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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679803

RESUMO

Absolute measurement of radiant power in the X-ray region is essential for many applications in astrophysics, spectroscopy, and X-ray diagnostics. Comparison between different measuring methods is an effective way to check their reliability. In the present work, a comparison of X-ray radiant power absolute measurement between a free-air ionization chamber and a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer was performed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The absolute radiant power obtained by these two methods were mutually compared via a transfer standard detector's spectral responsivity at a photon energy of 10 keV. The result of the comparison showed that the difference was 0.47%. A conclusion was reached that the free-air ionization chamber and the cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer agreed within the combined relative uncertainty of 3.35%.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Radiometria , Raios X , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Radiometria/métodos , Radiografia
2.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 197(1): 28-35, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718819

RESUMO

Accurate dose measurement is very important for diagnosing X-ray equipment. These equipment should be traced directly or indirectly to primary standard with as little uncertainty as possible. A parallel-plate free-air chamber was designed to measure air kerma of diagnostic X-ray absolutely. Different thickness of aluminium filters were used to obtain different radiation qualities according with IEC 61267. Correction factors were obtained by experiments and simulation, especially the air attenuation factor measured with vacuum method. The relative standard uncertainty of air kerma rate measurement was 0.46% and calibration factor was 0.53%. A transfer ionisation chamber was calibrated with Radiation Qualities in Radiation beams (RQR) qualities in National Research Council of Canada and National Institute of Metrology (NIM), the differences of calibration factors are less than 0.68%.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Radiometria , Calibragem , Radiografia , Raios X
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961638

RESUMO

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is a well-established sensors in the recent ionosphere research. By comparing with classical meteorological equipments, the GNSS application can obtain more reliable and precious ionospheric total electron content (TEC) result. However, the most used GNSS ionospheric tomography technique is sensitive to a priori information due to the sparse and non-uniform distribution of GNSS stations. In this paper, we propose an improved method based on adaptive Laplacian smoothing and algebraic reconstruction technique (ALS-ART). Compared with traditional constant constraints, this method is less dependent on a priori information and adaptive smoothing constraints is closer to the actual situation. Tomography experiments using simulated data show that reconstruction accuracy of ionospheric electron density using ALS-ART method is significantly improved. We also use the method to do the analysis of real observation data and compare the tomography results with ionosonde observation data. The results demonstrate the superiority and reliability of the proposed method compared to traditional constant constraints method which will further improve the capability of obtaining precious ionosphere TEC by using GNSS.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Algoritmos , Atmosfera , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
J Mass Spectrom ; 56(4): e4629, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767454

RESUMO

A new atmospheric pressure ionization method, plasmaspray ionization, termed as PSI, was developed to be an alternative ambient ion source for mass spectrometry. It comprises a plasma jet device and a sample spray part. While the nonthermal plasma jet strikes the surface of stainless steel tube out of the spray capillary, the sprayed sample will be ionized with the assistant of auxiliary gas. Although PSI is a little bit more complex than electrospray ionization (ESI) in instrument, it shows both better linearity and higher sensitivity for organic compounds. For protein samples, it presents wider distributions of multiply charged ions and higher mass resolution without sacrificing any sensitivity. For the mechanism of PSI, the charge build-up process on the tip of capillary should play a key role for the ion formation, and the stimulated pulsed voltage on the flow tube will promote the ion aggregation speed until the charge density is high enough. PSI source contains the features of plasma ionization and ESI and can be considered as a novel combo bridging these techniques. These results reflect that this method of PSI can be applied and further developed as a versatile new ion source for a wild range of organic and biological samples.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Proteínas/análise , Ionização do Ar , Pressão Atmosférica , Cafeína/análise , Lecitinas/análise , Polímeros/análise , Propilenoglicóis/análise , Reserpina/análise
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232344

RESUMO

The negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an essential indicator of air quality and atmospheric pollution. The NAI concentration can be used to monitor air quality on a regional scale and is commonly determined using field measurements. However, obtaining these measurements is time-consuming. In this paper, the relationship between remotely sensed surface parameters (such as land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and leaf area index) obtained from MODIS data products and the measured NAI concentration using a stepwise regression method was analyzed to estimate the spatial distribution of the NAI concentration and verify the precision. The results indicated that the NAI concentration had a negative correlation with temperature, leaf area index (LAI), and gross primary production while it exhibited a positive correlation with the NDVI. The relationship between land surface temperature and the NAI concentration in the Daxing'anling region is expressed by the regression equation of y = -35.51x1 + 11206.813 (R2 = 0.6123). Additionally, the NAI concentration in northwest regions with high forest coverage was higher than that in southeast regions with low forest coverage, suggesting that forests influence the air quality and reduce the impact of environmental pollution. The proposed inversion model is suitable for evaluating the air quality in Daxing'anling and provides a reference for air quality evaluation in other areas. In the future, we will expand the quantity and distribution range of sampling points, conduct continuous observations of NAI concentrations and environmental parameters in the research areas with different land-use types, and further improve the accuracy of inversion results to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamic changes in NAI concentration and explore the possibility of expanding the application areas of NAI monitoring.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Ânions/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Imagens de Satélites , Altitude , China , Florestas , Oxigênio/análise , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Estudos de Amostragem
6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49 Suppl 1: i57-i66, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various mechanisms have been postulated to explain how electric fields emitted by high voltage overhead power lines, and the charged ions they produce, might be associated with possible adult cancer risk, but this has not previously been systematically explored in large scale epidemiological research. METHODS: We investigated risks of adult cancers in relation to modelled air ion density (per cm3) within 600 m (focusing analysis on mouth, lung, respiratory), and calculated electric field within 25 m (focusing analysis on non-melanoma skin), of high voltage overhead power lines in England and Wales, 1974-2008. RESULTS: With adjustment for age, sex, deprivation and rurality, odds ratios (OR) in the highest fifth of net air ion density (0.504-1) compared with the lowest (0-0.1879) ranged from 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.08] for mouth cancers to 1.03 (95% CI 0.97-1.09) for respiratory system cancers, with no trends in risk. The pattern of cancer risk was similar using corona ion estimates from an alternative model proposed by others. For keratinocyte carcinoma, adjusted OR in the highest (1.06-4.11 kV/m) compared with the lowest (<0.70 kV/m) thirds of electric field strength was 1.23 (95% CI 0.65-2.34), with no trend in risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not provide evidence to support hypotheses that air ion density or electric fields in the vicinity of power lines are associated with cancer risk in adults.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Exposição Ambiental , Neoplasias , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113054, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473392

RESUMO

Indoor air pollution is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Air purifiers are widely used to reduce indoor air pollutants. Ionization air purifiers are becoming increasingly popular for their low power consumption and noise, yet its health effects remain unclear. This randomized, double-blind crossover study is conducted to explore the cardiorespiratory effects of ionization air purification among 44 children in Beijing. Real or sham purification was performed in classrooms for 5 weekdays. Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and negative air ions (NAI) were monitored, and cardiorespiratory functions were measured. Mixed-effect models were used to establish associations between exposures and health parameters. Real purification significantly decreased PM and BC, e.g. PM0.5, PM2.5, PM10 and BC were decreased by 48%, 44%, 34% and 50%, respectively. O3 levels were unchanged, while NAI was increased from 12 cm-3 to 12,997 cm-3. Real purification was associated with a 4.4% increase in forced exhaled volume in 1 s (FEV1) and a 14.7% decrease in fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO). However, heart rate variability (HRV) was altered negatively. Interaction effects of NAI and PM were observed only on HRV, and alterations in HRV were greater with high NAI. Ionization air purifier could bring substantial respiratory benefits, however, the potential negative effects on HRV need further investigation.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Ionização do Ar , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fuligem
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1598: 163-174, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928166

RESUMO

Complex airborne mixtures of organic compounds can contain 10,000's of diverse compounds at trace concentrations. Here, we incorporate high-resolution mass spectrometry into our integrated offline sampling-to-analysis measurement system for routine molecular-level speciation of complex mixtures in gas- or particle-phase samples with detection limits of 2-20 pg L-1 (i.e. 0.2-1.9 ppt in 6 L samples). Analytes desorbed from custom adsorbent tubes (or filter extracts) were separated via gas chromatography (GC) and simultaneously analyzed by an electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (EI-MS), and by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) combined with a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF) with a resolution of 25,000-40,000 M/ΔM in HR-TOF and MS/MS modes. We demonstrated our system with simple standards, a Macondo crude oil standard as a reference for complex mixtures of common airborne compounds, and ambient samples using GC-TOF and GC-MS/MS. We speciated complex mixtures at mass accuracy error (i.e. mass tolerance) down to 8 ± 2 ppm (e.g. resolving analytes of mass 270.000 u with 0.003 u accuracy) using a targeted approach with 3000 molecular formulas, including hydrocarbons and functionalized analytes containing oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or phosphorous. This extended from compounds with 10 to 32 carbon atoms and up to 16 hydrocarbon formulas per carbon number, and a similar range for functionalized compound classes. We also demonstrated our MS/MS capabilities to differentiate structural isomers and determine the presence of specific functional groups; and our direct-TOF capability, which bypasses high-temperature chromatographic separation to preserve functionalized analytes.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas/química , Gases/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ionização do Ar , Pressão Atmosférica , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 59(7): 852-856, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091318

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus) is a major cause of weed pollinosis in East Asia. However, supplies of commercial allergen extract from this plant have not met clinical demand. The pollen of common hop (Humulus lupulus), a closely related species, may provide an alternative source if there is strong IgE cross-reactivity between these two species. We aimed to compare the IgE cross-reactivity and allergenicity of common hop and Japanese hop pollen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-reactivity was measured by inhibition ELISA. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel analyses combined with IgE immunoblotting and mass spectrometry [liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS)] were performed to detect IgE-reactive pollen components. RESULTS: Up to 16.7% of IgE reactivity to Japanese hop was inhibited by common hop. A 12-kDa protein component of Japanese hop pollen that showed the most potent IgE reaction was absent from common hop. Six IgE-reactive components from Japanese hop were detected by 2D gel electrophoresis and LC-ESI-MS/MS, but showed low Mascot scores, preventing positive identification. CONCLUSION: No significant IgE cross-reaction was observed for Japanese and common hop pollen allergens. Development of allergy diagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents based on Japanese hop pollen are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Pólen/química , Ionização do Ar , Alérgenos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Humulus , Hipersensibilidade , Immunoblotting , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Japão , Pólen/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 182(2): 215-220, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660104

RESUMO

Measurement of dose due to low and medium energy X-ray using an ionization chamber needs special considerations as the wall thickness of the detector plays an important role in signal generation. A thin and plane wall ionization chamber having 900 cc volume was developed to study its calibration coefficient with air kerma (Kair) rate and ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) rate at various X-ray beam qualities generated from a dosimetry grade X-ray machine. Optimized ionization chamber wall thickness was determined through measurements where a flat energy response of the ionization chamber could be established. The measurement shows that the air kerma rate based calibration coefficient for ionization chamber varies up to 45% and ambient dose equivalent rate based calibration coefficient varies up to 20% for wall thickness 1.2-1200 mg/cm2 in the energy range 17.6-213 keV.


Assuntos
Dosímetros de Radiação , Radiometria/instrumentação , Ionização do Ar , Calibragem , Desenho de Equipamento , Fótons , Raios X
12.
J Vet Intern Med ; 32(3): 1234-1240, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic dust is associated with Equine asthma. Ionization should reduce airborne dust levels. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of ionization of air, type of bedding, and feed on the levels of airborne dust, endotoxin, and fungal colonies in horse stables. ANIMALS: 24 healthy University-owned horses occupied the stables. METHODS: A randomized controlled cross-over study. Four units with 6 stables were equipped with an ionization installation (25 VA, 5000 Volt Direct Current). Horses were kept either on wood shavings and fed haylage (2 units), or on straw and fed dry hay (2 units). Measurements were performed with and without activated ionization, during daytime and nighttime, repeatedly over the course of a week and repeatedly during 4-6 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect model with Akaike's Information Criterion for model reduction and 95% profile (log) likelihood confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Ionization did not alter concentrations of dust, endotoxin, or fungi, fewer. In the units with straw and hay, the concentration of dust, endotoxin, and fungi (difference in logarithmic mean 1.92 (95%CI 1.71-2.12); 2.86 (95%CI 2.59-3.14); 1.75 (95%CI 1.13-2.36)) were significantly higher compared to wood shavings and haylage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The installation of a negative air-ionizer in the horse stable did not reduce concentrations of dust, endotoxin, and viable fungal spores. The substantial effect of low dust bedding and feed is confirmed.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/veterinária , Cavalos , Abrigo para Animais , Ração Animal , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 610-611: 111-120, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803189

RESUMO

Air contamination by biological agents is often observed in medical or veterinary facilities and industrial plants. Bioaerosols may sediment and pose the surface contamination. Microorganisms present on them may become a source of infections among humans and food contamination. This study determined the use of oxidative gases, including ozone and peroxide, generated by the Radiant Catalytic Ionization (RCI) cell for the inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenumon in air and on different surfaces. Results showed that oxidative gases produced by the RCI cell reduced all tested microorganisms. The full elimination of studied microorganisms from the air was obtained for E. coli and C. albicans. RCI also proved to be an effective method of eliminating microbes from the examined surfaces. Regarding of the species, strains origin and the type of surface, the reduction rate ranged from 19.0% for C. albicans to over 99% for A. baumanii. For both, air and surface, the most resistant to RCI was C. sporogenes spores, for which the percentage reduction rate ranged from -2.6% to 71.2% on the surfaces and was equal 71.7% in the air.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Desinfecção/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Acinetobacter baumannii , Candida albicans
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 259: 7-14, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024857

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effectiveness of 30 or 60min of daily exposure to high-density or to zero-density (placebo condition) negative air ions over 18 days on the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in 40 participants under controlled laboratory conditions. Exposure to high-density negative air ions was superior to zero-density negative air ions in alleviating depression and the atypical symptoms of SAD. Also, more subjects in the high-density negative air ions groups met two different clinical response criteria than did those in the zero-density groups. Within the high density treatment group, both the short and long daily exposure reduced SAD symptoms. Exposure to negative air ions produced no negative side effects, and no ozone was produced by the ion generators. In both the high-density negative air ions and zero-density negative air ions groups, a significant placebo effect was found for most clinical measures. Finally, for the high-density negative air ion groups, subjects with a morningness chronotype responded better to treatment with high-density negative air ions than did those with an eveningness chronotype.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 178(3): 292-297, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981807

RESUMO

The free-air ionization chamber is communicating with the ambient air, therefore, the atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure and humidity effect on the ionization chamber performance. The free-air ionization chamber, entitled as FAC-IR-300, that design at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, is required the atmospheric correction factors for correct the chamber reading. In this article, the effect of humidity on the ionization chamber response was investigated. For this reason, was introduced the humidity correction factor, kh. In this article, the Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the kh factor. The simulation results show in relative humidities between 30% to 80%, the kh factor is equal 0.9970 at 20°C and 0.9975 at 22°C. From the simulation results, at low energy the energy dependence of the kh factor is significant and with increasing energy this dependence is negligible.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Radiometria/instrumentação , Pressão do Ar , Umidade , Método de Monte Carlo , Temperatura , Raios X
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 973: 59-67, 2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502428

RESUMO

Direct and rapid trace-level gas analysis is highly needed in various fields such as safety and security, quality control, food analysis, and forensic medicine. In many cases, the real samples are bulky and are not accessible to the space-limited ion source of the mass spectrometer. In order to circumvent this problem, we developed an airtight atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source equipped with a flexible 1-m-long, 2-mm-i.d. PTFE sniffing tube. The ambient air bearing sample gas was sucked into the heated PTFE tube (130 °C) and was transported to the air-tight ion source without using any extra pumping system or a Venturi device. Analytes were ionized by an ac corona discharge located at 1.5 mm from the inlet of the mass spectrometer. By using the airtight ion source, all the ionized gas in the ion source was introduced into the vacuum of the mass spectrometer via only the evacuation of the mass spectrometer (1.6 l min-1). Sub-pg limits of detection were obtained for carbaryl and trinitrotoluene. Owing to its flexibility and high sensitivity, the sniffing tube coupled with a mass spectrometer can be used as the stethoscope for the high-sensitive gas analysis. The experimental results obtained for drugs, hydrogen peroxide and small alkanes were discussed by DFT calculations.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Espectrometria de Massas , Politetrafluoretileno , Alcanos/análise , Pressão Atmosférica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise
17.
J Mass Spectrom ; 52(7): 417-426, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455844

RESUMO

An Open Probe inlet was combined with a low thermal mass ultra-fast gas chromatograph (GC), in-vacuum electron ionization ion source and a mass spectrometer (MS) of GC-MS for obtaining real-time analysis with separation. The Open Probe enables ambient sampling via sample vaporization in an oven that is open to room air, and the ultra-fast GC provides ~30-s separation, while if no separation is required, it can act as a transfer line with 2 to 3-s sample transfer time. Sample analysis is as simple as touching the sample, pushing the sample holder into the Open Probe oven and obtaining the results in 30 s. The Open Probe fast GC was mounted on a standard Agilent 7890 GC that was coupled with an Agilent 5977A MS. Open Probe fast GC-MS provides real-time analysis combined with GC separation and library identification, and it uses the low-cost MS of GC-MS. The operation of Open Probe fast GC-MS is demonstrated in the 30-s separation and 50-s full analysis cycle time of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol in Cannabis flower, sub 1-min analysis of trace trinitrotoluene transferred from a finger onto a glass surface, vitamin E in canola oil, sterols in olive oil, polybrominated flame retardants in plastics, alprazolam in Xanax drug pill and free fatty acids and cholesterol in human blood. The extrapolated limit of detection for pyrene is <1 fg, but the concentration is too high and the software noise calculation is untrustworthy. The broad range of compounds amenable for analysis is demonstrated in the analysis of reserpine. The possible use with alternate standard GC-MS and Open Probe fast GC-MS is demonstrated in the analysis of heroin in its street drug powder. The use of Open Probe with the fast GC acting as a transfer line is demonstrated in <10-s analysis without separation of ibuprofen and estradiol. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Ionização do Ar , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Drogas Ilícitas/química , Limite de Detecção , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Vácuo
18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 966: 41-46, 2017 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28372725

RESUMO

This study demonstrates a simple method for rapid and in situ identification of volatile and endogenous compounds in culinary spice samples through mass spectrometry (MS). This method only requires a holder for solid spice sample (2-3 mm) that is placed close to a mass spectrometer inlet, which is applied with a high voltage. Volatile species responsible for the aroma of the spice samples can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Sample pretreatment is not required prior to MS analysis, and no solvent was used during MS analysis. The high voltage applied to the inlet of the mass spectrometer induces the ionization of volatile compounds released from the solid spice samples. Furthermore, moisture in the air also contributes to the ionization of volatile compounds. Dried spices including cinnamon and cloves are used as the model sample to demonstrate this straightforward MS analysis, which can be completed within few seconds. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the suitability of the current method for rapid screening of cinnamon quality through detection of the presence of a hepatotoxic agent, i.e. coumarin.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Especiarias/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
Environ Pollut ; 225: 729-743, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347612

RESUMO

High energy electron-impact ionizers have found applications mainly in industry to reduce off-gas emissions from waste gas streams at low cost and high efficiency because of their ability to oxidize many airborne organic pollutants (e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) to CO2 and H2O. Applications of air ionizers in indoor air quality management are limited due to poor removal efficiency and production of noxious side products, e.g., ozone (O3). In this paper, we provide a critical evaluation of the pollutant removal performance of air ionizing system through comprehensive review of the literature. In particular, we focus on removal of VOCs and odorants. We also discuss the generation of unwanted air ionization byproducts such as O3, NOx, and VOC oxidation intermediates that limit the use of air-ionizers in indoor air quality management.


Assuntos
Ionização do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ozônio/análise
20.
BMC Microbiol ; 16(1): 173, 2016 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27475908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several mechanisms have been suggested for the bactericidal action of ionizers including electrical phenomena, effects of negative and positive ions and electrostatic repulsion. Negative and positive ions have indeed been shown to have bactericidal effects. In addition, since ozone is generated along with ions, these may contribute to the bacterial killing. In this study, we used a newly developed ionizer, which generates a relatively low concentration of ozone, to determine whether its effect on bacterial cells were due to ions or ozone, and, if ions, how the ions exerted their effects. RESULTS: The effect of ions on bacterial killing was compared with that of the ozone produced using an ion trap to remove the ions. The ionizer had the ability to kill the bacteria, and ion capture dramatically reduced its bactericidal effect, indicating that the ozone generated had little or no bactericidal effect under these conditions, and the ions produced were responsible for almost all the bacterial killing. Operation of the ionizer increased the level of 8-oxo-dG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and decreased aconitase activity, which is known to be sensitive to ROS. The ionizer further affected the adenylate energy charge of bacterial cells. Removal of the ions with the ion trap greatly reduced all these effects. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that negative and positive ions generated by the ionizer are responsible for inducing oxidative stress and so reducing bacterial survival.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Ozônio/farmacologia , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Aconitato Hidratase/efeitos dos fármacos , Aconitato Hidratase/metabolismo , Ar/análise , Ionização do Ar , Microbiologia do Ar , Antibacterianos/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiguanosina/farmacologia , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Íons/química , Íons/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/química , Eletricidade Estática
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