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1.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(8): 727-733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334516

RESUMO

Recently, a novel humidifier that sprays water fine droplets equipped with a copolymer, poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) was developed. PEDOT/PSS in the humidifier absorbs water from the environment and releases fine water droplets by heating. In the present study, the effect of hydration on the skin barrier, stratum corneum, was first determined by the application of fine water droplets using the humidifier. The skin-penetration enhancement effect of a model hydrophilic drug, caffeine, was also investigated using the humidifier and compared with a conventional water-evaporative humidifier. More prolonged skin hydration effect was observed after application of the fine water droplet release humidifier using PEDOT/PSS than that using a conventional humidifier. In addition, markedly higher skin permeation of caffeine was observed in both infinite and finite dose conditions. Furthermore, higher skin permeation of caffeine from oil/water emulsion containing caffeine was observed in finite dose conditions by pretreatment with the humidifier using PEDOT/PSS. This device can provide water droplets without replenishing water, so it is more convenient for enhancing the skin permeation of chemical compounds from topical drugs and cosmetic formulations.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Umidificadores , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Ar , Animais , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/química , Umidade , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Pelados , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Água/química
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360686

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as with the influenza virus, has been shown to spread more rapidly during winter. Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can follow SARS-CoV-2 infection, disproportionately affects older persons and males as well as people living in temperate zone countries with a tropical ancestry. Recent evidence on the importance of adequately warming and humidifying (conditioning) inhaled air in the nasal cavity for reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in the upper respiratory tract (URT) is discussed, with particular reference to: (i) the relevance of air-borne SARS-CoV-2 transmission, (ii) the nasal epithelium as the initial site of SARS-CoV-2 infection, (iii) the roles of type 1 and 3 interferons for preventing viral infection of URT epithelial cells, (iv) weaker innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections in URT epithelial cells at suboptimal temperature and humidity, and (v) early innate immune responses in the URT for limiting and eliminating SARS-CoV-2 infections. The available data are consistent with optimal nasal air conditioning reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity of the URT and, as a consequence, severe COVID-19. Further studies on SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and viral loads in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx in relation to inhaled air temperature, humidity, age, gender, and genetic background are needed in this context. Face masks used for reducing air-borne virus transmission can also promote better nasal air conditioning in cold weather. Masks can, thereby, minimise SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and are particularly relevant for protecting more vulnerable persons from severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ar , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/genética , Humanos , Umidade , Inalação , Fatores Sexuais , Temperatura
3.
Water Res ; 203: 117521, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391023

RESUMO

Two crucial themes emerge from the growing application of MBRs treating domestic wastewater so far: fouling control and energy demand. The significance of in-situ shear-enhanced methods for fouling control in MBRs has been widely acknowledged with air sparging over decades. However, it is still a challenge to develop energy-efficient ways to replace energy-intensive air sparging for effective fouling control during long-term real domestic wastewater treatment. A novel vibrating flat-sheet ceramic MBR (VMBR) was established for investigating the effects of different shear rates on treatment performance, fouling control and specific energy demand compared with air-sparging MBR (ASMBR). Three levels of shear rates with vibration speed of 120, 80, and 40 RPM in the VMBR, versus specific aeration rate of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5 LPM in the ASMBR were examined as high-, middle- and low-shear phases. Results showed that the VMBR removed over 78.35% TOC, 89.89% COD and 99.9% NH4-N over three phases, and retarded initial increases in transmembrane pressure to control membrane fouling effectively with average fouling rate around 2.31 kPa/d, 3.59 kPa/d and 10.15 kPa/d, almost 70% lower than the ASMBR in Phase 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Particle size distribution of mixed liquor revealed that colloids and biopolymer clusters were significantly reduced in the VMBR showing less propensity for foulant formation. DOM characteristics further indicated that lower production of polysaccharides and protein (by approximately half in Phases 1 and 2) of SMP and EPS in the VMBR generated lower biopolymer content, promoting better fouling mitigation and enhanced dewaterability compared to the ASMBR. Moreover, the VMBR showed superior energy efficiency for fouling control and could save 51.7% to 78.5% energy of the ASMBR under similar-shear condition. The combination of excellent treatment performance, fouling control and energy efficiency from the VMBR makes this an attractive strategy for future improvement of MBR designs in full-scale application with the potential to replace conventional ASMBR.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Águas Residuárias , Ar , Cerâmica , Membranas Artificiais
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201360

RESUMO

This paper presents a method of implementation and the results of aerosol dispersion tests in underground mine workings. Numerous tests were carried out to determine the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection in the underground environment of the mines. The influence of selected parameters of mine air on the possibility and method of aerosol transmission through ventilation routes was experimentally determined in real conditions. The concentration of additional aerosols in the class of ultrafine and fine aerosols increased with the distance from the generator, while the concentration of coarse particles decreased. Assuming the consumption of the solution with which aerosols were generated, even at a small level of 1 cm3/min., the number of additional aerosols was several hundred particles in one cubic centimeter of air at a distance of 50-70 m from the generator. The concentration of ultrafine particles in the range of 40-20,000 nm increased from 122 particles/cm3 to 209 particles/cm3 at air temperature of 12 °C and relative humidity of 95-96%, and from 90 particles/cm3 to 243 particles/cm3 at air temperature of 17 °C and relative humidity of 76-82%, with the increasing distance from the generator (10 m to 50 m).


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , COVID-19/transmissão , Minas de Carvão , Local de Trabalho/normas , Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1652: 462352, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233247

RESUMO

A method based on gas chromatography coupled with electron ionization mass spectrometry employing N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide with trimethylchlorosilane as derivatization agent was developed to quantify short-chain carboxylic acids (C1-C6) in hospital wastewater treated by wet air oxidation, an advanced oxidation process. Extraction from water and derivatization of volatile and semi-volatile short chain carboxylic acids were optimized and validated and limits of quantification (LOQ = 0.049 mg L-1-4.15 mg L-1), repeatability (RSD = 1.7-12.8%), recovery (31-119%) and trueness (relative bias = -19.0-3.4%) were acceptable. The validated method was successfully applied to monitor the concentration of organic acids formed after wet air oxidation of water samples. Results showed that the method described herein allowed to identify 38% and up to 46% of the final chemical oxygen demand's composition after wet air oxidation of acetaminophen spiked in deionised water and hospital wastewater samples, respectively. The developed method also allowed to perform qualitative non-targeted analysis in hospital wastewater samples after treatment. Results demonstrated that glycerol, methenamine, and benzoic acid were also present in the samples and their presence was confirmed with reference standards.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Acetamidas/química , Ar , Hospitais , Compostos de Trimetilsilil/química
7.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(30): 8636-8651, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310143

RESUMO

In the absence of external fields, interfacial tensions between different phases dictate the equilibrium morphology of a multiphase system. Depending on the relative magnitudes of these interfacial tensions, a composite system made up of immiscible fluids in contact with one another can exhibit contrasting behavior: the formation of lenses in one case and complete encapsulation in another. Relatively simple concepts such as the spreading coefficient (SC) have been extensively used by many researchers to make predictions. However, these qualitative methods are limited to determining the nature of the equilibrium states and do not provide enough information to calculate the exact equilibrium geometries. Moreover, due to the assumptions made, their validity is questionable at smaller scales where pressure forces due to curvature of the interfaces become significant or in systems where a compressible gas phase is present. Here we investigate equilibrium configurations of two fluid drops suspended in another fluid, which can be seen as a simple building block of more complicated systems. We use Gibbsian composite-system thermodynamics to derive equilibrium conditions and the equation acting as the free energy (thermodynamic potential) for this system. These equations are then numerically solved for an example system consisting of a dodecane drop and an air bubble surrounded by water, and the relative stability of distinct equilibrium shapes is investigated based on free-energy comparisons. Quantitative effects of system parameters such as interfacial tensions, volumes, and the scale of the system on geometry and stability are further explored. Multiphase systems similar to the ones analyzed here have broad applications in microfluidics, atmospheric physics, soft photonics, froth flotation, oil recovery, and some biological phenomena.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Água , Ar , Tensão Superficial , Termodinâmica
8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 604: 785-797, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303172

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying bubble-(bio)surfaces interactions is currently a challenge that if overcame, would allow to understand and control the various processes in which they are involved. Atomic force microscopy is a useful technique to measure such interactions, but it is limited by the large size and instability of the bubbles that it can use, attached either on cantilevers or on surfaces. We here present new developments where microsized and stable bubbles are produced using FluidFM technology, which combines AFM and microfluidics. The air bubbles produced were used to probe the interactions with hydrophobic samples, showing that bubbles in water behave like hydrophobic surfaces. They thus could be used to measure the hydrophobic properties of microorganisms' surfaces, but in this case the interactions are also influenced by electrostatic forces. Finally a strategy was developed to functionalize their surface, thereby modulating their interactions with microorganism interfaces. This new method provides a valuable tool to understand bubble-(bio)surfaces interactions but also to engineer them.


Assuntos
Ar , Água , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microfluídica , Microscopia de Força Atômica
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013621, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers (also known as pressure injuries) are localised injuries to the skin or underlying soft tissue, or both, caused by unrelieved pressure, shear or friction. Foam surfaces (beds, mattresses or overlays) are widely used with the aim of preventing pressure ulcers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of foam beds, mattresses or overlays compared with any support surface on the incidence of pressure ulcers in any population in any setting. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2019, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that allocated participants of any age to foam beds, mattresses or overlays. Comparators were any beds, mattresses or overlays. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed studies using predetermined inclusion criteria. We carried out data extraction, 'Risk of bias' assessment using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and the certainty of the evidence assessment according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations methodology. If a foam surface was compared with surfaces that were not clearly specified, then the included study was recorded and described but not considered further in any data analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We included 29 studies (9566 participants) in the review. Most studies were small (median study sample size: 101 participants). The average age of participants ranged from 47.0 to 85.3 years (median: 76.0 years). Participants were mainly from acute care settings. We analysed data for seven comparisons in the review: foam surfaces compared with: (1) alternating pressure air surfaces, (2) reactive air surfaces, (3) reactive fibre surfaces, (4) reactive gel surfaces, (5) reactive foam and gel surfaces, (6) reactive water surfaces, and (7) another type of foam surface. Of the 29 included studies, 17 (58.6%) presented findings which were considered at high overall risk of bias. PRIMARY OUTCOME: pressure ulcer incidence Low-certainty evidence suggests that foam surfaces may increase the risk of developing new pressure ulcers compared with (1) alternating pressure (active) air surfaces (risk ratio (RR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 2.95; I2 = 63%; 4 studies, 2247 participants), and (2) reactive air surfaces (RR 2.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 5.54; I2 = 25%; 4 studies, 229 participants). We are uncertain regarding the difference in pressure ulcer incidence in people treated with foam surfaces and the following surfaces: (1) reactive fibre surfaces (1 study, 68 participants); (2) reactive gel surfaces (1 study, 135 participants); (3) reactive gel and foam surfaces (1 study, 91 participants); and (4) another type of foam surface (6 studies, 733 participants). These had very low-certainty evidence. Included studies have data on time to pressure ulcer development for two comparisons. When time to ulcer development is considered using hazard ratios, the difference in the risk of having new pressure ulcers, over 90 days' follow-up, between foam surfaces and alternating pressure air surfaces is uncertain (2 studies, 2105 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Two further studies comparing different types of foam surfaces also reported time-to-event data, suggesting that viscoelastic foam surfaces with a density of 40 to 60 kg/m3 may decrease the risk of having new pressure ulcers over 11.5 days' follow-up compared with foam surfaces with a density of 33 kg/m3 (1 study, 62 participants); and solid foam surfaces may decrease the risk of having new pressure ulcers over one month's follow-up compared with convoluted foam surfaces (1 study, 84 participants). Both had low-certainty evidence. There was no analysable data for the comparison of foam surfaces with reactive water surfaces (one study with 117 participants). Secondary outcomes Support-surface-associated patient comfort: the review contains data for three comparisons for this outcome. It is uncertain if there is a difference in patient comfort measure between foam surfaces and alternating pressure air surfaces (1 study, 76 participants; very low-certainty evidence); foam surfaces and reactive air surfaces (1 study, 72 participants; very low-certainty evidence); and different types of foam surfaces (4 studies, 669 participants; very low-certainty evidence). All reported adverse events: the review contains data for two comparisons for this outcome. We are uncertain about differences in adverse effects between foam surfaces and alternating pressure (active) air surfaces (3 studies, 2181 participants; very low-certainty evidence), and between foam surfaces and reactive air surfaces (1 study, 72 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Health-related quality of life: only one study reported data on this outcome. It is uncertain if there is a difference (low-certainty evidence) between foam surfaces and alternating pressure (active) air surfaces in health-related quality of life measured with two different questionnaires, the EQ-5D-5L (267 participants) and the PU-QoL-UI (233 participants). Cost-effectiveness: one study reported trial-based cost-effectiveness evaluations. Alternating pressure (active) air surfaces are probably more cost-effective than foam surfaces in preventing pressure ulcer incidence (2029 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests uncertainty about the differences in pressure ulcer incidence, patient comfort, adverse events and health-related quality of life between using foam surfaces and other surfaces (reactive fibre surfaces, reactive gel surfaces, reactive foam and gel surfaces, or reactive water surfaces). Foam surfaces may increase pressure ulcer incidence compared with alternating pressure (active) air surfaces and reactive air surfaces. Alternating pressure (active) air surfaces are probably more cost-effective than foam surfaces in preventing new pressure ulcers. Future research in this area should consider evaluation of the most important support surfaces from the perspective of decision-makers. Time-to-event outcomes, careful assessment of adverse events and trial-level cost-effectiveness evaluation should be considered in future studies. Trials should be designed to minimise the risk of detection bias; for example, by using digital photography and by blinding adjudicators of the photographs to group allocation. Further review using network meta-analysis will add to the findings reported here.


Assuntos
Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Leitos , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Viscoelásticas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ar , Viés , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(23): 6330-6337, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076448

RESUMO

A lattice model is described to explain a recent striking Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) observation of a cooperative surface adsorption effect for an organic acid system at an air-water interface. The reported anomalous pH-dependent enhancement in p-methylbenzoic acid (pmBA) arises from an interaction between the acid (HA) and its conjugate base anion (A-), which competes with strong Coulombic repulsion between the conjugate bases (A--A -). Using a statistical mechanical approach, this lattice gas model reveals an analogy to well-studied magnetic systems in which the attraction between the two different molecular species leads to a phase transition to a two-dimensional checkerboard phase consisting of a network of anion-acid complexes formed at the low-dielectric air-water interface. Cooperative acid-anion interactions that control partitioning at solution and aerosol interfaces are of interest to fields ranging from oceanic and atmospheric chemistry, pharmacology, and chemical engineering.


Assuntos
Ar , Água , Adsorção , Ânions , Transição de Fase
11.
Food Chem ; 362: 130199, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091167

RESUMO

Crocins in commercial liquid saffron extracts (Saffr'activ®) were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS). The impact of storage on the qualities of the saffron extract were studied with HPLC-DAD-MS by exposing trans-4-GG crocin to environmental factors. Light and temperature induced degradation after only one week. Trans-4-GG crocin was totally hydrolyzed when stored at 60 °C and exposed to light. A quick and reliable method using HPLC-DAD was then developed to improve quantification of crocins in commercial liquid saffron extracts. An internal standard quantification method that uses a response factor, corrected with the molecular weight of each crocin, improved results for old saffron extracts.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Crocus/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ar , Carotenoides/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Luz , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Vitamina A/química
12.
Eur J Protistol ; 80: 125805, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090087

RESUMO

Cercozoa and Oomycota contain a huge biodiversity and important pathogens of forest trees and other vegetation. We analyzed air dispersal of these protistan phyla with an air sampler near-ground (~2 m) and in tree crowns (~25 m) of three tree species (oak, linden and ash) in a temperate floodplain forest in March (before leafing) and May (after leaf unfolding) 2019 with a cultivation-independent high-throughput metabarcoding approach. We found a high diversity of Cercozoa and Oomycota in air samples with 122 and 81 OTUs, respectively. Especially oomycetes showed a significant difference in community composition between both sampling dates. Differences in community composition between air samples in tree canopies and close to the ground were however negligible, and also tree species identity did not affect communities in air samples, indicating that the distribution of protistan propagules through the air was not spatially restricted in the forest ecosystem. OTUs of plant pathogens, whose host species did not occur in the forest, demonstrate dispersal of propagules from outside the forest biome. Overall, our results lead to a better understanding of the stochastic processes of air dispersal of protists and protistan pathogens, a prerequisite to understand the mechanisms of their community assembly in forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ar , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Eucariotos/fisiologia , Ar/análise , Ar/parasitologia , Árvores/parasitologia
13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(24): 5774-5780, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134488

RESUMO

The chemistry of abiotic synthesis of peptides in the context of their prebiotic origins is a continuing challenge that arises from thermodynamic and kinetic constraints in aqueous media. Here we reported a strategy of microdroplets' mass spectrometry for peptide bonds formed from pure amino acids or a mixture in the presence of phosphoric acids in aqueous microdroplets. In contrast to bulk experiments, the condensation reactions proceed spontaneously under ambient conditions. The microdroplet gave a negative free-energy change (ΔG ∼ -1.1 kcal/mol), and product yields of ∼75% were obtained at the scale of a few milliseconds. Experiments in which nebulization gas pressure and external charge were varied established dependence of peptide production on the droplet size that has a high surface-to-volume ratio. It is concluded that the condensation reactions occurred at or near the air-water interfaces of microdroplets. This aqueous microdroplets approach also provides a route for chemistry synthesis in the prebiotic era.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Água/química , Ar , Hidrodinâmica , Termodinâmica
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068705

RESUMO

The concentration of negative air ions (NAIs) is an important indicator of air quality. Here, we analyzed the distribution patterns of negative air ion (NAI) concentrations at different time scales using statistical methods; then described the contribution of meteorological factors of the different season to the concentration of NAIs using correlation analysis and regression analysis; and finally made the outlook for the trends of NAI concentrations in the prospective using the auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. The dataset of NAI concentrations and meteorological factors measured at the fixed stations in the Mountain Wuyi National Park were obtained from the Fujian Provincial Meteorological Bureau. The study showed that NAI concentrations were correlated with relative humidity spanning all seasons. Water was an important factor affecting the distribution of NAI concentrations in different time series. Compared with other ARIMA models, the outlook value of the ARIMA (0,1, 1) model was closer to the original data and the errors were smaller. This article provided a unique perspective on the study of the distribution of negative air oxygen ions over time series.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Íons , Parques Recreativos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano
15.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064882

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis is an important disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Early detection is crucial for successful infection control, but available diagnostic tests are still dissatisfying. Methods allowing a rapid, economic, and reliable identification of animals or herds affected by MAP are urgently required. This explorative study evaluated the potential of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to discriminate between cattle with and without MAP infections. Headspaces above fecal samples and alveolar fractions of exhaled breath of 77 cows from eight farms with defined MAP status were analyzed in addition to stable air samples. VOCs were identified by GC-MS and quantified against reference substances. To discriminate MAP-positive from MAP-negative samples, VOC feature selection and random forest classification were performed. Classification models, generated for each biological specimen, were evaluated using repeated cross-validation. The robustness of the results was tested by predicting samples of two different sampling days. For MAP classification, the different biological matrices emitted diagnostically relevant VOCs of a unique but partly overlapping pattern (fecal headspace: 19, alveolar gas: 11, stable air: 4-5). Chemically, relevant compounds belonged to hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, furans, and aldehydes. Comparing the different biological specimens, VOC analysis in fecal headspace proved to be most reproducible, discriminatory, and highly predictive.


Assuntos
Ar , Fezes/química , Gases/análise , Odorantes/análise , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067110

RESUMO

A new and simple method, based entirely on a physical approach, was proposed to produce activated carbon from longan fruit seed with controlled mesoporosity. This method, referred to as the OTA, consisted of three consecutive steps of (1) air oxidation of initial microporous activated carbon of about 30% char burn-off to introduce oxygen surface functional groups, (2) the thermal destruction of the functional groups by heating the oxidized carbon in a nitrogen atmosphere at a high temperature to increase the surface reactivity due to increased surface defects by bond disruption, and (3) the final reactivation of the resulting carbon in carbon dioxide. The formation of mesopores was achieved through the enlargement of the original micropores after heat treatment via the CO2 gasification, and at the same time new micropores were also produced, resulting in a larger increase in the percentage of mesopore volume and the total specific surface area, in comparison with the production of activated carbon by the conventional two-step activation method using the same activation time and temperature. For the activation temperatures of 850 and 900 °C and the activation time of up to 240 min, it was found that the porous properties of activated carbon increased with the increase in activation time and temperature for both preparation methods. A maximum volume of mesopores of 0.474 cm3/g, which accounts for 44.1% of the total pore volume, and a maximum BET surface area of 1773 m2/g was achieved using three cycles of the OTA method at the activation temperature of 850 °C and 60 min activation time for each preparation cycle. The two-step activation method yielded activated carbon with a maximum mesopore volume of 0.270 cm3/g (33.0% of total pore volume) and surface area of 1499 m2/g when the activation temperature of 900 °C and a comparable activation time of 240 min were employed. Production of activated carbon by the OTA method is superior to the two-step activation method for better and more precise control of mesopore development.


Assuntos
Ar , Carvão Vegetal/química , Temperatura , Biomassa , Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Modelos Moleculares , Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Porosidade , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície , Termogravimetria
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013624, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers (also known as pressure injuries, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers and bed sores) are localised injuries to the skin or underlying soft tissue, or both, caused by unrelieved pressure, shear or friction. Beds, overlays or mattresses are widely used with the aim of treating pressure ulcers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of beds, overlays and mattresses on pressure ulcer healing in people with pressure ulcers of any stage, in any setting. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2019, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that allocated participants of any age to pressure-redistributing beds, overlays or mattresses. Comparators were any beds, overlays or mattresses that were applied for treating pressure ulcers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed studies using predetermined inclusion criteria. We carried out data extraction, 'Risk of bias' assessment using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and the certainty of the evidence assessment according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies (972 participants) in the review. Most studies were small (median study sample size: 72 participants). The average age of participants ranged from 64.0 to 86.5 years (median: 82.7 years) and all studies recruited people with existing pressure ulcers (the baseline ulcer area size ranging from 4.2 to 18.6 cm2,median 6.6 cm2). Participants were recruited from acute care settings (six studies) and community and long-term care settings (seven studies). Of the 13 studies, three (224 participants) involved surfaces that were not well described and therefore could not be classified. Additionally, six (46.2%) of the 13 studies presented findings which were considered at high overall risk of bias. We synthesised data for four comparisons in the review: alternating pressure (active) air surfaces versus foam surfaces; reactive air surfaces versus foam surfaces; reactive water surfaces versus foam surfaces, and a comparison between two types of alternating pressure (active) air surfaces. We summarise key findings for these four comparisons below. (1) Alternating pressure (active) air surfaces versus foam surfaces: we are uncertain if there is a difference between alternating pressure (active) air surfaces and foam surfaces in the proportion of participants whose pressure ulcers completely healed (two studies with 132 participants; the reported risk ratio (RR) in one study was 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26 to 3.58). There is also uncertainty for the outcomes of patient comfort (one study with 83 participants) and adverse events (one study with 49 participants). These outcomes have very low-certainty evidence. Included studies did not report time to complete ulcer healing, health-related quality of life, or cost effectiveness. (2) Reactive air surfaces versus foam surfaces: it is uncertain if there is a difference in the proportion of participants with completely healed pressure ulcers between reactive air surfaces and foam surfaces (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.80; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 156 participants; low-certainty evidence). When time to complete pressure ulcer healing is considered using a hazard ratio, data from one small study (84 participants) suggests a greater hazard for complete ulcer healing on reactive air surfaces (hazard ratio 2.66, 95% CI 1.34 to 5.17; low-certainty evidence). These results are sensitive to the choice of outcome measure so should be interpreted as uncertain. We are also uncertain whether there is any difference between these surfaces in patient comfort responses (1 study, 72 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and in adverse events (2 studies, 156 participants; low-certainty evidence). There is low-certainty evidence that reactive air surfaces may cost an extra 26 US dollars for every ulcer-free day in the first year of use (1 study, 87 participants). Included studies did not report health-related quality of life. (3) Reactive water surfaces versus foam surfaces: it is uncertain if there is a difference between reactive water surfaces and foam surfaces in the proportion of participants with healed pressure ulcers (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.63; 1 study, 101 participants) and in adverse events (1 study, 120 participants). All these have very low-certainty evidence. Included studies did not report time to complete ulcer healing, patient comfort, health-related quality of life, or cost effectiveness. (4) Comparison between two types of alternating pressure (active) air surfaces: it is uncertain if there is a difference between Nimbus and Pegasus alternating pressure (active) air surfaces in the proportion of participants with healed pressure ulcers, in patient comfort responses and in adverse events: each of these outcomes had four studies (256 participants) but very low-certainty evidence. Included studies did not report time to complete ulcer healing, health-related quality of life, or cost effectiveness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain about the relative effects of most different pressure-redistributing surfaces for pressure ulcer healing (types directly compared are alternating pressure air surfaces versus foam surfaces, reactive air surfaces versus foam surfaces, reactive water surfaces versus foam surfaces, and Nimbus versus Pegasus alternating pressure (active) air surfaces). There is also uncertainty regarding the effects of these different surfaces on the outcomes of comfort and adverse events. However, people using reactive air surfaces may be more likely to have pressure ulcers completely healed than those using foam surfaces over 37.5 days' follow-up, and reactive air surfaces may cost more for each ulcer-free day than foam surfaces. Future research in this area could consider the evaluation of alternating pressure air surfaces versus foam surfaces as a high priority. Time-to-event outcomes, careful assessment of adverse events and trial-level cost-effectiveness evaluation should be considered in future studies. Further review using network meta-analysis will add to the findings reported here.


Assuntos
Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Leitos , Lesão por Pressão/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ar , Viés , Elasticidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Substâncias Viscoelásticas , Cicatrização
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013622, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers (also known as pressure injuries, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers and bed sores) are localised injuries to the skin or underlying soft tissue, or both, caused by unrelieved pressure, shear or friction. Reactive air surfaces (beds, mattresses or overlays) can be used for preventing pressure ulcers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of reactive air beds, mattresses or overlays compared with any support surface on the incidence of pressure ulcers in any population in any setting. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2019, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that allocated participants of any age to reactive air beds, overlays or mattresses. Comparators were any beds, overlays or mattresses that were applied for preventing pressure ulcers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed studies using predetermined inclusion criteria. We carried out data extraction, 'Risk of bias' assessment using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and the certainty of the evidence assessment according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations methodology. If a reactive air surface was compared with surfaces that were not clearly specified, then we recorded and described the concerned study but did not included it in further data analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies (2604 participants) in this review. Most studies were small (median study sample size: 83 participants). The average participant age ranged from 56 to 87 years (median: 72 years). Participants were recruited from a wide range of care settings with the majority being acute care settings. Almost all studies were conducted in the regions of Europe and America. Of the 17 included studies, two (223 participants) compared reactive air surfaces with surfaces that were not well described and therefore could not be classified. We analysed data for five comparisons: reactive air surfaces compared with (1) alternating pressure (active) air surfaces (seven studies with 1728 participants), (2) foam surfaces (four studies with 229 participants), (3) reactive water surfaces (one study with 37 participants), (4) reactive gel surfaces (one study with 66 participants), and (5) another type of reactive air surface (two studies with 223 participants). Of the 17 studies, seven (41.2%) presented findings which were considered at high overall risk of bias. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Pressure ulcer incidence Reactive air surfaces may reduce the proportion of participants developing a new pressure ulcer compared with foam surfaces (risk ratio (RR) 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 0.96; I2 = 25%; 4 studies, 229 participants; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain if there is a difference in the proportions of participants developing a new pressure ulcer on reactive air surfaces compared with: alternating pressure (active) air surfaces (6 studies, 1648 participants); reactive water surfaces (1 study, 37 participants); reactive gel surfaces (1 study, 66 participants), or another type of reactive air surface (2 studies, 223 participants). Evidence for all these comparisons is of very low certainty. Included studies have data on time to pressure ulcer incidence for two comparisons. When time to pressure ulcer incidence is considered using a hazard ratio (HR), low-certainty evidence suggests that in the nursing home setting, people on reactive air surfaces may be less likely to develop a new pressure ulcer over 14 days' of follow-up than people on alternating pressure (active) air surfaces (HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.96; 1 study, 308 participants). It is uncertain if there is a difference in the hazard of developing new pressure ulcers between two types of reactive air surfaces (1 study, 123 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Secondary outcomes Support-surface-associated patient comfort: the included studies have data on this outcome for three comparisons. We could not pool any data as comfort outcome measures differed between included studies; therefore a narrative summary is provided. It is uncertain if there is a difference in patient comfort responses between reactive air surfaces and foam surfaces over the top of an alternating pressure (active) air surfaces (1 study, 72 participants), and between those using reactive air surfaces and those using alternating pressure (active) air surfaces (4 studies, 1364 participants). Evidence for these two comparisons is of very low certainty. It is also uncertain if there is a difference in patient comfort responses between two types of reactive air surfaces (1 study, 84 participants; low-certainty evidence). All reported adverse events: there were data on this outcome for one comparison: it is uncertain if there is a difference in adverse events between reactive air surfaces and foam surfaces (1 study, 72 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The included studies have no data for health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness for all five comparisons. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence is uncertain regarding any differences in the relative effects of reactive air surfaces on ulcer incidence and patient comfort, when compared with reactive water surfaces, reactive gel surfaces, or another type of reactive air surface. Using reactive air surfaces may reduce the risk of developing new pressure ulcers compared with using foam surfaces. Also, using reactive air surfaces may reduce the risk of developing new pressure ulcers within 14 days compared with alternating pressure (active) air surfaces in people in a nursing home setting. Future research in this area should consider evaluation of the most important support surfaces from the perspective of decision-makers. Time-to-event outcomes, careful assessment of adverse events and trial-level cost-effectiveness evaluation should be considered in future studies. Trials should be designed to minimise the risk of detection bias; for example, by using digital photography and adjudicators of the photographs being blinded to group allocation. Further review using network meta-analysis will add to the findings reported here.


Assuntos
Ar , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Leitos , Elasticidade , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Viés , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Substâncias Viscoelásticas , Água
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013620, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers (also known as pressure injuries, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers and bed sores) are localised injuries to the skin or underlying soft tissue, or both, caused by unrelieved pressure, shear or friction. Alternating pressure (active) air surfaces are widely used with the aim of preventing pressure ulcers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alternating pressure (active) air surfaces (beds, mattresses or overlays) compared with any support surface on the incidence of pressure ulcers in any population in any setting. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2019, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that allocated participants of any age to alternating pressure (active) air beds, overlays or mattresses. Comparators were any beds, overlays or mattresses. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed studies using predetermined inclusion criteria. We carried out data extraction, 'Risk of bias' assessment using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and the certainty of the evidence assessment according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We included 32 studies (9058 participants) in the review. Most studies were small (median study sample size: 83 participants). The average age of participants ranged from 37.2 to 87.0 years (median: 69.1 years). Participants were largely from acute care settings (including accident and emergency departments). We synthesised data for six comparisons in the review: alternating pressure (active) air surfaces versus: foam surfaces, reactive air surfaces, reactive water surfaces, reactive fibre surfaces, reactive gel surfaces used in the operating room followed by foam surfaces used on the ward bed, and another type of alternating pressure air surface. Of the 32 included studies, 25 (78.1%) presented findings which were considered at high overall risk of bias. PRIMARY OUTCOME: pressure ulcer incidence Alternating pressure (active) air surfaces may reduce the proportion of participants developing a new pressure ulcer compared with foam surfaces (risk ratio (RR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 1.17; I2 = 63%; 4 studies, 2247 participants; low-certainty evidence). Alternating pressure (active) air surfaces applied on both operating tables and hospital beds may reduce the proportion of people developing a new pressure ulcer compared with reactive gel surfaces used on operating tables followed by foam surfaces applied on hospital beds (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.76; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 415 participants; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether there is a difference in the proportion of people developing new pressure ulcers between alternating pressure (active) air surfaces and the following surfaces, as all these comparisons have very low-certainty evidence: (1) reactive water surfaces; (2) reactive fibre surfaces; and (3) reactive air surfaces. The comparisons between different types of alternating pressure air surfaces are presented narratively. Overall, all comparisons suggest little to no difference between these surfaces in pressure ulcer incidence (7 studies, 2833 participants; low-certainty evidence). Included studies have data on time to pressure ulcer incidence for three comparisons. When time to pressure ulcer development is considered using a hazard ratio (HR), it is uncertain whether there is a difference in the risk of developing new pressure ulcers, over 90 days' follow-up, between alternating pressure (active) air surfaces and foam surfaces (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.64; I2 = 86%; 2 studies, 2105 participants; very low-certainty evidence). For the comparison with reactive air surfaces, there is low-certainty evidence that people treated with alternating pressure (active) air surfaces may have a higher risk of developing an incident pressure ulcer than those treated with reactive air surfaces over 14 days' follow-up (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.05 to 4.83; 1 study, 308 participants). Neither of the two studies with time to ulcer incidence data suggested a difference in the risk of developing an incident pressure ulcer over 60 days' follow-up between different types of alternating pressure air surfaces. Secondary outcomes The included studies have data on (1) support-surface-associated patient comfort for comparisons involving foam surfaces, reactive air surfaces, reactive fibre surfaces and alternating pressure (active) air surfaces; (2) adverse events for comparisons involving foam surfaces, reactive gel surfaces and alternating pressure (active) air surfaces; and (3) health-related quality of life outcomes for the comparison involving foam surfaces. However, all these outcomes and comparisons have low or very low-certainty evidence and it is uncertain whether there are any differences in these outcomes. Included studies have data on cost effectiveness for two comparisons. Moderate-certainty evidence suggests that alternating pressure (active) air surfaces are probably more cost-effective than foam surfaces (1 study, 2029 participants) and that alternating pressure (active) air mattresses are probably more cost-effective than overlay versions of this technology for people in acute care settings (1 study, 1971 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence is uncertain about the difference in pressure ulcer incidence between using alternating pressure (active) air surfaces and other surfaces (reactive water surfaces, reactive fibre surfaces and reactive air surfaces). Alternating pressure (active) air surfaces may reduce pressure ulcer risk compared with foam surfaces and reactive gel surfaces used on operating tables followed by foam surfaces applied on hospital beds. People using alternating pressure (active) air surfaces may be more likely to develop new pressure ulcers over 14 days' follow-up than those treated with reactive air surfaces in the nursing home setting; but as the result is sensitive to the choice of outcome measure it should be interpreted cautiously. Alternating pressure (active) air surfaces are probably more cost-effective than reactive foam surfaces in preventing new pressure ulcers. Future studies should include time-to-event outcomes and assessment of adverse events and trial-level cost-effectiveness. Further review using network meta-analysis will add to the findings reported here.


Assuntos
Ar , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Leitos , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Viés , Elasticidade , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Viés de Publicação , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 43(1): 21-27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952872

RESUMO

This is the case of a 9-month-old female infant who presented to the emergency department with a history of several episodes of nonbilious and nonbloody emesis. The patient was found to be afebrile with normal vital signs and an otherwise normal physical examination. Initial plain film radiography was concern for possible obstruction. Imaging studies with ultrasonogram demonstrated intussusception. This was an unusual case of intussusception because children are typically more ill-appearing with vomiting, diarrhea, fevers, lethargy, and blood in stool. Management options included surgery, pneumatic enema reduction, and barium enema reduction. Pneumatic enema reduction was performed. This procedure has been shown to have superior outcomes in infants with intussusception. Advanced practice providers need to provide a detailed history, complete a thorough physical examination, order the appropriate diagnostics, and be vigilant of the clinical manifestation of intussusception.


Assuntos
Enema , Intussuscepção/diagnóstico , Intussuscepção/terapia , Ar , Sulfato de Bário/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente
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