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1.
J Sch Psychol ; 104: 101298, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871415

RESUMO

Breakfast is often cited as the most important meal of the day and vital for students' academic functioning at school. Although much research has linked students' breakfast consumption to better achievement, there has been debate about why and how breakfast has academic benefits. The present study of 648 Australian high school students investigated (a) the role of breakfast consumption and breakfast quality in students' self-reported motivation and their achievement in a science test, (b) the role of motivation in mediating the link between breakfast consumption and quality and students' achievement, and (c) the extent to which breakfast consumption effects are moderated by the quality of breakfast (e.g., more vegetables, fruit, dairy/protein, wholegrains, cereals, water; less sugary drinks, processed meat, fast take-away, unhealthy snack foods). Findings indicated that beyond the effects of personal, home, and classroom factors, breakfast consumption predicted higher adaptive motivation (p < .05), breakfast quality predicted lower maladaptive motivation (p < .05), and in turn, students' adaptive (positively, p < .01) and maladaptive (negatively, p < .01) motivation predicted their achievement. Moreover, adaptive motivation significantly mediated the relationship between breakfast consumption and achievement (p < .05). The effect of breakfast consumption was moderated by the quality of breakfast such that consuming a high-quality breakfast in the morning was associated with the highest levels of adaptive motivation (p < .01) and achievement (p < .05) later in the day. Findings have implications for educational practice and policy seeking to promote a healthy start to the school day to optimize students' motivation and achievement.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Desjejum , Motivação , Estudantes , Humanos , Feminino , Estudantes/psicologia , Masculino , Adolescente , Desjejum/psicologia , Austrália , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Logro
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303965, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820466

RESUMO

The control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions posits that achievement emotions are significantly associated with the key indicators of academic outcomes, including academic motivation, engagement, and performance. Existing studies have tested the theoretical hypothesis of the CVT in a variety of cultures, disciplines, and samples. However, evidence is limited for whether there are gender and grade differences in achievement emotions, especially in the context of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). 1,460 Chinese secondary school students (male N = 671; female N = 789; seventh-graders N = 731; eighth-graders N = 729) took part in the study. Confirmatory factor analyses and multi-group analyses were conducted to explore the possible gender and grade differences in EFL-related achievement emotions. Results indicated that there are gender or grade differences in EFL-related enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom, while hope and pride did not. Both limitations and implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções , Estudantes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Emoções/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , China , Fatores Sexuais , Sucesso Acadêmico , Idioma , Criança , Aprendizagem , Logro , Motivação , População do Leste Asiático
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(21): e38158, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788024

RESUMO

Learning engagement is an important factor to improve the quality of medical education. Exploring the level of medical students' learning engagement and its internal mechanism is of practical significance to improve their academic achievement. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between achievement goal orientation, growth mindset and learning engagement of medical students, and explore the mediating effect of achievement goal orientation on growth mindset and learning engagement. A correlational cross-sectional study was performed using an online questionnaire. The study was conducted from February to March 2024 among 279 medical college students. General information questionnaire, the Mindsets Scale, Achievement Goal Orientation Scale and Learning Engagement Scale were used for investigation. Calculations were performed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences 27.0 and Mplus 7.0. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and mediation effect analyses were used to analyze the data. A total of 279 valid questionnaires were finally recovered. The learning engagement score of medical students was (56.17 ±â€…13.01), growth mindset score was (11.26 ±â€…3.37). The approach goal orientation played a partial mediating role between growth mindset and learning engagement in medical college students. Growth mindset can influence learning engagement through achievement goal orientation. Medical college educators should pay attention to the cultivation of students' growth mindset and enhance their learning engagement. The verification of the mediating effect of approach goal provides data support for formulating relevant intervention measures.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Logro
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302180, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635568

RESUMO

Based on the behavioral theory of the firm, we research how performance feedback influences the formation of CEOs' passion. We articulate that previous performance directly increases CEOs' passion. Specifically, positive affective outcomes (performance above aspiration-level) advance CEOs' positive feelings and motivation toward the domains of success (obsessive passion). For instance, when a firm accomplishes performance objectives, such as reaching sales goals, CEOs' positive feelings toward developing current products would be boosted. Moreover, negative affective outcomes (performance below aspiration-level) would also positively impact CEOs' passion since the CEOs would endeavor to reduce the difference between performance and their aspiration-level. As such, performance feedback is a critical antecedent of CEOs' obsessive passion. In addition, we apply human capital as a moderator between performance feedback and CEOs' obsessive passion. Results based on multiphase survey data from 189 CEOs of Korean small- and medium-sized enterprises indicate that both positive and negative performance feedback positively increase CEOs' obsessive passion. Moreover, human capital negatively moderates the relationship between positive performance feedback and CEOs' obsessive passion and positively moderates the relationship between negative performance feedback and CEOs' obsessive passion.


Assuntos
Emoções , Motivação , Humanos , Retroalimentação , Logro , Ocupações
6.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 224(4): 233-236, Abr. 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232258

RESUMO

El Premio Nobel es uno de los premios más deseados en ciencia y más conocidos en la sociedad. Sin embargo, su reputación no está exenta de complejidades, incluidas las limitaciones para los galardonados y los prejuicios en las nominaciones. Navegar por el delicado equilibrio entre el reconocimiento y los impactos concretos de las contribuciones premiadas debería ofrecer una idea de la importancia del premio más allá del mero prestigio y su valor monetario. Si bien otros premios pueden presumir de mayores recompensas financieras, a menudo carecen del mismo nivel de prestigio. La inclusión de figuras públicas como galardonadas y la amplia cobertura mediática en torno al Premio Nobel elevan aún más su importancia percibida, aunque esto podría ocultar una realidad más matizada. Asimismo, las asociaciones positivas vinculadas al nombre «Nobel» que se asemejan al adjetivo «noble» pueden realzar el prestigio del premio. Esta sutil conexión con la «nobleza» añade una capa de honor y distinción al premio, contribuyendo a su importancia y prestigio percibidos. Además, la sobrerrepresentación de premios Nobel de países específicos provoca un escrutinio sobre el cumplimiento del testamento del Nobel, que prioriza las contribuciones al bienestar global. Esta discrepancia plantea dudas sobre la inclusión y el impacto global del premio.(AU)


The Nobel Prize is one of the most sought-after awards in science and society. However, its reputation is not without complexities, including constraints on laureates and biases in nominations. Navigating the delicate balance between recognition and the tangible impacts of awarded contributions should offer insight into the Prize's significance beyond mere prestige and monetary value. While other awards may boast higher financial rewards, they often lack the same level of prestige. The inclusion of public figures as laureates and the extensive media coverage surrounding the Nobel Prize may further elevate its perceived importance, though this may hide a more nuanced reality. Additionally, the positive associations linked to the name “Nobel” resembling the adjective “noble” can enhance the award's prestige. This subtle connection to “nobility” adds a layer of honor and distinction to the Prize, contributing to its perceived significance and prestige. Moreover, the overrepresentation of Nobel laureates from specific countries prompts scrutiny over the fulfillment of Nobel's testament, which prioritizes contributions to global well-being. This discrepancy raises questions about the inclusivity and global impact of the Prize.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prêmio Nobel , Distinções e Prêmios , Logro , Desenvolvimento Tecnológico
7.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0288859, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512859

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to determine whether hope for success mediates the relationship between personality and goal orientation in high performance and recreational athletes. The cross-sectional study included 289 high performance and recreational athletes of various sports (age: M = 20.34, SD = 1.86). To examine personality, we used the Big Five IPIP-BFM-20 questionnaire. To assess hope for success, we used the Hope for Success Questionnaire. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) was employed to examine goal orientation. Hope for success significantly mediates the relationships between conscientiousness, extraversion, emotional stability, intellect, and task goal orientation in sport. Higher levels of these personality traits are related to athletes' higher hope for success, which, in turn, is positively related to their task orientation. Personality traits may underpin the hope for success that develops from childhood. This, in turn, appears to be an important component on which, combined with the positive interaction and support from coaches, a task goal orientation beneficial to sport can be shaped in athletes.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Motivação , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Logro , Atletas/psicologia
8.
Nurse Educ Today ; 136: 106150, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nursing students do not only have to understand the content they read, but they must also analyze, synthesize, and think critically as these skills are required for success in clinical practice. This review investigates if testing reading in students can predict outcomes of student success in nursing programs. DESIGN: A scoping review of the literature on reading assessments in nursing education. DATA SOURCES: Databases explored included CINAHL, ERIC, and MEDLINE and included English language papers published from January 2001 to November 2022. REVIEW METHODS: Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methods informed this review. RESULTS: Data were extracted from 34 full text papers and dissertations. All papers examined reading as an independent predictor of outcomes such as NCLEX-RN success, program completion, or early program success. Various reading tests delivered at admission were more likely to predict proximal outcomes such as early program success rather than more distal outcomes such as NCLEX-RN failure or program completion. CONCLUSION: Reading assessments are effective predictors of a student's potential for academic success in nursing programs which has many implications for admission and progression policies. Many areas for future research are proposed including examining the developmental nature of reading improvement across nursing programs, development of reading interventions, and building faculty capacity for reading support. This body of literature said very little about the impact of race and racism on reading as they relate to academic outcomes which also must receive attention in future research.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Cognição , Logro , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0296982, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Every year, many applicants want to study medicine. Appropriate selection procedures are needed to identify suitable candidates for the demanding curriculum. Although research on medical school admissions has shown good predictive validity for cognitive selection methods (undergraduate GPA, aptitude tests), the literature on applicants with professional and/or academic experience prior to entering medical school remains slim. In our study, we therefore aimed to examine the association between academic success in medical school and having previously completed vocational training in the medical field, voluntary service (≥11 months) or an academic degree. METHODS: Data were collected in a multicentre, cross-sectional study at five medical schools in Germany (Baden-Wuerttemberg) from students during medical school (i.e. 3rd-, 6th-, and 10th-semester and final-year students). Academic success was assessed according to scores on the first and second state examinations, the total number of examinations repeated and the number of semesters beyond the standard period of study. For the analysis we calculated ordinal logistic regression models for each outcome variable of academic success. RESULTS: A total of N = 2,370 participants (response rate: RR = 47%) participated in the study. Having completed vocational training was associated with a higher amount of repeated examinations (small effect), while having an academic degree was associated with worse scores on the second state examination (medium effect). No significant association emerged between voluntary service and academic success. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that professional and academic pre-qualifications pose no advantage for academic success. Possible associations with the financing of study and living conditions of students with pre-qualifications were analysed and discussed in an exploratory manner. However, the operationalisation of academic success from objective and cognitive data should be critically discussed, as the benefits of prior experience may be captured by personal qualities rather than examination results.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Logro , Faculdades de Medicina , Avaliação Educacional
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 111(3): 412-423, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458162

RESUMO

This article is based on the address given by the author at the 2023 meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG). A video of the original address can be found at the ASHG website.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Logro
11.
Nurse Educ Today ; 137: 106171, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508022

RESUMO

Promoting diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging in nursing education is a contemporary issue. The purpose of this paper is to iterate a call to action for exploring and addressing achievement/opportunity gap in nursing education and propose strategies to address this gap in order to advance diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging in educational institutions. Achievement/opportunity gap is an academic performance difference among students based on their socioeconomic status, age, race, ethnicity, and other demographic and sociocultural variables, and can lead to lack of career readiness among students. Four strategies are offered to address the achievement/opportunity gap in nursing education which includes a) explicit exploration of the gap to gather baseline information, b) taking an intersectional approach to examine differences in learning styles, beliefs, values, and learning needs of underrepresented and minority student populations, c) offering extensive co-designed preparatory programs to students who may be more prone to encounter this gap, and d) creating support communities for students to foster their academic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Logro , Grupos Minoritários , Etnicidade
12.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 23(2): ar14, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470818

RESUMO

First-generation (FG) college students (i.e., those for whom neither parent/guardian obtained a bachelor's degree) experience more barriers in college, compared with continuing-generation students. These barriers are compounded by subtle messages from instructors that convey the idea that natural talent is necessary for success in scientific fields. In contrast, growth mindset messages communicate that ability can improve with effort, help-seeking, and using productive study strategies. In a large enrollment introductory biology course, students were randomly assigned to receive email messages from their instructor after the first two exams containing either a growth mindset or control message. The intervention improved grades in the course for everyone, on average, compared with control messages, and were especially beneficial for FG students. This increase in performance was partially mediated by increased activity accessing course materials on the course website. This study provides preliminary evidence that instructors communicating growth mindset messages can support FG students' performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Estudantes , Humanos , Logro , Universidades
13.
Dev Psychol ; 60(4): 665-679, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386379

RESUMO

In putatively meritocratic societies, doing well in school is a pivotal precondition for accessing further and higher education, which, in turn, has a pervasive, long-term influence on adulthood development. Yet, doing well in school may also predict "real-life success" outside formal education settings and independent of the educational qualifications that a person attains. Such predictions are likely to become salient during emerging adulthood, a life period characterized by career explorations and social-emotional adjustment. Here, we tested the predictive validity of end-of-compulsory school grades at age 16 years in a U.K.-representative population cohort sample of up to N = 6,488, who were born between 1994 and 1996, for a broad range of occupational, financial, and social-emotional outcomes at age 23. End-of-compulsory school performance accounted for 1%-20% of the variance across occupational, financial, and social-emotional outcomes in emerging adulthood. Educational attainment attenuated these associations only slightly, with school grades at age 16 accounting for variance in emerging adulthood outcomes independent of later educational attainment. We found that school grades were equally predictive for boys' and girls' outcomes. In children from lower family socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, school grades were more predictive of their educational attainment, financial attitudes, and anxiety compared to higher SES children, with varying effect sizes (i.e., 0.3%-4.2%). Our findings suggest that school-leaving grades facilitate the successful transition from adolescence to adulthood, independent of educational attainment, and that they might enable children from low-SES families to compensate for some of their background disadvantages. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Escolaridade , Classe Social , Logro
14.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0299242, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416760

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyse the performance of 5,518 collective observations of the Spanish LaLiga teams for eight consecutive seasons (from 2011-12 to 2018-19), considering the final league ranking. The teams were divided into four groups: Europe (from 1st to 6th), Upper-Middle (from 7th to 11th), Lower-Middle (from 12th to 17th) and Relegation (from 18th to 20th). The variables recorded were: Passes, Successful Passes, Crosses, Shots, Goals, Corners, Fouls, Width, Length, Height, distance from the goalkeeper to the nearest defender (GkDef), total distance covered (TD) and number of points accumulated. The main results were that: 1) Europe, being superior to the rest of the groups, showed lower values of Length from 2015-16, and lower values of GkDef from 2014-15; 2) Upper-Middle showed lower values of Length from 2015-16; 3) Lower-Middle showed fewer Shots from 2013-14, and lower values of Length, GkDef and TD from 2014-15; and, 4) Relegation barely showed significant differences between seasons in any variable. The study concludes that the teams of the Europe, Upper-Middle and Relegation groups showed quite stable performance, while the teams of the Lower-Middle group presented a worsening in different dimensions as the seasons progressed. The information provided in this study makes it possible to have reference values that have characterized the performance of the teams for each group.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Estações do Ano , Europa (Continente) , Logro
15.
Vet Rec ; 194(3): iv, 2024 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305536
16.
J Couns Psychol ; 71(3): 179-189, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358674

RESUMO

Research suggests that a client's achievement goal orientation and alliance are important for positive treatment outcomes. However, it is currently unknown how a member's goal orientation and alliance in tandem relate to members' improvement in group therapy, despite conceptual wisdom regarding the additive effect of a high alliance and a mastery or approach goal orientation. Therefore, this study sought to examine the congruence between members' goal orientation and the member-group alliance on members' perceived improvement in group therapy. Data for this study came from 99 clients across 10 interpersonal process groups. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis were used to test the congruent and discrepant effects of members' goal orientation (i.e., approach-performance, avoidance-performance, and mastery orientation) and group alliance on their perceived improvement in group therapy. As hypothesized, members who reported congruent high group alliance and high mastery orientation or approach orientation compared to congruent low alliance and low mastery or approach orientation reported high levels of improvement in group therapy. Regarding discrepant effects, discrepant high alliance and low avoidance orientation compared to low alliance and high avoidance was positively related to improvement in group therapy, and discrepant high alliance and low approach orientation compared to low alliance and high approach was positively related to improvement in group therapy. Last, discrepant high alliance and low mastery and low alliance and high mastery were positively related to improvement in group therapy, suggesting a compensatory effect between mastery orientation and alliance on improvement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Objetivos , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Humanos , Motivação , Resultado do Tratamento , Logro
17.
Cognition ; 245: 105740, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359601

RESUMO

The gender disparity in STEM fields emerges early in development. This research examined children's explanations for this gap and investigated two approaches to enhance children's structural understanding that this imbalance is caused by societal, systematic barriers. Five- to 8-year-old children (N = 145) observed girls' underrepresentation in a STEM competition; the No Structural Information condition presented no additional information, the Structural: Between-Group Comparison (Between) condition compared boys' greater representation to girls' when boys had more opportunities to practice than girls, and the Structural: Within-Group Comparison (Within) condition compared girls' greater STEM representation when they had opportunities versus not. Children in the No Structural condition largely generated intrinsic explanations; in contrast, children in both structural conditions favored structural explanations for girls' lack of participation (Experiment 1) and achievement (Experiment 2). Importantly, each structural condition also had unique effects: Between raised children's fairness concerns, while Within increased children's selection of girls as teammates in a competitive STEM activity.


Assuntos
Logro , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Fatores Sexuais
18.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0290147, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330032

RESUMO

Though it may appear counterintuitive, certain positive attributes can eventually have negative consequences when taken to an extreme. This concept is exemplified in sports, where an increase in talent among team members initially leads to improved success, but beyond a certain threshold, excessive talent can adversely affect the team. This occurrence is known as the Too Much Talent (TMT) effect, wherein status conflicts among highly skilled players can hinder team performance, particularly in sports that require coordination and cooperation. While early evidence supported the TMT effect in team sports, its validity has recently been challenged. In this study, we analyzed a comprehensive dataset consisting of 780 data points across 42 seasons from seven top European football (soccer) leagues to examine the TMT effect's presence. Our findings reveal that football does not exhibit the TMT effect. Instead, we observed a consistent, positive correlation between the number of skilled players on a team and team success. Additionally, talent did not display diminishing returns, as its impact on success remained stable even at the highest concentrations of talent. We relate our results to existing theories and propose that future research comparing more individualistic and interdependent team sports could further enhance the field.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Logro , Esportes de Equipe , Aptidão
19.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2308994, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327214

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study explored variations in adults' experience of satisfaction, unfulfilment and frustration of basic psychological needs within and across four domains of physical activity: Transport, household, occupation, and recreation. METHODS: We utilized a qualitative approach, conducting semi-structured interviews with a diverse group of 42 Danish adults. The participants ranged in age from 16 to 79 years (mean age 49 years, SD 21 years), gender (45% men, 55% women), and physical activity levels (38% low, 33% average, 29% high). Data were analysed using a thematic analysis, applying Self-Determination Theory as the guiding framework. RESULTS: In the Transport domain, while most activities were seen as utilitarian necessities, autonomy satisfaction emerged for some through control over their means of transport. In Household domain, tasks were generally viewed as obligatory; however, activities with personal significance led to autonomy satisfaction and skill development. Occupation-wise, physical activity satisfaction varied, with the nature of the job impacting feelings of autonomy and competence. For Recreation domain, personal choice dictated autonomy satisfaction, with competence and relatedness varying according to goal achievement and social interactions. CONCLUSION: The variations in the findings across domains indicate the effectiveness of applying strategies tailored to specific domains for enhancing need satisfaction.


Assuntos
Logro , Motivação , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Satisfação Pessoal , Emoções , Autonomia Pessoal , Exercício Físico
20.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297311, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the Dutch research council, NWO, took measures to combat gender bias disadvantaging female applicants in a popular three-tiered funding scheme called the Talent Programme. The innovation scheme consists of three grants for different career stages, called Veni, Vidi and Vici. OBJECTIVES: This paper studies the question whether or not NWO has been successful in removing gender differences in their funding procedure. METHODS: Using all available data from 2012 onwards of grant applications in the Talent Programme (16,249 applications of which 2,449 received funding), we study whether these measures had an effect using binomial generalized linear models. RESULTS: We find strong statistical evidence of a shift in gender effects in favour of female applicants in the first tier, the Veni (p < .001). Significant gender differences are not found in the two other tiers, the Vidi and Vici schemes. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, female applicants are more likely to be awarded with a Veni grant than male applicants and this gender gap has increased over time. This suggests that gender differences still exist in the assessment of Talent Programme submissions, albeit in a different direction than a decade ago.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo , Organização do Financiamento , Logro
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