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1.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 100(4): 251-258, abril 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232095

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: En los últimos años se ha objetivado un incremento de niños portadores de traqueostomía. El objetivo del estudio es describir las características de los pacientes pediátricos traqueostomizados en seguimiento por el SAPPCC de un hospital de tercer nivel.MétodosEstudio unicéntrico, observacional y retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes ≤18años portadores de traqueostomía atendidos por el SAPPCC de un hospital de tercer nivel (noviembre de 2020-junio de 2022). Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos, clínicos, microbiológicos y sociales mediante la revisión de la historia clínica.ResultadosSe incluyeron 44 pacientes traqueostomizados. La patología de base más frecuente fue la patología de vía aérea superior adquirida (20,5%), siendo la obstrucción de vía aérea superior (66%) la indicación más frecuente de traqueostomía. El 84% presentaron aislamientos bacterianos en aspirado traqueal, y Pseudomonas aeruginosa (56,8%) fue el microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado. El antibiótico sistémico más prescrito fue ciprofloxacino (84%). El 18,1% de los pacientes recibieron como mínimo una tanda de antibioterapia intravenosa y el 29,5% recibieron más de tres pautas de antibiótico sistémico en los últimos 20meses. El 59% de los niños estaban escolarizados: el 38,6% en escuela ordinaria, el 15,9% en escuela de educación especial y el 4,5% en domicilio. Se identificó familia en crisis en el 53,7% de los pacientes, y el 22,7% de las familias disponían de la prestación por cuidado de menores con enfermedad grave.ConclusionesDada la complejidad de los niños traqueostomizados, es fundamental un manejo integral y coordinado. La escolarización es posible y segura si se capacita a sus cuidadores/enfermeras escolares. (AU)


Introduction and objectives: In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of children with tracheostomies. The objective was to describe the characteristics of paediatric patients with a tracheostomy followed up by the palliative care and complex chronic patient service (PCCCPS) of a tertiary care hospital.MethodsSingle-centre retrospective observational study in patients aged less than 18years with a tracheostomy manage by the PCCCPS of a tertiary care hospital (November 2020-June 2022). We analysed epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and social data by reviewing the health records.ResultsThe sample included 44 tracheostomized patients. The most frequent underlying disease was acquired upper airway disease (20.5%). The most common indication for tracheostomy was upper airway obstruction (66%). Bacterial isolates were detected in 84% of the tracheal aspirates, among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most frequent (56.8%). The most frequently prescribed antibiotic was ciprofloxacin (84%). In addition, 18.1% of the patients received at least one course of intravenous antibiotherapy and 29.5% received more than three systemic antibiotic regimens in the past 20months. Fifty-nine percent of the children were schooled: 38.6% attended a regular school, 15.9% a special needs school and 4.5% were home-schooled. We identified social difficulties in 53.7%. Also, 22.7% of the families received financial support to care for a child with severe illness.ConclusionsBecause of the complexity of caring for tracheostomized children, integral and coordinated management is essential. Schooling is possible and safe if caregivers are trained. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Traqueostomia , Traqueotomia , Pediatria , Infecções Respiratórias
2.
Cureus ; 16(3): e56017, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606260

RESUMO

Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a very rare cause of neonatal respiratory distress and is often missed because of its rarity. It arises from the overgrowth of the nasal process of the maxilla. Maxillofacial CT scan findings of pyriform aperture width <11 mm in a full-term baby, median central incisor, triangular-shaped palate, and median palatal ridge confirm the diagnosis. We describe here a case of CNPAS admitted with respiratory distress that increased further on feeding. An infant feeding tube of size 6 was not negotiable through the nostrils. Resistance was appreciated at the inlet of the nostril. Maxillofacial CT showed pyriform aperture stenosis of 3.4 mm, suggesting CNPAS. The child could not be weaned off a high-flow nasal cannula despite conservative management with decongestants, steroids spray, dilatation, and stenting for 20 days. Subsequently, surgical widening of the nasal aperture by a sublabial approach was done. The child was discharged on the 10th postoperative day on full oral feeds. It is important to suspect CNPAS in neonates with respiratory distress where other common causes have been ruled out, as it can be treated by surgery in cases refractory to conservative management.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1359844, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606377

RESUMO

Introduction: Congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) is a rare but life-threatening disease that can lead to respiratory dysfunction in children. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction and/or intermittent complete obstruction. Both of the diseases require surgical intervention. Although respective treatments of these two diseases are clear, there is a lack of literature discussing the surgical treatment of patients with CTS complicated by OSAS. Methods: We conducted a patient-specific study of patient with CTS complicated by OSAS. Computer-aided design was used to simulate surgical correction under different surgical sequences. Computational fluid dynamics was used to compare the outcomes of different sequences. Results: Aerodynamic parameters, pressure drop, velocity streamlines, wall shear stress (WSS), and the ratio of airflow distribution and energy loss rate were evaluated. An obvious interaction was found between the two diseases in different surgical sequences. The order of correction for CTS or OSAS greatly affected the aerodynamic parameters and turbulence flows downstream of tracheal stenosis and upstream of epiglottis. The CTS and OSAS had mutual influences on each other on the aerodynamic parameters, such as pressure drops and WSS. Discussion: When evaluating the priority of surgical urgency of CTS and OSAS, surgeons need to pay attention to the state of both CTS and OSAS and the physiological conditions of patients. The aerodynamic performance of the uneven airflow distribution and the potential impact caused by the correction of CTS should be considered in surgical planning and clinical management.

4.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613577

RESUMO

Thermal epiglottitis, a non-infectious cause of epiglottitis, is a rare entity that shares some clinical features with infectious epiglottitis. This study presents 16 years of experience in diagnosing and managing thermal epiglottitis. A retrospective descriptive study in a tertiary center in southern Israel included confirmed cases of thermal epiglottitis in children (0-18 years) between 2004 and 2020 by endoscopy. Of approximately 600,000 pediatric ER admissions between 2004 and 2020, seven children were diagnosed by endoscopy with thermal epiglottitis (mean age 24 months, 71% males). Clinical presentation included stridor, respiratory distress, and drooling. Four children had fever and elevated inflammatory markers at presentation and were treated with systemic antibiotics. All were treated with systemic steroids. The median length of stay in the PICU was five days, and four patients required intubations. All fully recovered without experiencing any sequelae.  Conclusion: Thermal epiglottitis stands as a potential contributor to acute upper airway obstruction. Although it's rarity, it should be discussed in any child with acute upper airway obstruction. It is essential to inquire directly about the accidental intake of hot beverages, particularly in cases lacking fever or elevated inflammatory markers. What is Known: • Thermal epiglottitis is a rare, non-infectious condition sharing clinical features with infectious epiglottitis. • Common presentations include stridor, respiratory distress, and drooling. What is New: • Thermal epiglottitis is a potential contributor to acute upper airway obstruction, urging consideration even in the absence of fever or elevated markers. • Direct inquiry about hot beverage intake for diagnosis is essential for diagnosis.

5.
Thorac Cancer ; 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634727

RESUMO

We present a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) located in the upper trachea, which resulted in significant airway blockage, that was unsuitable for surgical removal due to concerns about functional impairment. Instead, endotracheal enucleation via rigid bronchoscopy was performed initially, followed by the injection of a novel tumor ablation agent known as para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS). We detail the dosing regimen, effectiveness evaluation, and post-treatment follow-up. The study highlights the potential of PTS injection as a viable alternative treatment option for patients with ACC who cannot undergo surgical resection and feasibility of lipiodol to monitor treatment effect. This research adds to the existing knowledge on ACC treatment and provides new therapeutic possibilities for patients with tracheal ACC.

6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 171, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with unfavorable outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The purpose of this study was to compare in-hospital outcomes of patients with COPD alone versus OSA-COPD overlap after CABG. METHODS: Data of adults ≥ 18 years old with COPD who received elective CABG between 2005 and 2018 were extracted from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Patients were divided into two groups: with OSA-COPD overlap and COPD alone. Propensity score matching (PSM) was employed to balance the between-group characteristics. Logistic and linear regression analyses determined the associations between study variables and inpatient outcomes. RESULTS: After PSM, data of 2,439 patients with OSA-COPD overlap and 9,756 with COPD alone were analyzed. After adjustment, OSA-COPD overlap was associated with a significantly increased risk of overall postoperative complications (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 95% CI: 1.01-1.24), respiratory failure/prolonged mechanical ventilation (aOR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.14-1.41), and non-routine discharge (aOR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03-1.29), and AKI (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00-1.29). Patients with OSA-COPD overlap had a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.81) than those with COPD only. Pneumonia or postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) risks were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Stratified analyses revealed that, compared to COPD alone, OSA-COPD overlap was associated with increased respiratory failure/prolonged mechanical ventilation risks among patients ≥ 60 years, and both obese and non-obese subgroups. In addition, OSA-COPD overlap was associated with increased risk of AKI among the older and obese subgroups. CONCLUSION: In US adults who undergo CABG, compared to COPD alone, those with OSA-COPD are at higher risks of non-routine discharge, AKI, and respiratory failure/prolonged mechanical ventilation, but a lower in-hospital mortality. No increased risk of AF was noted.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Insuficiência Respiratória , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Pacientes Internados , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Andes Pediatr ; 95(1): 84-90, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587348

RESUMO

Vascular rings are unusual congenital malformations. Among them, double aortic arch (DAA) is often difficult to diagnose due to its low incidence of symptoms. DAA can be associated with tracheal or esophageal compression and, in severe cases, could require tracheal intubation or chronic use of a nasogastric tube. This scenario favors the development of aortotracheal fistulas (ATF) or aortoe-sophageal fistulas (AEF). OBJECTIVE: To present a clinical case with an unusual association of DAA with ATF and to reinforce the importance of maintaining high diagnostic suspicion in patients with massive aerodigestive bleeding without an obvious source. CLINICAL CASE: A 32-week preterm newborn who required prolonged mechanical ventilation and presented intermittent episodes of massive oropharyngeal bleeding with hemodynamic compromise associated with lower airway obstruction without pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient underwent upper endoscopy and exploratory laparotomy without evidence of bleeding. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy and direct laryngoscopy also showed no abnormalities. A CT angiography showed complete DAA with indentation of the left dominant arch over the trachea, without severe stenosis or evidence of a fistula. AEF was suspected, so exploratory surgery was considered. However, the patient died before surgery due to a massive pulmonary hemorrhage. The autopsy revealed the presence of ATF. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with massive aerodigestive bleeding without an obvious source, the presence of DAA and possible AEF/ ATF should be considered. Imaging studies have a poor performance for this diagnosis, so surgery should be considered for diagnosis and treatment in these patients.


Assuntos
Fístula Esofágica , Anel Vascular , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Anel Vascular/complicações , Anel Vascular/cirurgia , Fístula Esofágica/diagnóstico , Fístula Esofágica/etiologia , Fístula Esofágica/cirurgia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 313, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is internationally known that our population is aging. At the same time, some patients with COVID-19, due to their symptoms, required mechanical ventilation (MV) and subsequent pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). This study aimed to compare the effects of a multimodal PR program "ADULT" versus "OLDER" people with COVID-19 who were on MV. METHODS: The intervention consisted of an 8-week hybrid PR program (2x week). Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured at the beginning and end of PR, upper and lower limb strength was obtained through hand grip strength (HGS) and the sit-to-stand test (STST), respectively, and functional exercise capacity was measured with the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). RESULTS: The main results were an increase in the FVC in the ADULT and OLDER groups (time effect, P = 0.000; η2 = 0.27), an increase in HGS in the ADULT and OLDER groups (time effect, P = 0.000; η2 = 0.52), in the same way, the number of repetitions on the STST increased in the ADULT and OLDER groups (time effect, P = 0.000; η2 = 0.55). Finally, the distance covered on the 6MWT increased in the ADULT and OLDER groups (time effect, P = 0.000; η2 = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: The PR program is an effective strategy to improve FVC, muscle strength, and functional exercise capacity similarly in adults and older people with post severe COVID-19 who required MV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Idoso , Respiração Artificial , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Força da Mão , Tolerância ao Exercício , Capacidade Vital , Força Muscular/fisiologia
9.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 155, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S-lon® (S) is a locally produced polyvinyl chloride-based solvent cement. It is a clear, slightly viscous liquid. Other constituents include 1-cyclohexanone, 3-butanone, and 1-acetone. It is used ubiquitously for building construction in Sri Lanka. Although the clinical effects of the compound have not yet been ascertained, the constituents have been implicated in neurotoxicity, respiratory tract, eye and skin irritation, and delayed liver and renal injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 42-year-old South Asian male presented following self-ingestion of S. His vital parameters were stable and initially managed symptomatically. A few hours later, he developed central nervous system depression and stridor requiring elective intubation. Examination of the upper airway revealed inflammation and edema. He was sedated and ventilated, and intravenous dexamethasone was administered. Attempts at removal of the nasogastric tube after extubation on day 3 failed. The patient had to be reintubated and sedated owing to extreme agitation not responding to routine doses of sedatives. The nasogastric tube had been amalgamated after reacting with S, forming a solid clump, later found after removal. The posterior pharynx and nasopharynx were packed and later removed before extubation. The patient made a full recovery and was transferred to the ward on day 5. CONCLUSION: Ingestion of a sufficient quantity of S could result in gut absorption with central nervous system depression, coma, and even death. No antidote is available for toxicity, and management is largely supportive. As witnessed in our patient, chemical laryngitis and upper airway inflammation may lead to upper airway obstruction. Chemical reactions with medical equipment may lead to unforeseen outcomes.


Assuntos
Edema , Cloreto de Polivinila , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Antídotos , Inflamação , Solventes
10.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604934

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of children with tracheostomies. The objective was to describe the characteristics of paediatric patients with a tracheostomy followed up by the Department of Palliative Care and Chronic Medically Complex Illness (DPCCMCI) of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective observational study in patients aged less than 18 years with a tracheostomy followed up by the PCCCPS of a tertiary care hospital (November 2020-June 2022). We analysed epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and social data by reviewing the health records. RESULTS: The sample included 44 tracheostomized patients. The most frequent underlying disease was acquired upper airway disease (20.5%). The most common indication for tracheostomy was upper airway obstruction (66%). Bacterial isolates were detected in 84% of the tracheal aspirates, among which P. aeruginosa was the most frequent (56.8%). The most frequently prescribed antibiotic was ciprofloxacin (84%). In addition, 18.1% of the patients received at least 1 course of intravenous antibiotherapy and 29.5% received more than 3 systemic antibiotic regimens in the past 20 months. Fifty-nine percent of the children were schooled: 38.6% attended a regular school, 15.9% a special needs school and 4.5% were home-schooled. We identified social difficulties in 53.7%. Also, 22.7% of the families received financial support to care for a child with severe illness. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the complexity of caring for tracheostomized children, integral and coordinated management is essential. Schooling is possible and safe if caregivers are trained.

11.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 16: 359-368, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617037

RESUMO

Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a multifaceted disorder marked by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep, often coexisting with various medical conditions. This study, aimed to comprehensively analyze the Multifaceted Landscape of Pediatric Insights into Prevalence, Severity, and Coexisting Conditions. With a sample of 1928 participants, our study sought to determine the prevalence, severity, and associations between OSA and diverse conditions. Methods: Conducted retrospectively from February 2019 to April 2023, the study included pediatric patients. Data were collected through electronic health records, involving clinical assessments, medical histories, and diagnostic tests to establish OSA and coexisting condition diagnoses. Relationships between sleep parameters, apnea types, and severity indices were evaluated. Results: High OSA prevalence was evident across age groups, with severity peaking between 3 to 12 years. Among the participants, coexisting conditions included allergic rhinitis (59.6%), tonsillar hypertrophy (49.7%), adenoid hypertrophy (28.4%), and obesity (15.3%). Analysis revealed intriguing relationships between different sleep parameters and apnea types. Notable associations were observed between Obstructive Apnea (OA) and Central Apnea (CA), and Mixed Apnea (MA) displayed associations with both OA and CA. Hypopnea correlated directly with the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), reflecting its role in OSA severity. Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics between pediatric OSA and coexisting conditions. The prevalence of OSA and its coexistence with various conditions underscore the need for comprehensive evaluation and management strategies. By revealing associations between different sleep parameters and apnea types, the study emphasizes the complexity of OSA diagnosis and management. These findings hold the potential to enhance clinical approaches, ultimately leading to improved care and outcomes for affected children.

12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301646, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is characterized by a sudden worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms, which significantly contributes to hospitalizations related to COPD symptoms. Previous research has mainly focused on the correlation between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and COPD. However, there were few studies that investigated the short-term mortality rate of AECOPD patients with or without OSA. METHODS: Data for our research was taken from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care Database IV. A total of 1332 patients were included in the study based on well-defined criteria for selection and exclusion. By analyzing the characteristics of AECOPD patients, we compared those with and without OSA. RESULTS: There were 1122 AECOPD patients without OSA, 210 patients with OSA. In comparison to those without OSA, patients with OSA exhibited lower 30-day and 90-day ICU mortality with unadjusted HR, as well as lower hospital mortality with unadjusted OR. However, after adjustments were made, there were no significant associations observed between OSA and short-term mortality, including 30-day ICU mortality, 90-day ICU mortality, ICU mortality, and hospital mortality in AECOPD patients. Subgroup analysis revealed that OSA may act as a risk factor for AECOPD patients with a BMI lower than 30 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: There is no impact on short-term survival in AECOPD patients with OSA under intensive care unit (ICU) management and nursing.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Cuidados Críticos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2338248, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE(S): Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can precipitate a deterioration of an individual's physical performance and overall health. Evidence suggests that, along with pulmonary functions, several other factors are related to the significant impairment of walking performance in individuals with COPD. This study compared the depressive symptoms, health status, upper and lower extremity functions, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a group of individuals with COPD based on walking performance using a cutoff distance of 350 m in the six-minute walking test (6MWT). The study also investigated the associations between these factors and walking performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants performed the 6MWT according to the guidelines and were classified into high (>350 m; n = 40) or low (<350 m; n = 30) walking performance groups according to distance. The forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio were recorded. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and the Upper and Lower Extremity Functional Index (UEFI/LEFI). Predicted VO2peak was measured using the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI). RESULTS: Seventy participants with a mean age of 63 ± 11 years (20% female) were enrolled in this study. Patients with high walking performance demonstrated significantly better health status than those with low walking performance (SGRQ: 49 ± 25 vs. 56 ± 21, p = 0.03). Participants with low walking performance had lower predicted VO2peak compared to their higher performing counterparts (p = 0.002). The overall model was significant (F(8, 61) = 7.48, p = 0.0006), with PHQ-9, SGRQ, UEFI/LEFI, VO2peak, and FEV1/FVC explaining approximately 49.5% of the variance in the 6MWT distance. CONCLUSION: This study shed light on the association of depressive symptoms, health status, extremity function, and VO2peak with walking performance, providing valuable insights that may impact the management and care of individuals with COPD.


COPD is a global health issue that significantly impairs physical performance, particularly walking.Depressive symptoms, health status, extremity function, and predicted peak oxygen uptake can predict walking performance in patients with COPD, offering insight into potential interventions.


Assuntos
Depressão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Nível de Saúde , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Extremidades , Caminhada , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Qualidade de Vida
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerophagia (ingestion of air), is a functional aerodigestive disorder in people. Criteria for diagnosis of aerophagia in dogs are >1/3 of bolus volume containing air or ingested air resulting in gastric distention (>1/3 of end gastric volume). Aerophagia is highlighted during eating and drinking. Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) document aerophagia in dogs, but the incidence, clinical signs (CS), and associated disorders are unknown. OBJECTIVES: Identify the incidence of aerophagia, compare CS between dogs with and without aerophagia, and identify associated and predisposing disorders using VFSS. ANIMALS: A total of 120 client-owned dogs. METHODS: Sequential VFSS and associated medical records from dogs presenting to veterinary teaching hospitals at Auburn University and the University of Missouri were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical comparisons were made using Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests, odds ratios (OR), and multiple logistic regression (P < .05). RESULTS: The incidence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of aerophagia was 40% (31.7-48.9). Dogs with mixed CS (gastrointestinal [GI] and respiratory; P < .001, 58.3%) were more likely to have aerophagia than dogs with exclusively respiratory CS (25%). Aerophagia was significantly more common in brachycephalic dogs (P = .01; 45.8% vs 13.8%), dogs with nonbrachycephalic upper airway obstruction (P < .001; 33.3% vs 4.1%), pathologic penetration and aspiration (P-A) scores (P = .04; 41.6% vs 23.6%), and gagging (P < .001; 25% vs 11.7%). Mixed CS (P = .01), brachycephaly (P < .001), and upper airway obstruction (P < .001) were independent predictors of aerophagia. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Aerophagia was common, particularly in dogs with mixed CS. Brachycephalic dogs and dogs with upper airway obstruction are predisposed. Aspiration risk was high, emphasizing overlapping upper aerodigestive pathways.

15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600814

RESUMO

Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome occurs due to obstructed blood flow through the SVC. It can present clinically on a spectrum, between asymptomatic and life-threatening emergency. Patients commonly report a feeling of fullness in the head, facial, neck and upper extremity edema, and dyspnea. On imaging, patients commonly have superior mediastinal widening and pleural effusion. The majority of cases are due to malignant causes, with non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, and lymphoma the most commonly associated malignancies. When evaluating patients, a complete staging workup is recommended, as it will determine whether treatment should be definitive/curative or palliative in intent. If the patient requires urgent treatment of venous obstruction, such as in the cases of acute central airway obstruction, severe laryngeal edema and/or coma from cerebral edema, direct opening of the occlusion by endovascular stenting and angioplasty with thrombolysis should be considered. Such an approach can provide immediate relief of symptoms before cancer-specific therapies are initiated. The intent of treatment is to manage the underlying disease while palliating symptoms. Treatment approaches most commonly employ chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy depending on the primary histology. Mildly hypofractionated radiation regimens are most commonly employed and achieve high rates of symptomatic responses generally within 2 weeks of initiating therapy.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602001

RESUMO

Breathing effort is important to quantify to understand mechanisms underlying central and obstructive sleep apnea, respiratory-related arousals, and the timing and effectiveness of invasive or non-invasive mechanically assisted ventilation. Current quantitative methods to evaluate breathing effort rely on inspiratory esophageal or epiglottic pressure swings or changes in diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) activity, where units are problematic to interpret and compare between individuals and to measured ventilation. This paper derives a novel method to quantify breathing effort in units directly comparable to measured ventilation by applying respiratory mechanics first principles to convert continuous transpulmonary pressure measurements into "attempted" airflow expected to have arisen without upper airway obstruction. The method was evaluated using data from eleven subjects undergoing overnight polysomnography, including 6 obese patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), including one who also had frequent central events, and 5 healthy-weight controls. Classic respiratory mechanics showed excellent fits of airflow and volume to transpulmonary pressures during wake periods of stable unobstructed breathing (mean ± SD r² = 0.94 ± 0.03), with significantly higher respiratory system resistance in patients compared to healthy controls (11.2 ± 3.3 vs 7.1 ± 1.9 cmH2O·l-1·sec, P=0.032). Subsequent estimates of attempted airflow from transpulmonary pressure changes clearly highlighted periods of acute and prolonged upper airway obstruction, including within the first few breaths following sleep onset in patients. This novel technique provides unique quantitative insights into the complex and dynamically changing inter-relationships between breathing effort and achieved airflow during periods of obstructed breathing in sleep.

17.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 86(4): 2236-2241, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576921

RESUMO

Background: Negative pressure pulmonary is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema that can occur after reliving of upper airway obstruction. It is life threatening clinical scenario developed due to increase intrathoracic pressure during marked inspiratory effort against a closed glottis. Case presentation: A successful adenotonsillectomy was done for a healthy 12-year-old, 33 kg male patient and transferred to post-anaesthesia care unit. In the unit the patient developed signs and symptoms of negative pressure pulmonary oedema so he was treated with diuretics and oxygen while restricting fluid. However, the dyspnoea was persisted so he was transferred to ICU. Clinical discussion: This case report shows the development of negative pressure pulmonary oedema after adenotonsillectomy. In this report the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis of negative pressure pulmonary oedema after adenotonsillectomy was discussed in detail with citing updated evidences. Conclusions: Post-extubation pulmonary oedema can occur after reliving of chronic air obstruction. Usually it occur within 5 min after reliving the obstruction but it can occur at any time. All healthcare professionals must be knowledgeable about clinical presentation and managements of negative pressure pulmonary oedema.

18.
J Pediatr Intensive Care ; 13(1): 75-79, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571991

RESUMO

Croup is a common respiratory illness in children with a substantial variation in the severity of symptoms. Most of the patients present with mild symptoms, but patients with severe croup require intensive care unit (ICU) management. The aim of this study was to investigate the airway management of patients with severe croup who required intubation and determine the risk factors for prolonged intubation. We performed an 18-year retrospective observational cohort study at the pediatric ICU of a tertiary children's hospital in Japan. A total of 16 patients with croup who were intubated for upper airway obstruction were included in the study. Most patients (13of 16, 81%) were intubated with an endotracheal tube (ETT) smaller than their age-appropriate size. The median difference in the internal diameter (ID) between the selected ETT and the age-appropriate size was 1.0 mm (interquartile range: 0.5-1.0). Multivariate analysis performed on factors affecting the cumulative incidence of extubation revealed that the difference in ID between the selected ETT and age-appropriate size (mm) significantly reduced the duration of intubation (hazard ratio: 0.092, p = 0.03). A downsized ETT without a cuff may be recommended for intubation of patients with croup.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578504

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is commonly performed in patients suffering obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) intolerance. We aimed to evaluate the effects of adding CPAP to DISE to provide understanding of the reason of its failure and better guidance in future therapeutic decisions. METHODS: A retrospective observational descriptive study was conducted on CPAP-intolerant patients with moderate-severe OSA. DISE was used to evaluate upper airway collapsibility, and CPAP was tested to better describe anatomical sites of obstruction and to measure the opening pharyngeal pressure. RESULTS: Sample size consisted of 38 patients with a mean age of 49 ± 9 years. Mean BMI was 28.4 ± 2.4 kg/m2, mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 35.4 events per hour ± 20.1, and mean saturation under 90% (TSat90) was 14.5%. In DISE we found a collapse at Velum in 92% of patients, at Oropharyngeal level in 89%, at tongue in 42%, and at epiglottis in 36%. In the subgroup of patients with clinical failure with CPAP, we observed 100% of epiglottic collapse and 50% of tongue obstruction. In this specific population, we recommended personalized surgery and myofunctional therapy. CONCLUSION: DISE-CPAP is a useful tool to select the treatment that better fits to each patient taking care all information available. It improves our ability to prescribe a multilevel treatment with an exhaustive topographic evaluation of upper airway collapsibility that complements CPAP classic titration, and it can be helpful to distinguish better candidates for surgery, myofunctional therapy or CPAP.

20.
Acute Med Surg ; 11(1): e937, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481628

RESUMO

A computed tomography (CT) image of the patient's neck after a cricothyroidotomy was performed due to upper airway obstruction. The CT revealed that the tracheostomy tube was inserted into the thyrohyoid membrane, not the cricothyroid ligament.

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