross-talking complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascades lead to systemic "thromboinflammation", ultimately followed by multiple organ failure. We propose to reliably monitor the complement function in the patient and to re-establish the immune balance by patient-tailored combined therapies, such as complement and Toll-like receptor inhibition. Our working hypothesis aims at blocking the "explosive" innate immune recognition systems early on before downstream mediators are released and the inflammatory response becomes irreversible, a strategy that we name "upstream approach".

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of a single-dose of gentamicin on the incidence and persistence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with sepsis in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with sepsis in the ED in three hospitals. Local antibiotic guidelines recommended a single-dose of gentamicin as part of empirical therapy in selected patients in one hospital, whereas the other two hospitals did not. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effect of gentamicin and other potential risk factors on the incidence and persistence of AKI after admission. AKI was defined according to the KDIGO criteria. RESULTS: Of 1573 patients, 571/1573 (32.9%) received a single-dose of gentamicin. At admission, 181/571 (31.7%) of the gentamicin and 228/1002 (22.8%) of the non-gentamicin patients had AKI (p<0.001). After admission, AKI occurred in 64/571 (12.0%) of the gentamicin and in 82/1002 (8.9%) of the control group (p=0.06). Multivariate analysis showed that shock (OR 2.72 (95%CI, 1.31-5.67)), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.49 (95%CI, 1.001 - 2.23)), and higher baseline (i.e. pre-admission) serum creatinine (OR 1.007 (95%CI, 1.005-1.009)) were associated with the development of AKI after admission, but not gentamicin (OR 1.29 (95%CI, 0.89-1.86)). Persistent AKI was rare in both the gentamicin (16/260 (6.2%)) and the non-gentamicin group (15/454 (3.3%), p=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that a single-dose of gentamicin in patients with sepsis in the ED is safe with regard to renal function. The development of AKI after admission was associated with shock, diabetes mellitus, and a higher baseline creatinine.

17.
Rev Infirm ; 69(260-261): 16-18, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600588

RESUMO

Septic shock, defined as the combination of sepsis, a requirement for catecholamines to maintain systolic blood pressure above 65 mmHg and a serum lactate level above 2 mmol/L despite adequate volume resuscitation is a life-threatening condition. The Quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), which can be used by all nurses with a high-risk patient presenting with infection, enables the patient to be transferred rapidly to specialist care units.


Assuntos
Sepse/enfermagem , Choque Séptico/enfermagem , Humanos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Medição de Risco
18.
Cytokine ; 133: 155181, 2020 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604005

RESUMO

Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a small peptide secreted mainly by goblet cells in the gut, where it plays a key role in gastrointestinal defence and repair. Plasma TFF3 has been reported as a biomarker of intestinal injury and as such it has been evaluated as a marker of disease activity in colitis. Impaired gut barrier function has been postulated as the "motor" of critical illness. We here sought to determine the temporal dynamics of plasma TFF3 in adult patients admitted to intensive care unit with abdominal sepsis or after major abdominal surgery for a non-infectious condition (post-op GI patients). TFF3 was measured in plasma obtained from 143 patients with abdominal sepsis and 98 post-op GI patients on admission to the intensive care (day 0) and at days 2 and 4 thereafter. Abdominal sepsis patients showed sustained elevated plasma TFF3 levels from day 0 to 4 relative to healthy control values, while in post-op GI patients admission TFF3 levels were not increased, only rising at day 2 and 4. In both patient groups, the presence of shock was associated with higher TFF3 levels. Moreover, patients with 3 or more organs failing had higher plasma TFF3 concentrations. While plasma TFF3 was higher in sepsis patients who did not survive until day 30, TFF3 levels were not independently associated with 30-day mortality in a Cox regression analysis. These results could support the theory that intestinal injury contributes to the pathogenesis of critical illness. Future studies are needed to elucidate whether the proposed gut dysfunction precedes or supersedes organ dysfunction in time.

19.
Early Hum Dev ; 148: 105117, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604010

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the reproducibility and minimum detectable change (MDC) of heart rate variability (HRV) measures during two sequential 24-h periods, at week 32 of gestation, in preterm infants born between 28 and 32 weeks, hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The second aim is to assess postnatal changes in HRV measures between 32 and 35 weeks. STUDY DESIGN: 32 preterm infants born between 28 and 32 weeks of gestation were recruited. For each infant 48 h of recordings of RR interval were performed at week 32 and week 35. HRV parameters included time and frequency parameters. RESULTS: At week 32, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of all HRV values was statistically significant with high correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.83-0.97). At week 35, a significant increase was noted in the HRV parameters, characterize mainly the sympathetic tone, with over half the infants showing an increase greater than the MDC for these parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Using 24-h recording at week 32 of gestation during NICU routine is reliable, feasible, not costly and may have important implications for an early identification of premature in a state of stress such as sepsis, or as a follow-up measure.

20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 159, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies of biomarkers as predictors of outcome in infection have been performed in tropical, low- and middle-income countries where the burden of sepsis is highest. We evaluated whether selected biomarkers could predict 28-day mortality in infected patients in rural Thailand. METHODS: Four thousand nine hundred eighty-nine adult patients admitted with suspected infection to a referral hospital in northeast Thailand were prospectively enrolled within 24 h of admission. In a secondary analysis of 760 patients, interleukin-8 (IL-8), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR-1), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and soluble triggering receptor expressed by myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1) were measured in the plasma. Association with 28-day mortality was evaluated using regression; a parsimonious biomarker model was selected using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Discrimination of mortality was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and verified by multiple methods. RESULTS: IL-8, sTNFR-1, Ang-2, and sTREM-1 concentrations were strongly associated with death. LASSO identified a three-biomarker model of sTREM-1, Ang-2, and IL-8, but sTREM-1 alone provided comparable mortality discrimination (p = 0.07). sTREM-1 alone was comparable to a model of clinical variables (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.85 vs AUC 0.79, 95% CI 0.74-0.84; p = 0.43). The combination of sTREM-1 and clinical variables yielded greater mortality discrimination than clinical variables alone (AUC 0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.87; p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: sTREM-1 predicts mortality from infection in a tropical, middle-income country comparably to a model derived from clinical variables and, when combined with clinical variables, can further augment mortality prediction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Ubon-sepsis study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02217592 ), 2014.

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