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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

RESUMO

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sepse , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Brasil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitais
2.
Emerg Med J ; 39(4): 270-271, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362823
3.
J Card Surg ; 37(5): 1161-1167, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been and will continue to be a challenge to the healthcare system worldwide. In this context, we aimed to discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis, timing, and prognosis of surgical treatment for active infective endocarditis (IE) during the pandemic and share our coping strategy. METHODS: A total of 39 patients were admitted for active IE in the year 2020. The number of the same period last year was 50. Medical information of these two groups was extracted from our surgical database. Data were compared between the two groups and differences with or without statistical significance were discussed. RESULTS: In the pandemic year, we admitted fewer transferred patients (64.1% vs. 80%, p = .094). Timespan for diagnosis were prolonged (60 vs. 34.5 days, p = .081). More patients were admitted in emergency (41% vs. 20%, p = .030) More patients had heart failure (74.4% vs. 40%, p = .001), sepsis (69.2% vs. 42.0%, p = .018), or cardiogenic shock (25.6% vs. 8.0%, p = .038). Overall surgical risk (EuroSCORE II) was higher (4.15% vs. 3.24%, p = .019) and more commando surgery was performed (7.7% vs. 2.0%, p = .441). However, we did not see more postoperative complications, and early mortality was not worse either (0 vs. 4%, p = .502). CONCLUSIONS: The negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical practice of surgical treatment for active IE was multifaceted. However, with the preservation of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary IE surgical team, the early outcomes were comparable with those in the normal years.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Endocardite/cirurgia , Endocardite Bacteriana/cirurgia , Humanos , Pandemias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 308-313, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study reviews our experience with the management a retained knife in the setting of thoracic stab wounds. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a major trauma in South Africa over a 15-year period from January 2004 to December 2018. RESULTS: There were 40 patients, of whom 37 were males (93%). Median age was 24 years; 78% of cases (31 of 40) were a retained knife and 23% (9 of 40) were a retained blade. The locations of the stab wounds were 19 (48%) anterior and 21 (53%) posterior. Plain x-ray was performed in 85% (34) of patients and computed tomography angiography was performed in 85% (34). Six patients had haemodynamic instability and were expedited to the operating room without further imaging. Three of these had cardiac tamponade and three a massive haemothorax. Simple extraction and wound exploration were performed in 58% (23 of 40) of cases and the remaining 43% (17 of 40) required operative exploration and extraction. The operative approach was anterolateral thoracotomy in nine cases, posterolateral thoracotomy in four and median sternotomy in three cases. One patient required extraction and concurrent vertebral laminectomy due to cord compression. Twelve patients (30%) experienced complications (nine wound sepsis and three hospital-acquired pneumonia). There was one mortality (3%). The median length of hospital stay was 6 days. CONCLUSION: Uncontrolled extraction of a retained thoracic knife outside the operating room must be avoided. An unstable patient should proceed directly for operative exploration. For stable patients, cross-sectional imaging will allow for planned extraction in operating room.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes , Ferimentos Perfurantes , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Z Herz Thorax Gefasschir ; : 1-5, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497646

RESUMO

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause a severe and therapy-refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome. Temporary mechanical assistance by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (v.v.-EMCO) is a well-established supportive therapy, but is still associated with a high mortality. Objective: This work aimed to identify potential effects of the ECMO cannulation strategy on the outcome in COVID-19 patients. Material and methods: All patients who were treated in a single center between March 2020 and November 2021 for COVID-19-related ARDS (n = 75) were prospectively entered into an institutional database. The patients were assigned into two groups with respect to the ECMO cannulation (femorofemoral: n = 20, femorojugular: n = 55) and the outcome was retrospectively analyzed. Results: We observed severe therapy-related adverse events in both groups in more than 70% of patients with sepsis being the most common (> 50% each). The outcome (successful ECMO weaning, in-hospital death, 6­month survival) was comparable in both groups. In-hospital mortality was about 70% each; however, the duration of event-free ECMO support seemed to be prolonged in the femorojugular group. Conclusion: Regardless of the support duration, v.v.-ECMO therapy for COVID-19 is associated with high mortality rates. The cannulation strategy did not impact on the outcome; however, femorojugular cannulation might prolong the event-free support duration and facilitate the mobilization of the patients during ECMO support.

6.
Case Rep Pediatr ; 2022: 3267189, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497647

RESUMO

We describe the case of a 4-year-old female who presented with sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), developed ongoing intravascular hemolysis with acute renal failure from suspected pigment-induced acute tubular necrosis necessitating continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for five days followed by four episodes of intermittent hemodialysis (iHD), and was subsequently diagnosed with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH). She was successfully treated with plasma exchange and eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting complement protein C5, and demonstrated significant improvement of hemolysis and recovery of renal function.

7.
Kidney Int Rep ; 7(4): 867-875, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497795

RESUMO

Introduction: Cyst infection is a known complication of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Here, we describe incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and outcomes of cyst infection in kidney transplant recipient. Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients with ADPKD with renal allografts between January 1, 2009, and October 31, 2020. Cyst infection diagnosis was based on previously described clinical and radiological criteria, using positron emission tomography when available. Results: A total of 296 patients with ADPKD with renal allografts were included, and 21 patients experienced 22 episodes of cyst infection over a median follow-up of 4 (2-7) years. The cumulative incidence rate was 3% at 1 year, 6 % at 5 years, and 12% at 10 years after transplantation. In multivariate analysis, history of cyst infection before transplantation was the only significant risk factor identified to predict the occurrence of cyst infection after kidney transplantation (hazard ratio [HR] 3.47, 95% CI 1.29-9.31). The clinical presentation at diagnosis of cyst infection included isolated fever in 5 (23%) episodes, acute kidney injury in 12 (55%), and severe sepsis/septic shock in 3 (14%) episodes. Among the 16 (73%) episodes with culture positivity, Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen. There was no difference between early (≤1 year after transplantation) and late (>1 year) cyst infection episodes in terms of clinical presentation and outcomes. Cyst infection was significantly associated with graft loss (HR 3.93, 95% CI 1.21-12.80), but no causal relationship could be established. Conclusion: Incidence of cyst infection in ADPKD after kidney transplantation is low, history of cyst infection representing the main risk factor.

8.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2159-2166, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498632

RESUMO

Purpose: Intravenous (IV) colistin is commonly used to treat multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections. It is primarily eliminated renally and may induce acute kidney injury (AKI) at a rate of up to 53%. Consequently, septic patients who require colistin administration have an additional risk of developing AKI. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical failure and AKI predictors for septic patients treated with IV colistin. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. Adult septic patients with suspected or confirmed gram-negative infections who received colistin admitted to the hospital between May 2016 and December 2020 were screened after obtaining IRB approval. AKI was defined based on the AKI Network criteria. We investigated the incidence of clinical failure based on colistin dosing and AKI risk factors, such as the development of septic shock, severity of illness, and medication co-administration using a multiple logistic regression model. Results: After screening 163 patients, 103 patients were included in the analysis. No difference was observed between the colistin dosing strategies for clinical failure. Of the included predictors, development of septic shock (OR: 3.75; 95% CI 1.18-13.15), carbapenem co-administration (OR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.134-15.57) were associated with an increased risk of AKI. The other factors were not significant predictors. Conclusion: Clinical failure was not affected by colistin dosing strategies in our cohort of patients with sepsis. Moreover, the co-administration of carbapenems and the development of septic shock may increase the risk of inducing AKI in adult septic patients treated with IV colistin. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

9.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 862308, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498738

RESUMO

Objective: Septic peritonitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of sepsis, 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH) reduces histones and platelet factor 4 (PF4) in mouse sepsis models. This pilot clinical trial evaluated the safety and effect of ODSH in client-owned dogs with septic peritonitis. Interventions: In an IACUC-approved, open-label, prospective, dose-escalation clinical trial in 6 dogs with spontaneous septic peritonitis, ODSH administration was initiated following surgical explore to achieve source control. Acute patient physiology and laboratory evaluation (APPLEfast and APPLEfull) scores on admission, source of septic peritonitis, requirement for vasopressors, the administration of blood products, and survival to discharge were recorded. Platelet count, cell free DNA (cfDNA) concentration, and platelet factor 4 (PF4) concentrations were measured at the time of each ODSH dosage. A dose of ODSH was administered every 8 hs for a total of 4 doses (maximum total dosage 75 mg/kg) based on a pre-determined escalation protocol. Patients were monitored in the ICU following administration for evidence of clinical hemorrhage. Main Results: The mean APPLEfast and APPLEfull scores on admission were 22 +/- 6 and 32 +/-10, respectively. Four dogs received 4 total dosages of ODSH and 2 dogs received 3 total dosages of ODSH intravenously. The mean total dosage of ODSH administered during the study period was 48.3 +/- 21.6 mg/kg. No dog required dose de-escalation or had any evidence of bleeding. Four dogs survived to discharge. Conclusions: No adverse effects of ODSH administration were documented in dogs with septic peritonitis. A randomized controlled trial is necessary to evaluate ODSH as a novel therapeutic in the treatment of septic peritonitis.

10.
Clin Kidney J ; 15(5): 985-991, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498890

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a fatal complication in the general population. However, there are few reports on CAPA in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted at a single center between December 2020 and June 2021. We enrolled 21 HD patients with COVID-19 undergoing treatment and divided them into two groups, CAPA and non-CAPA (COVID-19 with and without pulmonary aspergillosis), and evaluated their characteristics, clinical outcomes and comorbidities. Results: The log-rank test revealed that the 90-day survival rate after the initiation of treatment for COVID-19 was significantly lower in the CAPA (n = 6) than in the non-CAPA group (n = 15) (P = 0.0002), and the 90-day mortality rates were 66.6% and 0% in the CAPA and non-CAPA groups, respectively. In the CAPA group, four patients died due to respiratory failure (on Days 6 and 20), gastrointestinal bleeding (Day 8) and sepsis (Day 33); the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remained positive when they died. The remaining two patients survived and the negative conversion of RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed on Days 10 and 15. The negative conversion of serum (1, 3)-ß-d-glucan (BDG) was confirmed on Day 15 in one patient; the BDG remained positive on Day 64 in the other. Conclusions: CAPA is a fatal complication in HD patients and the general population. Therefore, clinicians should consider the possibility of testing for CAPA in patients undergoing HD. Mycological workups may be helpful for the early detection of CAPA.

11.
Blood ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500103

RESUMO

CD8+ T-cell activation has been demonstrated to distinguish patients with primary and infection-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (pHLH and iaHLH) from patients with early sepsis. We evaluated the activation profile of CD8+ T cells in patients with various forms of secondary HLH (sHLH), including macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Flow-cytometry analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from children with inactive systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA, n=17), active sJIA (n=27), MAS in sJIA (n=14), iaHLH (n=7) and with other forms of sHLH (n=9). Compared to patients with active sJIA, in patients with MAS and sHLH of different origins, beside a significant increase in the frequency of CD38high/HLA-DR+CD8+ T cells, we found a significant increase in the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing the CD4 antigen (CD4dimCD8+ T cells). These cells not only expressed high levels of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR, suggesting that they were a subset of CD38high/HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells, but also of the activation/exhaustion markers CD25, PD1, CD95, and IFNγ. The frequency of CD4dimCD8+ T cells strongly correlated with most of the laboratory parameters of MAS severity and with levels of the MAS biomarkers CXCL9 and IL-18. These findings were confirmed in a prospective replication cohort, in which no expansion of particular TCR Vß family in CD3+ T cells of sHLH patients was found. Finally, frequency of CD4dimCD8+, but not of CD38high/HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells, significantly correlated with a clinical severity score. Altogether, our data, showing that CD4dimCD8+T cells are increased in patients with MAS/sHLH and associated with disease severity, strongly support their involvement in MAS/sHLH pathogenesis.

12.
Respir Care ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501129

RESUMO

Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) in select individuals results in viral sepsis, pneumonia and hypoxemic respiratory failure, collectively known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the early months of the pandemic the combination of novel disease presentation, enormous surges of critically ill patients and severity of illness lent to early observations and pronouncements regarding COVID-19 that could not be scientifically validated owing to crisis circumstances. One of these was a phenomenon referred to as "happy hypoxia". Widely discussed in the lay press, it was thought to represent a novel and perplexing phenomenon: severe hypoxemia coupled with the absence of respiratory distress and dyspnea. Silent hypoxemia is the preferred term describing an apparent lack of distress in the presence of hypoxemia. However, the phenomenon is well-known among respiratory physiologists as "hypoxic ventilatory decline". Silent hypoxemia can be explained by physiologic mechanisms governing the control of breathing, breathing perception and cardiovascular compensation. This narrative review examines silent hypoxemia during COVID-19, as well as hypotheses that viral infection of the central and peripheral nervous system may be implicated. Moreover, the credulous embrace of "happy hypoxia" and the novel hypotheses proposed to explain it, has exposed significant misunderstandings among clinicians regarding the physiologic mechanisms governing both the control of breathing and the modulation of breathing sensations. Therefore, a substantial focus of this paper is to provide an in-depth review of these topics.

13.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Application of the immunomodulatory selective cytopheretic device (SCD) to enhance renal replacement therapy and improve outcomes of acute kidney injury in pediatric patients is impeded by safety concerns. Therapy using a pediatric hemodialysis system could overcome these limitations. METHODS: Yucatan minipigs (8-15 kg) with induced septic shock underwent continuous hemodiafiltration with the CARPEDIEM™ pediatric hemodialysis system using regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) with or without SCD (n = 5 per group). Circuit function plus hemodynamic and hematologic parameters were assessed for 6 h. RESULTS: SCD was readily integrated into the CARPEDIEM™ system and treatment delivered for 6 h without interference with pump operation. SCD-treated pigs maintained higher blood pressure (p = 0.009) commensurate with lesser degree of lactic acidosis (p = 0.008) compared to pigs only receiving hemodiafiltration. Renal failure occurred in untreated pigs while urine output was sustained with SCD therapy. Neutrophil activation levels and ss-SOFA scores at 6 h trended lower in the SCD-treated cohort. CONCLUSIONS: SCD therapy under RCA was safely administered using the CARPEDIEM™ pediatric hemodialysis system for up to 6 h and no circuit compatibility issues were identified. Sepsis progression and organ dysfunction was diminished with SCD treatment in this model supportive of therapeutic benefit of this immunomodulatory therapy. IMPACT: SCD therapy with regional citrate anticoagulation has the potential to be administered safely to patients weighing <20 kg using the Carpediem renal replacement therapy platform. Use of a renal replacement therapy platform designed specifically for neonates/infants overcomes safety concerns for delivery of SCD treatment in this population. SCD therapy using the Carpediem renal replacement therapy platform retained the suggestive efficacy seen in larger children and adults to reduce organ injury and dysfunction from sepsis.

14.
Pediatrics ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automated sepsis alerts in pediatric emergency departments (EDs) can identify patients at risk of sepsis, allowing for earlier intervention with appropriate therapies. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of pediatric sepsis alerts is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 59,335 ED visits prior to the pandemic and 51,990 ED visits during the pandemic in an ED with an automated sepsis alert based on systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of the sepsis algorithm was compared between the pre-pandemic and pandemic phases, and between COVID-19 negative and positive patients during the pandemic phase. RESULTS: The proportion of ED visits triggering a sepsis alert was 7.0% (n=4,180) prior to and 6.1% (n=3,199) during the pandemic. The number of sepsis alerts triggered per diagnosed case of hypotensive septic shock was 24 in both time periods. There was no difference in the sensitivity (74.1% vs. 72.5%), specificity (93.2% vs. 94.0%), positive predictive value (4.1% vs. 4.1%), or negative predictive value (99.9% vs. 99.9%) of the sepsis alerts between these time periods. The alerts had a lower sensitivity (60% vs. 73.3%) and specificity (87.3% vs. 94.2%) for COVID-19 positive vs. negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The sepsis alert algorithm evaluated in this study did not result in excess notifications and maintained adequate performance during the COVID-19 pandemic in the pediatric ED setting.

15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502484

RESUMO

IM156, a novel biguanide with higher potency of AMP-activated protein kinase activation than metformin, has inhibitory activity against angiogenesis and cancer. In this study, we investigated effects of IM156 against polymicrobial sepsis. Administration of IM156 significantly increased survival rate against caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Mechanistically, IM156 markedly reduced viable bacterial burden in the peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood and attenuated organ damage in a CLP-induced sepsis model. IM156 also inhibited the apoptosis of splenocytes and the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10 in CLP mice. Moreover, IM156 strongly inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in response to lipopolysaccharide in neutrophils. Taken together, these results show that IM156 can inhibit inflammatory response and protect against polymicrobial sepsis, suggesting that IM156 might be a new treatment for sepsis.

16.
Hepatol Commun ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502507

RESUMO

Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) have a high probability of developing systemic inflammation and sepsis due to immune dysregulation. Fifty-nine patients with ACLF (12 without and 19 with systemic inflammation, and 28 with sepsis) were serially monitored for clinical and immunological changes at baseline, 6 hours, 24 hours, day 3, and day 7 following hospitalization. Ten healthy controls were also included. At all time points, soluble plasma factors and monocyte functions were studied. Patients with ACLF and systemic inflammation showed higher interleukin (IL)-6, vascular endothelial growth factor-a, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß than patients with no systemic inflammation. Patients with ACLF with sepsis had raised (p < 0.001) levels of IL-1Ra, IL-18, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1) compared to patients with ACLF-systemic inflammation. Five of the 19 (26.3%) patients with systemic inflammation developed sepsis within 48-72 hours with a rapid rise in plasma levels of IL-1Ra (1203-35,000 pg/ml), IL-18 (48-114 pg/ml), and TREM1 (1273-4865 pg/ml). Monocytes of patients with ACLF with systemic inflammation and sepsis showed reduced human leukocyte antigen-DR but increased programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM3) (p < 0.04) expression with increased ETosis by monocytes at baseline and until day 7. Conclusion: High and rising levels of plasma IL-1Ra, IL-18, TREM1 soluble factors, and increased suppressive monocytes (PDL1+ve , TIM3+ve ) at baseline can stratify patients with ACLF at high risk of developing sepsis within 48-72 hours of hospitalization.

17.
J Med Internet Res ; 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Machine learning algorithms are currently used in a wide array of clinical domains to produce models that can predict clinical risk events. Most models are developed and evaluated with retrospective data, very few are evaluated in a clinical workflow, and even fewer report performances in different hospitals. We provide detailed evaluations of clinical risk prediction models in live clinical workflows for three different use cases in three different hospitals. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical risk prediction models in live clinical workflows and compare with their performance on retrospective data. We also aimed at generalizing the results by applying our investigation to three different use cases in three different hospitals. METHODS: We trained clinical risk prediction models for three use cases (delirium, sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI)) in three different hospitals with retrospective data. We use machine learning and specifically deep learning to train models that are based on the Transformer model. The models are trained using a calibration tool that is common for all hospitals and use cases. The models have a common design but are calibrated using the hospital's specific data. The models are deployed in these three hospitals and used in daily clinical practice. The predictions made by these models are logged and correlated with the diagnosis at discharge. We compared the performance with evaluations on retrospective data and conducted cross-hospital evaluations. RESULTS: The performance of the prediction models with data from live clinical workflows is similar to the performance with retrospective data. The average value of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) decreases slightly by 0.6 percentage point (from 94.8% to 94.2% at discharge). The cross-hospital evaluations exhibit severely reduced performance, the averaged AUROC decreased by 8 percentage points (from 94.2% to 86.3% at discharge), which indicates the importance of model calibration with data from the deployment hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Calibrating the prediction model with data from different deployment hospitals leads to a good performance in live settings. The performance degradation in the cross-hospital evaluation indicates limitations in developing a generic model for different hospitals. Designing a generic model development process to generate specialized prediction models for each hospital guarantees the model performance in different hospitals.

18.
JCI Insight ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503431

RESUMO

Preterm infants are susceptible to bloodstream infection by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) that can lead to sepsis. High parenteral glucose supplement is commonly used to support their growth and energy expenditure, but may exceed endogenous regulation during infection, causing dysregulated immune response and clinical deterioration. Using a preterm piglet model of neonatal CONS sepsis induced by Staphylococcus epidermidis infection, we demonstrate the delicate interplay between immunity and glucose metabolism to regulate the host infection response. Circulating glucose levels, glycolysis and inflammatory response to infection are closely connected across the states of tolerance, resistance and immunoparalysis. Further, high parenteral glucose provision during infection induces hyperglycemia, elevated glycolysis and inflammation, leading to metabolic acidosis and sepsis, whereas glucose restricted individuals are clinically unaffected with increased gluconeogenesis to maintain moderate hypoglycemia. Finally, standard glucose supply maintaining normoglycemia or pharmacological glycolysis inhibition enhances bacterial clearance and dampens inflammation but fails to prevent sepsis. Our results uncover how blood glucose and glycolysis controls circulating immune responses, in turn determining the clinical fate of CONS infected preterm individuals. This questions the current practice of parenteral glucose supply for preterm infants during infection.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503852

RESUMO

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response caused by pathogens such as bacteria. Because its pathogenesis is not clear, the clinical manifestations of patients vary greatly, and the alarming incidence and mortality pose a great threat to patients and medical systems, especially in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The traditional judgment criteria have the problem of low specificity. Artificial intelligence models could greatly improve the accuracy of sepsis prediction and judgment. Based on the XGBoost machine learning framework taken demographic, vital signs, laboratory tests and medical intervention data as input, this paper proposes a novel model for dynamically predicting sepsis and assessing risk. To realize the model, two methods for feature construction are introduced. For the observed time series data of vital signs and laboratory tests, time-dependent method performs to construct the time- dependent characteristics after statistical screening. For the clinical intervention data, statistical counting method is applied to construct count-dependent characteristics. Moreover, a new objective function is proposed for the XGBoost framework, and the first-order and second-order gradient of the objective function are also given for model training. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods at present, the proposed model has the best performance, with AUROC improved by 5.4% on the MIMIC-III dataset and 2.1% on PhysioNet Challenge 2019 dataset. The data processing and training methods of this model can be conveniently applied in different electronic health record systems, and has a wide application prospect.

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