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2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1327, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351088

RESUMO

Inflammation, caused by accumulation of inflammatory cytokines from immunocytes, is prevalent in a variety of diseases. Electro-stimulation emerges as a promising candidate for inflammatory inhibition. Although electroacupuncture is free from surgical injury, it faces the challenges of imprecise pathways/current spikes, and insufficiently defined mechanisms, while non-optimal pathway or spike would require high current amplitude, which makes electro-stimulation usually accompanied by damage and complications. Here, we propose a neuromorphic electro-stimulation based on atomically thin semiconductor floating-gate memory interdigital circuit. Direct stimulation is achieved by wrapping sympathetic chain with flexible electrodes and floating-gate memory are programmable to fire bionic spikes, thus minimizing nerve damage. A substantial decrease (73.5%) in inflammatory cytokine IL-6 occurred, which also enabled better efficacy than commercial stimulator at record-low currents with damage-free to sympathetic neurons. Additionally, using transgenic mice, the anti-inflammation effect is determined by ß2 adrenergic signaling from myeloid cell lineage (monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes).


Assuntos
Citocinas , Inflamação , Camundongos , Animais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Adrenérgicos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo
3.
Cells ; 13(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334654

RESUMO

Noradrenaline and adrenaline, and their cognate receptors, are currently accepted to participate in cancer progression. They may also participate in cancer initiation, although their role in this phase is much less explored. The aim of this work was to study the influence of adrenergic stimulation in several processes related to breast cancer carcinogenesis, using several adrenergic agonists in the MCF-10A non-tumorigenic breast cells. Activation of the ß-adrenoceptors promoted an epithelial phenotype in MCF-10A cells, revealed by an increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and a decrease in the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and vimentin. MCF-10A cell motility and migration were also impaired after the ß-adrenoceptors activation. Concomitant with this effect, ß-adrenoceptors decrease cell protrusions (lamellipodia and filopodia) while increasing cell adhesion. Activation of the ß-adrenoceptors also decreases MCF-10A cell proliferation. When the MCF-10A cells were cultured under low attachment conditions, activation the of ß- (likely ß2) or of α2-adrenoceptors had protective effects against cell death, suggesting a pro-survival role of these adrenoceptors. Overall, our results showed that, in breast cells, adrenoceptor activation (mainly through ß-adrenoceptors) may be a risk factor in breast cancer by inducing some cancer hallmarks, providing a mechanistic explanation for the increase in breast cancer incidences that may be associated with conditions that cause massive adrenergic stimulation, such as stress.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396978

RESUMO

The core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are due to the hypofunction of the brain's adrenergic (NE) and dopamine (DA) systems. Drugs that enhance DA and NE neurotransmission in the brain by blocking their transporters or receptors are the current therapeutic strategies. Of late, the emerging results point out the serotonergic (5-HT) system, which indirectly modulates the DA activity in reducing the core symptoms of ADHD. On this basis, second-generation antipsychotics, which utilize 5-HT receptors, were prescribed to children with ADHD. However, it is not clear how serotonergic receptors modulate the DA activity to minimize the symptoms of ADHD. The present study investigates the efficacy of serotonergic and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor manipulation in tackling the core symptoms of ADHD and how it affects the DA neuroreceptors in the brain regions involved in ADHD. Fifteen-day-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) received 5-HT1A agonist (ipsapirone) or 5-HT2A antagonist (MDL 100907) (i.p.) or alpha-2 agonist (GFC) from postnatal days 15 to 42 along with age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) (n = 8 in each group). ADHD-like behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests during postnatal days 44 to 65. After the behavioral tests, rat brains were processed to estimate the density of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, DA-D1, and DA-D2 neuroreceptors in the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the substantia nigra. All three neuroreceptor manipulations were able to minimize the core symptoms of ADHD in SHRs. The positive effect was mainly associated with the upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors in all three areas investigated, while 5-HT1A was in the prefrontal cortex and the substantia nigra. Further, the DA-D1 receptor expression was downregulated by all three neuroreceptor manipulations except for alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists in the striatum and 5-HT2A antagonists in the substantia nigra. The DA-D2 expression was upregulated in the striatum while downregulated in the prefrontal cortex and the substantia nigra. In this animal model study, the 5-HT1A agonist or 5-HT2A antagonist monotherapies were able to curtail the ADHD symptoms by differential expression of DA receptors in different regions of the brain.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Criança , Masculino , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Adrenérgicos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Dopamina/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
5.
Pflugers Arch ; 476(3): 407-421, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253680

RESUMO

25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC) is a biologically active oxysterol, whose production greatly increases during inflammation by macrophages and dendritic cells. The inflammatory reactions are frequently accompanied by changes in heart regulation, such as blunting of the cardiac ß-adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling. Here, the mechanism of 25HC-dependent modulation of responses to ß-AR activation was studied in the atria of mice. 25HC at the submicromolar levels decreased the ß-AR-mediated positive inotropic effect and enhancement of the Ca2+ transient amplitude, without changing NO production. Positive inotropic responses to ß1-AR (but not ß2-AR) activation were markedly attenuated by 25HC. The depressant action of 25HC on the ß1-AR-mediated responses was prevented by selective ß3-AR antagonists as well as inhibitors of Gi protein, Gßγ, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2/3, or ß-arrestin. Simultaneously, blockers of protein kinase D and C as well as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor did not preclude the negative action of 25HC on the inotropic response to ß-AR activation. Thus, 25HC can suppress the ß1-AR-dependent effects via engaging ß3-AR, Gi protein, Gßγ, G protein-coupled receptor kinase, and ß-arrestin. This 25HC-dependent mechanism can contribute to the inflammatory-related alterations in the atrial ß-adrenergic signaling.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos , Átrios do Coração , Hidroxicolesteróis , Camundongos , Animais , Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , beta-Arrestinas/metabolismo , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia
6.
Chemistry ; 30(11): e202303506, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212242

RESUMO

ß2 -adrenergic receptor (ß2 -AR) agonists are used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but also play a role in other complex disorders including cancer, diabetes and heart diseases. As the cellular and molecular mechanisms in various cells and tissues of the ß2 -AR remain vastly elusive, we developed tools for this investigation with high temporal and spatial resolution. Several photoswitchable ß2 -AR agonists with nanomolar activity were synthesized. The most potent agonist for ß2 -AR with reasonable switching is a one-digit nanomolar active, trans-on arylazopyrazole-based adrenaline derivative and comprises valuable photopharmacological properties for further biological studies with high structural accordance to the native ligand adrenaline.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2 , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Sondas Moleculares , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/química , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Hypertension ; 81(3): 595-603, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38152977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenaline-producing tumors are mostly characterized by a sudden release of catecholamines with episodic symptoms. Noradrenergic ones are usually less symptomatic and characterized by a continuous overproduction of catecholamines that are released into the bloodstream. Their effects on the cardiovascular system can thus be different. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular complications by catecholamine phenotype. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on the prevalence of cardiovascular events in 341 consecutive patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma treated from 1995 to 2023. Biochemical catecholamine phenotype was determined based on plasma or urinary catecholamines and metanephrines. RESULTS: According to the phenotype, 153 patients had noradrenergic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma and 188 had adrenergic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. In the whole sample, the incidence of serious cardiovascular complications was 28% (95 patients), with no difference between the phenotypes or sexes. The noradrenergic phenotype had significantly more atherosclerotic complications (composite end point of type 1 myocardial infarction and symptomatic peripheral artery disease; odds ratio, 3.58 [95% CI, 1.59-8.83]; P=0.003), while the adrenergic phenotype more often had type 2 myocardial infarction and takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy (OR, 0.24 [95% CI, 0.09-0.57]; P=0.002). These changes remained even after adjustment for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found a 28% incidence of cardiovascular complications in a consecutive group of patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Patients presenting with a noradrenergic phenotype have a higher incidence of atherosclerotic complications, while the adrenergic phenotype is associated with a higher incidence of acute myocardial damage due to takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Aterosclerose , Cardiomiopatias , Infarto do Miocárdio , Paraganglioma , Feocromocitoma , Humanos , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Paraganglioma/complicações , Catecolaminas , Metanefrina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adrenérgicos , Fenótipo , Aterosclerose/complicações
8.
Mol Metab ; 79: 101855, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Retinol saturase (RetSat) is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized oxidoreductase highly expressed in organs involved in lipid metabolism such as white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Cold exposure was shown to increase RETSAT protein in BAT but its relevance for non-shivering thermogenesis, a process with beneficial effects on metabolic health, is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the regulation of RetSat expression in white and brown adipocytes and different murine adipose tissue depots upon ß-adrenergic stimulation and cold exposure. RetSat function during the differentiation and ß-adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes was dissected by loss-of-function experiments. Mice with BAT-specific deletion of RetSat were generated and exposed to cold. Gene expression in human WAT was analyzed and the effect of RetSat depletion on adipocyte lipolysis investigated. RESULTS: We show that cold exposure induces RetSat expression in both WAT and BAT of mice via ß-adrenergic signaling. In brown adipocytes, RetSat has minor effects on differentiation but is required for maximal thermogenic gene and protein expression upon ß-adrenergic stimulation and mitochondrial respiration. In mice, BAT-specific deletion of RetSat impaired acute but not long-term adaptation to cold exposure. RetSat expression in subcutaneous WAT of humans correlates with the expression of genes related to mitochondrial function. Mechanistically, we found that RetSat depletion impaired ß-agonist-induced lipolysis, a major regulator of thermogenic gene expression in adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, RetSat expression is under ß-adrenergic control and determines thermogenic capacity of brown adipocytes and acute cold tolerance in mice. Modulating RetSat activity may allow for therapeutic interventions towards pathologies with inadequate metabolic activity.


Assuntos
Lipólise , Vitamina A , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
9.
J Med Chem ; 67(1): 603-619, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38156970

RESUMO

While there are approved therapeutics to treat opioid overdoses, the need for treatments to reverse overdoses due to ultrapotent fentanyls remains unmet. This may be due in part to an adrenergic mechanism of fentanyls in addition to their stereotypical mu-opioid receptor (MOR) effects. Herein, we report our efforts to further understanding of the functions these distinct mechanisms impart. Employing the known MOR neutral antagonist phenylfentanil as a lead, 17 analogues were designed based on the concept of isosteric replacement. To probe mechanisms of action, these analogues were pharmacologically evaluated in vitro and in vivo, while in silico modeling studies were also conducted on phenylfentanil. While it did not indicate MOR involvement in vivo, phenylfentanil yielded respiratory minute volumes similar to those caused by fentanyl. Taken together with molecular modeling studies, these results indicated that respiratory effects of fentanyls may also correlate to inhibition of both α1A- and α1B-adrenergic receptors.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos , Fentanila , Fentanila/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides mu , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia
10.
Ter Arkh ; 95(9): 757-762, 2023 Nov 03.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158918

RESUMO

AIM: To study the initial state of adrenergic reactivity and the five-year dynamics of the beta-adrenergic reactivity index of erythrocyte membranes and the manifestation of the antihypertensive effect of the procedure for radiofrequency destruction of sympathetic structures of the renal artery in patients with resistant arterial hypertension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The analysis included 42 patients with resistant arterial hypertension (RH). The renal denervation (RD) procedure of the kidneys was performed by endovascular bilateral transcatheter radiofrequency ablation of the renal arteries. The study of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (BPM) and the determination of ß-adrenoreactivity of erythrocytes (ß-ARM) by changes in the osmoresistance of erythrocyte membranes were performed initially, 1 week, 6 months, 1, 2, 3 and 5 years after RD. Patients retrospectively, at a follow-up period of 6 months after RD, were divided into responders (decrease in blood pressure by 10 or more mm Hg) and non-responders (decrease in blood pressure less than 10 mm Hg). RESULTS: 6 months after the RD, the number of responders was 28 people (66.7%), after 5 years - 31 people (73.8%). At the time of inclusion in the study, the median ß-ARM in the group of non-responders was not significantly higher than in the group of responders. After 6 months after the RD procedure, the ß-ARM indicator in the non-responder group was significantly lower than in the responder group (p = 0.043). With further follow-up in the group of responders, an increase in the median ß-ARM was noted, which reached significant differences relative to the baseline values in the group at follow-up periods of 1 year (p = 0.036) and 5 years (p = 0.004) after RD. The change in the ß-ARM indicator in the non-responder group was wavy in nature, the changes did not reach the significance criteria. CONCLUSION: Renal denervation in 73.8% of cases is accompanied by a stable antihypertensive response for 5 years of observation and an increase in ß-ARM, which may indicate the implementation of compensatory mechanisms in conditions of increasing activity of the sympathoadrenal system in response to a decrease in blood pressure.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Hipertensão , Humanos , Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Adrenérgicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/cirurgia , Simpatectomia/métodos , Rim , Pressão Sanguínea , Membrana Eritrocítica
11.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 53(6): 102915, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37926016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of substituting electrochemical skin conductance measurement using SUDOSCAN for sudomotor function testing in the Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) and to correlate the results with the Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale 31 (COMPASS 31) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Fifty patients with T2DM underwent cardiovascular autonomic function testing and the SUDOSCAN test and completed the COMPASS 31 questionnaire. We developed a SUDOSCAN-based sudomotor subscore as a substitute for the original sudomotor subscore (based on the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]). The modified CASS score (SUDOSCAN-based sudomotor subscore combined with the adrenergic and cardiovagal subscores) and the original CASS score without suomotor assessment (sum of the adrenergic and cardiovagal subscores) were obtained according to the results of the cardiovascular autonomic function and SUDOSCAN tests. RESULTS: The total COMPASS 31 score was significantly correlated with the modified CASS score (p = 0.019 and 0.037 for the raw and weighted scores, respectively) but not with the CASS score without sudomotor assessment. After adding the SUDOSCAN-based sudomotor subscore, the number of patients identified as having diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) increased from 24 (48 %, based on the CASS score without sudomotor assessment) to 35 (70 %, based on the modified CASS score). The modified CASS score enhances the accuracy of assessing autonomic function and improves the diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) among patients with T2DM. In medical settings where QSART is not accessible, SUDOSCAN testing offers a practical and efficient alternative.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Axônios , Reflexo , Adrenérgicos
12.
J Neuroinflammation ; 20(1): 255, 2023 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37941007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric glia contribute to the pathophysiology of various intestinal immune-driven diseases, such as postoperative ileus (POI), a motility disorder and common complication after abdominal surgery. Enteric gliosis of the intestinal muscularis externa (ME) has been identified as part of POI development. However, the glia-restricted responses and activation mechanisms are poorly understood. The sympathetic nervous system becomes rapidly activated by abdominal surgery. It modulates intestinal immunity, innervates all intestinal layers, and directly interfaces with enteric glia. We hypothesized that sympathetic innervation controls enteric glia reactivity in response to surgical trauma. METHODS: Sox10iCreERT2/Rpl22HA/+ mice were subjected to a mouse model of laparotomy or intestinal manipulation to induce POI. Histological, protein, and transcriptomic analyses were performed to analyze glia-specific responses. Interactions between the sympathetic nervous system and enteric glia were studied in mice chemically depleted of TH+ sympathetic neurons and glial-restricted Sox10iCreERT2/JellyOPfl/+/Rpl22HA/+ mice, allowing optogenetic stimulation of ß-adrenergic downstream signaling and glial-specific transcriptome analyses. A laparotomy model was used to study the effect of sympathetic signaling on enteric glia in the absence of intestinal manipulation. Mechanistic studies included adrenergic receptor expression profiling in vivo and in vitro and adrenergic agonism treatments of primary enteric glial cell cultures to elucidate the role of sympathetic signaling in acute enteric gliosis and POI. RESULTS: With ~ 4000 differentially expressed genes, the most substantial enteric glia response occurs early after intestinal manipulation. During POI, enteric glia switch into a reactive state and continuously shape their microenvironment by releasing inflammatory and migratory factors. Sympathetic denervation reduced the inflammatory response of enteric glia in the early postoperative phase. Optogenetic and pharmacological stimulation of ß-adrenergic downstream signaling triggered enteric glial reactivity. Finally, distinct adrenergic agonists revealed ß-1/2 adrenoceptors as the molecular targets of sympathetic-driven enteric glial reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Enteric glia act as early responders during post-traumatic intestinal injury and inflammation. Intact sympathetic innervation and active ß-adrenergic receptor signaling in enteric glia is a trigger of the immediate glial postoperative inflammatory response. With immune-activating cues originating from the sympathetic nervous system as early as the initial surgical incision, adrenergic signaling in enteric glia presents a promising target for preventing POI development.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Gliose , Animais , Camundongos , Adrenérgicos , Neuroglia , Transdução de Sinais , Sistema Nervoso Simpático
13.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6602, 2023 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37857606

RESUMO

Norepinephrine (NE) is a well-known appetite regulator, and the nor/adrenergic system is targeted by several anti-obesity drugs. To better understand the circuitry underlying adrenergic appetite control, here we investigated the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), a key brain region that integrates energy signals and receives dense nor/adrenergic input, using a mouse model. We found that PVN NE level increases with signals of energy deficit and decreases with food access. This pattern is recapitulated by the innervating catecholaminergic axon terminals originating from NTSTH-neurons. Optogenetic activation of rostral-NTSTH → PVN projection elicited strong motivation to eat comparable to overnight fasting whereas its inhibition attenuated both fasting-induced & hypoglycemic feeding. We found that NTSTH-axons functionally targeted PVNMC4R-neurons by predominantly inhibiting them, in part, through α1-AR mediated potentiation of GABA release from ARCAgRP presynaptic terminals. Furthermore, glucoprivation suppressed PVNMC4R activity, which was required for hypoglycemic feeding response. These results define an ascending nor/adrenergic circuit, NTSTH → PVNMC4R, that conveys peripheral hunger signals to melanocortin pathway.


Assuntos
Fome , Melanocortinas , Melanocortinas/metabolismo , Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Apetite , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo
14.
Dev Cell ; 58(22): 2460-2476.e7, 2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875117

RESUMO

The autonomic nervous system plays a pivotal role in cardiac repair. Here, we describe the mechanistic underpinning of adrenergic signaling in fibrotic and regenerative response of the heart to be dependent on immunomodulation. A pharmacological approach identified adrenergic receptor alpha-1 as a key regulator of macrophage phenotypic diversification following myocardial damage in zebrafish. Genetic manipulation and single-cell transcriptomics showed that the receptor signals activation of an "extracellular matrix remodeling" transcriptional program in a macrophage subset, which serves as a key regulator of matrix composition and turnover. Mechanistically, adrenergic receptor alpha-1-activated macrophages determine activation of collagen-12-expressing fibroblasts, a cellular determinant of cardiac regenerative niche, through midkine-mediated paracrine crosstalk, allowing lymphatic and blood vessel growth and cardiomyocyte proliferation at the lesion site. These findings identify the mechanism of adrenergic signaling in macrophage phenotypic and functional determination and highlight the potential of neural modulation for regulation of fibrosis and coordination of myocardial regenerative response.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Miocárdio/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Fibrose , Fibroblastos/patologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 18287, 2023 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37880253

RESUMO

Moderate cold acclimation (MCA) is a non-invasive intervention mitigating effects of various pathological conditions including myocardial infarction. We aim to determine the shortest cardioprotective regimen of MCA and the response of ß1/2/3-adrenoceptors (ß-AR), its downstream signaling, and inflammatory status, which play a role in cell-survival during myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar rats were acclimated (9 °C, 1-3-10 days). Infarct size, echocardiography, western blotting, ELISA, mitochondrial respirometry, receptor binding assay, and quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy were carried out on left ventricular myocardium and brown adipose tissue (BAT). MultiPlex analysis of cytokines and chemokines in serum was accomplished. We found that short-term MCA reduced myocardial infarction, improved resistance of mitochondria to Ca2+-overload, and downregulated ß1-ARs. The ß2-ARs/protein kinase B/Akt were attenuated while ß3-ARs translocated on the T-tubular system suggesting its activation. Protein kinase G (PKG) translocated to sarcoplasmic reticulum and phosphorylation of AMPKThr172 increased after 10 days. Principal component analysis revealed a significant shift in cytokine/chemokine serum levels on day 10 of acclimation, which corresponds to maturation of BAT. In conclusion, short-term MCA increases heart resilience to ischemia without any negative side effects such as hypertension or hypertrophy. Cold-elicited cardioprotection is accompanied by ß1/2-AR desensitization, activation of the ß3-AR/PKG/AMPK pathways, and an immunomodulatory effect.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia
16.
J Exp Biol ; 226(19)2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37823524

RESUMO

Adrenaline and noradrenaline, released as hormones and/or neurotransmitters, exert diverse physiological functions in vertebrates, and teleost fishes are widely used as model organisms to study adrenergic regulation; however, such investigations often rely on receptor subtype-specific pharmacological agents (agonists and antagonists; see Glossary) developed and validated in mammals. Meanwhile, evolutionary (phylogenetic and comparative genomic) studies have begun to unravel the diversification of adrenergic receptors (ARs) and reveal that whole-genome duplications and pseudogenization events in fishes results in notable distinctions from mammals in their genomic repertoire of ARs, while lineage-specific gene losses within teleosts have generated significant interspecific variability. In this Review, we visit the evolutionary history of ARs (including α1-, α2- and ß-ARs) to highlight the prominent interspecific differences in teleosts, as well as between teleosts and other vertebrates. We also show that structural modelling of teleost ARs predicts differences in ligand binding affinity compared with mammalian orthologs. To emphasize the difficulty of studying the roles of different AR subtypes in fish, we collate examples from the literature of fish ARs behaving atypically compared with standard mammalian pharmacology. Thereafter, we focus on specific case studies of the liver, heart and red blood cells, where our understanding of AR expression has benefited from combining pharmacological approaches with molecular genetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the ongoing advances in 'omics' technologies that, alongside classical pharmacology, will provide abundant opportunities to further explore adrenergic signalling in teleosts.


Assuntos
Peixes , Vertebrados , Animais , Filogenia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Adrenérgicos , Evolução Molecular
17.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0292015, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37733758

RESUMO

The beta-adrenergic system is a potent stimulus for enhancing cardiac output that may become deleterious when energy metabolism is compromised as in heart failure. We thus examined whether the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is activated in response to energy depletion may control the beta-adrenergic pathway. We studied the cardiac response to beta-adrenergic stimulation of AMPKα2-/- mice or to pharmacological AMPK activation on contractile function, calcium current, cAMP content and expression of adenylyl cyclase 5 (AC5), a rate limiting step of the beta-adrenergic pathway. In AMPKα2-/- mice the expression of AC5 (+50%), the dose response curve of left ventricular developed pressure to isoprenaline (p<0.001) or the response to forskolin, an activator of AC (+25%), were significantly increased compared to WT heart. Similarly, the response of L-type calcium current to 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor was significantly higher in KO (+98%, p<0.01) than WT (+57%) isolated cardiomyocytes. Conversely, pharmacological activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) induced a 45% decrease in AC5 expression (p<0.001) and a 40% decrease of cAMP content (P<0.001) as measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) compared to unstimulated rat cardiomyocytes. Finally, in experimental pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, AMPK activation was associated with a decreased expression of AC5 that was blunted in AMPKα2-/- mice. The results show that AMPK activation down-regulates AC5 expression and blunts the beta-adrenergic cascade. This crosstalk between AMPK and beta-adrenergic pathways may participate in a compensatory energy sparing mechanism in dysfunctional myocardium.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Cálcio , Miócitos Cardíacos , Adrenérgicos , Cálcio da Dieta
18.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 11(5): e01134, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37715323

RESUMO

Drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS) and Torsades de Pointes (TdP) are serious concerns in drug development. Although rats are a useful scientific tool, their hearts, unlike larger species, usually do not respond to torsadogenic drugs. Consequently, their resistance to drug-induced arrhythmias is poorly understood. Here, we challenged rats with rapid delayed rectifier current (Ikr)-inhibiting antibiotic clarithromycin (CLA), loop diuretic furosemide (FUR) or their combination (CLA + FUR), and examined functional and molecular abnormalities after stimulation with isoproterenol. Clarithromycin and furosemide were administered orally at 12-h intervals for 7 days. To evaluate electrical instability, electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded either in vivo or ex vivo using the Langendorff-perfused heart method under basal conditions and subsequently under beta-adrenergic stimulation. Gene expression was measured using real-time quantitative PCR in left ventricular tissue. Indeed, FUR and CLA + FUR rats exhibited hypokalemia. CLA and CLA + FUR treatment resulted in drug-induced LQTS and even an episode of TdP in one CLA + FUR rat. The combined treatment dysregulated gene expression of several ion channels subunits, including KCNQ1, calcium channels and Na+/K + -ATPase subunits, while both monotherapies had no impact. The rat with recorded TdP exhibited differences in the expression of ion channel genes compared to the rest of rats within the CLA + FUR group. The ECG changes were not detected in isolated perfused hearts. Hence, we report rapid orchestration of ion channel reprogramming of hearts with QT prolongation induced by simultaneous administration of clarithromycin and furosemide in rats, which may account for their ability to avoid arrhythmias triggered by beta-adrenergic stimulation.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos , Síndrome do QT Longo , Animais , Ratos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Claritromicina , Furosemida , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Canais de Cálcio , RNA Mensageiro , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA
19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 958: 176045, 2023 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37708986

RESUMO

It was suggested that impaired ß-adrenergic relaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) might contribute to their high blood pressure (BP). Our study was focused on isoprenaline-induced dilatation of conduit femoral or resistance mesenteric arteries and on isoprenaline-induced BP reduction in SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). We confirmed decreased ß-adrenergic relaxation of SHR femoral arteries due to the absence of its endothelium-independent component, whereas endothelium-dependent component of ß-adrenergic smooth muscle relaxation was similar in both strains. Conversely, isoprenaline-induced relaxation of resistance mesenteric arteries was similar in both strains and this was true for endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent components. We observed moderately reduced sensitivity of SHR mesenteric arteries to salmeterol (ß2-adrenergic agonist) and this strain difference disappeared after endothelium removal. However, there was no difference in mesenteric arteries relaxation by dobutamine (ß1-adrenergic agonist) which was independent of endothelium. The increasing isoprenaline doses elicited similar BP decrease in both rat strains, although BP sensitivity to isoprenaline was slightly decreased in SHR. The blockade of cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) and NO synthase (L-NAME) further reduced BP sensitivity to isoprenaline in SHR. On the other hand, salmeterol elicited similar BP decrease in both strains and the blockade of cyclooxygenase and NO synthase increased BP sensitivity to salmeterol in SHR as compared to WKY. In conclusion, attenuated ß-adrenergic vasodilatation of conduit arteries of SHR but similar ß-adrenergic relaxation of resistance mesenteric arteries from WKY and SHR and their similar BP response to ß-adrenergic agonists do not support major role of altered ß-adrenergic vasodilatation for high BP in genetic hypertension.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos , Hipertensão , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases , Artérias Mesentéricas , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase , Xinafoato de Salmeterol , Endotélio Vascular , Resistência Vascular
20.
J Hypertens ; 41(11): 1675-1687, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37694528

RESUMO

Maternal cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and cardiac conditions, are associated with poor fetal outcomes. A range of adrenergic antihypertensive and cardioprotective medications are often prescribed to pregnant women to reduce major maternal complications during pregnancy. Although these treatments are not considered teratogenic, they may have detrimental effects on fetal growth and development, as they cross the fetoplacental barrier, and may contribute to placental vascular dysregulation. Medication risk assessment sheets do not include specific advice to clinicians and women regarding the safety of these therapies for use in pregnancy and the potential off-target effects of adrenergic medications on fetal growth have not been rigorously conducted. Little is known of their effects on the fetoplacental vasculature. There is also a dearth of knowledge on adrenergic receptor activation and signalling within the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells of the human placenta, a vital organ in the maintenance of adequate blood flow to satisfy fetal growth and development. The fetoplacental circulation, absent of sympathetic innervation, and unique in its reliance on endocrine, paracrine and autocrine influence in the regulation of vascular tone, appears vulnerable to dysregulation by adrenergic antihypertensive and cardioprotective medications compared with the adult peripheral circulation. This semi-systematic review focuses on fetoplacental vascular expression of adrenergic receptors, associated cell signalling mechanisms and predictive consequences of receptor activation/deactivation by antihypertensive and cardioprotective medications.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Placenta , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feto , Placenta/metabolismo , Circulação Placentária/fisiologia
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