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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244611, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564216

RESUMO

Importance: Postpolypectomy surveillance is a common colonoscopy indication in older adults; however, guidelines provide little direction on when to stop surveillance in this population. Objective: To estimate surveillance colonoscopy yields in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study included individuals 70 to 85 years of age who received surveillance colonoscopy at a large, community-based US health care system between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019; had an adenoma detected 12 or more months previously; and had at least 1 year of health plan enrollment before surveillance. Individuals were excluded due to prior colorectal cancer (CRC), hereditary CRC syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or prior colectomy or if the surveillance colonoscopy had an inadequate bowel preparation or was incomplete. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2022, to February 22, 2024. Exposures: Age (70-74, 75-79, or 80-85 years) at surveillance colonoscopy and prior adenoma finding (ie, advanced adenoma vs nonadvanced adenoma). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were yields of CRC, advanced adenoma, and advanced neoplasia overall (all ages) by age group and by both age group and prior adenoma finding. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced neoplasia detection at surveillance. Results: Of 9740 surveillance colonoscopies among 9601 patients, 5895 (60.5%) were in men, and 5738 (58.9%), 3225 (33.1%), and 777 (8.0%) were performed in those aged 70-74, 75-79, and 80-85 years, respectively. Overall, CRC yields were found in 28 procedures (0.3%), advanced adenoma in 1141 (11.7%), and advanced neoplasia in 1169 (12.0%); yields did not differ significantly across age groups. Overall, CRC yields were higher for colonoscopies among patients with a prior advanced adenoma vs nonadvanced adenoma (12 of 2305 [0.5%] vs 16 of 7435 [0.2%]; P = .02), and the same was observed for advanced neoplasia (380 of 2305 [16.5%] vs 789 of 7435 [10.6%]; P < .001). Factors associated with advanced neoplasia at surveillance were prior advanced adenoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.65; 95% CI, 1.44-1.88), body mass index of 30 or greater vs less than 25 (AOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03-1.44), and having ever smoked tobacco (AOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.30). Asian or Pacific Islander race was inversely associated with advanced neoplasia (AOR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of surveillance colonoscopy yield in older adults, CRC detection was rare regardless of prior adenoma finding, whereas the advanced neoplasia yield was 12.0% overall. Yields were higher among those with a prior advanced adenoma than among those with prior nonadvanced adenoma and did not increase significantly with age. These findings can help inform whether to continue surveillance colonoscopy in older adults.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Asiático , Colonoscopia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7808, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565871

RESUMO

Colonoscopy is accurate but inefficient for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention due to the low (~ 7 to 8%) prevalence of target lesions, advanced adenomas. We leveraged rectal mucosa to identify patients who harbor CRC field carcinogenesis by evaluating chromatin 3D architecture. Supranucleosomal disordered chromatin chains (~ 5 to 20 nm, ~1 kbp) fold into chromatin packing domains (~ 100 to 200 nm, ~ 100 to 1000 kbp). In turn, the fractal-like conformation of DNA within chromatin domains and the folding of the genome into packing domains has been shown to influence multiple facets of gene transcription, including the transcriptional plasticity of cancer cells. We deployed an optical spectroscopic nanosensing technique, chromatin-sensitive partial wave spectroscopic microscopy (csPWS), to evaluate the packing density scaling D of the chromatin chain conformation within packing domains from rectal mucosa in 256 patients with varying degrees of progression to colorectal cancer. We found average packing scaling D of chromatin domains was elevated in tumor cells, histologically normal-appearing cells 4 cm proximal to the tumor, and histologically normal-appearing rectal mucosa compared to cells from control patients (p < 0.001). Nuclear D had a robust correlation with the model of 5-year risk of CRC with r2 = 0.94. Furthermore, rectal D was evaluated as a screening biomarker for patients with advanced adenomas presenting an AUC of 0.85 and 85% sensitivity and specificity. artificial intelligence-enhanced csPWS improved diagnostic performance with AUC = 0.90. Considering the low sensitivity of existing CRC tests, including liquid biopsies, to early-stage cancers our work highlights the potential of chromatin biomarkers of field carcinogenesis in detecting early, significant precancerous colon lesions.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Carcinogênese/patologia , Colonoscopia , Cromatina/genética , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia
3.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 169, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spindle cell oncocytomas (SCO) and granular cell tumors (GCT) are rare primary pituitary neoplasms; the optimal treatment paradigms for these lesions are unknown and largely unexplored. Thus, using national registries, we analyze the epidemiology, management patterns, and surgical outcomes of SCOs and GCTs. METHODS: The National Cancer Database (NCDB; years 2003-2017) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER; years 2004-2018) were queried for patients with pituitary SCOs or GCTs. Incidence, extent of surgical resection, and rate of postoperative radiation use for subtotally resected lesions comprised the primary outcomes of interest. All-cause mortality was also analyzed via time-to-event Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS: SCOs and GCTs have an annual incidence of 0.017 and 0.023 per 1,000,000, respectively. They comprise 0.1% of the benign pituitary tumors registered in NCDB. A total of 112,241 benign pituitary tumors were identified in NCDB during the study period, of which 83 (0.07%) were SCOs and 59 (0.05%) were GCTs. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years, 44% were females, and median maximal tumor diameter at presentation was 2.1 cm. Gross total resection was achieved in 54% patients. Ten patients (7%) had postoperative radiation. Comparing patients with GCTs versus SCOs, the former were more likely to be younger at diagnosis (48.0 vs. 59.0, respectively; p < 0.01) and female (59% vs. 34%, p = 0.01). GCTs and SCOs did not differ in terms of size at diagnoses (median maximal diameter: 1.9 cm vs. 2.2 cm, respectively; p = 0.59) or gross total resection rates (62% vs. 49%, p = 0.32). After matching SCOs and GCTs with pituitary adenomas on age, sex, and tumor size, the former were less likely to undergo gross total resection (53% vs. 72%; p = 0.03). Patients with SCOs and GCTs had a shorter overall survival when compared to patients with pituitary adenomas (p < 0.01) and a higher rate of thirty-day mortality (3.1% vs 0.0%; p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: SCOs and GCTs are rare pituitary tumors, and their management entails particular challenges. Gross total resection is often not possible, and adjuvant radiation might be employed following subtotal resection.


Assuntos
Adenoma Oxífilo , Adenoma , Craniofaringioma , Tumor de Células Granulares , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Adenoma Oxífilo/cirurgia , Tumor de Células Granulares/diagnóstico , Hipófise/patologia , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/cirurgia
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1235441, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590825

RESUMO

Introduction: Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the preferred surgical method for most pituitary adenomas owing to high efficacy and low mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on postoperative outcomes of TSS for pituitary adenoma. Methods: This population-based, retrospective observational study extracted data of adults 20-79 y receiving TSS for pituitary adenoma from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) between 2005-2018. Primary outcomes were pituitary-related complications, poor outcomes (i.e., in-hospital mortality or unfavorable discharge), prolonged length of stay (LOS), and patient safety indicators (PSIs). Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to determine the associations between study variables and outcomes. Results: 19,076 patients (representing a 93,185 US in-patient population) were included, among which 2,109 (11.1%) patients had MetS. After adjustment, pre-existing MetS was not significantly associated with presence of pituitary-related complications and poor outcomes. In contrast, MetS was significantly associated with an increased risk for prolonged LOS (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05-1.34), PSIs (aOR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.07-1.59) and greater hospital costs (adjusted ß = 8.63 thousand USD; 95% CI: 4.98-12.29). Among pituitary-related complications, MetS was independently associated with increased risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea (aOR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.47) but lowered diabetes insipidus (aOR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.97). Discussion: MetS does not pose excessive risk of in-hospital mortality or unfavorable discharge. However, MetS independently predicted having PSIs, prolonged LOS, greater hospital costs, and CSF rhinorrhea. Study findings may help clinicians achieve better risk stratification before TSS.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Síndrome Metabólica , Doenças da Hipófise , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adulto , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pacientes Internados , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Doenças da Hipófise/epidemiologia , Doenças da Hipófise/cirurgia , Doenças da Hipófise/complicações , Adenoma/cirurgia
5.
Arkh Patol ; 86(2): 30-36, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyloric gland adenomas (PGA) are rare neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. According to the literature, these lesions may be underdiagnosed, and their true frequency of occurrence is underestimated. OBJECTIVE: Clinical and morphological analysis of eight PGA cases of the upper gastrointestinal tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 8 cases of detection of PGA. In 7 out of 8 cases, the tumor was diagnosed by examining endoscopic biopsies, in 1 case, PGA was an accidental finding in the surgical material after proximal gastric resection. RESULTS: 6 out of 8 patients were female, the median age was 65 years (minimum 36 years and maximum 78 years). In 6 cases, PDA was localized in the stomach, in 1 - in the esophagus and in 1 - in the duodenum The size of the tumors ranged from 0.6 cm to 7.5 cm. 4 out of 6 stomach tumors appeared on the background of confirmed autoimmune gastritis, 1 - on the background of lymphocytic gastritis. 4 tumors were found in the body of the stomach, 1 - in the cardia, 1 - in the bottom of the stomach. In 2 out of 8 cases, there were signs of malignancy of the tumor with the transition to a highly differentiated adenocarcinoma. According to the results of the IHC study, the absence of a p53 mutation was noted in these cases. CONCLUSION: PGA should be considered as neoplasms with a high risk of transformation into invasive adenocarcinoma. Increasing the recognition of PGA among pathologists and further understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in their neoplastic transformation will improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Gastrite , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Gastrite/patologia
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1301260, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516415

RESUMO

Ectopic thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting tumors are extremely rare, with only 15 reported cases in the literature. Herein, we described a 60-year-old female patient with thyrotoxicosis and elevated or unsuppressed levels of TSH. Family history and laboratory and genetic tests did not support a diagnosis of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). Given the unsuppressed TSH, TSH-secreting tumor was suspected, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland was performed. Surprisingly, the MRI scans revealed a nodule in the nasopharynx rather than a pituitary tumor in the sella region. Further evaluation using Gallium-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT) demonstrated increased DOTATATE uptake in the nasopharyngeal nodule. Additionally, an octreotide suppression test (OST) revealed an obvious reduction in TSH levels, further supporting the suspicion of the nasopharyngeal mass as the cause of inappropriate TSH secretion. To prepare for surgery, the patient received preoperative administration of octreotide, resulting in the normalization of TSH and thyroid hormone levels. The patient subsequently underwent successful surgical removal of the nasopharyngeal mass. Following the procedure, the patient experienced complete resolution of hyperthyroidism symptoms, with TSH declined and thyroid hormone levels returned to normal. Histochemistry analysis of the tumor revealed positive staining for TSH, growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2). We discussed differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate TSH secretion, with a particular emphasis on the importance of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in combination with OST for identifying ectopic pituitary tumors.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Hipertireoidismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adenoma/patologia , Radioisótopos de Gálio , Hipertireoidismo/etiologia , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Hormônios Tireóideos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Tireotropina
7.
Neurol India ; 72(1): 96-101, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO 2017 classification of endocrine tumors incorporates lineage-specific transcription factors (TF) and hormone expression for the classification of pituitary adenoma (PA). There is paucity of reports describing the spectrum of PA based on this classification. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to delineate the spectrum of PA based on WHO 2017 classification of endocrine tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PA diagnosed in the year 2018 were studied. H and E and hormonal immunohistochemistry (IHC) for GH, PRL, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, CK, T-Pit and MIB-1 were performed and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: The cohort included 88 cases. M: F ratio was 2:1. Clinically, 22 (25%) were functional and 66 (75%) were non-functional adenomas. Amongst the clinically functional adenomas, GH secreting adenomas were the commonest (68%). Majority (83%) of non-functional adenomas were hormone positive with gonadotroph adenomas being the commonest (72.7%). Eleven (12.5%) PA were clinically and hormonally silent. Three of these showed intense nuclear T-Pit positivity, classifying them under silent corticotroph adenoma. Lineage of the remaining eight adenomas remained undetermined, since, IHC for Pit-1 and SF-1 was not performed. The aggressive adenomas identified by IHC included sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma, Crooke cell adenoma, silent corticotroph adenoma, densely granulated lactotroph adenoma in men and constituted 17% of the PA. Four (4/88) cases were clinically invasive. CONCLUSION: A large majority of PA including aggressive adenomas can be identified by IHC. Addition of T-Pit helped to identify silent corticotroph adenoma. Pit -1 and SF-1 TF would help identify plurihormonal Pit-1 PA and null cell adenomas.


Assuntos
Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT , Adenoma , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Masculino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Hormônios , Compostos Orgânicos
8.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 311-314, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554339

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The category of borderline malignancy or unknown malignant potential was added to the WHO's 2017 classification of thyroid tumours. A new histological variety of papillary tumours and Hurthle cell tumours was given as a separate entity. The classification has also adopted the Turin criteria for histological diagnosis of poorly differentiated cancer (PDC). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Descriptive study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: From July 2018 to June 2022, 200 thyroid neoplasm patients at a tertiary care facility in western Maharashtra were participated in the prospective research over a period of 4 years. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The descriptive statistics were used to analyse the collected data. AIM: This study was undertaken to compare the old (2004) and new (2016) WHO classifications and their importance in the treatment of thyroid malignancies. RESULTS: Out of 200 cases, the age range of 31 to 40 years had the greatest number of cases. The ratio of females to males was 5:1. In our study, according to the WHO 2004 classification, malignant tumours comprised 57.5% of the cases, while benign tumours 42.5% of the cases. When tumours were subcategorized, the most frequent benign tumour was follicular adenoma (43.5%) and malignant tumour was papillary thyroid carcinoma (37%). Malignant tumours made up 47.5% of the cases when the tumours were reclassified using the revised WHO 2017 classification, followed by borderline tumours with 27.5% of the cases and benign tumours with 25% of the cases. The most frequent borderline tumour was NIFTP (Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features) (17.5%), the most prevalent malignant tumour was papillary carcinoma (including its variant) (32%), and the most frequent benign tumour was follicular adenoma (27%). CONCLUSION: We concluded that the inclusion of the Boderline Category in the new WHO classification significantly improved thyroid cancer management. WHO 2017 classification prevents under diagnosis (in the case of benign tumors) and over diagnosis (in the case of malignant tumors).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular , Adenoma , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Compostos Orgânicos
10.
Surg Endosc ; 38(4): 2267-2272, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appendiceal orifice lesions are often managed operatively with limited or oncologic resections. The aim is to report the management of appendiceal orifice mucosal neoplasms using advanced endoscopic interventions. METHODS: Patients with appendiceal orifice mucosal neoplasms who underwent advanced endoscopic resections between 2011 and 2021 with either endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD), hybrid ESD, or combined endoscopic laparoscopic surgery (CELS) were included from a prospectively collected dataset. Patient and lesion details and procedure outcomes are reported. RESULTS: Out of 1005 lesions resected with advanced endoscopic techniques, 41 patients (4%) underwent appendiceal orifice mucosal neoplasm resection, including 39% by hybrid ESD, 34% by ESD, 15% by EMR, and 12% by CELS. The median age was 65, and 54% were male. The median lesion size was 20 mm. The dissection was completed piecemeal in 49% of patients. Post-procedure, one patient had a complication within 30 days and was admitted with post-polypectomy abdominal pain treated with observation for 2 days with no intervention. Pathology revealed 49% sessile-serrated lesions, 24% tubular adenomas, and 15% tubulovillous adenomas. Patients were followed up for a median of 8 (0-48) months. One patient with a sessile-serrated lesion experienced a recurrence after EMR which was re-resected with EMR. CONCLUSION: Advanced endoscopic interventions for appendiceal orifice mucosal neoplasms can be performed with a low rate of complications and early recurrence. While conventionally lesions at the appendiceal orifice are often treated with surgical resection, advanced endoscopic interventions are an alternative approach with promising results which allow for cecal preservation.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias do Apêndice , Apêndice , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Apêndice/cirurgia , Apêndice/patologia , Neoplasias do Apêndice/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/métodos , Pólipos Intestinais/cirurgia , Pólipos Intestinais/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adenoma/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Comput Assist Surg (Abingdon) ; 29(1): 2331774, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520294

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to analyze the risk factors associated with the development of adenomatous and malignant polyps in the gallbladder. Adenomatous polyps of the gallbladder are considered precancerous and have a high likelihood of progressing into malignancy. Preoperatively, distinguishing between benign gallbladder polyps, adenomatous polyps, and malignant polyps is challenging. Therefore, the objective is to develop a neural network model that utilizes these risk factors to accurately predict the nature of polyps. This predictive model can be employed to differentiate the nature of polyps before surgery, enhancing diagnostic accuracy. A retrospective study was done on patients who had cholecystectomy surgeries at the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of the Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen between January 2017 and December 2022. The patients' clinical characteristics, lab results, and ultrasonographic indices were examined. Using risk variables for the growth of adenomatous and malignant polyps in the gallbladder, a neural network model for predicting the kind of polyps will be created. A normalized confusion matrix, PR, and ROC curve were used to evaluate the performance of the model. In this comprehensive study, we meticulously analyzed a total of 287 cases of benign gallbladder polyps, 15 cases of adenomatous polyps, and 27 cases of malignant polyps. The data analysis revealed several significant findings. Specifically, hepatitis B core antibody (95% CI -0.237 to 0.061, p < 0.001), number of polyps (95% CI -0.214 to -0.052, p = 0.001), polyp size (95% CI 0.038 to 0.051, p < 0.001), wall thickness (95% CI 0.042 to 0.081, p < 0.001), and gallbladder size (95% CI 0.185 to 0.367, p < 0.001) emerged as independent predictors for gallbladder adenomatous polyps and malignant polyps. Based on these significant findings, we developed a predictive classification model for gallbladder polyps, represented as follows, Predictive classification model for GBPs = -0.149 * core antibody - 0.033 * number of polyps + 0.045 * polyp size + 0.061 * wall thickness + 0.276 * gallbladder size - 4.313. To assess the predictive efficiency of the model, we employed precision-recall (PR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The area under the curve (AUC) for the prediction model was 0.945 and 0.930, respectively, indicating excellent predictive capability. We determined that a polyp size of 10 mm served as the optimal cutoff value for diagnosing gallbladder adenoma, with a sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 60.0%. For the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, the sensitivity and specificity were 81.5% and 92.5%, respectively. These findings highlight the potential of our predictive model and provide valuable insights into accurate diagnosis and risk assessment for gallbladder polyps. We identified several risk factors associated with the development of adenomatous and malignant polyps in the gallbladder, including hepatitis B core antibodies, polyp number, polyp size, wall thickness, and gallbladder size. To address the need for accurate prediction, we introduced a novel neural network learning algorithm. This algorithm utilizes the aforementioned risk factors to predict the nature of gallbladder polyps. By accurately identifying the nature of these polyps, our model can assist patients in making informed decisions regarding their treatment and management strategies. This innovative approach aims to improve patient outcomes and enhance the overall effectiveness of care.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Pólipos Adenomatosos , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar , Hepatite B , Pólipos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos/patologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Redes Neurais de Computação
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1302667, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487343

RESUMO

Introduction: Corticotroph pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) develop from ACTH-producing cells. They commonly cause Cushing's disease (CD), however, some remain clinically silent. Recurrent USP8, USP48, BRAF and TP53 mutations occur in corticotroph PitNETs. The aim of our study was to determine frequency and relevance of these mutations in a possibly large series of corticotroph PitNETs. Methods: Study included 147 patients (100 CD and 47 silent tumors) that were screened for hot-spot mutations in USP8, USP48 and BRAF with Sanger sequencing, while 128 of these patients were screened for TP53 mutations with next generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry. Results: USP8 mutations were found in 41% CD and 8,5% silent tumors, while USP48 mutations were found in 6% CD patients only. Both were more prevalent in women. They were related to higher rate of biochemical remission, non-invasive tumor growth, its smaller size and densely granulated histology, suggesting that these mutation may be favorable clinical features. Multivariate survival analyses did not confirm possible prognostic value of mutation in protein deubiquitinases. No BRAF mutations were found. Four TP53 mutations were identified (2 in CD, 2 in silent tumors) in tumors with size >10mm including 3 invasive ones. They were found in Crooke's cell and sparsely granulated tumors. Tumors with missense TP53 mutations had higher TP53 immunoreactivity score than wild-type tumors. Tumor with frameshift TP53 variant had low protein expression. TP53 mutation was a poor prognostic factor in CD according to uni- and multivariate survival analyses in spite of low mutations frequency. Conclusions: We confirmed high prevalence of USP8 mutations and low incidence of USP48 and TP53 mutations. Changes in protein deubiquitinases genes appear to be favorable prognostic factors in CD. TP53 mutations are rare, occur in both functioning and silent tumors and are related to poor clinical outcome in CD.


Assuntos
Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT , Adenoma , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Corticotrofos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Endopeptidases/genética , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/metabolismo , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/metabolismo , Mutação , Adenoma/genética , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/genética , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
13.
Phytomedicine ; 127: 155496, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenoma is benign glandular tumor of colon, the precursor of colorectal cancer. But no pharmaceutical medication is currently available to treat and prevent adenomas. PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy of Shenbai Granules, an herbal medicine formula, in reducing the recurrence of adenomas. STUDY DESIGN: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted by eight hospitals in China. METHODS: Patients who had received complete polypectomy and were diagnosed with adenomas within the recent 6 months were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either Shenbai granules or placebo twice a day for 6 months. An annual colonoscopy was performed during the 2-year follow-up period. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one adenoma detected in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population during follow-up for 2 years. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients with sessile serrated lesions and other specified polypoid lesions. The data were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 400 randomized patients, 336 were included in the mITT population. We found significant differences between treatment and placebo groups in the proportion of patients with at least one recurrent adenoma (42.5 % vs. 58.6 %; OR, 0.47; 95 % CI, 0.29-0.74; p = 0.001) and sessile serrated lesion (1.8 % vs. 8.3 %; OR, 0.20; 95 % CI, 0.06-0.72; p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients developing polypoid lesions (70.7 % vs. 77.5 %; OR, 1.43; 95 % CI, 0.88-2.34; p = 0.15) or high-risk adenomas (9.0 % vs. 13.6 %; OR, 0.63; 95 % CI, 0.32-1.25; p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: Shenbai Granules significantly reduced the recurrence of adenomas, indicating that they could be an effective option for adenomas. Future studies should investigate its effects in larger patient populations and explore its mechanism of action to provide more comprehensive evidence for the use of Shenbai Granules in adenoma treatment.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Colonoscopia , Método Duplo-Cego , Adenoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , China
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0279784, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483854

RESUMO

Colorectal adenomas have the potential of malignant transformation if left untreated. Multiple randomized controlled trials have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of aspirin in preventing colorectal adenoma recurrence in a population with a history of colorectal adenoma but not colorectal cancer, however, the relationship between aspirin dose and colorectal adenoma recurrence remains unclear. We conducted pairwise meta-analysis, meta-regression, trial sequential analysis, and network meta-analysis of all eligible studies. The ROB 2.0 tool was used to assess the risk of bias in the studies. The confidence in network meta-analysis (CINeMA) approach was used to evaluate the confidence of the network meta-analysis results. The network meta-analysis included eight RCTs (nine reports), comprising four on aspirin (low or high dose) alone and four on aspirin combined with another medication, all compared with placebo. In the network meta-analysis, low-dose aspirin (LDA <300 mg per day) was more effective than high-dose aspirin (HDA ≥300 mg per day) and placebo, with risk ratios of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.99) and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.91), respectively. LDA was the optimal treatment relative to HDA and placebo (P-score = 0.99). In the trial sequential analysis, LDA was only more effective than placebo when the number of included participants exceeded the optimal information size; this was not the case for HDA. LDA has statistically significant efficacy for colorectal adenoma prevention, but compared with HDA, its efficacy remains uncertain. Further trials are therefore required.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenoma/prevenção & controle , Adenoma/epidemiologia
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 326: 117995, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428656

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents a risk of carcinogenesis, which escalates with the duration of IBD. Persistent histological inflammation is considered to be the driving factor of colitis carcinogenesis. Effective control of inflammation is helpful to prevent and treat colitis-related colorectal cancer (CAC). Anchang Yuyang Decoction (AYD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, is originated from the ancient prescription of TCM for treating colitis and colorectal cancer. AYD has demonstrated efficacy in treating IBD and potential anti-carcinogenic properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: This research aims to assess the therapeutic efficacy of AYD in ameliorating experimental colitis-related carcinogenesis induced by AOM/DSS. It further seeks to elucidate its potential mechanisms by integrating multiple omics sequencing approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model for colitis-related carcinogenesis was developed using azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). UPLC-MS identified AYD's chemical constituents. Rats were administered varying doses of AYD (18.37, 9.19 and 4.59 g/kg) orally for 53 days, with mesalazine as a positive control. The study evaluated anti-carcinogenic effects by examining adenoma number, adenoma load, abnormal crypt foci (ACF), histopathological damage, and tumor-related protein expression. Anti-inflammatory and reparative effects were assessed through body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, spleen index, inflammatory cytokine levels, and tight junction protein expression. The effects on intestinal microbiota and host metabolism were explored through 16S rRNA sequencing, targeted short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabonomics, and non-targeted colon metabolomics. Potential AYD targets were identified through transcriptomic sequencing and validated by qRT-PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: AYD significantly reduced adenoma number, adenoma load, neoplasm-associated lesions, ACF, and tumor-related protein expression (e.g., p53, PCNA) in AOM/DSS-induced rats, thus impeding colitis-related carcinogenesis progression. AYD also alleviated histopathological damage and inflammation, promoting intestinal mucosal barrier repair. Furthermore, AYD modulated intestinal flora structure, enhanced SCFA production, and regulated colon metabolites. Transcriptomic sequencing revealed a significant impact on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Subsequent qRT-PCR and western blotting experiments indicated AYD's influence in up-regulating PPAR-γ and down-regulating PPAR-α, PPAR-ß/δ, and related proteins (thrombomodulin [Thbd], fatty acid binding protein 5 [Fabp5], stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 [Scd2], phospholipid transfer protein [Pltp]). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates AYD's ability to inhibit experimental colitis-related carcinogenesis induced by AOM/DSS. Its mechanism likely involves modulation of the PPAR signaling pathway, impacting intestinal microbiota and host metabolic equilibrium.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Colite , Neoplasias Colorretais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Ratos , Animais , Camundongos , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinogênese , Azoximetano/toxicidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Homeostase , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Colo
16.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 24(1): 91, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation is prevalent in colorectal serrated lesions. We previously reported that the CpG island of SMOC1 is frequently methylated in traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) and colorectal cancers (CRCs) but is rarely methylated in sessile serrated lesions (SSLs). In the present study, we aimed to further characterize the expression of SMOC1 in early colorectal lesions. METHODS: SMOC1 expression was analyzed immunohistochemically in a series of colorectal tumors (n = 199) and adjacent normal colonic tissues (n = 112). RESULTS: SMOC1 was abundantly expressed in normal colon and SSLs while it was significantly downregulated in TSAs, advanced adenomas and cancers. Mean immunohistochemistry scores were as follows: normal colon, 24.2; hyperplastic polyp (HP), 18.9; SSL, 23.8; SSL with dysplasia (SSLD)/SSL with early invasive cancer (EIC), 15.8; TSA, 5.4; TSA with high grade dysplasia (HGD)/EIC, 4.7; non-advanced adenoma, 21.4; advanced adenoma, 11.9; EIC, 10.9. Higher levels SMOC1 expression correlated positively with proximal colon locations and flat tumoral morphology, reflecting its abundant expression in SSLs. Among TSAs that contained both flat and protruding components, levels of SMOC1 expression were significantly lower in the protruding components. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that reduced expression of SMOC1 is associated with progression of TSAs and conventional adenomas and that SMOC1 expression may be a biomarker for diagnosis of serrated lesions and risk prediction in colorectal tumors.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Pólipos do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Hiperplasia , Osteonectina , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
17.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 127, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the visual outcomes and optimal timing for repeat surgery in cases of postoperative hematoma following transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 28 patients who developed evident postoperative hematoma out of a total of 9,010 patients. The hematomas were classified into three types based on their CT appearance. Type 1a - mild high density with no tension, Type 1b - thin-layer high density; Type 2a - solid high density with large empty cavities, Type 2b - solid high density with small empty cavities; Type 3 -solid high density with no cavity showing high tension. Patient data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 10 female and 18 male patients, with a mean age of 51.5±11.9 years. Most patients presented with large adenomas (median diameter 36mm). Postoperative visual sight improved in 12 patients, remained stable in 11 patients, and worsened in 5 patients. Notably, no patients experienced worsened visual sight beyond twenty-four hours after the operation. Among the five patients with visual deterioration, four had CT type 3 hematoma (4/6, 66.7%), and one had CT type 2b hematoma (1/9, 11.1%). Patients in the type 3 CT group were significantly more prone to experience visual deterioration compared to those in the type 2 group (odds ratio [OR] 2.154 [95% CI 1.858-611.014], P=.027). Four patients underwent repeat surgery after visual deterioration, resulting in visual improvement following a prolonged recovery period. Postoperative hematoma had limited impact on pituitary dysfunction and hyponatremia. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals a significant association between postoperative hematoma CT types and visual deterioration. For patients with stable visual sight and type 1 or 2a hematoma, conservative strategies may be considered. Conversely, type 2b and 3 patients are at higher risk of visual deterioration, especially within the first 24 hours after the operation. Consequently, early reoperation before vision worsens may be a prudent approach to reduce risks and improve visual outcomes, particularly in type 3 patients.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adenoma/patologia , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/etiologia , Hematoma/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Surgery ; 175(5): 1299-1304, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative imaging before parathyroidectomy can localize adenomas and reduce unnecessary bilateral neck explorations. We hypothesized that (1) the utility of preoperative imaging varies substantially depending on the preoperative probability of having adenoma(s) and (2) that a selective imaging approach based on this probability could avoid unnecessary patient costs and radiation. METHODS: We analyzed 3,577 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism from 2001 to 2022. The predicted probability of patients having single or double adenoma versus hyperplasia was estimated using logistic regression. We then estimated the relationship between the predicted probability of single/double adenoma and the likelihood that sestamibi or 4-dimensional computed tomography was helpful for operative planning. Current Medicare costs and published data on radiation dosing were used to calculate costs and radiation exposure from non-helpful imaging. RESULTS: The mean age was 62 ± 13 years; 78% were women. Adenomas were associated with higher mean calcium (11.2 ± 0.74 mg/dL) and parathyroid hormone levels (140.6 ± 94 pg/mL) than hyperplasia (9.8 ± 0.52 mg/dL and 81.4 ± 66 pg/mL). The probability that imaging helped with operative planning increased from 12% to 65%, as the predicted probability of adenoma increased from 30% to 90%. For every 10,000 patients, a selective approach to imaging that considered the preoperative probability of having adenomas could save patients up to $3.4 million and >239,000 millisieverts of radiation. CONCLUSION: Rather than imaging all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, a selective strategy that considers the probability of having adenomas could reduce costs and avoid excess radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Neoplasias das Paratireoides , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/cirurgia , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi , Hiperplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Medicare , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/cirurgia
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(3)2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541233

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disorder caused by excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) leading to elevated calcium levels. Diagnosis is primarily based on biochemical evaluation, and surgery is the curative treatment. Imaging techniques like ultrasound and Tc-99m Sestamibi scintigraphy are used for localization, but selective Internal Jugular Venous (SVS) becomes valuable in cases of inconclusive or conflicting results. This study evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of SVS for localizing parathyroid adenomas in cases where non-invasive radiological diagnostic methods yielded inconclusive results or negative findings despite clinical symptoms suggestive of pHPT. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 28 patients diagnosed with pHPT underwent SVS at a tertiary center known for receiving referrals from 2017 to 2022. The diagnoses were confirmed through biochemical analysis. The SVS results in 22 patients were compared with non-invasive imaging methods, including ultrasound, scintigraphy, and computed tomography with/without contrast material. SVS was indicated when at least two non-invasive diagnostic procedures failed to clearly localize the parathyroid glands or provided ambiguous results. Results: SVS demonstrated higher sensitivity for localizing parathyroid adenomas compared to non-invasive imaging methods, accurately lateralizing the adenoma in 68.18% of cases. Among the SVS findings, 31.8% of patients had negative results, with 9.1% not having clinically proven parathyroid adenoma, while 22.7% had false negative SVS findings but were later confirmed to have adenoma during surgery. Ultrasound correctly identified the location in 45.45% of cases, CT in 27.27%, and scintigraphy in 40.9%. Conclusions: SVS is a valuable diagnostic tool for accurately localizing parathyroid adenomas in patients with inconclusive non-invasive imaging results. It aids in targeted surgical interventions, contributing to improved management and treatment outcomes in primary hyperparathyroidism.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Neoplasias das Paratireoides , Humanos , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/complicações , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/cirurgia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glândulas Paratireoides , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/cirurgia
20.
BMC Med Imaging ; 24(1): 69, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MRI has been widely used to predict the preoperative proliferative potential of pituitary adenoma (PA). However, the relationship between the cyst/tumor volume ratio (C/T ratio) and the proliferative potential of PA has not been reported. Herein, we determined the predictive value of the C/T ratio of PA for tumor cell proliferation. METHODS: The clinical data of 72 patients with PA and cystic change on MRI were retrospectively analyzed. PA volume, cyst volume, and C/T ratio were calculated. The corresponding intraoperative specimens were collected. Immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin-eosin staining were performed to evaluate the Ki67 index and nuclear atypia. Patients were categorized according to the Ki67 index (< 3% and ≥ 3%) and nuclear atypia (absence and presence). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of the Ki67 index and nuclear atypia. The receiver operating characteristic curve assessed the prediction ability of the significant predictors. RESULTS: Larger tumor volumes, smaller cyst volumes, and lower C/T ratios were found in patients with higher Ki67 indexes and those with nuclear atypia (P < 0.05). C/T ratio was an independent predictor of the Ki67 index (odds ratio = 0.010, 95% confidence interval = 0.000-0.462) and nuclear atypia (odds ratio = 0.010, 95% confidence interval = 0.000-0.250). The predictive value of the C/T ratio did not differ significantly from that of tumor volume (P > 0.05) but was better than that of cyst volume (P < 0.05). The area under the curve of the C/T ratio for predicting the Ki67 index and nuclear atypia was larger than that for predicting cyst volume and tumor volume. CONCLUSIONS: C/T ratios can be used to predict PA tumor proliferation preoperatively. Our findings may facilitate the selection of surgery timing and the efficacy evaluation of surgery.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Cistos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/cirurgia , Proliferação de Células
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