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1.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573316

RESUMO

Biomineralization had apparently evolved independently in different phyla, using distinct minerals, organic scaffolds, and gene regulatory networks (GRNs). However, diverse eukaryotes from unicellular organisms, through echinoderms to vertebrates, use the actomyosin network during biomineralization. Specifically, the actomyosin remodeling protein, Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) regulates cell differentiation and gene expression in vertebrates' biomineralizing cells, yet, little is known on ROCK's role in invertebrates' biomineralization. Here, we reveal that ROCK controls the formation, growth, and morphology of the calcite spicules in the sea urchin larva. ROCK expression is elevated in the sea urchin skeletogenic cells downstream of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) signaling. ROCK inhibition leads to skeletal loss and disrupts skeletogenic gene expression. ROCK inhibition after spicule formation reduces the spicule elongation rate and induces ectopic spicule branching. Similar skeletogenic phenotypes are observed when ROCK is inhibited in a skeletogenic cell culture, indicating that these phenotypes are due to ROCK activity specifically in the skeletogenic cells. Reduced skeletal growth and enhanced branching are also observed under direct perturbations of the actomyosin network. We propose that ROCK and the actomyosin machinery were employed independently, downstream of distinct GRNs, to regulate biomineral growth and morphology in Eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Actomiosina , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Animais , Citoesqueleto de Actina , Ouriços-do-Mar , Equinodermos , Eucariotos
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3000, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589403

RESUMO

Actomyosin networks constrict cell area and junctions to alter cell and tissue shape. However, during cell expansion under mechanical stress, actomyosin networks are strengthened and polarized to relax stress. Thus, cells face a conflicting situation between the enhanced actomyosin contractile properties and the expansion behaviour of the cell or tissue. To address this paradoxical situation, we study late Drosophila oogenesis and reveal an unusual epithelial expansion wave behaviour. Mechanistically, Rac1 and Rho1 integrate basal pulsatile actomyosin networks with ruffles and focal adhesions to increase and then stabilize basal area of epithelial cells allowing their flattening and elongation. This epithelial expansion behaviour bridges cell changes to oocyte growth and extension, while oocyte growth in turn deforms the epithelium to drive cell spreading. Basal pulsatile actomyosin networks exhibit non-contractile mechanics, non-linear structures and F-actin/Myosin-II spatiotemporal signal separation, implicating unreported expanding properties. Biophysical modelling incorporating these expanding properties well simulates epithelial cell expansion waves. Our work thus highlights actomyosin expanding properties as a key mechanism driving tissue morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Actomiosina , Proteínas de Drosophila , Animais , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Morfogênese
3.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597186

RESUMO

Epithelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 is apically polarized, interacts with, and guides leukocytes across epithelial barriers. Polarized hepatic epithelia organize their apical membrane domain into bile canaliculi and ducts, which are not accessible to circulating immune cells but that nevertheless confine most of ICAM-1. Here, by analyzing ICAM-1_KO human hepatic cells, liver organoids from ICAM-1_KO mice and rescue-of-function experiments, we show that ICAM-1 regulates epithelial apicobasal polarity in a leukocyte adhesion-independent manner. ICAM-1 signals to an actomyosin network at the base of canalicular microvilli, thereby controlling the dynamics and size of bile canalicular-like structures. We identified the scaffolding protein EBP50/NHERF1/SLC9A3R1, which connects membrane proteins with the underlying actin cytoskeleton, in the proximity interactome of ICAM-1. EBP50 and ICAM-1 form nano-scale domains that overlap in microvilli, from which ICAM-1 regulates EBP50 nano-organization. Indeed, EBP50 expression is required for ICAM-1-mediated control of BC morphogenesis and actomyosin. Our findings indicate that ICAM-1 regulates the dynamics of epithelial apical membrane domains beyond its role as a heterotypic cell-cell adhesion molecule and reveal potential therapeutic strategies for preserving epithelial architecture during inflammatory stress.


Assuntos
Actomiosina , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular
4.
Cells ; 13(5)2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474334

RESUMO

The integrity and permeability of epithelial and endothelial barriers depend on the formation of tight junctions, adherens junctions, and a junction-associated cytoskeleton. The establishment of this junction-cytoskeletal module relies on the correct folding and oligomerization of its protein components. Molecular chaperones are known regulators of protein folding and complex formation in different cellular compartments. Mammalian cells possess an elaborate chaperone network consisting of several hundred chaperones and co-chaperones. Only a small part of this network has been linked, however, to the regulation of intercellular adhesions, and the systematic analysis of chaperone functions at epithelial and endothelial barriers is lacking. This review describes the functions and mechanisms of the chaperone-assisted regulation of intercellular junctions. The major focus of this review is on heat shock protein chaperones, their co-chaperones, and chaperonins since these molecules are the focus of the majority of the articles published on the chaperone-mediated control of tissue barriers. This review discusses the roles of chaperones in the regulation of the steady-state integrity of epithelial and vascular barriers as well as the disruption of these barriers by pathogenic factors and extracellular stressors. Since cytoskeletal coupling is essential for junctional integrity and remodeling, chaperone-assisted assembly of the actomyosin cytoskeleton is also discussed.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto , Junções Intercelulares , Animais , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Junções Intercelulares/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 262(Pt 2): 130097, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342265

RESUMO

To assess the blending effect of field snails with grass carp muscle, the effects of paramyosin (PM) and actomyosin (AM) with different mixture ratios on the gel properties of the binary blend system were investigated in our work. The purified PM from field snail muscle was about 95 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Its main secondary structure was α-helix, which reached to 97.97 %. When the amount of PM increased in the binary blend system, their rheological indices and gel strength were improved. The water holding capacity (WHC) increased to 86.30 % at a mixture ratio of 2:8. However, the WHC and the area of immobile water (P22) dramatically decreased, and the area of free water (P23) increased when the mixture ratio exceeded 4:6. The low level of PM in binary blend system promoted the formation of a homogenous and dense gel network through non-covalent interactions as observed results of SEM and FTIR. When there were redundant PM molecules, the development of heterostructure via hydrophobic interaction of tail-tail contributed to the reduced gel properties of the binary blend system. These findings provided new insight into the binary blend system of PM and AM with different ratios to change the gel properties of myofibrillar protein.


Assuntos
Actomiosina , Tropomiosina , Animais , Géis/química , Actomiosina/química , Caramujos , Água/química
6.
Cell Rep ; 43(3): 113866, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416638

RESUMO

To mount an adaptive immune response, dendritic cells must migrate to lymph nodes to present antigens to T cells. Critical to 3D migration is the nucleus, which is the size-limiting barrier for migration through the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that inflammatory activation of dendritic cells leads to the nucleus becoming spherically deformed and enables dendritic cells to overcome the typical 2- to 3-µm diameter limit for 3D migration through gaps in the extracellular matrix. We show that the nuclear shape change is partially attained through reduced cell adhesion, whereas improved 3D migration is achieved through reprogramming of the actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, our data point to a model whereby the phosphorylation of cofilin-1 at serine 41 drives the assembly of a cofilin-actomyosin ring proximal to the nucleus and enhances migration through 3D collagen gels. In summary, these data describe signaling events through which dendritic cells deform their nucleus and enhance their migratory capacity.


Assuntos
Fatores de Despolimerização de Actina , Actomiosina , Fatores de Despolimerização de Actina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Citocinese , Cofilina 1/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 446: 138809, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402768

RESUMO

This study investigated the individual and combined effects of l-arginine, l-lysine, and NaCl on the ultrastructure of porcine myofibrils to uncover the mechanism underlying meat tenderization. Arg or Lys alone shortened A-bands and damaged M-lines, while NaCl alone destroyed M- and Z-lines. Overall, Arg and Lys cooperated with NaCl to destroy the myofibrillar ultrastructure. Moreover, these two amino acids conjoined with NaCl to increase myosin solubility, actin band intensity, and the protein concentration of the actomyosin supernatant. However, they decreased the turbidity and particle size of both myosin and actomyosin solutions, and the remaining activities of Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase. The current results revealed that Arg/Lys combined with NaCl to extract myosin and dissociate actomyosin, thereby aggravating the destruction of the myofibrillar ultrastructure. The present results provide a good explanation for the previous phenomenon that Arg and Lys cooperated with NaCl to improve meat tenderness.


Assuntos
Actomiosina , Lisina , Animais , Suínos , Actomiosina/química , Lisina/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Miosinas/química , Carne/análise , Actinas/metabolismo , Arginina/química , Suplementos Nutricionais
8.
J Mol Biol ; 436(6): 168498, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387550

RESUMO

Cardiac muscle contraction occurs due to repetitive interactions between myosin thick and actin thin filaments (TF) regulated by Ca2+ levels, active cross-bridges, and cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C). The cardiac TF (cTF) has two nonequivalent strands, each comprised of actin, tropomyosin (Tm), and troponin (Tn). Tn shifts Tm away from myosin-binding sites on actin at elevated Ca2+ levels to allow formation of force-producing actomyosin cross-bridges. The Tn complex is comprised of three distinct polypeptides - Ca2+-binding TnC, inhibitory TnI, and Tm-binding TnT. The molecular mechanism of their collective action is unresolved due to lack of comprehensive structural information on Tn region of cTF. C1 domain of cMyBP-C activates cTF in the absence of Ca2+ to the same extent as rigor myosin. Here we used cryo-EM of native cTFs to show that cTF Tn core adopts multiple structural conformations at high and low Ca2+ levels and that the two strands are structurally distinct. At high Ca2+ levels, cTF is not entirely activated by Ca2+ but exists in either partially or fully activated state. Complete dissociation of TnI C-terminus is required for full activation. In presence of cMyBP-C C1 domain, Tn core adopts a fully activated conformation, even in absence of Ca2+. Our data provide a structural description for the requirement of myosin to fully activate cTFs and explain increased affinity of TnC to Ca2+ in presence of active cross-bridges. We suggest that allosteric coupling between Tn subunits and Tm is required to control actomyosin interactions.


Assuntos
Actinas , Troponina , Actinas/metabolismo , Actomiosina , Cálcio/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Miosinas/química , Tropomiosina/química , Troponina/química , Troponina/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(9): e2315894121, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377213

RESUMO

The intricate interplay between biomechanical and biochemical pathways in modulating morphogenesis is an interesting research topic. How biomechanical force regulates epithelial cell tubulogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we established a model of tubulogenesis by culturing renal proximal tubular epithelial cells on a collagen gel while manipulating contractile force. Epithelial cells were dynamically self-organized into tubule-like structures by augmentation of cell protrusions and cell-cell association. Reduction and asymmetric distribution of phosphorylated myosin light chain 2, the actomyosin contractility, in cells grown on soft matrix preceded tube connection. Notably, reducing matrix stiffness via sonication of collagen fibrils and inhibiting actomyosin contractility with blebbistatin promoted tubulogenesis, whereas inhibition of cytoskeleton polymerization suppressed it. CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) expression was transcriptionally upregulated in cells undergoing tubulogenesis. Additionally, inhibiting actomyosin contractility facilitated CXCL1 polarization and cell protrusions preceding tube formation. Conversely, inhibiting the CXCL1-CXC receptor 1 pathway hindered cell protrusions and tubulogenesis. Mechanical property asymmetry with cell-collagen fibril interaction patterns at cell protrusions and along the tube structure supported the association of anisotropic contraction with tube formation. Furthermore, suppressing the mechanosensing machinery of integrin subunit beta 1 reduced CXCL1 expression, collagen remodeling, and impaired tubulogenesis. In summary, symmetry breaking of cell contractility on a soft collagen gel promotes CXCL1 polarization at cell protrusions which in turn facilitates cell-cell association and thus tubule connection.


Assuntos
Actomiosina , Colágeno , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo
10.
J Cell Sci ; 137(2)2024 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277157

RESUMO

S100A11 is a small Ca2+-activatable protein known to localize along stress fibers (SFs). Analyzing S100A11 localization in HeLa and U2OS cells further revealed S100A11 enrichment at focal adhesions (FAs). Strikingly, S100A11 levels at FAs increased sharply, yet transiently, just before FA disassembly. Elevating intracellular Ca2+ levels with ionomycin stimulated both S100A11 recruitment and subsequent FA disassembly. However, pre-incubation with the non-muscle myosin II (NMII) inhibitor blebbistatin or with an inhibitor of the stretch-activatable Ca2+ channel Piezo1 suppressed S100A11 recruitment, implicating S100A11 in an actomyosin-driven FA recruitment mechanism involving Piezo1-dependent Ca2+ influx. Applying external forces on peripheral FAs likewise recruited S100A11 to FAs even if NMII activity was inhibited, corroborating the mechanosensitive recruitment mechanism of S100A11. However, extracellular Ca2+ and Piezo1 function were indispensable, indicating that NMII contraction forces act upstream of Piezo1-mediated Ca2+ influx, in turn leading to S100A11 activation and FA recruitment. S100A11-knockout cells display enlarged FAs and had delayed FA disassembly during cell membrane retraction, consistent with impaired FA turnover in these cells. Our results thus demonstrate a novel function for S100A11 in promoting actomyosin contractility-driven FA disassembly.


Assuntos
Actomiosina , Adesões Focais , Humanos , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas S100/genética , Proteínas S100/metabolismo
11.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 188: 30-37, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266978

RESUMO

The cardiac thin filament proteins troponin and tropomyosin control actomyosin formation and thus cardiac contractility. Calcium binding to troponin changes tropomyosin position along the thin filament, allowing myosin head binding to actin required for heart muscle contraction. The thin filament regulatory proteins are hot spots for genetic mutations causing heart muscle dysfunction. While much of the thin filament structure has been characterized, critical regions of troponin and tropomyosin involved in triggering conformational changes remain unresolved. A poorly resolved region, helix-4 (H4) of troponin I, is thought to stabilize tropomyosin in a position on actin that blocks actomyosin interactions at low calcium concentrations during muscle relaxation. We have proposed that contact between glutamate 139 on tropomyosin and positively charged residues on H4 leads to blocking-state stabilization. In this study, we attempted to disrupt these interactions by replacing E139 with lysine (E139K) to define the importance of this residue in thin filament regulation. Comparison of mutant and wild-type tropomyosin was carried out using in-vitro motility assays, actin co-sedimentation, and molecular dynamics simulations to determine perturbations in troponin-tropomyosin function caused by the tropomyosin mutation. Motility assays revealed that mutant thin filaments moved at higher velocity at low calcium with increased calcium sensitivity demonstrating that tropomyosin residue 139 is vital for proper tropomyosin-mediated inhibition during relaxation. Similarly, molecular dynamic simulations revealed a mutation-induced decrease in interaction energy between tropomyosin-E139K and troponin I (R170 and K174). These results suggest that salt-bridge stabilization of tropomyosin position by troponin IH4 is essential to prevent actomyosin interactions during cardiac muscle relaxation.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico , Tropomiosina , Actinas , Actomiosina , Troponina I , Cálcio
12.
Dev Cell ; 59(3): 400-414.e5, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228140

RESUMO

Epithelial furrowing is a fundamental morphogenetic process during gastrulation, neurulation, and body shaping. A furrow often results from a fold that propagates along a line. How fold formation and propagation are controlled and driven is poorly understood. To shed light on this, we study the formation of the cephalic furrow, a fold that runs along the embryo dorsal-ventral axis during Drosophila gastrulation and the developmental role of which is still unknown. We provide evidence of its function and show that epithelial furrowing is initiated by a group of cells. This cellular cluster works as a pacemaker, triggering a bidirectional morphogenetic wave powered by actomyosin contractions and sustained by de novo medial apex-to-apex cell adhesion. The pacemaker's Cartesian position is under the crossed control of the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral gene patterning systems. Thus, furrow formation is driven by a mechanical trigger wave that travels under the control of a multidimensional genetic guide.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila/metabolismo , Gastrulação , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo
13.
Curr Biol ; 34(3): 615-622.e4, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199065

RESUMO

Convergent extension (CE) requires the coordinated action of the planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins1,2 and the actin cytoskeleton,3,4,5,6 but this relationship remains incompletely understood. For example, PCP signaling orients actomyosin contractions, yet actomyosin is also required for the polarized localization of PCP proteins.7,8 Moreover, the actin-regulating Septins play key roles in actin organization9 and are implicated in PCP and CE in frogs, mice, and fish5,6,10,11,12 but execute only a subset of PCP-dependent cell behaviors. Septin loss recapitulates the severe tissue-level CE defects seen after core PCP disruption yet leaves overt cell polarity intact.5 Together, these results highlight the general fact that cell movement requires coordinated action by distinct but integrated actin populations, such as lamella and lamellipodia in migrating cells13 or medial and junctional actin populations in cells engaged in apical constriction.14,15 In the context of Xenopus mesoderm CE, three such actin populations are important, a superficial meshwork known as the "node-and-cable" system,4,16,17,18 a contractile network at deep cell-cell junctions,6,19 and mediolaterally oriented actin-rich protrusions, which are present both superficially and deeply.4,19,20,21 Here, we exploited the amenability of the uniquely "two-dimensional" node and cable system to probe the relationship between PCP proteins, Septins, and the polarization of this actin network. We find that the PCP proteins Vangl2 and Prickle2 and Septins co-localize at nodes, and that the node and cable system displays a cryptic, PCP- and Septin-dependent anteroposterior (AP) polarity in its organization and dynamics.


Assuntos
Actinas , Septinas , Camundongos , Animais , Septinas/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo
14.
Eur J Cell Biol ; 103(1): 151379, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168598

RESUMO

The organization of actin filaments (F-actin) into crosslinked networks determines the transmission of mechanical stresses within the cytoskeleton and subsequent changes in cell and tissue shape. Principally mediated by proteins such as α-actinin, F-actin crosslinking increases both network connectivity and rigidity, thereby facilitating stress transmission at low crosslinking yet attenuating transmission at high crosslinker concentration. Here, we engineer a two-dimensional model of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, in which myosin-induced mechanical stresses are controlled by light. We alter the extent of F-actin crosslinking by the introduction of oligomerized cofilin. At pH 6.5, F-actin severing by cofilin is weak, but cofilin bundles and crosslinks filaments. Given its effect of lowering the F-actin bending stiffness, cofilin- crosslinked networks are significantly more flexible and softer in bending than networks crosslinked by α-actinin. Thus, upon local activation of myosin-induced contractile stress, the network bends out-of-plane in contrast to the in-plane compression as observed with networks crosslinked by α-actinin. Here, we demonstrate that local effects on filament mechanics by cofilin introduces novel large-scale network material properties that enable the sculpting of complex shapes in the cell cytoskeleton.


Assuntos
Fatores de Despolimerização de Actina , Actinas , Actinas/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Actinina , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Miosinas
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 689, 2024 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184730

RESUMO

Muscle fiber force production is determined by the excitation frequency of motor nerves, which induce transient increases in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the force-generating capacity of the actomyosin cross-bridges. Previous studies suggest that, in addition to altered cross-bridge properties, force changes during dynamic (concentric or eccentric) contraction might be affected by Ca2+-dependent components. Here we investigated this by measuring [Ca2+]i and force in mouse muscle fibers undergoing isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions. Intact single muscle fibers were dissected from the flexor digitorum brevis muscle of mice. Fibers were electrically activated isometrically at 30-100 Hz and after reaching the isometric force plateau, they were actively shortened or stretched. We calculated the ratio (relative changes) in force and [Ca2+]i attained in submaximal (30 Hz) and near-maximal (100 Hz) contractions under isometric or dynamic conditions. Tetanic [Ca2+]i was similar during isometric, concentric and eccentric phases of contraction at given stimulation frequencies while the forces were clearly different depending on the contraction types. The 30/100 Hz force ratio was significantly lower in the concentric (44.1 ± 20.3%) than in the isometric (50.3 ± 20.4%) condition (p = 0.005), whereas this ratio did not differ between eccentric and isometric conditions (p = 0.186). We conclude that the larger force decrease by decreasing the stimulation frequency during concentric than during isometric contraction is caused by decreased myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity, not by the decreased [Ca2+]i.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Animais , Camundongos , Actomiosina , Citoplasma , Citosol
16.
Sci Adv ; 10(1): eadi1788, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170778

RESUMO

The all-terrain motility of lymphocytes in tissues and tissue-like gels is best described as amoeboid motility. For amoeboid motility, lymphocytes do not require specific biochemical or structural modifications to the surrounding extracellular matrix. Instead, they rely on changing shape and steric interactions with the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism of amoeboid motility remains elusive. Here, we report that septins participate in amoeboid motility of T cells, enabling the formation of F-actin and α-actinin-rich cortical rings at the sites of cell cortex-indenting collisions with the extracellular matrix. Cortical rings compartmentalize cells into chains of spherical segments that are spatially conformed to the available lumens, forming transient "hourglass"-shaped steric locks onto the surrounding collagen fibers. The steric lock facilitates pressure-driven peristaltic propulsion of cytosolic content by individually contracting cell segments. Our results suggest that septins provide microenvironment-guided partitioning of actomyosin contractility and steric pivots required for amoeboid motility of T cells in tissue-like microenvironments.


Assuntos
Actomiosina , Amoeba , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Septinas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Amoeba/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(2): e2309125121, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175871

RESUMO

Living systems adopt a diversity of curved and highly dynamic shapes. These diverse morphologies appear on many length scales, from cells to tissues and organismal scales. The common driving force for these dynamic shape changes are contractile stresses generated by myosin motors in the cell cytoskeleton, that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. A good understanding of how contractile stresses in the cytoskeleton arise into different three-dimensional (3D) shapes and what are the shape selection rules that determine their final configurations is still lacking. To obtain insight into the relevant physical mechanisms, we recreate the actomyosin cytoskeleton in vitro, with precisely controlled composition and initial geometry. A set of actomyosin gel discs, intrinsically identical but of variable initial geometry, dynamically self-organize into a family of 3D shapes, such as domes and wrinkled shapes, without the need for specific preprogramming or additional regulation. Shape deformation is driven by the spontaneous emergence of stress gradients driven by myosin and is encoded in the initial disc radius to thickness aspect ratio, which may indicate shaping scalability. Our results suggest that while the dynamical pathways may depend on the detailed interactions between the different microscopic components within the gel, the final selected shapes obey the general theory of elastic deformations of thin sheets. Altogether, our results emphasize the importance for the emergence of active stress gradients for buckling-driven shape deformations and provide insights on the mechanically induced spontaneous shape transitions in contractile active matter, revealing potential shared mechanisms with living systems across scales.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina , Actomiosina , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo
18.
J Biol Chem ; 300(2): 105643, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199574

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelia express two long myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) splice variants, MLCK1 and MLCK2, which differ by the absence of a complete immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain 3 within MLCK2. MLCK1 is preferentially associated with the perijunctional actomyosin ring at steady state, and this localization is enhanced by inflammatory stimuli including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here, we sought to identify MLCK1 domains that direct perijunctional MLCK1 localization and their relevance to disease. Ileal biopsies from Crohn's disease patients demonstrated preferential increases in MLCK1 expression and perijunctional localization relative to healthy controls. In contrast to MLCK1, MLCK2 expressed in intestinal epithelia is predominantly associated with basal stress fibers, and the two isoforms have distinct effects on epithelial migration and barrier regulation. MLCK1(Ig1-4) and MLCK1(Ig1-3), but not MLCK2(Ig1-4) or MLCK1(Ig3), directly bind to F-actin in vitro and direct perijunctional recruitment in intestinal epithelial cells. Further study showed that Ig1 is unnecessary, but that, like Ig3, the unstructured linker between Ig1 and Ig2 (Ig1/2us) is essential for recruitment. Despite being unable to bind F-actin or direct recruitment independently, Ig3 does have dominant negative functions that allow it to displace perijunctional MLCK1, increase steady-state barrier function, prevent TNF-induced MLCK1 recruitment, and attenuate TNF-induced barrier loss. These data define the minimal domain required for MLCK1 localization and provide mechanistic insight into the MLCK1 recruitment process. Overall, the results create a foundation for development of molecularly targeted therapies that target key domains to prevent MLCK1 recruitment, restore barrier function, and limit inflammatory bowel disease progression.


Assuntos
Actinas , Actomiosina , Humanos , Actinas/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Citocinese , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/genética , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Acta Biomater ; 176: 321-333, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272199

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, especially those with metastatic competence, show reduced stiffness compared to the non-malignant counterparts. However, it is still unclear whether and how the mechanics of HCC cells influence their migration and invasion. This study reports that HCC cells with enhanced motility show reduced mechanical stiffness and cytoskeleton, suggesting the inverse correlation between cellular stiffness and motility. Through pharmacologic and genetic approaches, inhibiting actomyosin activity reduces HCC cellular stiffness but promotes their migration and invasion, while activating it increases cell stiffness but impairs cell motility. Actomyosin regulates cell motility through the influence on cellular stiffness. Mechanistically, weakening/strengthening cells inhibits/promotes c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, activation/inhibition of which rescues the effects of cell mechanics on their migration and invasion. Further, HCC cancer stem cells (CSCs) exhibit higher motility but lower stiffness than control cells. Increasing CSC stiffness weakens migration and invasion through the activation of JNK signaling. In conclusion, our findings unveil a new regulatory role of actomyosin-mediated cellular mechanics in tumor cell motility and present new evidence to support that tumor cell softening may be one driving force for HCC metastasis. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Tumor cells progressively become softened during metastasis and low cell stiffness is associated with high metastatic potential. However, it remains unclear whether tumor cell softening is a by-product of or a driving force for tumor progression. This work reports that the stiffness of hepatocellular carcinoma cells is linked to their migration and invasion. Importantly, tumor cell softening promotes migration and invasion, while cell stiffening impairs the mobility. Weakening/strengthening cells inhibits/promotes JNK phosphorylation, activation/inhibition of which rescues the effects of cell mechanics on their migration and invasion ability. Further, stiffening liver cancer stem cells attenuates their motility through activating JNK signaling. In summary, our study uncovers a previously unappreciated role of tumor cell mechanics in migration and invasion and implicates the therapeutic potential of cell mechanics in the mechanotargeting of metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Actomiosina , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Invasividade Neoplásica
20.
Biophys J ; 123(2): 157-171, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38062704

RESUMO

The actomyosin cytoskeleton generates mechanical forces that power important cellular processes, such as cell migration, cell division, and mechanosensing. Actomyosin self-assembles into contractile networks and bundles that underlie force generation and transmission in cells. A central step is the assembly of the myosin II filament from myosin monomers, regulation of which has been extensively studied. However, myosin filaments are almost always found as clusters within the cell cortex. While recent studies characterized cluster nucleation dynamics at the cell periphery, how myosin clusters grow on stress fibers remains poorly characterized. Here, we utilize a U2OS osteosarcoma cell line with endogenously tagged myosin II to measure the myosin cluster size distribution in the lamella of adherent cells. We find that myosin clusters can grow with Rho-kinase (ROCK) activity alone in the absence of myosin motor activity. Time-lapse imaging reveals that myosin clusters grow via increased myosin association to existing clusters, which is potentiated by ROCK-dependent myosin filament assembly. Enabling myosin motor activity allows further myosin cluster growth through myosin association that is dependent on F-actin architecture. Using a toy model, we show that myosin self-affinity is sufficient to recapitulate the experimentally observed myosin cluster size distribution, and that myosin cluster sizes are determined by the pool of myosin available for cluster growth. Together, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of myosin cluster sizes within the lamellar actomyosin cytoskeleton.


Assuntos
Actinas , Actomiosina , Actinas/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo
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