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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130570, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311238

RESUMO

Umami and aroma are important flavor qualities of edible mushrooms, and packaging can maintain or improve the flavor during storage. This study explored the effects of light-proof packaging (LPP), light-transparent packaging (LTP), vacuum light-proof packaging (VLPP), and vacuum light-transparent packaging (VLTP) on umami taste and aroma of dried Suillus granulatus. Monosodium glutamate-like amino acid content, equivalent umami concentration, and electronic tongue umami sensory scores in VLTP were higher at 2, 4, and 6 months and higher in LTP at 8 and 10 months. Principal component analysis of aroma components showed that the comprehensive scores were higher for the transparent packaging. Ketones and pyrazines were more abundant in transparent packaging. Flavor quality was better at 4-6 months, based on the equivalent umami concentration and the concentration of eight-carbon compounds that contribute to aroma. Transparent packaging is a promising way to optimize the flavor of dried Suillus granulatus.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Paladar , Basidiomycota , Aromatizantes/análise , Odorantes/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130670, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359008

RESUMO

Seven species of forest mushrooms from different regions of Poland (edible: Imleria badia, Cantharellus cibarius, Xerocomus subtomentosus, Suillus luteus and inedible by humans but being food for animals: Paxillus involutus, Tylopilus felleus and Russula emetica) were analyzed for radioisotope activity (Cs-137, K-40, Bi-214 and Pb-210) as well as concentrations of heavy metals (aluminum, chromium, cadmium, manganese, iron, lead, zinc, copper, nickel and mercury). The activity of radioisotopes was measured with a gamma spectrometer, while the concentrations of heavy metals were examined by microwave plasma - atomic emission spectrometry. The obtained results of the analyses were compared with the recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority concerning the consumption of the determined heavy metals and the European standards concerning the content of radioisotopes in food. The obtained results proved that the consumption of mushrooms may result in a significant exceeding of the consumption limits of cadmium, copper and Cs-137.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Metais Pesados , Basidiomycota , Cádmio , Radioisótopos de Césio , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130772, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399182

RESUMO

Macrolepiota albuminosa (Berk.) Pegler is abundant in active polysaccharides, but little is known about their structures and solution properties. In this study, water-extracted polysaccharides from M. albuminosa (MAWP) were purified into three fractions with structural heterogeneity, which was attributed to the diversity in molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and linkage patterns, further affecting their solution properties. Methylation and NMR analysis revealed MAWP-60p and MAWP-70 were a 3-O-methylated glucomannogalactan and a previously unreported glucomannogalactan, whereas MAWP-80 was elucidated as a branched galactoglucan. Besides, three fractions exhibited random coil conformation in aqueous solution, while MAWP-60p had the highest viscosity due to its highest molecular weight, mean square radius of gyration (Rg) and O-methyl group attached to the backbone. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages might be the major contributors to the flexibility, molecular size and stereochemistry of mushroom polysaccharide chains.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Polissacarídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos , Viscosidade
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149829, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464794

RESUMO

A considerable amount of data has been published on the accumulation of radiocaesium (134Cs and particularly, 137Cs) in wild fungi since the first anthropogenically influenced releases into the environment due to nuclear weapon testing, usage and subsequently from major accidents at nuclear power plants in Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). Wild fungi are particularly susceptible to accumulation of radiocaesium and contamination persists for decades after pollution events. Macromycetes (fruiting bodies, popularly called mushrooms) of the edible fungal species are an important part of the human and forest animal food-webs in many global locations. This review discusses published occurrences of 134Cs and 137Cs in twenty four species of Tricholoma mushrooms sourced from the Northern Hemisphere over the last five decades, but also includes some recent data from Italy and Poland. Tricholoma are an ectomycorrhizal species and the interval for contamination to permeate to lower soils layers which host their mycelial networks, results in a delayed manifestation of radioactivity. Available data from Poland, over similar periods, may suggest species selective differences in accumulation, with some fruiting bodies, e.g. T. portentosum, showing lower activity levels relative to others, e.g. T. equestre. Species like T. album, T. sulphurescens and T. terreum also show higher accumulation of radiocaesium, but reported observations are few. The uneven spatial distribution of the data combined with a limited number of observations make it difficult to decipher any temporal contamination patterns from the observations in Polish regions. When data from other European sites is included, a similar variability of 137Cs activity is apparent but the more recent Ukrainian data appears to show relatively lower activities. 40K activity in mushrooms which is associated with essential potassium, remains relatively constant. Further monitoring of 137Cs activity in wild mushrooms would help to consolidate these observations.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Micorrizas , Radioatividade , Tricholoma , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Humanos , Micorrizas/química , Polônia , Solo
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131477, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303046

RESUMO

Global solid waste is expected to increase by at least 70% annually until year 2050. The mixture of solid waste including food waste from food industry and domestic diaper waste in landfills is causing environmental and human health issues. Nevertheless, food and diaper waste containing high lignocellulose can easily degrade using lignocellulolytic enzymes thereby converted into energy for the development and growth of mushroom. Therefore, this study explores the potential of recycling biomass waste from coffee ground, banana, eggshell, tea waste, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust and diaper waste as raw material for Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) cultivation. Using 2% of diaper core with sawdust biowaste leading to the fastest 100% mushroom mycelium spreading completed in one month. The highest production yield is 71.45 g mushroom; this represents about 36% production biological efficiency compared to only 21% as in commercial substrate. The high mushroom substrate reduction of 73% reflect the valorisation of landfill waste. The metabolomics profiling showed that the Lingzhi mushroom produced is of high quality with a high content of triterpene being the bioactive compounds that are medically important for treating assorted disease and used as health supplement. In conclusion, our study proposed a potential resource management towards zero-waste and circular bioeconomy for high profitable mushroom cultivation.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Eliminação de Resíduos , Reishi , Biomassa , Alimentos , Humanos
6.
Food Chem ; 370: 131295, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788955

RESUMO

Browning seriously causes postharvest deterioration of the yellow cultivars of Flammulina filiformis, yet the browning process and its mechanism have not been described. Changes of L*, a*, b* values, the browning and whiteness index during air contacted storage were evaluated, uncovering the great loss of brightness and meanwhile the accumulation of yellowness and redness. Browning tissue showed an increase of malondialdehyde, total phenolics, and browning-related enzyme activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, in contrast to the decrease of bioprotective catalase, superoxide, and dismutase. Non-targeted metabolomics revealed an upregulation of melanin synthesis under oxidation stress, and targeted LC-MS/MS verified the upregulation of l-dopa (3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine) during browning. Pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid was identified in the degradation products of browning pigments after alkaline hydrogen peroxide by LC-MS/MS, suggesting the existence of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid derived units of eumelanin. Therefore, the biosynthesis of eumelanin via l-dopa pathway could participate in the enzymatic browning of postharvest F. filiformis.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Flammulina , Cromatografia Líquida , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Food Chem ; 370: 131019, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509152

RESUMO

Pleurotus is an edible mushroom from the well-known genus of Basidiomycetes; it is the second-most commonly consumed mushroom worldwide. This genus is characterized by the presence of steroids, fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Recently, Pleurotus has become popular as a functional food owing to its health benefits, primarily because they are a source of vitamins, fibers, minerals, and lipids. In natural products chemistry, dereplication techniques identify bioactive molecules from natural sources such as plants and fungi without isolating or characterizing molecules. We used dereplication techniques aided by the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Network to analyze the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts of six Pleurotus species (P. sapidus, P. ostreaus, P. ostreaus var. Florida, P. djamor, P. citrinopileatus, and P. pulmonarius), to identify bioactive molecules with nutraceutical properties. Using this technique, we identified several molecular families, including eight fatty acids and seven steroids. Our findings suggest that dereplication is a relatively rapid tool for characterizing fungal species and determining their nutraceutical value.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pleurotus , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Polissacarídeos
8.
Food Chem ; 370: 131022, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520973

RESUMO

Treatment and disposal of wineries and olive-oil mills waste is usually associated with complex processes, which are often of limited wide-scale applicability. Olive-leaves plus two-phase olive mill waste (OLW) or grape marc plus wheat straw (GMW) were assessed as substrates for the cultivation of the choice edible mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus. GMW led to increased mushroom biological efficiency and shorter production cycles. Antioxidant activities, triterpenic acids, free amino acids, lovastatin and ergosterol were significantly higher in fruitbodies from GMW; the latter compound was positively correlated with squalene concentrations in substrates. Glucans, resveratrol and fatty acids content showed minor differences among mushrooms from the three substrates examined, whereas ergothioneine was significantly higher in fruitbodies grown on OLW. High correlations were noted for oleanolic, ursolic and amino acid content in mushrooms and their respective substrates. Moreover, FTIR spectra revealed variations in fruitbodies content in bioactive compounds which were associated with the substrates used.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ergotioneína , Olea , Pleurotus
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 73-84, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mushroom possesses desirable aroma, taste, texture, health-promoting and disease-preventing dietary components, making it an ideal ingredient, especially for animal-based food substitution. Nevertheless, no study has replaced egg whites partially with mushrooms and investigated their sensory quality. This study aimed to investigate flavor impartment of mushroom on egg whites and the sensory quality of roasting and steaming egg whites replaced by white and crimini mushrooms at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively, using a panel trained with aroma chemical references for 31 sensory attributes with 0-10 line scales. RESULTS: Roasted and steamed egg whites possessed major sensory attributes of sulfury and egg-like aroma and flavor (intensities > 3). After mushroom topping was added, the dominant sensory attributes shifted to mushroom-based flavor characteristics, including mushroom-like, earthy, dark meat, roasted, hay, soybean, potato, woody, umami, bitter, astringent and firmness texture. Mushroom variety showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) impacts on egg white sensory quality, with crimini introducing more intense flavor. The higher the mushroom proportion with egg whites, the more intense was the flavor associated with mushroom. Mushroom could enhance egg-like flavor in multiple dimensions, including aroma, taste and texture, according to partial least square regression. CONCLUSION: White and crimini mushrooms enriched roasted and steamed egg white sensory quality with introduction of characteristic sensory attributes from mushrooms. Mushroom variety and proportion with egg whites displayed significant impacts on egg white sensory properties. The study contributed to understanding the impact of mushrooms on egg white sensory profile and served as a guide in incorporating mushroom in product development. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Clara de Ovo/química , Paladar , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Culinária , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Olfato
10.
Food Chem ; 369: 130927, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461517

RESUMO

Ergosterol (ES) and ergosterol peroxide (EP) are secondary metabolites common for different mushrooms and responsible for health promoting effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral activity, and reduction of the incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this study, a new method for determination of both ES and EP in mushroom extracts was developed. Two methods for UHPLC-MS/MS with the use of APCI and APPI sources were developed and compared. The UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method was found to be more effective and convenient for the analysis of both compounds in 21 edible and 9 medicinal mushrooms. Among the investigated mushrooms, M. procera was found to contain the highest level of ES, while G. dryophilus constituted the richest source of EP. Therefore, it can be suggested that mushrooms are a valuable source of ES and EP in everyday human diet and can be used for development of nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ergosterol/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Food Chem ; 371: 131372, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808772

RESUMO

To investigate antibacterial properties and application in food preservation of nanofibrous films (NFs), baicalin-liposomes (BCL-LPs) were loaded into polyvinyl alcohol-chitosan (PVA-CS) substrates to form NFs using electrospinning technology. The microstructure and phase identification of the NFs were characterized. The antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity of NFs were determined. The preservation of the NFs to mushrooms was evaluated. The results showed that smooth and uniform NFs were formed through molecular interaction between BCL-LPs and PVA-CS matrix. The NFs exhibited good antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus due to the bacterial destruction resulting from the BCL delivery to bacterial cells by liposomes. In addition, the NFs were compatible with L929 fibroblasts. The BCL-LPs/PVA-CS NFs inhibited weight loss, browning, rancidity and bacterial growth as well as maintained the nutrients of mushrooms. The results show BCL-LPs/PVA-CS NFs possessed effective antibacterial properties, non-cytotoxicity and preservation performance, indicating the potential utilization as food-active packing.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Quitosana , Nanofibras , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Lipossomos , Álcool de Polivinil
12.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132110, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523433

RESUMO

Agricultural soils are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that related with intensive fertilizer input. Biochar is widely used to mitigate GHGs, which may interact with soil water content impacting GHG emissions. Camellia oleifera fruit shell (FS) and spent mushroom substrate (MS) are ideal biochar feedstocks. However, the impact of water content and biochar on soil GHG emissions has not been thoroughly understood. Here, we examined CH4 and N2O emissions from C. oleifera plantation soils as affected by biochar (derived from MS or FS, 1 g 25 g-1 soil), water content (60%, 120%, 240% or 360% water holding capacity, WHC), and fertilization (control or chicken manure, CM 2.5 g 25 g-1 soil). We determined the abundance of related microbial functional genes to obtain the underlining mechanisms. The results showed that higher N2O emissions occurred in soils with 120%WHC, due to increased abundance of AOA, AOB and nirS. MS or FS biochar differed in their effects on soil GHG emissions with different WHC. MS biochar was higher in pH, C/N and specific surface area, and mitigated more N2O emissions from soils with CM and 120%WHC relative to FS biochar (by 92.9% and 34.6%, respectively). MS biochar significantly decreased abundance of nitrification related functional genes (AOA, AOB) in soils with 120%WHC and CM, which explained the decrease in N2O emissions. However, MS biochar increased cumulative CH4 emissions from flooded soils via increase in mcrA abundance. Thereby, biochar feedstocks should be considered in CH4 and N2O mitigations from soils with different water contents.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Camellia , Carvão Vegetal , Fertilização , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo , Água
13.
Ulster Med J ; 90(3): 168-174, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815596

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has now emerged as a major global public health problem. Certain bacterial pathogens, particularly Gram negative organisms associated with patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), have become resistant to several classes of antibiotics resulting in pan-resistance, which creates a clinical treatment dilemma. This study wished to explore the production of antibacterial extracellular metabolites from plant pathogenic fungi. Fungal Culture Extracts (FCEs) were prepared from 10 fungi (Armillaria gallica, Clitocybe nebularis, Fusarium coeruleum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium poae, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, Nectria fuckeliana, Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora ramorum, Postia placenta), which were tested for activity against the CF pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) (n=8), Burkholderia cenocepacia (n=2) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=2). In addition, FCE were assessed for their ability to alter antibiotic susceptibility in PA (n=8), with six antipseudomonal antibiotics (ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, tobramycin). None of the FCEs showed inhibitory activity to the 12 bacterial isolates tested, with the exception of the FCE from Postia placenta, which showed inhibition against all 12 bacteria. An antagonistic interaction was observed, where a statistically significant decrease in mean zone sizes was noted with Armillaria gallica (p=0.03) and Phytophthora infestans (p=0.03) FCEs and their interaction with the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. Given the increase in clinical morbidity and mortality associated with chronic lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, coupled with the difficulty in treating such chronic infection due to overwhelming antimicrobial resistance, any novel substance showing inhibition of these organisms merits further investigation as a potential future antimicrobial agent, with potential clinical therapeutic application.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Burkholderia cenocepacia , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Agaricales , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Armillaria , Ascomicetos , Fungos , Fusarium , Humanos , Hypocreales , Polyporales , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
14.
Zootaxa ; 5071(2): 296-298, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810665

RESUMO

The shining fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scaphidiinae) comprise more than 1800 described species, which are usually small (≅0.8414.30 mm long) (Tang et al. 2014 ; Lbl Ogawa 2016) and found on bracket and resupinate fungi, mushrooms and slime molds (Newton 1984; Lbl Leschen 2003; Lbl 2018). They are known to be diverse in forests of tropical and subtropical regions, which contrast to the low number of species currently known from Brazil: only 34 species and two subspecies from seven genera (Lbl 2018; von Groll Lopes-Andrade, 2021). Any active search for Scaphidiinae in the Brazilian Atlantic forest reveals a considerable abundance and diverse of these organisms (pers. obs.), but they disperse rapidly if disturbed, and the success of field collections relies on the collectors skills, luck and collecting techniques and devices. The most common methods and devices for collecting shinning fungus beetles are sifting leaf litter, rotten wood and fungi, flight intercept (FIT) and V-flight intercept (V-FIT) traps, aspirators, sweeping, and hand collecting (Lbl Leschen 2003; Tang et al. 2014; Lbl et al. 2021). Hand collecting is considered the best method, because the host fungi and larvae can be collected together to make associations (Lbl Leschen 2003).


Assuntos
Agaricales , Besouros , Animais , Florestas , Larva , Madeira
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11947-11959, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606258

RESUMO

An activity-guided fractionation approach applied to thermally treated, enzymatically hydrolyzed mushroom, Agaricus bisporus L., protein led to the identification of several saltiness- and kokumi-enhancing peptides. The identification was accomplished by employing a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE), gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), and semipreparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), coupled with sensory analysis. As a result, this study led to the identification of a collection of common mushroom derived tastants, including 5'-mononucleotides and free amino acids, along with several taste-modulating pyroglutamyl dipeptides, including pyroglutamylcysteine (pGlu-Cys), pyroglutamylvaline (pGlu-Val), pyroglutamylaspartic acid (pGlu-Asp), pyroglutamylglutamic acid (pGlu-Glu), and pyroglutamylproline (pGlu-Pro). The taste-modulating thresholds for the pyroglutamyl dipeptides were calculated in a model mushroom broth containing natural concentrations of guanosine 5'-monophosphate and 14 amino acids, all with dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors ≥1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to quantitate the pyroglutamyl dipeptides, and their concentrations ranged from 2 to 58 µmol/L; however, they were determined to be present in the hydrolysate below their individual taste-modulating thresholds. Despite being present below their individual thresholds, when the dipeptides were collectively added to a model mushroom broth at their natural concentrations (143 µmol/L combined), both salty (p = 0.0061) and kokumi (p = 0.0025) taste attributes were significantly enhanced, demonstrating a synergistic subthreshold taste-modulating effect. This study lays the groundwork for future investigations on the saltiness-enhancing potential of mixtures of subthreshold levels of pyroglutamyl dipeptides found in mushrooms and other sources.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Paladar , Agaricus , Cromatografia Líquida , Dipeptídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638946

RESUMO

Floccularia luteovirens is a rare wild edible and medicinal fungus endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this study, the hollow fiber membranes with molecular weights of 50 kDa, 6 kDa and 3 kDa were used to extract different fractions of F. luteovirens, which were named as #1, #2 and #3. Then the antitumor activity of these fractions on NSCLC cell lines, PC9 and NCI-H460, were investigated by using MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis and Western blot assay. The results indicated that the #2 and #3 fractions showed obviously inhibitory activities on PC9 and NCI-H460 tumor cells and proved that these small molecule fractions induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells by activating caspase-3. Finally, a total of 15 components, including six amino acids, two nucleosides, two glycosides, two terpenoids, one phenylpropanoid, one ester and one alkaloid, were identified in #2 and #3 fractions. This is the first evidence that the small molecule components of F. luteovirens were able to inhibit lung cancer by inducing apoptosis in a caspase-3 manner. The present study indicated the benefits of F. luteovirens in lung cancer treatment, which might be a potential resource of functional food and drugs.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
17.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(10): 1-7, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595887

RESUMO

Mushrooms can be used in culinary applications, as a source of antioxidants, and for many therapeutic purposes. Foods are a natural source of antioxidant compounds, molecules that can inhibit oxidation of other molecules through the removal of free radicals, and thus play an important role in the protection of an organism's health. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites widely present in vegetables and mushrooms. Some studies highlight the capacity of mushrooms to produce antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumoral substances. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity (with the ABTS, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods) and antimicrobial activity (disc diffusion method) of an Lentinula boryana isolate, using its mycelium as the primary material of study. The results showed that L. boryana has benefits such as antioxidant activity in medicinal and culinary uses.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Anti-Infecciosos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brasil , Lentinula
18.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(10): 9-21, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595888

RESUMO

Coprinus comatus is known for its antihyperglycemic benefits. This study aimed to identify the effect of bioactive compounds of C. comatus extract as an antidiabetic agent linked to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and antioxidant properties in increasing glutathione (GSH) levels. This study used six groups of Wistar rats (n = 24). Group 1 comprised the healthy control. Groups 2-6 received 45 mg of streptozotocin/kg body weight (BW) once. Group 3 was also given 45 mg of metformin/kg BW, whereas groups 4-6 were also given 250, 500, and 750 mg of C. comatus ethyl acetate extract/kg BW for 14 days. Antidiabetic effects of alkaloids and saponin were seen in blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) degradation, increased insulin, and increased inhibition of GLP-1 through dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity. Flavonoid antioxidants, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) are useful in protecting pancreatic в cells from free radicals. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test. C. comatus ethyl acetate extract at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg BW worked as an antidiabetic and antioxidant agent that contained flavonoids (16.4 mg/L), alkaloids (2.97 mg/L), saponin, rutin (351.13 ppm), vitamin C (132.342 mg/L), and vitamin E (102.320 g/L). The 250-mg dose was effective in increasing insulin (8.11 mlU/mL) and reducing blood glucose (23.92%) and HbA1c (3.775%), whereas the 500-mg dose was effective in increasing levels of GLP-1 (1056.923 ng/L) and GSH (4.62 µmol/L).


Assuntos
Agaricales , Coprinus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Glicemia , Hipoglicemiantes , Tinta , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
19.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(10): 23-34, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595889

RESUMO

For the first time, polysaccharide synthase activity was used as the cut-in condition in this study and the fermentation conditions of Coprinus comatus intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) were further optimized. The optimal conditions were 23.65 g/L of carbon source, 47.44 g/L of nitrogen source, and pH 5.73. C. comatus IPS was obtained under the optimal conditions and its antioxidant properties were evaluated. Next, in vitro proliferation and Lactobacillus rhamnosus acidifying activity were assessed. IPS had good antioxidant properties and could promote the growth and acid production of probiotics. The antioxidant properties and probiotic proliferation and acidifying activity of IPS were improved to a certain extent under the optimal conditions. Thus, our findings contribute to establishing a novel fermentation process that can produce IPS with better performance. Meanwhile, IPS has great application potential in medicine.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Coprinus , Probióticos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Tinta , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
20.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(10): 35-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595890

RESUMO

In this study, mycochemical screening was performed to estimate the in vitro biological activities and antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Russula aeruginea and R. brevipes. Crude extracts of these mushroom species were obtained by using maceration techniques. Qualitative mycochemical analysis showed the presence of a variety of secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts was assessed by using agar well diffusion methods against virulent bacterial and fungal strains. Ethanolic extract of R. brevipes displayed maximum antibacterial activity, with a 28.4 ± 0.953 mm zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis. Likewise, ethanolic extract of R. aeruginea exhibited enhanced antifungal activity, with a 24.6 ± 0.333 mm zone of inhibition against Fusarium equiseti. The antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extracts was assessed using five assays: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total phenolic content (TPC). The maximum percent inhibition for R. aeruginea was 87.069 ± 0.007 mg/mL on ABTS radicals. In contrast, the maximum percent inhibition for R. brevipes was 42.166% ± 0.023% and 0.571 ± 0.005 mmol/L of FeSO4 using the DPPH and FRAP methods, respectively. TFC was the same for both mushrooms (0.113 ± 0.002 mg/100 g of catechin), and the maximum TPC was 0.066 ± 0.00 mg/100 g of gallic acid equivalents. From these results, it was concluded that R. aeruginea and R. brevipes could be a source of new antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and may be useful for the development of novel drugs in the future.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Basidiomycota , Fusarium , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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