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1.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 68(5): 566-586, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509797

RESUMO

Stalking perpetrators may suffer from maladaptive personality traits, particularly if they stalk in the context of an (ex-)intimate relationship. To date, no study has examined how different personality attributions may relate to stalker motivation, or the behaviors they engage in, and how this differs across victim-perpetrator relationships. Further, the perspective of the victim is often not taken into consideration, even though most stalking victims know their stalker intimately and a majority are stalked by a former or current partner. The present study employed a correlational design to assess the relationship between stalking behaviors, motivation to stalk, and personality attributions, as perceived by the victim across an ex-intimate or other victim-perpetrator relationship. The study sample consisted of 100 victims of stalking (63% ex-intimate; 85% female) who were recruited through a National Stalking Helpline. Results align with and extend the results of previous researchers, most notably the high proportion of reported Cluster B-aligned personality attributions among stalkers, as well as the proportion of more under-researched personality attributions, and their associated risks. Victims of an ex-intimate partner were more likely to report their stalker was motivated by intimacy, and personality attributions aligned with both borderline and paranoid PD were more often reported than in other relationship contexts. Results and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Perseguição , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Transtornos da Personalidade , Motivação
2.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 70(3): 582-587, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth violence and knife crime is increasing dramatically, so much so it has been described as a global epidemic. The social, economic and political forces fuelling this rise mean that minority groups are particularly affected. AIM: This paper reviews the literature primarily from a UK perspective, and illustrates the disparate factors that are influencing the rise in youth violence and knife crime and illustrates the complexities of integrating the perspectives of different disciplines into coherent intervention strategies. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of the literature that explores both the causes of increasing youth violence and knife crime as well as some of the interventions that have attempted to deal with the problem. RESULTS: A complex interplay of social, economic, mental health and political factors underpin the increase in youth violence and knife crime. An uneasy tension exists between a traditional criminal justice system-based approach based upon deterrence and punishment, and a more liberal preventative model focusing on adolescent mental health. None of the interventions thus far have been particularly effective. CONCLUSION: Youth violence and knife crime is a global social issue that causes untold suffering to individuals, families and communities as well as fear that reverberates through society. Interventions have often been devised through the lens of particular disciplines or ideologies. Integrating these perspectives into a coherent approach that is actually effective demands greater co-operation, dialogue and mutual understanding between disciplines and agencies, as well as a robust framework for the evidence-based assessment of outcomes.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários , Violência , Humanos , Adolescente , Reino Unido , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Etnicidade/psicologia , Perseguição/psicologia , Crime
3.
Aggress Behav ; 50(1): e22133, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38268384

RESUMO

This study examined whether two personality traits, attachment anxiety, and the Dark Triad, longitudinally promote stalking behaviors after romantic breakups through psychological maltreatment of partners during relationships and maladjusted reactions to breakups. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study across four waves of assessment for 1 year of individuals in romantic relationships in Japan. They completed measures of attachment anxiety, the Dark Triad, need for control, and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration at Wave 1, and measures of maladjusted reactions to breakups (i.e., anger and rumination) and stalking behaviors at a wave after breakups. The final sample consisted of 356 participants who were involved in romantic relationships at Wave 1 and left by their partners during the survey period. Correlational analysis showed that the Dark Triad at Wave 1 was significantly positively associated with future stalking behaviors, but attachment anxiety was not. Structural equation modeling showed that attachment anxiety and the Dark Triad increased future stalking behaviors after breakups through psychological IPV perpetration during relationships. Additionally, attachment anxiety increased future stalking behaviors through higher levels of postbreakup anger and rumination. Conversely, we did not find any indirect effects of the Dark Triad on stalking behaviors through these reactions toward breakups. Overall, these results suggest that it is necessary to consider personality traits that could damage intimate relationships and to focus on the quality of romantic relationships to prevent stalking after romantic breakups. These results also indicate that emotion regulation may be useful in preventing stalking caused by attachment anxiety.


Assuntos
Perseguição , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade
4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 14(2): 1-16, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38018419

RESUMO

Background: The experience of stalking presents a threat to the mental and physical health and wellbeing of victims. Although some studies have explored the impact of stalking on victims, few have gone into detail about specific mental health outcomes and their association with various types of stalking behaviour.Objective: To investigate the psychological consequences among Danish help-seeking victims of stalking who have contacted and received help through the Danish Stalking Center (DSC).Methods: We used survey-data from stalking victims who sought and received help from the DSC during 2015-2020 (N = 591). Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, T-tests, and hierarchical logistic regression analysis were used to examine psychological distress symptoms and the relationship between psychopathological symptoms and stalking behaviour characteristics.Results: Victims reported considerable levels of stalking and psychological distress. Almost 80% of victims reported symptom levels indicative of a diagnosable disorder of PTSD, depression, or anxiety. T-test shoved that following behaviour had the greatest effect size for PTSD-symptoms (t(575) = -5.81, p < .01, d = -.58), anxiety (t(576) = -4.21, p < .01, d = -.42), and somatization (t(572) = -4.29, p < .01, d = -.43). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that stalking victims who experienced following had significantly higher odds of experiencing symptoms of PTSD (OR 2.869; 95% CI, [1.641-5.016]) and anxiety (OR 2.274; 95% CI [1.265; 4.090]).Conclusion: Being stalked is associated with substantial PTSD-, affective and trauma-related symptoms and psychological distress in general. Together with the strikingly high levels of psychopathology and the particularly grave effects of being followed, it is indicated that stalking is a special type of trauma with many negative and harmful effects. Hence, further research into how to properly help stalking victims through preventive interventions and treatment is needed.


Stalking is a special type of trauma with many negative and harmful effects.Being stalked is associated with substantial PTSD-, affective symptoms, functional impairment, general psychological distress, and strikingly high levels of psychopathology.Especially following behaviour has grave effects on victims' mental health.


Assuntos
Perseguição , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
5.
Psychosoc Interv ; 32(3): 141-154, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37691714

RESUMO

Victims of stalking use multiple help-seeking behaviors including reporting their experiences to the police, obtaining a restraining order, blocking communication, and relying on informal social networks like friends, family, or therapists. The goal of this study is to, first, identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on their help-seeking behaviors. Next, we identify the direct effect of sex, victim-offender relationship, and offense severity on class membership. Finally, we include negative emotions as a mediating effect. Using the 2016 National Crime Victimization Survey's Supplemental Victimization Survey data, latent class analysis was utilized to identify class membership among 1,459 stalking victims. The results indicate three groups: passive help-seekers, informal help-seekers, and active help-seekers. We found that females are more likely to be assigned to the active or informal group and these two groups appear to experience more severe stalking behaviors compared to the passive group. Specifically, victims were less likely to ask for help actively and ask family, friends, and non-professional people for help for whom stalking took place by other/unable to identify individuals. Victims whose stalkers had a criminal record, whose stalkers threatened themselves or others, as well as who suffered stalking lasting for months and the most often were more likely to ask for help actively and ask family, friends, and non-professional people for help. The significance of victims' perceptions of severity of both groups is only partially mediated by negative emotions.


Las víctimas del acoso utilizan diversos comportamientos de búsqueda de ayuda, como denunciar los hechos a la policía, conseguir una orden de alejamiento, bloquear la comunicación o confiar en las redes sociales informales como amigos, familia o terapeutas. El objetivo del estudio es en primer lugar reconocer distintos subgrupos de víctimas de acoso en función de sus comportamientos de búsqueda de ayuda. A continuación observamos el efecto directo en la pertenencia al grupo del sexo, la relación víctima-agresor y la gravedad del delito. Por último, abordamos el efecto mediador de las emociones negativas. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta suplementaria de victimización de la Encuesta Nacional de Delitos de Victimización de 2016 nos servimos del análisis de clases latentes para analizar la afiliación de clase en 1,459 víctimas de acoso. Los resultados muestran tres grupos: buscadores de ayuda pasivos, informales y activos. Resultó que es más probable que las mujeres sean asignadas al grupo activo o informal y que estos dos grupos parecen experimentar comportamientos de acoso más graves en comparación con el grupo pasivo. En concreto era menos probable que las víctimas pidieran ayuda activamente y a la familia, amigos y personas no profesionales que habían sufrido acoso por parte de otras personas incapaces de identificar. Era más probable que las víctimas cuyos acosadores tenían antecedentes penales y les habían acosado a ellos o a otras personas y cuyo acoso había durado meses y más a menudo pidieran ayuda activa y también a la familia, amigos y personas no profesionales. La importancia de cómo percibían la gravedad ambos grupos solo estaba mediatizada en parte por las emociones negativas.


Assuntos
Bullying , Perseguição , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Polícia , Perseguição/epidemiologia , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde
6.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(21-22): 11569-11594, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37482768

RESUMO

Victims of stalking suffer severe and varied impacts requiring assessment and treatment. Research to inform support is limited. This study examines a national sample of stalking victims to identify the types and prevalence of impact reported and the predictors of impact. A secondary analysis of 258 stalking cases reported to a stalking charity was conducted. Four categories of victim reported impact were coded; psychological and substance abuse, physical health, practical impact on life, and impact on others. Stalking duration, severity, the diversity of stalking behaviors, and the relationship between the victim and perpetrator were investigated as predictors of impact. In all, 48 types of impact were identified with victims experiencing an average of four types. Psychological impact was the most prevalent (91.5%). Several new forms of impact were identified including a variety of impacts on persons known to the victim (e.g., children, friends) in 35.3% of the sample. Increased diversity of stalking behavior was predictive of impact in all models (explaining 11% of the variance in total impact scores), except for physical impact which was not analyzed due to low prevalence. Stalking impact was prevalent and varied, suggesting that victims (and potentially those close to them) require trauma-informed support from clinicians. Future research should include the development of a stalking impact index to improve the consistency of research and clinical assessment of need.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Perseguição , Criança , Humanos , Perseguição/epidemiologia , Perseguição/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Amigos , Prevalência
7.
Violence Against Women ; 29(12-13): 2464-2485, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37491903

RESUMO

We explore the emerging issue of how communications technologies can be used by male perpetrators to facilitate intimate partner violence against their female partners. We analyzed interview narratives from 18 women survivors of intimate partner violence in Taiwan, informed by Stark's theory of coercive control. Our findings indicated that the male perpetrators of intimate partner violence against the survivors utilized communications technologies to further harm, control, and intimidate their victims. We found that the perpetrators harassed, stalked/monitored, and isolated the survivors and distributed defamatory messages about the survivors to other people using telephones, e-mail, social media, the Internet, broadcast media, and recording devices.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Perseguição , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Taiwan , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sobreviventes
8.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 51(3): 377-389, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37460221

RESUMO

This study investigates the predictive validity of two risk instruments for stalking, the Guidelines for Stalking Assessment and Management (SAM) and the Stalking Risk Profile (SRP), in a sample of 86 forensic psychiatric patients. We compare these tools against a well-validated violence risk assessment measure (Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3)) for violent and stalking-related outcomes. Dynamic (mutable) components of each tool were rated at three annual intervals and revealed significant change across time. The HCR-20V3, SAM, and SRP measures showed comparable ability to classify those who recidivated with further stalking from those who did not (area under the curves = .72-.73, P < 001). Time-varying scores from the dynamic subscales of the HCR-20V3 and SAM contributed significantly to the prediction of stalking, whereas nonstalking violence was primarily forecast by the static (Historical) scale of the HCR-20V3. This suggests comparable validity of general violence and stalking risk tools for assessing the risk of stalking in forensic patients. Stalking-specific risk factors on the SAM and SRP will likely be of added clinical value in terms of tailoring risk management and treatment plans. Findings also emphasize the importance of attending to changes in risk status over time and incorporating time-sensitive methodologies into predictive models.


Assuntos
Perseguição , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco/métodos , Gestão de Riscos , Violência/psicologia
9.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(17-18): 10465-10477, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37212355

RESUMO

Ethical guidelines dictate that research studies should present more benefit than harm to participants, thus, it is important to study participants' reactions to participation, particularly in the context of potentially traumatic topics. While several studies have indicated that positive evaluations of research typically outweigh perceived harms among survivors of physical, sexual, or psychological intimate partner violence, few studies have assessed survivors of intimate partner stalking (IPS) or unwanted pursuit behaviors (UPBs). Among 602 undergraduates (78% women), the present study examined reactions to research participation in a study on IPS/UPBs. Results indicated that, among victims and non-victims of IPS, positive global evaluations and perceived benefits outweighed negative emotional reactions and perceived drawbacks to participation. While some participants (7.5%) reported emotional reactions to participation, most, on average, evaluated the study positively (94.4%), many reported benefits (45.5%), and just one (0.2%) reported drawbacks. Emotional reactions were positively correlated with both drawbacks and benefits of participation. Frequency of UPBs/IPS and IPV were positively correlated with emotional reactions to participation; however, when included in a model with psychological distress (i.e., post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms), symptom frequencies were more strongly related to reactions to research than victimization variables. In all, research on IPS/UPBs appears to be evaluated generally positively and can likely be undertaken safely when using safeguards to inform participants and debrief them following participation.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Perseguição , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
10.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 41(2): 369-380, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37024170

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence and sexual violence represent significant public health challenges that carry many individual and societal costs. More than 1 in 3 women (35.6%) and more than 1 in 4 men (28.5%) in the United States have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime. Clinicians play an integral role on the screening, identification, and management of these sensitive issues.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Perseguição , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estupro/diagnóstico , Parceiros Sexuais
12.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0281551, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36857299

RESUMO

The stalking of celebrities is a serious issue for thousands of celebrities worldwide who are occasionally confronted by fans who merit the label "fanatic." We administered measures of obnoxious celebrity stalking, celebrity worship, persistent pursuit of celebrities, threat directed toward celebrities, boredom susceptibility, disinhibition, experience seeking, thrill and adventure seeking, relationship styles, and anger to 596 college students from the U.S.A. We developed a model consisting of all but the latter five measures that successfully predicted actual obnoxious stalking behaviors of celebrities. Our results partially replicate earlier research and presents some new findings. Individuals who have personal thoughts about their favorite celebrity frequently, feel compelled to learn more about them, pursue them consistently, threatened to harm them and were prone to boredom were more likely to engage in celebrity stalking. Controlling for these predictors, individuals who admire their favorite celebrity almost exclusively because of their ability to entertain were less likely to engage in celebrity stalking.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Perseguição , Humanos , Ira , Tédio , Sensação
14.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0265054, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36735747

RESUMO

Resource partitioning promotes coexistence among guild members, and carnivores reduce interference competition through behavioral mechanisms that promote spatio-temporal separation. We analyzed sympatric lion and spotted hyena movements and activity patterns to ascertain the mechanisms facilitating their coexistence within semi-arid and wetland ecosystems. We identified recurrent high-use (revisitation) and extended stay (duration) areas within home ranges, as well as correlated movement-derived measures of inter- and intraspecific interactions with environmental variables. Spatial overlaps among lions and hyenas expanded during the wet season, and occurred at edges of home ranges, around water-points, along pathways between patches of high-use areas. Lions shared more of their home ranges with spotted hyenas in arid ecosystems, but shared more of their ranges with conspecifics in mesic environments. Despite shared space use, we found evidence for subtle temporal differences in the nocturnal movement and activity patterns between the two predators, suggesting a fine localized-scale avoidance strategy. Revisitation frequency and duration within home ranges were influenced by interspecific interactions, after land cover categories and diel cycles. Intraspecific interactions were also important for lions and, important for hyenas were moon illumination and ungulates attracted to former anthrax carcass sites in Etosha, with distance to water in Chobe/Linyanti. Recursion and duration according to locales of competitor probabilities were similar among female lions and both sexes of hyenas, but different for male lions. Our results suggest that lions and spotted hyenas mediate the potential for interference competition through subtle differences in temporal activity, fine-scale habitat use differentiation, and localized reactive-avoidance behaviors. These findings enhance our understanding of the potential effects of interspecific interactions among large carnivore space-use patterns within an apex predator system and show adaptability across heterogeneous and homogeneous environments. Future conservation plans should emphasize the importance of inter- and intraspecific competition within large carnivore communities, particularly moderating such effects within increasingly fragmented landscapes.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Hyaenidae , Leões , Perseguição , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ecossistema
15.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(13-14): 8187-8210, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36794859

RESUMO

Although the stalking research literature has grown over time, there is more limited research focused on acquaintance stalking victim experiences and harms. The current study used online surveys with women stalked by acquaintances who had (n = 193), and who had not (n = 144), been sexually assaulted by the stalker to examine differences in stalking course of conduct (including jealousy and control, sexual harassment) and victim harms (resource losses, social identity perceptions, sexual autonomy, sexual difficulties, and safety efficacy). Results found that many of the acquaintance stalking victims in the current study experienced all three types of sexual harassment (verbal harassment, unwanted sexual advances, sexual coercion) and had negative social identity perceptions (e.g., how they felt about themselves, how they felt about their ability to be a good partner). More women who were sexually assaulted, compared to those who were not, experienced threats, jealous and controlling behavior, severe physical violence, stalking-related fear, sexual harassment, negative social identity perceptions, and lower sexual autonomy. Multivariate analysis found that sexual assault, more unwanted sexual attention, increased sexual coercion, lower safety efficacy, and more negative social identity perceptions were associated with sexual difficulties while sexual assault, higher safety efficacy, fewer resource losses, and fewer negative social identity perceptions were associated with increased sexual autonomy. Sexual assault, verbal sexual harassment, and resource losses were associated with more negative social identity perceptions. Understanding the full scope of stalking victimization and the negative impacts can inform the recovery journey and safety planning interventions.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Perseguição , Humanos , Feminino , Amigos
16.
Violence Against Women ; 29(3-4): 475-494, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841990

RESUMO

The current study examined the duration of stalking episodes among a nationally representative sample. Analyses of the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey estimated if the victim-perpetrator relationship and other types of victimization experienced were associated with (a) if the stalking episode lasted over a year (N = 1,509) and (b) the length of stalking episodes, in days, for episodes <1 year (N = 506). Findings indicate coercive control was associated with higher odds the stalking episode lasted over a year and increased the length of episodes lasting <1 year. The intersection of stalking and coercive control is discussed.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Perseguição , Humanos , Perseguição/epidemiologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP60-NP83, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236175

RESUMO

Stalking is a serious public health problem, estimated to affect about 15% of women and 6% of men. Victims of stalking have been reported to be at increased risk for psychological distress, depression, lowered social and daily functioning, and other forms of victimization. The present study sought to determine whether individuals with documented histories of childhood maltreatment and those with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for stalking victimization. Participants included maltreated children and matched controls (N = 892) from a Midwestern, metropolitan area who were followed up into adulthood. Psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance use disorders) were assessed at mean age 29 and borderline personality disorder at age 39. Participants reported lifetime stalking using the Lifetime Trauma and Victimization History instrument and based on a separate measure, past year intimate partner stalking victimization. Analyses controlled for sex, race, and age. Depression, PTSD, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders were associated with increased lifetime risk for stalking victimization. Childhood maltreatment, neglect, and psychiatric disorders (substance use, PTSD, antisocial personality, and borderline personality) predicted increased risk for past year stalking victimization. Findings indicated sex differences in lifetime risk of stalking victimization and race differences in past-year stalking victimization. Although the results reveal relationships among child maltreatment, psychiatric disorders, and stalking victimization, the impact of childhood maltreatment is most salient in terms of past year intimate partner stalking victimization, and particularly for individuals with histories of neglect. Future research is needed to better understand these race and sex differences in stalking victimization.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Vítimas de Crime , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Perseguição , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Perseguição/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
18.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 24(3): 2019-2033, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387506

RESUMO

In recent years the body of literature on cyberstalking has expanded rapidly. The present work aimed to summarize the current state of the literature on cyberstalking perpetration and victimization in a scoping review. Forty-one quantitative and qualitative studies that examined variables relating to cyberstalking victimization and perpetration were collated. Following the methodology of Arksey and O'Malley (2005), an in-depth thematic analysis of the articles was undertaken. Prevalence of victimization and perpetration rates were compared and key themes synthesized. Despite examining similar young adult populations, the prevalence of victimization was found to range considerably from 0.7% (Reyns & Engelbrecht, 2010) to 85.2% (Strawhun et al., 2013) across studies. Themes were divided into two overarching classifications, factors relating to victimization and factors relating to perpetration. Deviant peer association, low self-control, previous harassment experiences and personality traits were some of the factors most frequently examined in relation to perpetration; whilst online exposure, online disclosure and guardianship were some of the factors most frequently examined in relation to victimization. Within these themes, deviant peer association and low self-control were found to consistently correlate with an increase in both cyberstalking victimization and perpetration. Guardianship and confidence online demonstrated inconsistent results. This review has summarized what is currently known and has been validated within cyberstalking research pertaining to victimization and perpetration, and has identified gaps and potential areas of future development.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Perseguição , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Perseguição/epidemiologia , Grupo Associado , Revelação
19.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1060-NP1087, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549528

RESUMO

Prior research suggests that economic abuse and work sabotage are common tactics for abusers and (ex)partner stalkers. This study examines the context and timing (i.e., during the relationship or during separation) of work harassment among women stalked by abusive (ex)partners among victims who did (n=271) and who did not (n=302) experience work losses (significant problems at work or loss of work due to the abuse/stalking) and whether work losses and non-work related resource losses were associated with current mental health symptoms. Results showed that almost half of the women in the study reported they experienced work losses because of their abusive (ex)partner. Women with work losses experienced more work harassment particularly during periods of separation. Women who experienced work losses also experienced more work harassment, separation attempts, economic control, coercive control, physical and sexual abuse, higher fear levels, and a higher number of non-work related resource losses compared to women who did not report experiencing work losses. Women with work losses experienced more symptoms of current depression, anxiety, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Further, in the multivariate analysis, non-work related resource losses were significantly and uniquely associated with current mental health symptoms. In conclusion, women being stalked by abusive (ex)partners are at significant risk of resource losses, and those losses have long term impacts on mental health suggesting that safety planning for stalking victims should include plans to protect resources as well as physical safety.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Perseguição , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Perseguição/epidemiologia , Perseguição/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
20.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP237-NP261, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few studies of intimate partner violence and health outcomes include multiple forms of intimate partner victimization, so this paper sought to examine health associations with intimate partner violence (IPV), including sexual, physical, stalking, and psychological forms, as well as polyvictimization. METHODS: Data are from the 2010-2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, an on-going national random-digit-dial telephone survey of U.S. adults. There were 41,174 respondents. Logistic regression was used to compute prevalence ratios for any IPV, adjusted for demographics and non-IPV victimization. For individual forms of IPV, prevalence ratios were further adjusted for other forms of IPV. Tests for linear trend in poly-victimization were performed. RESULTS: Any IPV was associated with all health conditions for both sexes with a few exceptions for males. Female penetrative sexual victimization and male stalking victimization were associated with the most health conditions. For each health condition, a significant linear trend indicated that as the number of forms of IPV experienced increased, prevalence of each health condition increased, with a few exceptions for males. CONCLUSIONS: It is important for service providers to screen for multiple forms of IPV, including psychological aggression, because individual forms or polyvictimization may have unique and cumulative health effects.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Perseguição , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Perseguição/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Prevalência
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